European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648/Document 09

A treaty negotiated between the two major naval powers of the early Age of Discovery, defining the lines of demarcation between Spain and Portugal's rights to overseas discoveries. These rights would continue to come under dispute in the following years, and be further refined by the papal bull Inter caetera.


9. Treaty between Spain and Portugal concluded at Tordesillas, June 7, 1494. Ratification by Spain, July 2, 1494. [Ratification by Portugal, September 5, 1494.]


INTRODUCTION.

In the negotiations begun at Barcelona in the middle of August, 1493,[1] Spain insisted that just as her navigators would refrain from visiting the regions reserved to Portugal--which Spain described as the Madeiras, Azores, Cape Verde, and other islands discovered prior to 1479, and the region from the Canaries down towards Guinea--so the Portuguese must keep away from Spain's discoveries.[2] No agreement, however, could be reached, because, as the Spanish sovereigns wrote to Columbus, the Portu­ guese ambassadors were not informed as to what belonged to Spain.[3] Ac­ cordingly, in November, 1493, a magnificent embassy, headed by Garcia de Carvajal, brother of the Spanish ambassador in Rome, and Pedro de Ayala, was despatched to the Portuguese court; but it accomplished nothing. In March, 1494, the Portuguese commissioners, Ruy de Sousa, João de Sousa, his son, and Ayres de Almada, treated directly with the Spanish sovereigns in Medina del Campo. Portugal felt aggrieved by the papal bull,[4] which designated as the eastern limit of the Spanish demarcation a meridian only one hundred leagues west of the Azores or Cape Verde Islands. As their ships were continually sailing to these islands, the Portuguese considered the limits too narrow. They therefore wished another meridian to be agreed on, farther to the west, half-way between the Cape Verde Islands and the lands discovered by Columbus.[5] King John "was certain that within those limits famous lands and things must be found." This new line of demarca­ tion was agreed to by Ferdinand and Isabella, and on June 7, at Tordesillas near Valladolid, the Spanish representatives, Don Enrique Enriques, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, and Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado, concluded a treaty with the above-mentioned plenipotentiaries of Portugal. According to this treaty all lands lying east of a meridian located 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, and discovered by Portugal, were to pertain to that country and all lands west of the line, discovered by Spain, were to pertain to Spain. If the sovereign of either country discovered lands within the bounds assigned to the other, he must surrender them to the other monarch. Within ten months after the date of the treaty each party was to send one or two caravels with pilots, astrologers, and mariners (the same number on each side) to assemble at the Grand Canary, sail to the Cape Verde Islands and thence west to deter­ mine the boundary; if the line should intersect land, boundary towers or marks were to be erected. Spanish ships crossing the Portuguese seas east of the line must follow the most direct route to their destination. Lands discovered by Spain within the twenty days next following the conclusion of the treaty were to belong to Portugal if situated within the first 250 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, otherwise to Spain. The pope was asked to confirm the treaty upon the request of either or both parties thereto.

Since in the then existing state of knowledge it was impossible to deter­ mine the position of the delimiting meridian, the treaty led to further disagreements and its interpretation has been a matter of dispute down to modern times. At different periods, in accordance with her changing inter­ ests, Portugal claimed now one and now another of the Cape Verde group as the point of departure for measurement westwards. Another debated question was the number of leagues in a degree.[6]


BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Text: MS. The original manuscript of the ratification signed by Ferdinand and Isabella at Arévalo, July 2, 1494, is in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 17, maço 2, no. 24. The original manuscript of the ratifi­ cation signed by John II. at Setubal on September 5, 1494, is in the Archives of the Indies, "Legajo escogido".

Text: Printed. J. Ramos-Coelho, Alguns Documentos ( 1892), pp. 69-80; G. F. von Martens, Supplément au Recueil des Traités ( 1802, etc.), I. 372-388; C. Calvo, Receuil des Traités ( 1862- 1866), I. 19-36; J. F. Pacheco et al., Coleccion de Documentos Inéditos ( 1864- 1884), XXX. 258-285; M. Fernandez de Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages ( 1825- 1837), II. 130-143, and thence in J. B. Thacher, Columbus ( 1903- 1904), II. 165- 175; Boletín del Centro de Estudios Americanistas, año III., no. 7. This treaty is also contained in the official collections of treaties of some of the South American states, and in various publications of those states dealing with boundary disputes. There are many differences between these abovementioned texts, due in some cases to the modern­ izing of the language, and in some cases, apparently, to the fact that they are translations from Portuguese into Spanish.

Translation: English. Thacher, op. cit., II. 175-186; Argentine Republic, Arbitration upon a Part of the National Territory of Misiones, I. Ar­ gentine Evidence ( 1893), pp. 13-24, and thence in the Report of the American Historical Association for 1895, pp. 524-534. The most im­ portant parts of the treaty are translated in E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson , Philippine Islands ( 1903- 1909), I. 115-129.

References: Contemporary and early writings. Documents in Navarrete, op. cit., tom. II., nos. 16 (p. 22), 50 (p. 76), 54 (p. 78), 63 (p. 91), 67 (p. 96), 68 (p. 97), 69 (p. 106), 71 (p. 108), 79 (p. 154). Ruy de Pina, Chronica d'El Rei Joaõ II., in J. F. Corrêa da Serra, Collecçaõ de Livros Ineditos de Historia Portugueza (pub. by the Acad. Real das Scien­ cias, Lisbon, 1790, etc.), tom. II., c. 66; Garcia de Resende, Chronica de D. Joam II. ( 1752), cc. 166-168; J. de Barros, Da Asia, I. ( 1778), dec. I., liv. III., c. 11; G. Zurita, Historia del Rey Don Hernando ( 1580), tom. I., lib. I., cc. 25, 29; A. de Herrera, Historia General de los Hechos de los Castellanos ( 1730), tom. I., dec. I., lib. II., cc. 5, 8, 10; Viscount de Santarem , Quadro Elementar ( 1842- 1876), I. 392-393.

References: Later writings. J. B. Muñoz, Historia del Nuevo-Mundo ( 1793), tom. I., lib. IV., §§ 26-30; H. Schäfer, Geschichte von Portugal ( 1836- 1854), III. 162-163, in Heeren and Ukert, Geschichte der Euro­ päischen Staaten; H. Harrisse, Diplomatic History of America ( 1897), chs. 7 and following; S. E. Dawson, "Line of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI.", etc. ( 1899), pp. 496-526, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 2d ser., 1899- 1900, vol. V., § 2; E. G. Bourne, Essays in Historical Criticism ( 1901), pp. 201-203; H. Vander Linden, "Alexander VI. and the Demarcation of the Maritime and Colonial Domains of Spain and Portugal", Am. Hist. Rev., XXII. 1-20.


