Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Thana (1.)
In 1881 the population of Thana was returned at 908,548 (males 468,236, females 440,312); Hindus numbered 806,805, Mohammedans 42,391, and Christians 39,545. The district has seven towns with populations exceeding 10,000, namely, Bandra (14,987), Thána (see below), Bhiwandi (13,837), Kalyan (12,910), Bassein (10,357), Panvel(l0,351), (Iran (10,149). The area under cultivation in 1885–86 was 1,002,448 acres, and 768,057 remained uncultivated. The total area of crops was 522,810 acres, including 5835 twice cropped. Rice is by far the most important product, and occupied 324,680 acres; it is also the chief article of export. Sugar-cane and plantains are cultivated largely, as well as mangoes and cocoa-nuts. In 1885–86 the gross revenue of the district was £245,182, the land yielding £130,409. The territory comprised in the district of Thána formed part of the dominions of the peshwá, and was annexed by the British in 1818 on the overthrow of Baji ráo. Since then the operations to put down the Koli robbers, which extended over several years, have been the only cause of serious trouble, and lately, in 1874 and 1877, there were a number of gang robberies which were suppressed, but not without difficulty.