Fifty years of "The Indian Antiquary"
SIR RICHARD CARNAC TEMPLE, Bt.
C.B., C.i.E., F.S.A.,
Thirty-Seven Years Editor-Proprietor.
TO MY COMRADES
INDIAN ANTIQUARY PAST AND PRESENT
COMPLETION OF ITS FIFTIETH YEAR.
We've struggled, you and I, for fifty years
To pierce the veil of mystery, that lies
On India's past so heavily, and cries
Aloud for rending with the searcher's shears.
We've sought and found no guerdon, but the fears
Unflagging effort brings to him that tries
And greatly longs, or joy when he espies
A little light that, dancing, laughs at tears.
No recompense in kind for you and me
Shall issue from the light our labours find
To guide the realm's activities aright.
What of it ? Is it not enough that we
Have won unswerving steadfastness of mind
To reach the day that waits upon the night.
R. C. Temple,
Editor for 37 years.
FIFTY YEARS OF THE INDIAN ANTIQUARY.
The Indian Antiquary was founded as a monthly Journal in January 1872 by the late Dr. James Burgess, C.I.E., LL.D., at his private risk, and its fiftieth year of existence was completed with the 640th issue for December 1921, many of the annual volumes having contained more than twelve numbers.
The objects and scope of the Journal are explained in two preliminary notes by Dr. Burgess in Vols. I and XIII respectively. It was intended to provide a means of communication between the East and the West on subjects connected with Indian Research, and a journal to which students and scholars, Indian and non-Indian, could combine to send notes and queries of a nature not usually finding a place in the pages of Asiatic Societies. The main aim was to promote and encourage research. From this aim the Journal has never swerved, though the high class of the communications sent to it has always been beyond the original forecast, while the number of Europeans and Indians joining to assist each other has increased as time went on.
After a while Dr. Burgess's eyesight became so troublesome that he decided to give up the Journal and it was taken over on the 1st January 1885 by the late Dr. J. F. Fleet, C.I.E., Ph.D., Indian Civil Service, and Captain R. C. Temple, Indian Army (now Lieut. Col. Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Bt., C.B., C.I.E., F.S.A.). It was conducted by them at their joint risk and under their joint editorship for seven years, when Dr. Fleet retired, and Captain (then Major) Temple carried it on at his own risk alone and as sole editor-proprietor from the 1st January 1892 till the completion of the half century in December 1921, and still so conducts it. From the 1st January 1911 to date Professor D. R. Bhandarkar, M.A., of Calcutta University, has been joint-editor with Sir R. C Temple. Dr. Burgess died in October 1916, at a great age and Dr. Fleet in February 1917, and it is a matter of pathetic interest to note that Dr. Fleet's last contribution, in January 1917, was an obituary notice to Dr. Burgess. The late Mr. A. M. T. Jackson, M.A., of the Indian Civil Service, a great friend of the Indian people, would have been a joint-editor but for his untimely death, in December 1909, by the hand of a misguided political fanatic.
The chief feature of the Indian Antiquary in the first twenty years of its existence was all along the reproduction and publication of Inscriptions, adequately edited from the originals themselves. The Inscriptions published were largely sought out or collected and reproduced mechanically by a staff directly employed by the proprietors and trained by them, and some were also supplied by Government agency. During these twenty years the journal was the chief source for European scholarship of accurate information regarding Indian Epigraphy. But about 1888 the Government of India decided to reproduce the Inscriptions of the country under its own officials, and an agreement was entered into in 1892, by which the Government Journal, the Epigraphia Indica, was published on the basis established by the Indian Antiquary as an official quarterly Supplement to that Journal. This agreement lasted twenty-eight years, till 1920, when it came to an end owing to another mutual agreement, and the Epigraphia Indica is now published directly by the Government. During the period it was a Supplement to the Indian Antiquary thirteen biennial volumes were produced, although it always continued to be a charge on the funds of the Journal.
The Indian Antiquary has throughout been conducted on an honorary basis. No one has ever been paid for a contribution or as an editor or as an assistant of the editors, while the proprietors have contributed annually towards the cost of the Journal, sometimes heavily, despite the assistance received from time to time, by way of subscription for copies, accorded by the Secretary of State for India, the Government of India and its subordinate Governments and by the Native Rulers.
The subjects with which the Journal has been principally concerned have been the Archaeology, Ethnology, Geography, History, Folklore, Languages, Literature, Numismatics, Philology, Philosophy and Religion of the Indian Empire, and, to a certain extent, of its surroundings. Notable, and in some cases epoch-making, contributions have been published on all these subjects, several of them having been preliminary studies of books subsequently well-known to Indian and Oriental students and even to general fame.