TEXT.[7]

Don Fernando e Doña Ysabel, por la graçia de Dios rrey e rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Seçilia, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valençia, de Galizia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Cordova, de Corçega, de Murçia, de Jahen, del Algarbe, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las yslas de Canaria, conde e condesa de Barçelona e señores de Vizcaya e de Molina, duques de Atenas e de Neopatria, condes de Rosellon e de Çerdania, marqueses de Oristan e de Goçeano, en uno con el Prinçipe Don Juan, nuestro muy caro e muy amado hijo primogenito, heredero de los dichos nuestros rreynos e señorios. Por quanto por Don Enrrique Enrriques,[8] nuestro mayordomo mayor, e Don Gutierre de Cardenas, commisario mayor de Leon, nuestro contador mayor,[9] y el Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado,[10] todos del nuestro consejo, fue tratado, asentado, e capitulado por nos y en nuestro nonbre e por virtud de nuestro poder, con el Serenisimo Don Juan, por la graçia de Dios rrey de Portugal e de los Algarbes de aquende e alende el mar en Africa, señor de Guinea, nuestro muy caro e muy amado hermano, e con Ruy de Sosa, señor de Usagres e Berengel, e Don Juan de Sosa su hijo, almotaçen mayor[11] del dicho Serenisimo Rey, nuestro hermano, e Arias de Almadana, corregidor de los fechos çeviles de su corte[12] e del su desenbargo,[13] todos del consejo del dicho Serenisimo Rey nuestro hermano, en su nonbre e por virtud de su poder sus enbaxadores, que a nos vinieron sobre la diferençia de lo que a nos y al dicho Serenisimo Rey nuestro hermano pertenesçe de lo que hasta siete dias deste mes de Junio, en que estamos, de la fecha desta escriptura, esta por descubrir en el mar oçeano; en la qual dicha capitulaçion los dichos nuestros procuradores, entre otras cosas, prometieron que dentro de çierto termino en ella contenido, nos otorgariamos, confirmariamos, jurariamos, ratificariamos, e aprovariamos la dicha capitulaçion por nuestras personas; e nos, queriendo complir e cunpliendo todo lo que asi en nuestro nonbre fue asentado e capitulado e otorgado çerca de lo suso dicho, mandamos traer ante nos la dicha escriptura de la dicha capitulaçion e asiento para la ver e esaminar, e el tenor della de verbo ad verbum es este que se sigue:

En el nonbre de Dios Todo poderoso, Padre e Fijo e Espiritu Santo, tres personas rrealmente distintas e apartadas e una sola esençia divina. Mani­ fiesto e notorio sea a todos quantos este publico ynstrumento vieren, como en la villa de Tordesillas, a siete dias del mes de Junio, año del nasçimiento de nuestro Señor Jhesu Christo de mill e quatroçientos e noventa e quatro años, en presençia de nos, los secretarios y escrivanos e notarios publicos de yuso escriptos, estando presentes los honrrados Don Enrrique Enrriques, mayordomo mayor de los muy altos e muy poderosos prinçipes, los señores Don Fernando e Doña Isabel, por la graçia de Dios rrey e rreyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Seçilia, de Granada, etc., Don Gutierre de Cardenas, contador mayor de los dichos señores rrey e rreyna, e el Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, todos del consejo de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Leon, de Aragon, de Seçilia e de Granada, etc., sus procuradores bastantes de la una parte, e los honrrados Ruy de Sosa, señor de Usagres e Berengel, e Don Juan de Sosa, su hijo, almotaçen mayor del muy alto e muy exçelente señor, el señor Don Juan, por la graçia de Dios rrey de Portugal e de los Algarbes de aquende e de allende el mar en Africa, e señor de Guinea, e Arias de Almadana, corregidor de los fechos çeviles en su corte, e del su desenbargo, todos del consejo del dicho señor Rey de Portugal, e sus enbaxa­ dores e procuradores bastantes, segund amas las dichas partes lo mostraron por las cartas de poderes e procuraçiones de los dichos señores sus consti­ tuyentes, de las quales su tenor de verbo ad verbum es este que se sigue:

[Here follow the full powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Don Enrique Enriques, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, and Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado on June 5, 1494; and the full powers granted by João II. to Ruy de Sousa, João de Sousa, and Arias d'Almadana on March 8, 1494.]

E luego los dichos procuradores de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Seçilia, de Granada, etc., e del dicho señor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc., dixeron:

[1.] Que, por quanto entre los dichos señores, sus constituyentes, ay çierta diferençia sobre lo que a cada una de las dichas partes perteneçe de lo que fasta oydia, de la fecha desta capitulaçion, esta por descubrir en el mar oçeano, porende que ellos por bien de paz e concordia, e por conservaçion del debdo e amor quel dicho señor Rey de Portugal tiene con los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., a sus Altezas plaze, e los dichos sus procuradores en su nonbre e por virtud de los dichos sus poderes otorgaron e consintieron que se haga e señale por el dicho mar oçeano una rraya o linea derecha de polo a polo, conviene a saber, del polo Artico al polo Antartico, que es de norte a sul, la qual rraya o linea se aya de dar e de derecha, como dicho es, a tresientas e setenta leguas de las Yslas del Cabo Verde, hasia la parte del poniente,[14] por grados o por otra manera, como mejor y mas presto se pueda dar, de manera que no sean mas, e que todo lo que hasta aqui se ha fallado e descubierto e de aqui adelante se hallare e descubriere por el dicho señor Rey de Portugal y por sus navios, asy yslas, como tierra firme, desde la dicha rraya e linea, dada en la forma suso dicha, yendo por la dicha parte del levante dentro de la dicha rraya a la parte del levante, o del norte, o del sul della, tanto que no sea atravesando la dicha rraya, que esto sea e finque e pertenesca al dicho señor Rey de Portugal e a sus subçesores para sienpre jamas; e que todo lo otro, asi yslas, como tierra firme, halladas y por hallar, descubiertas y por descubrir, que son o fueren halladas por los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e por sus navios, desde la dicha rraya, dada en la forma susodicha, yendo por la dicha parte del poniente, despues de pasada la dicha rraya, hasia el poniente, o el norte, o el sul della, que todo sea e finque e pertenesca a los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Leon, etc., e a sus subçesores para sienpre jamas.

