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TRENTON, a city of the United States, county seat of Mercer county, New Jersey, and capital of the State, is situated in 40° 14′ N. lat. and 74° 45′ W. long., 33 miles north-east of Philadelphia and 57 south-west of New York. It lies very near sea-level (under 45 feet), upon the left (eastern) bank of the Delaware river, at the head of navigation. The city is irregularly built, the streets of different sections running in various directions, without any appearance of system; this is doubtless due to the fact that different portions of the city were originally settled as independent villages. Till recently Trenton was rather backward in the matter of municipal improvements, but an extensive system of paving and sewage has now been entered on. The water supply is obtained by pumping into a reservoir. Street cars run upon one or two of the principal streets; and the city is traversed by the main line of the New York division of the Pennsylvania Rail road. Manufactures are the leading industry, the capital invested in 1880 having been $6,966,830 and the production $12,712,762. In iron and steel manufactures over $2,000,000 were invested, the industry next in importance being the manufacture of stone and earthen ware, for which this city has a national reputation. Rubber goods, watches, and woollen cloths are also made. The population, 22.874 in 1870, was 29,910 in 1880.

Trenton was formed by a consolidation under one charter of several independent villages, known as Falls of the Delaware (settled in 1680), Kingsborough, Bloomsburg, and Lamberton. The name Trenton was given to the settlements about 1720. Its early growth was slow. In 1790 it was selected as the State capital, and two years later it received a city charter. Its growth since that time has been steady, and during the past thirty years has been very rapid.