The Editors have been themselves among the largest individual contributors to the pages of the Indian Antiquary, but they have had the co-operation of many great Indian and Oriental scholars in India itself as well as all over Europe and in America. The list of contributors during the first fifty years reaches a total of 527, every one of whom has been an earnest student of things Indian, the great majority acquiring their knowledge at first hand. This long list contains many names that have become famous, or at any rate well and favourably known to those connected with Indian research. The names of the more important Orientalists and of those contributing the most notable articles are as follows : —
English and American.— Sir Clive Bayley, Sir James M. Campbell, Sir Alexander Cunningham, Sir Walter Elliot, Sir George Grierson, Sir Henry Howorth, Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Sir Charles Lyall, Sir William Maxwell, Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Sir Arthur Phayre, Sir Aurel Stein, Sir James Wilson, Sir Henry Yule ; Professors : J. Avery, V. Ball, C. Bendall, H. Blochman, Maurice Bloomfield, E. B. Cowell, E. Laumann, Max Muller, A. A. Macdonell, E. J. Rapson, G. Thibaut, W. Dwight Whitney; the Reverend (Bishop) R. C. Caldwell, Samuel Beale, F. T. Cole, T. Foulkes, H. Hosten, S.J., F. Kittel, J. H. Knowles, C. Swynnerton; Doctors: L. D. Barnett, A. C. Burnell, William Crooke, Edkins, J. D. Fergusson, H. Hirschfeld, A. F. Hoernle, E. W. Leitner, F. Mason, James Morison, John Muir, G. N. Pope, R. Rost, Hubert Weir Smyth, F. W. Thomas, J. H. Vogel, E. W. West, J. W. Youngson; Military Officers: Captain K. A. Creswell, Genl. A. Houtum-Schindler, Colonel G. A. Jacob, Colonel W. Kincaid, Captain J. S. King, Colonel J. H. Rivett-Carnac, Major J. Watson, Colonel L. A. Waddell; Messieurs : John Beames, H. C. P. Bell, Otto Blagden, G. H. Damant, M. Longworth Dames, E. B. Eastwick, R. E. Enthoven, Donald Ferguson, William Foster, C. E. Gover, F. S. Growse, T. Hart-Davis, S. C. Hill, Bernard Houghton, C. E. Hyde-Clarke, W. Irvine, A. M. T. Jackson, G. R. Kaye, J. Lockwood Kipling, M. Macauliffe, J. W. McCrindle, E. H. Man, R. R. Morfill, F. E. Pargiter, E. H. Parker, J. B. Phear (Mr. Justice), Sidney Ray, T. W. Rhys-Davids, B.L.Rice, C.J. Rodgers, H. A. Rose, R. Sewell, W. F. Sinclair, Vincent A. Smith, H. Warington-Smyth, H. J. Stokes, C. H. Tawney, Edward Thomas, J. Walhouse, Don M. de Z. Wickremasinghe.
Indian. — His Highness Rama Varma of Travancore, Sir R. E. Bhandarkar, Diwan Bahadur Swamikannu Pillai, Rao Sahib P. R. Bhandarkar, Rai Bahadur V. V. Venkayya; Pandits: Anand Koul, Ram Gharib Chaube, Bhagwanlal Indraji, Gaurishankar Hirachand Oza, Shankar Pandurang, Ram Karma, Daya Ram Sahni, Haraprasad Sastri, Vishveshvanath Sahityacharya Sastri, G. D. Upreti; Babu Rajendralal Mitra; Professors: R. Basak, N. Bhattasali, V. Chakravarti, K. L. Chattre, V. S. Ghate, P. D. Gune, D. Kosambi, K. B. Pathak, V. Rangachari, S. C. Vidhyabhusana; Doctor A. Venkatasubbiah; Messieurs: Krishnaswami Aiyangar, Subrahmanya Aiyar, H. B. Bhide, Sh. B. Dikshit, W. Goonetilleke, B. A. Gupte, Srinivas Iyengar, K. P. Jayaswal, S. S. Majumdar, Jiwanji J. Modi, R. Narasimhachar, G. K.Nariman, K. Raghunathji, R. Shamasastry, S. M. Natesa Shastri, Visheshvanath Shastri, K. V. Subayya, D. V. A. Sukthankar, A. Govindacharya Swamin, K. S. Telang, G. Yazdani.