[2.] Yten, los dichos procuradores prometieron e seguraron, por virtud de los dichos poderes, que de oy en adelante no enbiaran navios algunos, conviene a saber: los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Leon, e de Aragon, etc., por esta parte de la rraya a la parte del levante aquende de la dicha rraya, que queda para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc., ni el dicho señor Rey de Portugal a la otra parte de la dicha rraya que queda para los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Aragon, etc., a descubrir e buscar tierras ni yslas algunas, ni a contratar, ni rrescatar, ni conquistar en manera alguna; pero que, si acaesçiere que, yendo asi aquende de la dicha rraya, los dichos navios de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., hallasen qualesquier yslas o tierras en lo que asi queda para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal, que aquello tal sea e finque para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal e para sus herederos para sienpre jamas; e sus Altezas gelo ayan de mandar luego dar e entregar. E si los navios del dicho señor Rey de Portugal hallaren qualesquier yslas e tierras en la parte de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Leon, e Aragon, etc., que todo lo tal sea e finque para los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, e de Aragon, etc., e para sus herederos para sienpre jamas; e que el dicho señor Rey de Portugal gelo aya luego de mandar dar e entregar.

[3.] Yten, para que la dicha linea o rraya de la dicha partiçion se aya de dar e de derecha e la mas çierta que ser pudiere por las dichas tresientas e setenta leguas de las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde hasia la parte del poniente, como dicho es, es concordado e asentado por los dichos procuradores de anbas las dichas partes, que dentro de diez meses primeros siguientes, contados desde el dia de la fecha desta capituçation, los dichos señores sus consti­ tuyentes ayan de enbiar dos o quatro caravelas, conviene a saber, una o dos de cada parte, o mas o menos, segund se acordare por las dichas partes que son neçesarias, las quales para el dicho tienpo sean juntas en la ysla de la Grand Canaria, y enbien en ellas cada una de las dichas partes, personas, asi pilotos como astrologos y marineros y qualesquier otras personas que convengan, pero que sean tantos de una parte, como de otra; y que algunas personas de los dichos pilotos e astrologos e marineros e personas que sepan que enbiaren los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Leon, de Aragon, etc., vayan en el navio o navios, que enbiare el dicho señor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc.; e asi mismo algunas de las dichas personas que enbiare el dicho señor Rey de Portugal vayan en el navio o navios, que enbiaren los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e Aragon, tantos de una parte como de otra, para que juntamente puedan mejor ver e rreconoscer la mar e los rrumos e vientos e grados de sol e norte e señalar las leguas sobredichas, tanto que para faser el señalamiento e limite convirran todos juntos los que fueren en los dichos navios que enbiaren amas las dichas partes e llevaren sus poderes;[15] los quales dichos navios todos juntamente continuen su camino a las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde, e desde alli tomaran surrota derecha al poniente hasta las dichas tresientas e setenta leguas, medidas como las dichas personas, que asi fueren, acordaren que se deven medir, sin perjuisio de las dichas partes; y alli donde se acabaren se haga el punto e señal que convenga por grados de sol o de norte, o por singradura de leguas, o como mejor se pudieren concordar. La qual dicha rraya señalen desde el dicho polo artico al dicho polo antartico, que es de norte a sul, como dicho es, y aquello que señalaren lo escrivan e firmen de sus nonbres has dichas personas, que asi fueren embiadas por amas las dichas partes, las quales han de llevar facultad e poderes de las dichas partes, cada uno de la suya, para haser la dicha señal e limitaçion y fecha por ellos, seyendo todos comformes que sea avida por señal e limitaçion perpetuamente para sienpre jamas, para que las dichas partes, ni alguna dellas, ni sus subçesores para sienpre jamas no la puedan contradezir, ni quitar, ni rremover en tiempo alguno, ni por alguna manera que sea o ser pueda. E sy caso fuere que la dicha rraya e limite de polo a polo, como dicho es, tocare en alguna ysla o tierra firme, que al comienço de la tal ysla o tierra, que asi fuere hallada, donde tocare la dicha rraya, se haga alguna señal o torre, e que en derecho de la tal señal o torte se continue dend en adelante otras señales por la tal ysla o tierra, en derecho de la dicha rraya, las quales partan lo que a cada una de las partes perteneçiere della, e que los subditos de las dichas partes no sean osados los unos de pasar a la parte de los otros, ni los otros de los otros pasando la dicha señal o limite en la tal ysla o tierra.

[4.] Yten, por quanto para yr los dichos navios de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., desde sus rreynos e señorios a la dicha su parte allende de la dicha rraya, en la manera que dicho es, es forçado que ayan de pasar por las mares desta parte de la rraya que quedan para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal, porende es concordado y asentado que los dichos navios de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, etc., puedan yr e venir e vayan e vengan libre, segura, e paçifi­ camente, sin contradiçion alguna por las dichas mares que quedan con el dicho señor Rey de Portugal dentro de la dicha rraya, en todo tienpo, y cada e quando sus Altezas y sus subçesores quisieren, e por bien tovieren; los quales vayan por sus caminos derechos e rrotas desde sus rreynos para qualquier parte de lo que esta dentro de su rraya e limite, donde quisieren enbiar a descobrir e conquistar, e a contratar, e que lleven sus caminos derechos por donde ellos acordaren de yr, para qualquier cosa de la dicha su parte, e de aquellos no puedan apartarse, salvo lo que el tienpo contrario les fisiere apartar, tanto que no tomen ni ocupen, antes de pasar la dicha rraya, cosa alguna de lo que fuere fallado por el dicho señor Rey de Portugal en la dicha su parte; e si alguna cosa hallaren los dichos sus navios antes de pasar la dicha rraya, como dicho es, que aquello sea para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal e sus Altezas gelo ayan de mandar luego dar e entregar. E porque podria ser que los navios e gentes de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla, e de Aragon, etc., o por su parte, avran hallado hasta veynte dias deste mes de Junio, en que estamos, de la fecha desta capitulaçion, algunas yslas e tierra firme dentro de la dicha rraya que se ha de faser de polo a polo, por linea derecha, en fin de las dichas tresientas e setenta leguas, contadas desde las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde al poniente, como dicho es, es concordado e asentado, por quitar toda dubda, que todas las yslas e tierra firme que sean halladas e descubiertas en qualquier manera hasta los dichos veynte dias deste dicho mes de Junio, aun que sean halladas por los navios e gentes de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castylla e de Aragon, etc., con tanto que sea dentro de las dosientas e çinquenta leguas primeras de las dichas trezientas e setenta leguas, contandolas desde las dichas yslas del Cabo Verde al poniente hasia la dicha rraya, en qualquier parte dellas para los dichos polos que sean halladas dentro de las dichas dosientas e çinquenta leguas hasiendose una rraya, o linea derecha de polo a polo donde se acabaren las dichas dosientas e çinquenta leguas, queden e finquen para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc., e para sus subçesores e rreynos para sienpre jamas. E que todas las yslas e tierra firme que hasta los dichos veynte dias deste mes de Junio, en que estamos, sean falladas e descubiertas por los navios de los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e por sus gentes, o en otra qualquier manera, dentro de las otras çiento e veynte leguas, que quedan para cunplimiento de las dichas trezientas e setenta leguas, en que ha de acabar la dicha rraya que se ha de faser de polo a polo, como dicho es, en qualquier parte de las dichas çiento e veynte leguas para los dichos polos, que sean halladas fasta el dicho dia, queden e finquen para los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e para sus subçesores e sus rreynos para sienpre jamas, como es e ha de ser suyo lo que es o fuere hallado, allende de la dicha rraya de las dichas tresientas e setenta leguas que quedan para sus Altezas, como dicho es, aun que las dichas çiento e veynte leguas son dentro de la dicha rraya de las dichas trezientas e setenta leguas que quedan para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes, etc., como dicho es. E si fasta los dichos veynte dias deste dicho mes de Junio no son hallados por los dichos navios de Sus Altezas cosa alguna dentro de las dichas çiento e veynte leguas, y de alli adelante lo hallaren, que sea para el dicho señor Rey de Portugal, como en el capitulo suso escripto es contenido.

