Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Lyon, Patrick (1642-1695)

LYON, PATRICK, first Earl of Strathmore and third Earl of Kinghorne (1642–1695), was the only son of John, second earl of Kinghorne, by his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Maule, only daughter of Patrick, first earl of Panmure. He was born on 29 May 1642, and succeeded to the title of Earl of Kinghorne on the death of his father on 12 May 1646. The estate was seriously involved through the expenditure of the late earl when engaged with the covenanters under Montrose, and by his rash loans to defaulting friends. A fine of 1,000l. was imposed upon the estate by Cromwell's Act of Grace in 1654. The mother of the young earl married the Earl of Linlithgow in 1650, and after her death, in October 1659, Lord Linlithgow brought claims against the estate of his stepson, which reduced him almost to poverty.

Having completed his studies at St. Andrews University, Kinghorne returned to take possession of his estate in 1660, resolving to restore the fortunes of his family by a course of self-denial. The two castles of Glamis and Castle Lyon belonged to him, but were void of furniture, Linlithgow having seized on everything he could claim, and the policies and lands were seriously burdened. By strict economy Kinghorne cleared off a large amount of the debt incurred by his father within seven years of his entering into possession. The Restoration of 1660 brought little improvement to his affairs, though he was well received at Whitehall. On 23 Aug. 1662 he married Lady Helen Middleton, second daughter of John, first earl of Middleton, the ceremony being performed by Archbishop Sharp in Holyrood Abbey. Though Lady Helen did not bring a large dowry, she ably seconded his efforts to retrieve the fallen fortunes of his house. They took up their residence at Castle Lyon (now called Castle Huntly) in the Carse of Gowrie, and the earl immediately began to improve the ancient structure. In 1670 he found himself in a position to remove to the large castle of Glamis, and here he also began a series of reconstructions and renovations that employed him till 1689. All his operations are very fully described in his ‘Book of Record.’ His grandfather had been created Earl of Kinghorne in 1606, with strict limitation to his heirs male. On 30 May 1672 the third earl obtained a new charter enabling him to nominate a successor in default of male issue. On 1 July 1677 he procured another charter ordaining that his heirs and successors in all time coming should be designated Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscounts Lyon, Barons Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw, and Strathdichtie, and this is the full style of his descendant, the present Earl of Strathmore. On 10 Jan. 1682 he was sworn of the privy council. When Argyll's rebellion broke out in 1685 he was directed to provide stores for the army, and was commissioned to bring the prisoners and spoil from Clydesdale to Edinburgh, and the artillery from Glasgow and Stirling. As a reward he obtained a portion of the forfeited lands of Argyll in Kintyre, but these were afterwards resumed by the crown, and he obtained in lieu of them the post of extraordinary lord of session (27 March 1686), with a pension of 300l. In 1688 Lord Strathmore abandoned his first intention to resist the Prince of Orange. He was strongly suspected of Jacobite leanings, though he had been chosen by the Scottish privy council to convey the address of congratulation to the prince, and in 1689 he was deprived of his office as a lord of session. On 25 April 1690 he took the oath of allegiance to King William, but after this period he abandoned public affairs. His name only appears once in the rolls of the parliaments of William and Mary, under date 18 April 1693. He died on 15 May 1695, and was buried in the family vault at Glamis. He was a man of strict integrity, with a profound respect for the honour of his ancestors, and a deep sense of responsibility to posterity. There are two portraits of Lord Strathmore and a marble bust of him at Glamis Castle. He left two sons, John, fourth earl, and Patrick, who took part in the rebellion of 1715 and was killed at Sheriffmuir, and two daughters.

[Glamis Book of Record (Scott. Hist. Society); Millar's Roll of Eminent Burgesses of Dundee; Millar's Historical Castles and Mansions of Scotland (Perthshire and Forfarshire); Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (Wood), ii. 566.]

A. H. M.