German and Austrian.— Professors : J. Aufrecht, J. E. Buhler, C. Capeller, J. Darmstetter, J. Eggeling, E. Forchhammer, O. Franke, E. Hultzsch, B. H. Jacobi, J. Jolley, F. Kielhorn, F. Knauer, Ludwig H. Oldenberg, Albrecht Weber, R. Zimmermann ; Doctors : K. F. Burkhardt, P. Deussen, A. H. Francke, W. Geiger, H. Grimme, H. Luders, B. Pischel, Richard Schmidt, R. Schram, W. Schubring, M. Winternitz, Th. Zachariae.
Chinese. — Taw Sein Ko.
Dane. — Prof. F. Schiern.
Dutch.— Prof. A. Kern, M. P. J. Ondaetje, Professor C. P. Tiele. French.— M. A. D'Abbadie, M. A. Barth, M. J. Bloch, M. Sylvain Levi, M. de Milloue, Prof, de la Vallee Poussin, M. Emile Senart.
Italian — Dr. L. P. Tessitori.
Norwegian.— Prof. Sten Konow.
Russians.— Prof. S. d'Oldenburg, E. Rehatsek.
Swede.— Prof. J. Charpentier.
Women Authors. — Lady Grierson, Miss L. M. Anstey, Mrs. Mabel Bode, Mrs. Anna M. Childers, Miss Mabel Duff (Mrs. Rickmers), Mrs. Murray- Ainslie, Miss E. Lyall, Miss C. A. Nicholson, Mrs. Ramabai (R. D. M.), Mrs. F. A. Steel, Miss L. A. Thomas, Miss Putlibai Wadia (Mrs. J. K. Kabraji).
The Journal has always been and still is, printed in the same Press in Bombay (Mazgaon), at first owned by the Bombay Education Society's Press and subsequently by the British India Press. The illustrations have likewise been chiefly produced in the same building in London (Hanover Street, Peckham) by the late Mr. William Griggs (W. Griggs and Sons) and his successors Messrs. Charles Whittingham and Griggs Ltd. The relations of the Editor-Proprietors with the Presses and the Illustrating Firms have always been most cordial, enabling them to surmount together the many difficulties of publication brought about by the conditions of European life in India, by the many widely divergent vernacular characters used, and latterly, by the Great War. One set of several expensive plates had to be reproduced and despatched three times, owing to enemy action, before they reached the pages of the Indian Antiquary. The meticulous accuracy of the Peckham firm's reproduction of Inscriptions has been everywhere acknowledged by scholars. In this way 478 plates of Inscriptions have been published in the Journal itself and 624 in its Supplement, the Epigraphia Indica. In the matter of securing accurate reproductions of Inscriptions, the Editor-Proprietors have never spared expense, owing to their importance to historical research, notably in the case of the Asoka Inscribed Edicts on the Iron Pillars at Delhi and Allahabad, which were scientifically reproduced at great cost in 1883-4, in the result found to be justified [Vide Prof. Buhler's fundamental article on the subject in the 13th vol. (1884)].
The Indian Antiquary has seen many changes take place in the fifty years of its history. Among them the following may be specially noticed here. When the Journal was started it was still the fashion to talk of the 1000 years between Asoka and the Muhammadan ascendancy as a blank as to dates and real history, but thanks to the efforts of many contributors to the Indian Antiquary it has been a principal means of filling up this great gap almost year by year. In the accomplishment of so great a feat, its main contribution has been the systematising of the method of recording reproducing and editing inscriptions and settling the principles of Indian chronological statement. The systematic record of folk tales and the facts of folk-lore was also in its infancy in 1872, and the Indian Antiquary has taken a leading part in the subsequent growth of that important work, from the date of its publication of some Panjab folk-tales, which afterwards proved to be the first effort at classifying the incidents on which folk-tales are built up. But the most remarkable and far reaching change that has taken place is in the advance made by Indian scholars in the knowledge of the principles of critical research and reducing the results thereof into readable English. When the Journal first started, Indians with the requisite knowledge of these principles were very few, and those who could write correct English were fewer still, but in the half century intervening between 1872 and 1922 they have become so numerous as to be able with great credit to themselves to fill nearly the whole Journal. And not only that, they have made it possible to found, as additions to the long established Asiatic Society of Bengal, Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society, Madras Literary Society and Calcutta Review, local Research Societies in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad, Lahore, Patna, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mysore and in several Native States, all contributing adequately to a knowledge of the past in India. Another fact as regards change of conditions in Indian learning and general knowledge is that, in order to let Indians know the results of European research as it proceeded, the more remarkable of them by Continental scholars were given in the Indian Antiquary, from time to time, in translations. It will soon not be necessary to continue this practice, as so many Indian scholars are now acquainted with what the English call foreign languages.