Lo qual todo que dicho es, e cada una cosa e parte dello, los dichos Don Enrrique Enrriques, mayordomo mayor, e Don Gutierre de Cardenas, con­ tador mayor, e Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, procuradores de los dichos muy altos e muy poderosos prinçipes, los señores el Rey e la Reyna de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de Seçilia, e de Granada, etc., e por virtud del dicho su poder que de suso va encorporado, e los dichos Ruy de Sosa e Don Juan de Sosa su hijo e Arias de Almadana, procuradores e enbaxadores del dicho muy alto e muy exçelente prinçipe el señor Rey de Portugal e de los Algarbes de aquende e allende en Africa, señor de Guinea, e por virtud del dicho su poder, que de suso va encorporado, prometieron e seguraron, en nonbre de los dichos sus constituyentes, que ellos e sus subçesores e rreynos e señorios para sienpre jamas ternan e guardaran e conpliran rrealmente e con efecto, çesante todo fraude e cautela, engaño, ficçion, e simulaçion, todo lo contenido en esta capitulaçion, e cada una cosa e parte dello, e quisieron e otorgaron que todo lo contenido en esta dicha capitulaçion, e cada una cosa e parte dello, sea guardado e conplido e esecutado, como se ha de guardar e conplir e esecutar todo lo contenido en la capitulaçion de las pases fechas e asentadas entre los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Aragon, etc., e el señor Don Alfonso Rey de Portugal, que santa gloria aya, e el dicho señor Rey, que agora es de Portugal, su fijo, seyendo prinçipe, el año que paso, de mill e quatroçientos e setenta e nueve años;[16] e so aquellas mismas penas, vinculos, e firmezas e obligaçiones, segund e de la manera que en la dicha capitulaçion de las dichas pazes se contiene, e obligaronse que las dichas partes ni alguna dellas, ni sus subçesores para sienpre jamas, no yran ni vernan contra lo que de suso es dicho y espaçificado; ni contra cosa alguna ni parte dello, directe ni yndirecte, ni por otra manera alguna en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera, pensada o no pensada, que sea o ser pueda, so las penas contenidas en la dicha capitulaçion de las dichas pases, e la pena pagada o non pagada, o graçiosamente rremetida, que esta obligaçion e capitulaçion e asiento quede e finque firme, estable, e valedera para sienpre jamas; para lo qual todo asy tener e guardar e cunplir e pagar los dichos procuradores, en nonbre de los dichos sus constituyentes, obligaron los bienes, cada uno de la dicha su parte, muebles e rrayes, patrimoniales e fiscales, e de sus subditos e vasallos, avidos e por aver; e renunçiaron qualesquier leys e derechos de que se puedan aprovechar las dichas partes e cada una dellas, para yr o venir contra lo suso dicho o contra alguna parte dello, e por mayor seguridad e firmeza de lo susodicho, juraron a Dios e a Santa Maria e a la señal de la Cruz, en que pusieron sus manos derechas, e a las palabras de los Santos Evangelios do quiere que mas largamente son escriptos, en anima de los dichos sus con­ stituyentes, que ellos y cada uno dellos ternan e guardaran e cunpliran todo lo suso dicho, y cada una cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efeto, cesante todo fraude, cautela, e engaño, ficçion, e simulaçion, e no lo contradiran en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera. So el qual dicho juramento juraron de no pedir absoluçion ni rrelaxaçion del a nuestro muy Santo Padre, ni a otro ningund legado ni prelado que gela pueda dar, e aun que propio motu gela den, no usaran della, antes por esta presente capitulaçion suplican en el dicho nonbre a nuestro muy Santo Padre, que a Su Santidad plega confirmar e aprovar esta dicha capitulaçion, segund en ella se contiene e mandando expedir sobre ello sus bullas a las partes, o a qualquier dellas que las pidieren; e mandando encorporar en ellas el tenor desta capitulaçion, poniendo sus çensuras a los que contra ella fueren o pasaren en qualquier tienpo que sea o ser pueda;[17] e asi mismo los dichos procuradores en el dicho nonbre se obligaron so la dicha pena e juramento, que dentro de çiento dias primeros siguientes, contados desde el dia de la fecha desta capitulaçion, daran la una parte a la otra, y la otra a la otra, aprovaçion e rratificaçion desta dicha capitulaçion, escriptas en pergamino e firmadas de los nonbres de los dichos señores sus constituyentes e selladas con sus sellos de plomo pendiente; e en la escriptura que ovieren de dar los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e Aragon, etc., aya de firmar e consentir e otorgar el muy esclarescido e yllustrisimo señor el señor prinçipe Don Juan su hijo, de lo qual todo que dicho es, otorgaron dos escripturas de un tenor, tal la una como la otra, las quales firmaron de sus nonbres e las otorgaron ante los secretarios e escrivanos de yuso escriptos, para cada una de as partes la suya, e qualquiera que paresçier vala, como si anbas a dos paresçiesen; que fueron fechas e otorgadas en la dicha villa de Tordesillas, el dicho dia e mes e año suso dichos. El comisario mayor,[18] Don Enrrique, Ruy de Sosa, Don Juan de Sosa, el Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, Liçençiatus Arias. Testigos que fueron pre­ sentes, que vieron aqui firmiar sus nonbres a los dichos procuradores e enbaxadores e otorgar lo suso dicho, e faser el dicho juramento: el comisario Pedro de Leon, e el comisario Fernando de Torres, vesinos de la villa de Valladolid, el comisario Fernando de Gamarre, comisario de Zagra e Cenete, contino[19] de la casa de los dichos rrey e rreyna, nuestros señores, e Juan Suares de Sequeira e Ruy Leme e Duarte Pacheco, continos de la casa del señor Rey de Portugal, para ello llamados. Y yo Fernand Alvares de Toledo, secretario del rrey e de la rreyna nuestros señores e del su consejo e su escrivano de camara e notario publico en la su corte e en todos los sus rreynos e señorios, fuy presente a todo lo que dicho es en uno con los dichos testigos e con Estevan Vaez, secretario del dicho señor Rey de Portugal, que por abtoridad que los dichos rrey e rreyna nuestros señores le dieron para dar fe deste abto en sus rreynos, que fue asi mismo presente a lo que dicho es; e a ruego e otorgamiento de todos los dichos procuradores e enbaxadores que en mi presençia e suya aqui firmaron sus nonbres, este publico ynstrumento de capitulaçion fise escrivir; el qual va escripto en estas seys fojas de papel de pliego entero, escriptas de anbas partes, con esta en que van los nonbres de los sobre dichos, e mi signo; e en fin de cada plana va señalado de la señal de mi nonbte e de la señal del dicho Estevan Vaez: e porende fise aqui mio signo, que es a tal. En testimonio de verdad, Fernand Alvares. E yo el dicho Estevan Vaez, que por abtoridad que los dichos señores Rey e Reyna de Castilla e de Leon me dieron para faser publico en todos sus rreynos e señorios, juntamente con el dicho Fernand Alvares a ruego e rrequerimiento de los dichos enbaxadores e procuradores a todo presente fuy; e por fe e certidumbre dello aqui de mi publico señal la signe, que tal es.

