Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Bownde, Nicholas

351536Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 06 — Bownde, Nicholas1886Thompson Cooper

BOWNDE or BOUND, NICHOLAS, D.D. (d. 1613), divine, was son of Richard Bound, M.D., physician to the Duke of Norfolk. He received his academical education at Peterhouse, Cambridge, of which college he was elected a fellow in 1570 (Addit. MS. 5843, f. 41 b). He graduated B.A. in 1571 and M.A. in 1575. On 19 July 1577 he was incorporated in the latter degree at Oxford, and on 3 Sept. 1585 he was instituted to the rectory of Norton in Suffolk, a living in the gift of his college. He was created D.D. at Cambridge in 1594.

In 1595 Bownde published the first edition of his famous treatise on the Sabbath. In it he maintained that the seventh part of our time ought to be devoted to the service of God; that Christians are bound to rest on the seventh day of the week as much as the Jews were on the Mosaical sabbath. He contended that the 'sabbath' was profaned by interludes, May-games, morris dances, shooting, bowling, and similar sports; and he would not allow any feasting on that day, though an exception was made in favour of 'noblemen and great personages' (Sabbathvm veteris et novi Testamenti, 211). The observance of the Lord's day immediately became a question between the high-church party and the puritans, and it is worthy of notice that this was the first disagreement between them upon any point of doctrine. The sabbatarian question, as it was henceforth called, soon became the sign by which, above all others, the two parties were distinguished. The new doctrine made a deep impression on men's minds. The prelates took official cognisance of it, and cited several ministers before the ecclesiastical courts for preaching it. But these extreme measures were unavailing to prevent the rapid spread of the strict sabbatarian doctrine.

In 1611 Bownde became minister of the church of St. Andrew the Apostle at Norwich, and he was buried there on 26 Dec. 1613. He married the widow of John More, the 'apostle of Norwich.' His daughter Anne married John Dod (Clarke, Lives, ed. 1677, p. 169); and his widow married Richard Greenham (ib, 13, 169).

Subjoined is a list of his works:

  1. 'Three godly and fruitfull Sermons, declaring how we may be saved in the day of Judgement. … Preached and written by M. John More, late Preacher in the Citie of Norwitch. And now first published by M. Nicholas Bound, whereto he hath adjoined of his owne, A Sermon of Comfort for the Afflicted; and a short treatise of a contented mind,' Cambridge, 1594, 4to.
  2. 'The Doctrine of the Sabbath, plainely layde forth, and soundly proued by testimonies both of holy Scripture, and also of olde and new ecclesiastical writers. … Together with the sundry abuses of our time in both these kindes, and how they ought to bee reformed,' London, 1595, 4to. Dedicated to Robert Devereux, earl of Essex. Reprinted, with additions, under the title of 'Sabbathvm veteris et novi Testamenti: or the true doctrine of the Sabbath …,' London, 1606, 4to.
  3. 'Medicines for the Plagve: that is, Godly and fruitfull Sermons vpon part of the twentieth Psalme … more particularly applied to this late visitation of the Plague,' London, 1604, 4to.
  4. 'The Holy Exercise of Fasting. Described largely and plainly out of the word of God. … In certaine Homilies or Sermons …,' Cambridge, 1604, 4to. Dedicated to Dr. Jegon, bishop of Norwich.
  5. 'The Vnbeliefe of St. Thomas the Apostle, laid open for the comfort of all that desire to beleeue …,' London, 1608, 8vo; reprinted, London, 1817, 12mo.
  6. 'A Treatise ful of Consolation for all that are afflicted in minde or bodie or otherwise …,' Cambridge, 1608, 8vo; reprinted, London, 1817, 12mo. The reprints of this and the preceding work were edited by G. W. Marriot. Bownde has a Latin ode before Peter Baro's 'Prælectiones in Ionam,' 1579; and he edited the Rev. Henry More's 'Table from the Beginning of the World to this Day. Wherein is declared in what yeere of the World everything was done,' Cambridge, 1593.

[Blomefield's Norfolk (1806), iv. 301; Brook's Puritans, ii. 171; Cooper's Athenæ Cantab, ii. 356; Cox's Literature of the Sabbath Question, i. 145-51, 418; Fuller's Church Hist. (1655), lib. ix. 227, 228; Gent. Mag. lxxxvi. (ii.) 487, lxxxvii. (i.) 157, 429, 503, 596, 597; Hallam's Const. Hist, of England (1855), i. 397 n; Heylyn's Hist, of Abp. Laud (1671), 195; Heylyn's Hist, of the Presbyterians (1672), 337, 338; Heylyn's Extraneus vapulans, or the Observator, 117; Addit. MS. 5843, f. 41, 5863, f. 94, 19079, ff. 293-5, 19165, f. 136, 27960, f. 16; manuscript collections for Cooper's Athenæ Cantab.; Marsden's Hist. of the Early Puritans, 241; Neal's Hist. of the Puritans (1822), i. 451, 452; Page's Suppl. to the Suffolk Traveller, 798; Rogers's Catholic Doctrine of the Ch. of England (ed. Perowne), introd. ix. 19, 90, 97, 98, 187, 233, 271, 315, 319, 322, 326, 327; Taylor's Eomantic Biog. ii. 88, 89; Topographer (1791), iv. 164, 165; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (ed. Bliss), ii. 207.]

T. C.

Dictionary of National Biography, Errata (1904), p.34
N.B.— f.e. stands for from end and l.l. for last line

Page Col. Line  
75 i 13 Bownde, Nicholas : for daughter read sister
15 for his widow married read his mother married as her second husband