- In order to render the pages of the Indian Antiquary as valuable as possible, general Indices to the first fifty volumes relating to authors and subjects are being prepared with all the cross-references necessary. It is hoped that the entries in the Indices which relate to Inscriptions, their dates and find-spots, and the dynasties and eras concerned with them, will be found to be specially valuable to students in the future.
The following very brief description of the contents of the first 640 issues of the Indian Antiquary will give those interested in Indian Research some idea of the work that has been accomplished by the contributors to its pages during the last fifty years.
Volumes under Dr. James Burgess.— The Contents of Volume I are typical of all the forty-nine volumes that followed and show to some extent how the work has been carried on during the whole half century and the wide range of subjects discussed, scientifically and geographically. They also show the sort of contributors from the first attracted to the Journal, and thus prove the obvious want of it that has been felt. Where a name has been added to the subject it means that the contributor was then, or afterwards became, a well-known Orientalist. Archeology: Rude Stone Monuments in Chota Nagpur; Caves in Ceylon, Khandesh and Toungoo (Burma). Chronology: Date of Patanjali (R. G. Bhandarkar and Weber). Epigraphy: Edited Inscriptions—Western India, Bengal and Madras (R. G. Bhandarkar); Ceylon (Rhys-Davids); Madras (V. N. Narasimmiyengar); Canarese (J. F. Fleet), commencement of a very long list running for twenty years. Ethnology; Dards (Leitner); Gonds and Kurkus of Bhopal; Madras (C. E. Gover); Palis of Bengal, G. H. Damant; Dasyus (Rajendralala Mitra). Folklore: from Orissa (Beames); Oudh (W. C. Bennett): Kathiawar (Burgess); Bengal (G. H. Damant); South India. Geography: Place Names in Magadha; Jungle Forts in Orissa (Beames); Mathura (F. S. Growse). History: Mughal Grandees (H. Blochman); Gauli Raj in Khandesh (W. F. Sinclair); Bhar Kings of Oudh (W. C. Bennett); Persian Map of the World (E. Rehatsek). Literature and Philology: Indigenous in Orissa and Translation from Chand (Beames); Ramayana (Aufrecht); Bhavabhuti, poet (K. M. Banerjea); Vrihatkatha (G. Biihler); Bengali Songs (J. Murray-Mitchell); Search for Sanskrit MSS. in Gujarat (Biihler), the commencement of a subsequently famous enquiry. Numismatics: Discovery of Grseco-Bactrian coins at Sonpat, Panjab. Paleography: Oldest Indian Alphabet (A. C. Burnell); Old Sanskrit Numerals (R. G. Bhandarkar).
As already stated, subsequent volumes carried on the work outlined in the first, but with ever-increasing knowledge. It is only possible, however, to notice the more important articles. Volume II (1873) contained an article by Dr. Burgess on the art of copying inscriptions which began the modern mechanical method of reproduction, and also the first reproduction by Lewis Rice on the lines then laid down, and the first of a long series of articles on Chinese references to Indian Buddhism. In Volume III (1874) were Yule's Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels, Burnell's original Settlement Deed of the Jewish Colony in Cochin and valuable plans of the Temple at Amaravati. In Volume IV (1875) began Fleet's very fine series of well over 200 edited Sanskrit and Old Canarese Inscriptions. In Volume V (1876) Buhler joins in the editing of inscriptions on the new plan with the well-known facsimile reproduction, and Sir Clive Bayley has a valuable early article on Gupta Coins. Volume VI (1877) contains some excellent plates of Rock-cut Temples at Badami (Dharwar); Griggs commences his very fine series (some hundreds) of photographs from facsimiles of inscriptions; Bhagwanlal Indraji, Buhler, and others discuss old Indian numerals. In Volume VII (1878) Buhler writes on three, then new, Asoka Edicts and Dr. G. W. Pope on the Tamil Kurral. Sir R. C. Temple commences his long series of contributions with a translation from a Pali Buddhist Text. Volume VIII (1879) contains a very important article by J. F. Fleet on Indian Eras; McCrindle commences his Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Dr. John Muir his Metrical Version of the Mahabharata, and Yule and Burnell their Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms (Hobson-Jobson). Dr. Hoernle also began his long epigraphic series with Grseco-Baktrian Monograms. Volume IX (1880) contains Mrs. F. A. Steel and Temple's Folk-tales in the Panjab (afterwards Wide-awake Stories), Sir H. Howorth's Chinghiz Khan and his Ancestors, and Dr. E. West's Pahlavi Inscriptions. In Volume X (1880) is McCrindle's Ktesias' Description of Ancient India. Volume XI (1882) contains Steel and Temple's Folk-tales from Kashmir — . and Edward Thomas East India Company's Coinage and Exchange. In Volume XII (1883) is an important paper, D. B. Hutcheon's Conversion of Muhammadan Dates. Volume XIII (1884), the last issued by Dr. James Burgess contains Professor V. Ball's Geologist's contribution to Ancient Indian History and Buhler's fundamental articles on the Delhi and Allahabad Asoka Pillars ; also K. T. Best's Proverbs of Ali Ibn Talebi, the first of Dr. E. Hultzsch's many contributions to Epigraphy and S. M. Natesa Sastri's Folklore in Southern India.