La qual dicha escriptura de asiento e capitulaçion e concordia suso en­ corporada, vista e entendida por nos, e por el dicho prinçipe Don Juan nuestro hijo, la aprovamos, loamos, e confirmamos e otorgamos e rratificamos e prometemos de tener e guardar e conplir todo lo suso dicho en ella contenido, e cada una cosa e parte dello, rrealmente e con efeto, çesante todo fraude e cautela, ficçion, e simulaçion, e de no yr ni venir contra ello, ni contra parte dello en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera que sea o ser pueda; e por mayor firmeza, nos y el dicho priniçipe Don Juan nuestro hijo juramos a Dios, e a Santa Maria, e a las palabras de los Santos Evangelios do quier que mas largamente son escriptas, e a la señal de la Cruz, en que corporalmente pusimos nuestras manos derechas en presençia de los dichos Ruy de Sosa, e Don Juan de Sosa, e Liçençiado Arias de Almadana, enbaxadores e procuradores del dicho Serenisimo Rey de Portugal nuestro hermano, de lo asi tener e guardar e cunplir e cada una cosa e parte de lo que a nos yncunbe, rrealmente e con efeto, como dicho es, por nos e por nuestros herederos e subçesores, e por los dichos nuestros rreynos e señorios e subditos e naturales dellos, so las penas e obligaçiones, vinculos, e rrenunçiaçiones, en el dicho contrato de capitulaãion e concordia de suso escripto contenidas. Por certificaçion e corroboraçion de lo qual, firmamos en esta nuestra carta nuestros nonbres e la mandamos sellar con nuestro sello de plomo pendiente en filos de seda a colores. Dada en la villa de Arevalo, a doss dias del mes de Jullio, año del nasçimiento de nuestro señor Jhesu Christo, de mill e quatroçientos e noventa e quatro años.

YO, EL REY. YO, LA REYNA. YO, EL PRINÇIPE.

YO, FERNAND ALVARES de Toledo, secretario del rrey e de la rreyna, nuestros señores, la fise escrevir por su mandado. . . . doctor.[20]


TRANSLATION.

Don Ferdinand and Dofia Isabella, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, Algarve, Algec iras, Gibral­tar, and the Canary Islands, count and countess of Barcelona, lord and lady of Biscay and Molina, duke and duchess of Athens and Neopatras, count and countess of Roussillon and Cerdagne, marquis and marchioness of Oristano and Gociano, together with the Prince Don John, our very dear and very beloved first-born son, heir of our aforesaid kingdoms and lordships. Whereas by Don Enrique Enriques, our chief steward, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, chief commissary of Leon, our chief auditor, and Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, all members of our council, it was treated, adjusted, and agreed for us and in our name and by virtue of our power with the most serene Dom John, by the grace of God, king of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, our very dear and very beloved brother, and with Ruy de Sousa, lord of Sagres and Berenguel, Dom João de Sousa, his son, chief inspector of weights and measures of the said Most Se­ rene King our brother, and Ayres de Almada, magistrate of the civil cases in his court and member of his desembargo, all members of the council of the aforesaid Most Serene King our brother, [and acting] in his name and by virtue of his power, his ambassadors, who came to us in regard to the con­ troversy over what part belongs to us and what part to the said Most Serene King our brother, of that which up to this seventh day of the present month of June, the date of this instrument, is discovered in the ocean sea, in which said agreement our aforesaid representatives promised among other things that within a certain term specified in it we should sanction, confirm, swear to, ratify, and approve the above-mentioned agreement in person: we, wish­ ing to fulfill and fulfilling all that which was thus adjusted, agreed upon, and authorized in our name in regard to the above-mentioned, ordered the said instrument of the aforesaid agreement and treaty to be brought before us that we might see and examine it, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows:

In the name of God Almighty, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three truly separate and distinct persons and only one divine essence. Be it manifest and known to all who shall see this public instrument, that at the village of Tordesillas, on the seventh day of the month of June, in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ 1494, in the presence of us, the secretaries, clerks, and notaries public subscribed below, there being present the honorable Don Enrique Enriques, chief steward of the very exalted and very mighty princes, the lord and lady Don Ferdinand and Dofia Isabella, by the grace of God king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., Don Gutierre de Cardenas, chief auditor of the said lords, the king and queen, and Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, all members of the council of the said lords, the king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., their qualified representatives of the one part, and the honorable Ruy de Sousa, lord of Sagres and Berenguel, Dom Juan de Sousa, his son, chief inspector of weights and measures of the very exalted and very excellent lord Dom John, by the grace of God king of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, and Ayres de Almada, magistrate of civil cases in his court and member of his desembargo, all of the council of the said lord King of Portugal, and his qualified ambassadors and repre­ sentatives, as was proved by both the said parties by means of the letters of authorization and procurations from the said lords their constituents, the tenor of which, word for word, is as follows:

[Here follow the full powers granted by Ferdinand and Isabella to Don Enrique Enriques, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, and Dr. Rodrigo Maldonado on June 5, 1494; and the full powers granted by John II. to Ruy de Sousa, João de Sousa, and Ayres Almada on March 8, 1494.]

