Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Olmütz
OLMÜTZ (Slavonic, Olomouc or Holomauc), the second city and the ecclesiastical metropolis of Moravia, and one of the strongest fortresses in the Austrian empire, is situated on the March, about 110 miles to the north of Vienna. Like most Slavonic towns, it contains several large squares, the chief of which is adorned with a trinity column, 115 feet high. The most prominent church is the cathedral, a Gothic building of the 14th century, containing the tomb of King Wenceslaus III., who was murdered here in 1306. The principal secular buildings are the archbishop s palace, the town-house, the arsenal, the barracks, and the various schools, convents, and hospitals. The old university is now represented by a theological faculty attended by about a hundred students. Its library formerly possessed an important collection of Slavonic works, which was carried off by the Swedes during the Thirty Years' War. There is also an industrial museum. The manufactures of Olmütz itself are comparatively insignificant, but it is important as the emporium of a busy mining and industrial district and as a mart for Russian and Moldavian cattle. The population in 1880 was 20,176, besides which there is a garrison of about 6000 men. German is the predominant language. The chief part of the fortifications, which were originally constructed in the time of the wars with Frederick the Great, consists of a girdle of about twenty outlying forts. In case of attack the adjacent district can be flooded with the water of the March.