Dual Alliance (1879)
4043364Dual Alliance1879

Treaty of Defensive Alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany.
Signed at Vienna, October 7, 1879.

Inasmuch as their Majesties the German Emperor, King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, must consider it their inalienable duty to provide for the security of their Empires and the peace of their subjects, under all circumstances:

Inasmuch as the two Sovereigns, as was the case under the former existing Treaty, will be enabled by the close union of the two Empires to fulfil this duty more easily and more efficaciously;

Inasmuch as, finally, an intimate co-operation of Germany and Austria-Hungary can menace no one, but is rather calculated to consolidate the peace of Europe on the terms established by the stipulation of Berlin;

Their Majesties the German Emperor and the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, while most solemnly promising never to allow their purely defensive Agreement to develop an aggressive tendency in any direction, have determined to conclude an alliance of peace and mutual defence.

With this object their Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries:

His Majesty the German Emperor, His Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Lieutenant-General Prince Henry the Seventh of Reuss, &c.;

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, His Majesty's Privy Councilor, Minister of the Imperial House and for Foreign Affairs, Lieutenant Field-Marshal Julius Count Andrassy of Csik-Szeut-Király and Kraszna-Haka, &c.;

Who have this day at Vienna, after the exchange and mutual verification of one another's full powers, agreed as follows:

Article I edit

Should, contrary to their hope, and against the loyal desire of the two High Contracting Parties, one of the two Empires be attacked by Russia, the High Contracting Parties are bound to come to the assistance one of the other with the whole war strength of their Empires, and accordingly only to conclude peace together and upon mutual agreement.

Article II edit

Should one of the High Contracting Parties be attacked by another Power, the other High Contracting Party binds itself hereby, not only to support the aggressor against its high ally, but to observe at least a benevolent neutral attitude towards its fellow Contracting Party.

Should, however, in such a case the attacking Power be supported by Russia, either by an active co-operation or by military measures which constitute a menace to the Party attacked, then the obligation stipulated in Article I. of this Treaty, for mutual assistance with the whole fighting force, becomes equally operative, and the conduct of the war by the two High Contracting Parties shall in this case also be in common until the conclusion of a common peace.

Article III edit

This Treaty shall, in conformity with its peaceful character, and to avoid any misinterpretations, be kept secret by the two High Contracting Parties, and only be communicated to a third Power upon a joint understanding between the two Parties, and according to the terms of a special Agreement.

The two High Contracting Parties venture to hope, after the sentiments expressed by the Emperor Alexander at the meeting at Alexandrowo, that the armaments of Russia will not in reality prove to be menacing to them, and have on that account no reason for making a communication; should, however, this hope, contrary to their expectation, prove to be erroneous, the two High Contracting Parties would consider it their loyal obligation to let the Emperor Alexander know, at least confidentially, that they must consider an attack on either of them as directed against both.

In virtue of which the Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty and affixed their seals.

Vienna, October 7, 1879.

(L.S.) H. VII., P. REUSS.


This work was published before January 1, 1929, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

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