[21]Thereupon it was declared by the above-mentioned representatives of the aforesaid King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., and of the aforesaid King of Portugal and the Algarves, etc.:

[1.] That, whereas a certain controversy exists between the said lords, their constituents, as to what lands, of all those discovered in the ocean sea up to the present day, the date of this treaty, pertain to each one of the said parts respectively; therefore, for the sake of peace and concord, and for the preservation of the relationship and love of the said King of Portugal for the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., it being the pleasure of their Highnesses, they, their said representatives, acting in their name and by virtue of their powers herein described, covenanted and agreed that a bound­ ary or straight line be determined and drawn north and south, from pole to pole, on the said ocean sea, from the Arctic to the Antarctic pole. This boundary or line shall be drawn straight, as aforesaid, at a distance of three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, being calcu­ lated by degrees, or by any other manner as may be considered the best and readiest, provided the distance shall be no greater than abovesaid. And all lands, both islands and mainlands, found and discovered already, or to be found and discovered hereafter, by the said King of Portugal and by his vessels on this side of the said line and bound determined as above, toward the east, in either north or south latitude, on the eastern side of the said bound, provided the said bound is not crossed, shall belong to, and remain in the possession of, and pertain forever to, the said King of Portugal and his successors. And all other lands, both islands and mainlands, found of to be found hereafter, discovered or to be discovered hereafter, which have been discovered or shall be discovered by the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and by their vessels, on the western side of the said bound, determined as above, after having passed the said bound toward the west, in either its north or south latitude, shall belong to, and remain in the posses­ sion of, and pertain forever to, the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, etc., and to their successors.

[2.] Item, the said representatives promise and affirm by virtue of the powers aforesaid, that from this date no ships shall be despatched--namely as follows: the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., for this part of the bound, and its eastern side, on this side the said bound, which pertains to the said King of Portugal and the Algarves, etc.; nor the said King of Portugal to the other part of the said bound which pertains to the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc.--for the purpose of discovering and seeking any mainlands or islands, or for the purpose of trade, barter, or conquest of any kind. But should it come to pass that the said ships of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., on sailing thus on this side of the said bound, should discover any mainlands or islands in the region pertaining, as abovesaid, to the said King of Portugal, such mainlands or islands shall pertain to and belong forever to the said King of Portugal and his heirs, and their Highnesses shall order them to be surrendered to him immediately. And if the said ships of the said King of Portugal discover any islands and mainlands in the regions of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., all such lands shall belong to and remain forever in the possession of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., and their heirs, and the said King of Portugal shall cause such lands to be surrendered immediately.

[3.] Item, in order that the said line or bound of the said division may be made straight and as nearly as possible the said distance of three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, as hereinbefore stated, the said representatives of both the said parties agree and assent that within the ten months immediately following the date of this treaty their said con­ stituent lords shall despatch two or four caravels, namely, one or two by each one of them, a greater or less number, as they may mutually consider necessary. These vessels shall meet at the Grand Canary Island during this time, and each one of the said parties shall send certain persons in them, to wit, pilots, astrologers, sailors, and any others they may deem desirable. But there must be as many on one side as on the other, and certain of the said pilots, astrologers, sailors, and others of those sent by the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and who are experienced, shall embark in the ships of the said King of Portugal and the Algarves; in like manner certain of the said persons sent by the said King of Portugal shall embark in the ship or ships of the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc.; a like number in each case, so that they may jointly study and examine to better advantage the sea, courses, winds, and the degrees of the sun or of north latitude, and lay out the leagues aforesaid, in order that, in determining the line and boundary, all sent and empowered by both the said parties in the said vessels, shall jointly concur. These said vessels shall continue their course together to the said Cape Verde Islands, from whence they shall lay a direct course to the west, to the distance of the said three hundred and seventy degrees, measured as the said persons shall agree, and measured without prejudice to the said parties. When this point is reached, such point will constitute the place and mark for measuring degrees of the sun or of north latitude either, by daily runs measured in leagues, or in any other manner that shall mutually be deemed better. This said line shall be drawn north and south as aforesaid, from the said Arctic pole to the said Ant­ arctic pole. And when this line has been determined as abovesaid, those sent by each of the aforesaid parties, to whom each one of the said parties must delegate his own authority and power, to determine the said mark and bound, shall draw up a writing concerning it and affix thereto their signatures. And when determined by the mutual consent of all of them, this line shall be considered as a perpetual mark and bound, in such wise that the said parties, or either of them, or their future successors, shall be unable to deny it, or erase or remove it, at any time or in any manner whatsoever. And should, perchance, the said line and bound from pole to pole, as aforesaid, intersect any island or mainland, at the first point of such intersection of such island or mainland by the said line, some kind of mark or tower shall be erected, and a succession of similar marks shall be erected in a straight line from such mark or tower, in a line identical with the above-mentioned bound. These marks shall separate those portions of such land belonging to each one of the said parties; and the subjects of the said parties shall not dare, on either side, to enter the territory of the other, by crossing the said mark or bound in such island or mainland.

