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Be + noun or adjective + infinitive (p. 462)

He was a fool to say that.
I am glad to meet you.

Until/By (p. 468)

I won't be home until 5 o'clock.
I will be home by 5 o'clock.

I. Quotation

"Wisdom is nothing more than the candid recognition of what one is able to do and what one is permitted to do."

- Caleb Gattegno, What We Owe Children

Can you find the grammar point in the above quote?
Can you find the grammar point in the quote by Winston Churchill?

II. Exchanges

A: How long are you going to be in your office?
B: I'll be there until 2:30.

A: When will you be able to finish this?
B: By next week, I think.

A: I can't be there until 6:00.
B: But they said we should be there by 4:45.
A: OK. Go ahead and I'll see you there.

A: Shall I go to your place when this is over?
B: Sure. I should be there by then.

A: I don't get this.
B: Well, study it until you do.

III. Activity

A. Answer the following questions.

ex. What kind of books are good to read?
Biographies are good to read.

III. Activity (Continued)


  1. What language is easiest to speak?
  2. What sports are exciting to watch?
  3. What sounds in English are the hardest to make?
  4. What are some nice songs to sing?
  5. What kinds of government are possible?
  6. What kind of drill is the most fun to do?
  7. What kind of news is always disturbing to hear?
  8. Which kind of teaching aids are most interesting?
  9. What is important to teach children?
  10. Which kinds of food are good for you to eat?

B. Garbled Speech. Follow the example.

ex. It is hard to understand shrdlu.
Who/What is hard to understand?
  1. You were foolish to shrdlu.
  2. Shrdlu's a good person to know.
  3. I was happy to see shrdlu again.
  4. Shrdlu was clever to think of that.
  5. Nick was very easy to shrdlu.
  6. A shrdlu is nice to have after a hard day's work.
  7. Do you think it's wrong to shrdlu?
  8. Shrdlu was careless to forget his vitamins.
  9. Shrdlu was usually fun to go to.
  10. Pete wasn't very polite to shrdlu.
  11. I've always wanted to go to shrdlu.
  12. We saw Deric near the shrdlu.

IV. Review Reading

Many people might think that man is the cleverest and most dangerous animal in the world, but rats just may be more dangerous. Men have killed millions of their brothers, but rats have killed hundreds of millions of men.

Would you rather not face such a fact? We would like to say that most men recognize the rat as a public enemy, but most people can't see the danger of an occasional rat in their kitchen. We must look carefully at the problem or else these small dangerous animals could cause even more trouble.

What facts should we know? You are not going to find them pleasant. Rats almost always carry disease, including bubonic plague and typhus. Outbreaks of bubonic plague are still easy to find in Asia, and typhus killed thousands every year until a vaccine was developed.

Rats often eat men's food, too. Reports at the U.N. said rats would eat 33 million tons of grain next year, food that was going to feed 200 million people. Rats would have died long ago, but they've eaten men's food.

Shall we ignore these facts? We must not. We cannot delay too long. By next year the problem will be worse. Let's begin today and eradicate the rat!

V. Writing

A. Many arguments go from the general to the specific. Often the generalization is an opinion and the specific a fact. In each of the above paragraphs of the Review Reading, decide whether or not each clause or sentence is a generalization(G) or a specific(S). Write a diagram of the argument in each paragraph, using the symbols G and S.

ex.In the second paragraph of the Comprehensive Reading, the argument is


B. But often in our own daily experience, we take a fact or specific and generalize from it, the reverse procedure of formal arguments. Write ten generalizations from the following.

ex. Our American teacher, Miss Sabina Wilder, smokes cigarettes.
All American women smoke cigarettes.
  1. Mr. Kim Tae Ho is short and Mr. Baker is tall.
  2. The Chinese restaurant on the corner is dirty.
  3. Prince Philip is a gentleman.
  4. Tanaka only thinks about money.
  5. Mr. Lee is smarter than Mrs. Lee.


6. Mr. Shin from Iri spits on the highway bus.
7. My friend was killed in a taxi.
8. Miss Park knows more than her students.
9. He looks good in a blue shirt.
10. Mrs. Brown was divorced and remarried.

C. Often these generalizations are false. Exchange papers and judge whether the opinions there are true or false.

VI. Quotations

"Nor is the Peoples Judgment always true:
The Most may err as grossly as the Few."

"If you from crimes would pardoned be
Let your indulgence set me free."