CHANG Lien 張漣 (T. 南垣), landscape architect of the late Ming and early Ch'ing period, was a native of Hua-t'ing, Kiangsu, who later moved to Hsiu-shui, Chekiang. Having learned landscape drawing in his youth, he applied the principles of that art to the construction of artificial hills and rock gardens, designing many famous private gardens of Chekiang and Kiangsu, among which may be mentioned the Fu-shui yüan 拂水園 owned by Ch'ien Ch'ien-i [q. v.], and the Chu-t'ing yüan 竹亭園 of Wu Wei-yeh [q. v.]. In his later years—about the middle of the seventeenth century—he retired, having taught the art as a profitable profession to four of his sons, principally Chang Jan [q. v.].

[Bulletin National Library of Peiping, vol. V, no. 6, pp. 13–23, including various sources of information and biographical sketches by Huang Tsung-hsi, Tai Ming-shih [qq. v.], and Wu Wei-yeh.]

Fang Chao-ying