Volumes under Dr. John Faithfull Fleet and Sir Richard Carnac Temple.—With Volume XIV (1885) Dr. Fleet commenced his long series, continued for about twenty years, of notes and articles on early Indian Chronology, with The Early Rulers of Nepal, and Sir George Grierson his many papers on Indian Literature with a summary of the Alhakhand. Sir Alexander Cunningham has an enquiry into the Indian origin of the names of the week-days and Dr. Burgess a note on Sanskrit Geography. In Volume XV (1885) is Fleet's Epoch of the Gupta Era, Lady Grierson's English-Gipsy Index, Mrs. Kabraji's (Putlibai Wadia) Western Indian Folk-tales (commencement), and Sir Aurel Stein's Afghanistan in Avestic Geography: while Colonel Jacob begins his discussion on Indian Philosophy. In Volume XVI (1887) Dr. Fleet's Hindu Chronological Series takes definite form; J. Hinton-Knowles' Kashmiri Folk-tales commences, and Professor F. Kielhorn's very valuable series of edited Inscriptions also commences; Sir George Grierson discourses on Indian Gipsies and Buhler on Geography. Volume XVII (1888) contains many important items. Sh. B. Dikshit's Calculation of Indian Dates (commenced), Dr. Fleet's well-known Summary of the Gupta Era, and Professor H. Jacobi's Tables for verifying Hindu Dates: Hoernle's Bakshali MS. (4th Century A.D.) on Arithmetic, Stein's Zoroastrian Deities on Indo-Scythian coins, C. J. Rodgers' Rupees of the Suri Dynasty, J. S. King's Somali Language and Edkins' Confucius. In Volume XVIII (1889) Dr. E. Hultzsch draws attention to Kalhana's Rajataramgini and V. Kanakasabhai Pillai commences his series of Tamil Historical Texts. Fleet has an article on the Coins and History of Toramana, Dr. R. Schram his important Table for Hindu Dates, and Kielhorn his contribution to chronology with his Sixty-year Cycle of Jupiter, while Taw Sen Ko commences his Burmese Folk-lore Series. In Volume XIX (1890) is Buhler's important paper on the Texts of the Asoka Edicts on the Delhi and Allahabad Pillars, J. S. King's Aborigines of Sokotra, J. Foulkes' Buddhaghosha; and G. D'Penha's Folklore in Salsette commences. Volume XX (1891) contains Sir R. C. Temple's Burmese System of Arithmetic and Hultzsch's and Kielhorn's Inscriptions on Coins.
