Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement/Gough, Hugh Henry
GOUGH, Sir HUGH HENRY (1835–1909), general, born at Calcutta on 14 Nov. 1833, was third son in a family of four sons and four daughters of George Gough, Bengal civil service, of Rathronan House, Clonmel, co. Tipperary, by Charlotte Margaret, daughter of Charles Becher, Chancellor House, Tonbridge, Kent. His elder brother. Sir Charles John Stanley Gough, V.C. (b. 1832), still survives (1912). Field-marshal Viscount Gough [q. v.] was his grand-uncle. After education privately and at Haileybury College (1851-2) he joined the Bengal army on 4 Sept. 1853, becoming lieutenant on 9 Aug. 1855 and captain on 4 Jan. 1861.
On his arrival in India he perceived the likelihood of a sepoy revolt, but his warnings were disregarded by the authorities (Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, 1898, p. 48). He was at Meerut on the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny, and served throughout the subsequent war. On 24 Aug. 1857 he was woimded in attempting to seize some mutineers at Khurkowdeh, and was rescued by his elder brother, Charles, who won in the campaign the Victoria cross. He served as adjutant of Hodson's horse throughout the siege of Delhi, and was at the action of Rohtuck (18 Aug.), where by a feigned retreat Hodson drew the enemy into the open and then completely routed them. Gough was wounded and his horse was shot under him. He accompanied the column under Colonel Greathed which was despatched to the relief of Cawnpore, and commanded a wing of the regiment in the actions at Bulaudshahr (27 Sept.), Aligarh (5 Oct.), and Agra (10 Oct. 1857), where he execiited a dashing flank charge. On 12 Nov. 1857, when in command of a party of Hodson's horse near Alambagh, he charged across a swamp and captured two guns, which were defended by a vastly superior body of the enemy (Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, p. 170). His horse was wounded in two places and his turban cut through by sword thrusts whilst he was in combat with three sepoys. He was mentioned in Sir Colin Campbell's despatches of 18 and 30 Nov. 1857 (Selections from State Papers in Military Department, 1857-8, ii. 339), and for his gallantry on this occasion he was awarded the Victoria cross, like his elder brother. Gough also distinguished himself in the operations round Lucknow on 25 Feb. 1858, when he set a brilliant example to his regiment on its being ordered to charge the enemy's guns. He engaged in a series of single combats, but was at length disabled by a musket ball through the leg while charging two sepoys with fixed bayonets. On this day Gough had two horses killed under him, a shot through his helmet and another through his scabbard. After the capture of Lucknow on 25 March 1858 he retired to the hills to recover from his wounds. Gough was mentioned in despatches on several occasions for 'distinguished bravery,' and was twice thanked by the governor-general of India, besides receiving the brevet of major and a medal with three clasps (Land. Gaz. Dec. 1857, 16 and 29 Jan. 1858, and 15 Jan. 1859).
Gough subsequently took part in the Abyssinia campaign in 1868. He commanded the 12th Bengal cavalry, and was present at the capture of Magdala, being mentioned in despatches and receiving the medal and being made C.B. on 14 Aug. 1868 (Lond. Gaz. 16 and 30 June 1868). He was promoted lieut.-colonel in 1869, and received the brevet of colonel in 1877. Gough, who served throughout the Afghan war, was in command of the cavalry of the Kuram field force in 1878-9. At the forcing of the Peiwar Kotal on 2 Dec. 1878 he was the first to reach the crest, and pursued with his cavalry the flying enemy along the Alikhel road. At the action of Matun, by dismounted fire and several bold charges, he succeeded notwithstanding the difficult nature of the ground in driving the tribesmen to the highest ridges, from which they were dislodged by the artillery (7 Jan. 1879). In September 1879, on the renewal of the war after the massacre of the Cavagnari mission, he served with the Kabul field force as brigadier-general of communications, and was present at the engagement of Charasiab on 6 Oct. and in the various operations round Kabul in December 1879 (wounded). On Sir Frederick (afterwards Lord) Roberts's march to Kandahar Gough was in command of the cavalry brigade, and took part in the reconnaissance of 31 August at Pir Paintal (Hanna, Second Afghan War, iii. 498). He was in command of the troops engaged in the cavalry pursuit after the battle of Mazra on 1 Sept. 1880. For his services he was mentioned six times in dispatches (Lond. Gaz. 4 Feb., 21 March, 7 Nov. 1879; 4 May, 3 and 31 Dec. 1880). He was awarded the medal with four clasps, the bronze decoration, and was created K.C.B. on 22 Feb. 1881.
Gough attained the rank of major-general in 1887 and of lieut.-general in 1891, and commanded the Lahore division of the Indian army (1887-92). He became general in 1894 and retired from the army in 1897. On 20 May 1896 he was nominated a G.C.B., and two years later was appointed keeper of the crown jewels at the Tower of London. There he died in St. Thomas's Tower on 12 May 1909, and was buried at Kensal Green cemetery. On 8 Sept. 1863 he married Annie Margaret, daughter of Edward Eustace Hill and his wife. Lady Georgiana Keppel; he had issue four sons and four daughters.
He published in 1897 his reminiscences of the Indian Mutiny, entitled 'Old Memories.'
[Sir Hugh Gough's Old Memories, 1897; G. W. Forrest, History of the Indian Mutiny, vol. ii. 1904; Burke's Peerage; L. J. Trotter, Hodson of Hodson's Horse, 1901; Men of the Time, 1899; Hart's and Official Army Lists; The Times, 14 and 19 May 1909; Indian Mutiny, selections from State Papers in Military Department, 1857-8, ed. G. W. Forrest, 3 vols. 1893; Lord Roberts, Forty-one Years in India, 30th ed. 1898; S. P. Oliver, The Second Afghan War, 1878-80, 1908; H. Septans, Les expeditions anglaises en Asie, Paris, 1897.]