[4.] Item, inasmuch as the said ships of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., sailing as before declared, from their kingdoms and seigniories to their said possessions on the other side of the said line, must cross the seas on this side of the line, pertaining to the said King of Portugal, it is therefore concerted and agreed that the said ships of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, etc., shall, at any time and without any hindrance, sail in either direction, freely, securely, and peacefully, over the said seas of the said King of Portugal, and within the said line. And when­ ever their Highnesses and their successors wish to do so, and deem it expe­ dient, their said ships may take their courses and routes direct from their kingdoms to any region within their line and bound to which they desire to despatch expeditions of discovery, conquest, and trade. They shall take their courses direct to the desired region and for any purpose desired therein, and shall not leave their course, unless compelled to do so by contrary weather. They shall do this provided that, before crossing the said line, they shall not seize or take possession of anything discovered in his said region by the said King of Portugal; and should their said ships find anything before crossing the said line, as aforesaid, it shall belong to the said King of Portugal, and their Highnesses shall order it surrendered immediately. And since it is possible that the ships and subjects of the said King and Queen of Castile, Leon, etc., or those acting in their name, may discover before the twentieth day of this present month of June, following the date of this treaty, some islands and mainlands within the said line, drawn straight from pole to pole, that is to say, inside the said three hundred and seventy leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, as aforesaid, it is hereby agreed and determined, in order to remove all doubt, that all such islands and mainlands found and discovered in any manner whatsoever up to the said twentieth day of this said month of June, although found by ships and subjects of the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., shall pertain to and remain forever in the possession of the said King of Portugal and the Algarves, and of his suc­ cessors and kingdoms, provided that they lie within the first two hundred and fifty leagues of the said three hundred and seventy leagues reckoned west of the Cape Verde Islands to the above-mentioned line--in whatsoever part, even to the said poles, of the said two hundred and fifty leagues they may be found, determining a boundary or straight line from pole to pole, where the said two hundred and fifty leagues end. Likewise all the islands and main­ lands found and discovered up to the said twentieth day of this present month of June by the ships and subjects of the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., or in any other manner, within the other one hundred and twenty leagues that still remain of the said three hundred and seventy leagues where the said bound that is to be drawn from pole to pole, as afore­ said, must be determined, and in whatever part of the said one hundred and twenty leagues, even to the said poles,--they that are found up to the said day shall pertain to and remain forever in the possession of the said King and Queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and of their successors and kingdoms; just as whatever is or shall be found on the other side of the said three hundred and seventy leagues pertaining to their Highnesses, as aforesaid, is and must be theirs, although the said one hundred and twenty leagues are within the said bound of the said three hundred and seventy leagues pertaining to the said King of Portugal, the Algarves, etc., as aforesaid.

And if, up to the said twentieth day of this said month of June, no lands are discovered by the said ships of their Highnesses within the said one hundred and twenty leagues, and are discovered after the expiration of that time, then they shall pertain to the said King of Portugal as is set forth in the above.

The said Don Enrique Enriques, chief steward, Don Gutierre de Cardenas, chief auditor, and Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, representatives of the said very exalted and very mighty princes, the lord and lady, the king and queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Sicily, Granada, etc., by virtue of their said power, which is incorporated above, and the said Ruy de Sousa, Dom João de Sousa, his son, and Arias de Almadana, representatives and ambassadors of the said very exalted and very excellent prince, the lord king of Portugal and of the Algarves on this side and beyond the sea in Africa, lord of Guinea, by virtue of their said power, which is incorporated above, promised, and affirmed, in the name of their said constituents, [saying] that they and their successors and kingdoms and lordships, forever and ever, would keep, observe, and ful­ fill, really and effectively, renouncing all fraud, evasion, deceit, falsehood, and pretense, everything set forth in this treaty, and each part and parcel of it; and they desired and authorized that everything set forth in this said agree­ ment and every part and parcel of it be observed, fulfilled, and performed as everything which is set forth in the treaty of peace concluded and ratified between the said lord and lady, the king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., and the lord Dom Alfonso, king of Portugal (may he rest in glory) and the said king, the present ruler of Portugal, his son, then prince in the former year of 1479, must be observed, fulfilled, and performed, and under those same penalties, bonds, securities, and obligations, in accordance with and in the manner set forth in the said treaty of peace. Also they bound themselves [by the promise] that neither the said parties nor any of them nor their suc­ cessors forever should violate or oppose that which is abovesaid and speci­ fied, nor any part or parcel of it, directly or indirectly, or in any other manner at any time, or in any manner whatsoever, premeditated or not premeditated, or that may or can be, under the penalties set forth in the said agreement of the said peace; and whether the fine be paid or not paid, or graciously remitted, that this obligation, agreement, and treaty shall continue in force and remain firm, stable, and valid forever and ever. That thus they[22] will keep, observe, perform, and pay everything, the said representatives, acting in the name of their said constituents, pledged the property, movable and real, patrimonial and fiscal, of each of their respective parties, and of their subjects and vassals, possessed and to be possessed. They renounced all laws and rights of which the said parties or either of them might take advan­ tage to violate or oppose the foregoing or any part of it; and for the greater security and stability of the aforesaid, they swore before God and the Blessed Mary and upon the sign of the Cross, on which they placed their right hands, and upon the words of the Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are written at greatest length, and on the consciences of their said constituents, that they, jointly and severally, will keep, observe, and fulfill all the aforesaid and each part and parcel of it, really and effectively, renouncing all fraud, evasion, deceit, falsehood, and pretense, and that they will not contradict it at any time or in any manner. And under the same oath they swore not to seek absolution or release from it from our most Holy Father or from any other legate or prelate who could give it to them. And even though, proprio motu, it should be given to them, they will not make use of it; rather, by this present agreement, they, acting in the said name, entreat our most Holy Father that his Holiness be pleased to confirm and approve this said agreement, accord­ ing to what is set forth therein; and that he order his bulls in regard to it to be issued to the parties or to whichever of the parties may solicit them, with the tenor of this agreement incorporated therein, and that he lay his censures upon those who shall violate or oppose it at any time whatsoever. Likewise, the said representatives, acting in the said names, bound themselves under the same penalty and oath, that within the one hundred days next following, reckoned from the day of the date of this agreement, the parties would mutually exchange the approbation and ratification of this said agree­ ment, written on parchment, signed with the names of the said lords, their constituents, and sealed with their hanging leaden seals; and that the instru­ ment which the said lords, the king and queen of Castile, Aragon, etc., should have to issue, must be signed, agreed to, and sanctioned by the very noble and most illustrious lord, Prince Don Juan, their son. Of all the foregoing they authorized two copies, both of the same tenor exactly, which they signed with their names and executed before the undersigned secretaries and nota­ ries public, one for each party. And whichever copy is produced, it shall be as valid as if both the copies which were made and executed in the said town of Tordesillas, on the said day, month, and year aforesaid, should be pro­ duced. The chief deputy, Don Enrique, Ruy de Sousa, Dom Juan de Sousa, Doctor Rodrigo Maldonado, Licentiate Ayres. Witnesses who were present and who saw the said representatives and ambassadors sign their names here and execute the aforesaid, and take the said oath: The deputy Pedro de Leon and the deputy Fernando de Torres, residents of the town of Valladolid, the deputy Fernando de Gamarra, deputy of Zagra and Cenete, contino of the house of the said king and queen, our lords, and João Suares de Sequeira, Ruy Leme, and Duarte Pacheco, continos of the house of the said King of Portugal, summoned for that purpose. And I, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, secretary of the king and queen, our lords, member of their council, and their scrivener of the high court of justice, and notary public in their court and throughout their realms and lordships, witnessed all the aforesaid, together with the said witnesses and with Estevan Vaez, secretary of the said King of Portugal, who by the authority given him by the said king and queen, our lords, to certify to this act in their kingdoms, also witnessed the abovesaid; and at the request and with the authorization of all the said representatives and ambassadors, who in my presence and his here signed their names, I caused this public instrument of agreement to be written. It is written on these six leaves of paper, in entire sheets, written on both sides, together with this leaf, which contains the names of the aforesaid persons and my sign; and the bottom of every page is marked with the notarial mark of my name and that of the said Estevan Vaez. And in witness I here make my sign, which is thus. In testimony of truth: Fernando Alvarez. And I, the said Estevan Vaez (who by the authority given me by the said lords, the king and queen of Castile, and of Leon, to make it public throughout their kingdoms and lordships, together with the said Fernando Alvarez, at the request and summons of the said ambassadors and representatives witnessed everything), in testimony and assurance thereof signed it here with my public sign, which is thus. The said deed of treaty, agreement, and concord, above incorporated, hav­ ing been examined and understood by us and by the said Prince Don John, our son, we approve, commend, confirm, execute, and ratify it, and we promise to keep, observe, and fulfill all the abovesaid that is set forth therein, and every part and parcel of it, really and effectively. We renounce all fraud, evasion, falsehood, and pretense, and we shall not violate or oppose it, or any part of it, at any time or in any manner whatsoever. For greater security, we and the said prince Don John, our son, swear before God and Holy Mary, and by the words of the Holy Gospels, wheresoever they are written at greatest length, and upon the sign of the Cross upon which we actually placed our right hands, in the presence of the said Ruy de Sousa, Dom João de Sousa, and Licentiate Ayres de Almada, ambassadors and representatives of the said Most Serene King of Portugal, our brother, thus to keep, observe, and fulfill it, and every part and parcel of it, so far as it is incumbent upon us, really and effectively, as is abovesaid, for ourselves and for our heirs and successors, and for our said kingdoms and lordships, and the subjects and natives of them, under the penalties and obligations, bonds and abjurements set forth in the said contract of agreement and concord above written. In attestation and corroboration whereof, we sign our name to this our letter and order it to be sealed with our leaden seal, hanging by threads of colored silk. Given in the town of Arévalo, on the second day of the month of July, in the year of the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1494.