Volumes under Sir Richard Carnac Temple.—In Volume XXI (1892) Dr. W. Crooke begins his series of Folk-tales of Hindustan, K. Sri- kantaliyar his Folkore in Madras, Colonel L. A. Waddell his Folklore in Tibet, and Mrs. Kabraji her Parsi Folkore. Dr. Hoernle has a note on his important Bower Manuscript, Taw Sein Ko commences his Sanskrit Words in Burmese, and Sir R.C. Temple has a paper on Succession in the Alompra Dynasty of Burma. Volume XXII (1893) contains several important communications: Mabel Duff's Chronology, Taw Sein Ko's Kalyani Inscriptions of Dhammacheti (Pegu), Sir R. C. Temple's Antiquities of Ramannadesa (Pegu), Sir George Grierson's Tulsi Das, B. Houghton's Burmese Folklore (Arakan and Sgaw-Karen) and his Kudos of Katha (Burma). With Volume XXIII (1894) commences Sir J. McN. Campbell's important and long series, Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom (Bombay) and Sir R. C. Temple's series of the Devil Worship of the Tuluvas (South Canara), Waddell's Demonolatry in Sikhim (Lamaism), Desikachari's and Rangachari's (Brothers) Coins of the Vijayanagara Kings; also Sir George Grierson's Bhashyabhushana of Jaswant Singh (Rhetoric). Volume XXIV (1895) contains Buhler's important Origin of the Kharoshtha Alphabet, Grierson's Essays on Kashmiri Grammar, E. H. Man's series on Nicobarese Art, E. H. Parker's Lolo Writing, Sundaram Pillai's Madras History, and an important discussion by Biihler, Dwight Whitney and G. Thibaut on Vedic Dates. In Volume XXV (1896) are Sir George Grierson's Anamese Literature, Dr. B. Liebich's Chandra- vyakarana (Grammar), Sundaram Pillai's Early Sovereigns of Travancore. Volume XXVI (1897) contains H. Baynes' Upanishads, Buhler's Jain account of the end of the Vaghelas of Gujarat, Sir A. Stein's Kashmir Geography, Sir R. C. Temple's Andaman Tokens, and the commencement of his long series of Currency and Coinage among the Burmese. In Volume XXVII (1898) are Sir George Grierson's Swat Languages, T. S. King's Chand Bibi's Defence of Ahmadnagar, Subramiah Pillai's Telugu Literature and an article by Winternitz on the South Indian Mahabharata. Volume XXVIII (1899) contains Sir James Wilson's Gurezi Dialect of Shina, Sir George Grierson's East Central Indo-Aryan vernaculars and Mediaeval Kings of Mithila, J. S. King's Bahmani Dynasty, G. W. Pope's Tamil Anthology, Stein's Report on Buner, F. Fawcett's Mopla Folklore and M. R. Pedlow's Central India Folklore, Sir R. C. Temple's Development of Currency in the Far East, his Theory of Universal Grammar and the commencement of his long series on the Andaman Settlements in the eighteenth century. Volume XXIX (1900) contains Mr. W. Crooke's Folk-tales from the Indus Valley, Col. J. Davidson's Language of Chitral, Dr. P. Deussen's Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Dr. H. Hirschfeld's Researches into the Qoran, Dr. R. Hoernle's Central Asian Antiquities, Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal's Muhammadan Doctrine of Absolute Unity, the Rev. G. U. Pope's Purra Nannurru (400 Tamil Lyrics), M. N. Sastri's Modern Indian view of the Epics, Sir Aurel Stein's Archaeological Tour of the Indies, Sir R. C. Temple's Beginnings of Currency, Foklore in the Legends of the Panjab, the Andamans and Nicobars in the 18th Century, The Thirty-Seven Nats of the Burmese, The Taking of Madras by La Bourdonnais (1746), The Voyage of the Wake (1746), and the Wreck of the Doddington (1755). In Volume XXX (1901) are found Dr. James Burgess's Burmese Buddhist Geography, Sir R. C. Temple and F. Fawcett's South Indian Rock Carvings, Donald Fergusson's Portuguese Captives in Canton (1534), M. Macauliffe's Prayers of the Sikhs and Sir Aurel Stein's Archaeology in Bihar and Hazaribagh ; also Folk-songs of the Moplas (Fawcett), Indo-Portuguese (R. M. Lafrenais) and A. H. Francke's Tibetan Folklore and Ritual. Volume XXXI (1902) contains W. Foster's Madras Letters 1659, Vincent Smith's Gupta Chronology, A. H. Francke's Rock Carvings in Tibet, P. C. Mukharji's Patna Excavations, A. A. Pereira's Singhalese Domestic Ceremonies, Sir George Grierson's Kuki-Chin Language Desika Chari's Ma'abar Coins, Sir R. C. Temple's Malagasi Currency, and