Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/T'ien Hsiung

T'IEN Hsiung 田雄, d. 1663, Ming-Ch'ing general and admiral, was a native of Hsüan-hua, Chihli. A brigade-general under the Ming regime, he was associated in 1645 with Ma Tê-kung [q. v.] in betraying the Prince of Fu (see Chu Yu-sung) to the Manchus. He was given honors, and served the new dynasty as a brigade-general at Hangchow and later as general-in-chief of Chekiang. After a successful campaign against the insurgents on Chushan island he was transferred to Tinghai. He distinguished himself in naval warfare and advocated the defense of Chushan as a key position against the pirates. At his own request he was attached to the Chinese Plain Yellow Banner. In 1658 he lost the Southern coast to Chêng Ch'êng-kung [q. v.], was impeached by the Board of War, but was pardoned by the emperor. The next year he redeemed himself by driving the pirates from Ningpo and was raised to marquis of the second class. After his death in 1663 he was given the title of Grand Tutor and the name I-yung 毅勇.

His hereditary rank passed on to his nephew, T'ien Hsiang-k'un 田象坤 (d. 1732?), for whose merits the rank was raised to marquis of the first class in 1686. In 1749 the hereditary rank was given the designation, Shun-i 順義, and continued to be inherited to the end of the dynasty.


[1/254/2b; 2/78/69a.]

Earl Swisher