I, THE KING. I, THE QUEEN. I, THE PRINCE.

I, FERNANDO ALVAREZ de Toledo, secretary of the king and of the queen, our lords, have caused it to be written by their mandate. . . . doctor.


  1. See introduction to Doc. 8.
  2. Zurita, Historia, lib. I., c. 25.
  3. "Porque ellos no vienen informados de lo que es nuestro." Navarrete, Viages, tom. II., no. 71, p. 108.
  4. Doc. 7.
  5. Zurita, op. cit., lib. I., c. 29, ff. 35, 36. Harrisse suggests that the Portuguese had in view the acquisition of those islands in the northwest Atlantic fancifully displayed on the maps of Fra Mauro and other early cartographers. Discovery of North America ( 1892), pp. 57, 58. The voyages of Gaspar Corte-Real to the northwest lend some sup­ port to this suggestion but, according to Las Casas, the southwest was the special region in which at this time King John hoped to discover new lands. J. E. Olson and E. G. Bourne , Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot ( 1906), p. 326. There are a number of indica­ tions that both Spaniards and Portuguese coveted particularly the south Atlantic.
  6. For an account of the knowledge of nautical astronomy in Portugal at this time, see J. Bensaude, L'Astronomie Nautique au Portugal à l'Époque des Grandes Découvertes ( 1912), and the Collection de Documents, relative to this subject, now being published under his direction by order of the Portuguese ministry of public instruction.
  7. The text is from the original manuscript of the ratification by Ferdinand and Isabella, in the National Archives at Lisbon, gav. 17, maço 2, no. 24.
  8. Son of the Admiral Don Fadrique Enriques. His family history is given by Dr. Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal (cf. Doc. 13, note 17) in his Adiciones Genealógicas, published in Navarrete Coleccion de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España, tom. XVIII., pp. 454 ff.
  9. The contadores mayores, who at this time numbered two, were the heads of the financial administration of Spain. For a full account of their functions see "Organi­ zación de la Hacienda en la Primera Mitad del Siglo XVI°" in F. de Laiglesia, Estudios Históricos, 1515- 1555 ( Madrid, 1908).
  10. He had been sent to Portugal in 1479 to negotiate the treaty of Alcaçovas. See Doc. 3, introduction.
  11. It was the business of the almotacé mór to supply the Portuguese court with pro­ visions, and to see that the roads over which the sovereign had to travel were in order. H. da Gama Barros, Historia da Administração Publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII. a XV. ( 1885- 1896), I. 602-603.
  12. The corregedor da corte was a magistrate who exercised in the place where the King of Portugal was, the police, administrative, and judicial functions exercised by the local corregedores. A few years before the date of this treaty, the single corregedor da corte was replaced by two corregedores, of whom one took cognizance of civil, the other of criminal, causes. Gama Barros, op. cit., I. 603, 604.
  13. The desembargo d'el rei was a kind of privy-council, whose members were generally lawyers. Ibid., p. 593.
  14. A meridian 370 leagues west of San Antonio, the most westerly of the Cape Verde Islands, is in about 46° W. longitude; i. e., east of the mouth of the Gurupy River. The question where, in 1494, the Spanish and Portuguese governments supposed the line to fall is elaborately discussed by Harrisse, Diplomatic History, and Dawson, Line of Demarcation. From both the Portuguese and the Spanish maps of the early sixteenth century, it appears that it was then believed that the line passed west of Newfoundland (Baccallaos). Columbus and his heirs never assented to the new line, which, on account of its more westerly position, deprived him of part of the region in which he had been granted important rights. See Harrisse's introduction to B. F. Stevens, Christopher Columbus: his own Book of Privileges, 1502 ( 1893), pp. lviii, lix. For the methods employed at this time to determine latitude and longitude, see the works edited and written by J. Bensaude, and referred to above, note 6.
  15. This stipulation was not carried out. See introduction to Doc. 10.
  16. The treaty of Alcaçovas, Doc. 3.
  17. The treaty was confirmed by Julius II., Jan. 24, 1506, Doc. 11.
  18. Don Gutierre de Cardenas.
  19. The continos were the king's body-guards.
  20. The editor has been unable to decipher the signature above this word.
  21. From this, the beginning of the treaty proper, as far as to "The said Don Enrique Enriques", on p. 98, the translation is taken from Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 122-128.
  22. I. e., the constituents.