Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Chang Mu
CHANG Mu 張穆 ( 誦風, 石[碩]州, original ming 瀛暹), 1805–1849, scholar and historian, was a native of P'ing-ting, Shansi. His grandfather, Chang P'ei-fang 長佩芳 ( 蓀圃, 卜山, 1732–1793), was a chin-shih of 1757. His father, Chang Tun-i 張敦頤 ( 復之, 曉沜, registered in the examinations under the ming Tun-lai 敦來, 1772–1819), was a chin-shih of 1811. Being still a youth when his father died, Chang Mu went with his mother, née Li 李, to live in the family of Mo chin 莫晉 ( 鍚三, 裴舟, 寳齋, 1761–1826, chin-shih of 1795), who was his mother's cousin. In 1831 Chang Mu was made a senior licentiate (優貢生) and then went to Peking. In the capital he became friendly with a number of scholars, including Ch'êng Ên-tsê, Ho Shao-chi, and Ho Ch'iu-t'ao [qq. v.]. When taking the Shun-t'ien provincial examination in 1839, he incurred, by display of temper, the displeasure of the inspectors of the examination hall, and in consequence was expelled from the examination and forbidden to compete again.
Before long Chang Mu obtained a position on the secretarial staff of Ch'i Chün-tsao [q. v.] when the latter was director of education in Kiangsu (1837–39). In 1845 he was again employed by Ch'i to edit the Huang-ch'ao Fan-pu yao-lüeh, a work by the latter's father, Ch'i Yün-shih [q. v.]. As a result of this editorial experience Chang Mu was inspired to produce his best known work, the 蒙古游牧記 Mêng-ku yu-mu chi, a topographical study of Mongolia in 16 chüan. Left incomplete at the time of his death, the manuscript was edited, with additional notes by his friend, Ho Ch'iu-t'ao, and was first printed in 1867 by Ch'i Chün-tsao. Another of his topographical studies was the 延昌地形志 Yen-ch'ang ti-hsing chih which was also edited by Ho Ch'iu-t'ao after the author's death, but seems to be no longer extant. Two other well-known works by Chang Mu are chronological biographies of the two foremost scholars of the early Ch'ing period—Ku Yen-wu and Yen Jo-chü [qq. v.]. That of Ku Yen-wu, 顧亭林年譜 Ku T'ing-lin nien-p'u, was based on previous studies made by Hsü Sung [q. v.] and Chü Shou-ch'ien 車守謙 ( 秋舲); that of Yen Jo-chü bears the title, 𨶒潛邱年譜 Yen Ch'ien-ch'iu nien-p'u. Both nien-p'u were printed by Ch'i Chün-tsao, (the former in 1844, the latter in 1847), and were later included in the Yüeh-ya t'ang ts'ung-shu (see under Wu Ch'ung-yüeh). On the invitation of Yang Shang-wên 楊尚文 ( 墨林), likewise a native of Shansi, Chang Mu edited the 連筠簃叢書 Lien-yün i ts'ung-shu which was printed in the years 1847–48. This collectanea contains 12 works, including the first reprint of the important source on the early history of the Mongols, entitled Yüan-ch'ao pi-shih (see under Ku Kuang-ch'i). This edition, printed in 1848, was based on a manuscript transcribed from the Yung-lo ta-tien (see under Chu Yün) in 1841 and contains only the Chinese translation. It was superseded by another in the form of the early Ming edition (1369) with the Mongol text transcribed phonetically into Chinese characters. But this new edition did not appear until 1908 (see under Ku Kuang-ch'i). Among other works printed in the Lien-yün i ts'ung-shu are some by friends of Chang Mu, such as the T'ang liang-ching ch'êng fang k'ao, by Hsü Sung; the Kuei-ssŭ ts'un-kao, by Yü Chêng-hsieh [q. v.]; the 落帆樓文稿 Lo-fan lou wên kao, by Shên Yao 沈垚 ( 子敦, 1798–1840); and the 鏡鏡詅癡 Ching-ching ling-ch'ih, 5 chüan, by Chêng Fu-kuang 鄭復光 ( 浣香). The last-mentioned is a work on the principles and applications of mirrors and lenses, based in part on early Jesuit sources. Chang Mu learned from Chêng Fu-kuang, in 1835, some points about telescopes, and recommended Chêng to the authorities (1841–42) as a technician who might be of help in the war against the British. Chang Mu's own collected literary works, 㐆齋詩文集 Yin-chai shih-wên chi, comprising 8 chüan of prose and 4 of verse, were compiled and edited by two pupils—the brothers Wu Lü-ching 吳履敬 ( 子肅) and Wu Shih-hsün 吳式訓 ( 子迪). This collection, too, was printed by Ch'i Chün-tsao in 1858. Chang Mu and Ho Shao-chi, being both ardent admirers of Ku Yen-wu, collected funds to build in 1843, a temple to the memory of that scholar. This shrine is located adjacent to the Buddhist monastery, Tz'ŭ-jên ssū 慈仁寺 also known as Pao-kuo ssū 報國寺, in the South City, Peiping. After his death Chang Mu's name was entered for worship in the same shrine.
Chang Mu was recognized as an accomplished calligrapher.
[1/490/15a; 2/73/45b; 5/73/16b; P'ing-ting chou chih (1882) 8/33b. For details on the shrine in Peking see Hummel, A. W. Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress (1937) p. 172.]