his Burmese Regalia. In Volume XXXII (1903), are Dr. Burgess's Digambara Iconography, A H. Francke's Tibetan Stone Implements, Sir George Grierson's Western Hindi Bibliography, Sten Konow's Indian Philology, Sir Charles Lyall's Mikir Language, A. Macauliffe's Mira Bai (poetess), W. R. Phillips's St. Thomas in India, and R. Sewell's South Indian Copper Coins. Volume XXXIII (1904) contains Colonel Luard's Tatooing in Central India, L. de Milloiie's Dalai Lama and his temporal power, and Syam Sundar Das's Search for Hindi MSS. Volume XXXIV (1905) contains R. Shamasastry's Chanakya's Land Revenue, V. Smith's Prehistoric Bronze Implements, Sir A. Stein's White Huns in North India, Sir R. C. Temple's Practical Value of Anthropology, S. Krishna-swami Aiyangar's Agnikula (Fire-Race Rajputs), L. M. Anstey's Anglo-Indian Worthies (commencement), V. Smith's Alexander Porus, A. H. Francke's Archaeology in Western Tibet, A. A. Perera's Maldivian History. Volume XXXV (1906) contains Sir George Grierson's Bibliography of Panjabi, Krishnaswami Aiyangar's Tirumangai Alwar, Warington Smyth's Boats in the Malay Peninsula, Sir R. C. Temple's Travels of Richard Bell and Native Accounts of the 37 Nats (Burmese), J. W. Youngson's Chuhras of the Panjab, H. A. Rose's Panjab Legends; Folklore in the Central Provinces (M. N. Chittanah), North India (Crooke) and Western Panjab (H. A. Rose). In Volume XXXVI (1907) are W. Irvine's Ahmad Shah Abdali, Sir R. C. Temple's Andaman and Nicobar Grammar, G. Whitehead's Chins of Burma and H. A. Rose's Panjab Hill Tribes. Volume XXXVII (1908) has Gopinath Row's Tamil Historical Texts, Sir George Grierson's Narayana and the Bhagavatas, L. de la Vallee Poussin's Buddhist Councils, H. A. Rose's Panjab Lexicography (commencement), V. Smith's Chandella Coinage and V. Venkayya's History of Nellore. Volume XXXVIII (1909) contains R. Shamashastri's Arthasastra of Chanakya (commencement), K. V. Sabbaya's Dravidian Phonology, Sir George Grierson's Gumani Niti (Tirhut), S. Krishnawsami Aiyangar's Life of Ramanuja, Longworth Dames' Ballad of the Sikh Wars; Folklore in Western Tibet (A. H. Francke), Panjab (H. A. Rose and Longworth Dames). In Volume XXXIX (1910) are found Sir George Grierson's Kumaoni Language, B. A. Gupte's Rock Drawings in Baluchistan, C E. Luard's Buddhist Caves in Central India, Sir Aurel Stein's Archaeology in Central Asia, K. V. Subhaya's Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages (commencement), Sir R. C. Temple's Panjab Legends, M. T. Narasimhiengar's Kalidasa's Religion and Philosophy, W. Crooke's Mendicants' Cries, and commencement of his Songs of North India.
Volumes under Sir Richard Carnac Temple and Professor D. R. Bhandarkar.—Volume XL (1911) contains Bhattanatha Swami's Trivikrama and his Sect, Hagavadana Rao's Early South Indian Finance, V. Smith's Discovery of Basa's Plays, Subrahmaniya Aiyar's Decline of Buddhism and Jainism in South India, W. Irvine's Aurangzeb, W. Foster's Gabriel Boughton, D. R. Bhandarkar's important Foreign Elements in the Hindu Population, and his Jaina Iconography, G. R. Kaye's notable article on Indian and Asoka numerals; also Folklore in North India (W. Crooke, commencement), Khasiya and Bhotiya (Panna Lall); and Inscriptions, D. R. Bhandarkar, Gopinatha Row and Ram Kama. Volume XLI (1912) contains Dr. L. P. Tessitori's Ramacharitamanasa and Ramayana, P. R. Bhandarkar's Indian Music, P. V. Kane's Alamkara Literature, D. R. Bhandarkar's Ajivika Ascetics and his Ajmer History, Bhattanatha Swami's Cholas and Chalukhyas, Vanamali Chakravartti's Hinduization of Aborigines, Shamasastry's Vedic Calendar; Inscriptions by D. R. Bhandarkar, Jivanji J. Modi and Ram Kama. In Volume XLII (1913) are L. P. Tessitori's Jaina Version of Solomon's Judgment, P. T. Srinivas Iyengar's Pronunciation of Sanskrit, A. Govindacharya Svamin's Brahman Immigration into South India, G. K. Nariman's Indian Buddhists in Burma and his Buddhist Literature, V. S. Ghate's Niyayas (maxims) and Philosophy, M. N. Chittanah's Hyderabad Folklore; Inscriptions by D. R. Bhandarkar, Haraprasad Shastri, K. P. Jayaswal, Dr. Luders and Ram Kama, also Sir R. C. Temple's Obsolete Tin