Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Philip of Swabia

PHILIP of Swabia (c. 11701208), rival of the emperor Otho IV. (q.v.), younger son of the emperor Frederick I., was born about 1170. He was originally intended for the church, and, after being provost of Aix-la-Chapelle, was chosen bishop of Würzburg in 1191; but in 1195 his elder brother brought about his marriage with a Byzantine princess, Irene, on which occasion he was named duke of Tuscany and Spoleto. In the following year he received also the duchy of Swabia. On the death of his elder brother he was elected king by a large body of princes and prelates at Mühlhausen (March 1198); this, however, was not acquiesced in by those opposed to the continuance of the imperial crown in the house of Hohenstaufen, whose choice fell on Otho. The coronation of the latter at Aix-la-Chapelle in July was soon followed by that of his rival at Mainz, and a civil war ensued, which, carried on with varying fortunes for ten years, was only brought to an end by the murder of Philip by Otho of Wittelsbach at Bamberg on 21st June 1208.