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Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Greece/Part II.—Greek History.

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PART II.—GREEK HISTORY.


Sections

Section I.—Greek History to the Death of Alexander the Great.
I. The Prehistoric Period, down to the close of the great Migrations
Primitive Indo-European civilization • Hellenes • Pelasgians • Earliest Hellenic migrations • First epoch • Second epoch • Phœnicians • Two periods of Phœnician influence • Influence of Asiatic upon European Hellas • Religions • The early states • Crete • Phrygia • Lydia • Troy • The Minyæ • Thebes • Pelidæ in Thessaly • Pelopidæ at Mycenæ • Traditional migration to Greece proper • Change of population in Thessaly • in Bœotia • in the Peloponnesus • “The Return of the Heraclidæ” • Traditional migration from Greece proper to Asia Minor • The Æolic migration • The Ionic • The Doric • The amphictyonies • The Delphic amphictyony • The name Hellene • The Homeric picture of early Hellas
II. The Early History of the leading States down to about 500 B.C.
The Peloponnesus • Result of the Dorian conquest • Argos • Sparta • The Spartan institutions • Lycurgus • Character of the government • The social life a school of war • Growth of Spartan power • The Olympic festival • Transition from monarchy to oligarchy • The tyrannies • Their results • Colonization • Sicily • Italy • Sporadic settlements • Nature of the Greek colony • Early history of Attica • The four appellatives • Character of the Attic population • Classes • Kingship—Archonship • Draco • Cylon • Legislation of Solon • Relief of debtors • New classes • Ecclesia • Council • Areopagus • Solon's account of his own work • Tyranny of Pisistratus • End of Pisistratid rule • Reforms of Clisthenes • The ten tribes • The Council • Generals • Jury-courts • Ostracism • Strife of factions • The first kleruchia • Athens a free commonwealth • Elements of Hellenic unity • Delphi • The national games • Art and poetry
III. The Ionic Revolt and the Persian Wars, 502-479 B.C.
The Ionian cities under Lydia • under Persia • The Ionic revolt • First Persian expedition against Greece • Second Persian expedition • Battle of Marathon • Miltiades • Policy of Themistocles • Xerxes • Third Persian expedition • Condition of Greece • Plan of defence • Athens • Battle of Salamis • Lessons of the Persian Wars
IV. The Period of Athenian Supremacy, 478-404 B.C.
Pausanias • Confederacy of Delos • Gradual change in its character • Culmination of Athenian power • Thirty Years’ Truce • Constitutional changes in Athens • Public works • Pericles
V. The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.The Period of Spartan and then Theban Ascendency, 404-362 B.C.
Causes of the Peloponnesian War • First period of the war, 431-421 B.C. • Second period, 421-413 B.C. • Third period, 413-404 B.C. • Altered character of Sparta • Greece and Persia • Battle of Cnidus • Corinthian War • Peace of Antalcidas • Revolution at Thebes • New Athenian Confederacy • Theban victory at Leuctra • Epaminondas • General character of the period 404-362 B.C. • Work of Epaminondas
VI. The reigns of Philip and Alexander, 359-323 B.C.
Decay of Greek civic life • Demosthenes • Philip • First period of Philip's relations to Greece, 359-346 B.C. • Second period, 346-338 B.C. • Philip president of Pan Hellenic League • Sicily. Timoleon. • 405-367 B.C. • Death of Philip • Alexander • Alexander invades Asia • Three stages of his career • Greek settlements in Asia • Results of Alexander's conquests
Section II.—Post-Classical Greek History.
Importance of the post-classical history • Misconceptions. Character of the later Greeks. • Power of the Byzantine empire
I. Period of Greek Subjection : from the Death of Alexander to the Accession of Constantine the Great as sole Emperor, 323 B.C. to 323 A.D.
Effect of Alexander's conquests • Events during 323-146 B.C. • Roman conquests in the West and East • Roman rule in Greece • Condition and character of Greeks • Gothic invasion • Christianity
II. Period of Greek Revival : from Constantine the Great to Leo III. (the Isaurian), 323-716 A.D.
Reforms of Constantine • Evils of his system • Its merits • Constantinople • The Greek Church • Reign of Justinian • Barbarian invasions • Persian wars • Condition of the population • Athens • Extinction of slavery • The system, not the people, at fault • Threatened extinction of the empire
III. Period of Byzantine Prosperity : from Leo III. to Isaac I. (Comnenus), 716-1057 A.D.
The Byzantine Empire • Reforms of Leo III. • Iconoclasm • Subsequent ecclesiastical affairs • Saracen wars • Bulgarian wars • The Russians • Constitutional changes • Condition of the people • Modern Greek nationality
IV. Period of Byzantine Decline : from Isaac I. to the taking of Constantinople by the Latins, 1057-1204 A.D.
The Comneni • Cause of decline • The Crusades • The Seljuks • Wars with Europe • Bulgaria. Wallachian kingdom • State of Greece • The modern language and literature
V. Period of Greek Survival : from the taking of Constantinople by the Latins to its Conquest by the Turks, 1204-1453 A.D.
Partition of the empire • Empire of Nicæa • The Palæologi • The Ottomans • End of the empire
Section III.—Recent History.