Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Azimgarh
AZIMGARH, a district and city in the Benares divi sion of British India, and under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces, lies between 25 38 3" and 26 24 45 N. lat., and 82 44 15" and 84 10 45" E. long. It is bounded on the N. by the river Ghagra, separating it from Gorakhpur district; on the E. by Ghazfpur district and the river Ganges ; on the S. by the districts of Jaunpur and Ghazipur; and on the W. by Jaunpur and the Oudh district of Faizabad. Its area in 1872 was returned at 2494 square miles, of which 1268 square miles are under cultivation, 344 square miles are cultivable waste, and the remaining 882 square miles are barren and uncultivable. The population of the district in 1865 was 1,385,872 souls, of whom 1,184,689 were Hindus, and 201,183 Mahometans. The pressure of the population on the soil averaged 555 per square mile. The census of 1872 discloses a population of 1,531,410, of whom 1,333,805 were Hindus, 197,581 Mahometans, and 24 Christians and others ; the pressure of the popula tion on the land being 614 per square mile. The portion of the district lying along the banks of the GhagrA is a low-lying tract, varying considerably in width ; south of this, however, the ground takes a slight rise. The slope of the land is from north-west to south-east, but the general drainage is very inadequate. Roughly speaking, the dis trict consists of a series of parallel ridges, whose sunimita are depressed into beds or hollows, along which the rivers flow ; while between the ridges are low-lying rice lands, interspersed with numerous natural reservoirs. The prin cipal streams are the Tons, Sarju, Khurd, Kunwar, Majhor, Mangai, Udanti or Aura, and the Bhansai. The chief lines of road traffic are the following: (1.) From Gorakhpur to Ghazipur, running north and south; (2.) from Gorakhpur to Azimgarh town, in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, and continued thence to Jaunpur cantonment ; (3.) from Ghdzipur to Azimgarh, and thence on to Faizabad in Oudh; (4.) from Ghazipur to Lucknov. The soil is fertile and very highly cultivated, bearing magnificent crops of rice, sugar-cane, and indigo. The principal indus tries of the district are cotton and silk manufactures, the total value of which in 1872 amounted to 109,081. The settlement of the land revenue in 702 estates or mahals is fixed and permanent ; in the remaining 3284 estates a settlement was made by Mr Thomason in 1836 for thirty years, and is now (1873) undergoing revision. The total revenue of the district from all sources amounted in 1870-71 to 187,464; the expenditure in the same year being 172,550. Six towns are returned by the census of 1872 as containing a population of upwards of 5000 inhabitants viz., Azimgarh (the capital of the district), population 15,893; Mau-Nath Bhanjan, 13,765; Mubarak- pur, 12,068; Sikandarpur, 5239; Dubari, 5014; and Pur, 5213. The municipalities are as follows: Azimgarh city: the municipal income, which is derived from octroi, amounted in 1872 to 1233, 2s., the average incidence of taxation being Is. 6|d. per head of the population. Mau- Nath Bhanjan, municipal income 125, 8s.; Mubarakpur, 112, 16s.; and Sikandarpur, 48. The cost of the municipal police of these three towns is levied by means of a direct cess on house occupiers. The total number of schools in Azimgarh district in 1871-72 was 286, attended by 4271 Hindu and 3813 Mahometan pupils. The force necessary for the protection of person and property in 1871-72 consisted of 673 regular police, equal to 1 man to every 3 70 square miles of area, or 1 to every 2275 inhabitants ; besides a village watch or rural police force consisting of 2538 men, equal to 1 watchman to every98 square miles, or 1 to every 603 inhabitanis.
Azimgarh City, the principal place in the district of the same name, is situated on the river Tons, in 26 N. lat., and 83 14 E. long. The city is said to have been founded about 1620 by a powerful landholder named Azim Khan, who owned large estates in this part of the country. For municipal income and population, see above.