Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Ujjain
UJJAIN, or Oojein, a town in the native state of Gwalior, central India, situated on the right bank of the Sipra, in 23° 11′ 10″ N. lat. and 75° 51′ 45″ E. long., 1698 feet above sea-level. In ancient times Ujjain was the great and famous capital of Malwa, one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, and the spot which marked the first meridian of Hindu geographers. Though much decayed, it is still a large and populous city, with considerable commerce. The modern city is surrounded on all sides by an almost uninterrupted belt of groves and gardens. In 1881 the population of the town numbered 32,932. Its trade consists chiefly in the export of opium and the import of European goods, especially cotton fabrics.