Currency of the Malay States, and his Administrative Value of Anthropology. In Volume XLIII (1914) are Sir George Grierson's Pahari Language, V. Rangachari's Naik Kingdom of Madura (commencement), V. Smith's Indian Painting, Sir R. C. Temple's First Commercial Mission to Patna, L. P. Tessitori's Grammar of Western Rajasthani, Venkata Rao's Madhva Acharyas, L. A. Waddell's Indian Buddhist Spells (Dharani), R. Hoernle's Bower Manuscript, Sten Konow's Purana Text of the Dynasties; Inscriptions and Chronology by Padmanath Bhattacharya, J. Charpentier, Vishveshvanath Sastri, Diwan Br. L. D. Swamikannu Pillai and S. V. Venkatesvaran. Volume XLIV (1915) contains K. A. C. Creswell's important History of the Persian Dome, Sir George Grierson's N.-W. Group of Indo- Aryan Vernaculars, and Linguistic Classification of Kashmir, C. R. Krishnamacharlu's Religion of the Vijayanagar House, H. C. Shuttleworth's Rock Temples in Kangra, K. B. Pathak's Jain Sacred Literature, N. B. Devatia's Gujarati Pronunciation, V. Smith's Architecture in Mysore, C. E. Luard's Folklore in Central India; Inscriptions and Chronology by Krishnaswami Aiyangar, S. Kumar, V. Smith, R. Sewell and R. Zimmermann. In Volume XLV (1916) are Bhattanatha Swami's Thirteen New Dramas attributed to Bhasa, R. Narasimhachar's Madhavacharya, Hiralal Shah's Manusmriti, S. V. Venkatesvara Ayyar's Ancient Magadha, and Inscriptions by Vivesvara Nath Sastri. Volume XLVI (1917) contains S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar's Mahabalipur, B. R. Ambedkar's Caste in India, G. E. C. Carter's Religion in Sind, K. P. Jayaswal's Yasodharman and Kalki, K. A. Rao's Dravidian Element in Prakrit, Sir Aurel Stein's Journey in Central Asia, Sir R. C. Temple's Job Charnock, N. B. Devatia's Gujarati Phonology ; Inscriptions and Chronology by Nanigopal Majumdar, R. C. Majumdar, K. B. Pathak and Dr. Venkatasubbiah. In Volume XLVII (1918) are found K. A. C. Creswell's Vaulting System of the Hindola Mahal at Mandu, Rai Br. Hiralal's Trimurti in Bundelkhand, Narendranath Law's ancient Hindu Economics, N. G. Majumdar's Abhira Migration into India, V. A. Smith's Alexander and Porus, Sir R. C. Temple's W. Bolts' Austrian Expedition to India, and his Sidelights on Omichund; Inscriptions and Chronology by R. C. Majumdar, V. B. Pathak and Dr. Venkatasubbiah. Volume XLVIII (1919) contains S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar's Hun Problem in India, B. V. Karnesvara Aiyar's Lunar Zodiac in the Brahmanas, S. P. V. R. Aryavaragun's Paisachi Prakrit, R. Basak Chandra's Conquest of Bengal, D. R. Bhandarkar's TheDekkan of the Satavahana Period, J. Bloch's Tamil Intervocalic Consonants, K. N. Dikshit's Numismatics, S. C. Hill's Piracy in the Eastern Seas, N. N. Law's Coronation Ceremonies, Panchanan Mitra's Prehistoric India; Inscriptions and Chronology by K. P. Jayaswal and N. G. Majumdar. Volume XLIX (1920) contains N. N. Law's Interstate Relations in Ancient India, V. Bhattacharya's Gujarati Phonology, G. B. Badheka's Folk-tales in Kathiawar; Inscriptions and Chronology by D. C. Bhattacharya, H. R. Chandhuri, N. G. Majumdar and Sankara Aiyar. And Volume L (1921) contains Anand Koul's Laleshwari, G. R. Kaye's Nakshatras and Precession, K. A. C. Creswell's Muhammadan Architecture, Surendranath Sen's Administrative System of Shivaji, R. L. Turner's Specimens of Nepali (commencement). D. N. Sen's Trans-Himalayan Reminiscences in Pali Literature, R. A. Gupte's Tatu Marks in Burma, K. A. Nilakanta Sastry's Mimamsa Doctrine of Works.
As Supplementary Volumes of the INDIAN ANTIQUARY.
The story of the Epigraphia Indica has been already told, and it will suffice here to say that the editors have been for Volumes III-VIII (1894-5—1906-7) Dr. E. Hultzsch; for Volume IX (1907-8) Dr. E. Hultzsch and Dr. Sten Konow. Volumes X-XI (1909-10—1912-13) Dr. Sten Konow and Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya. Volume XII (1913-14) Dr. Sten Konow. Volumes XIII-XV (1914-15—1920) Dr. F. W. Thomas.
The outstanding contributors to this all-important historical publication of editions of Indian Inscriptions in many languages from the originals themselves have been Dr. E. Hultzsch (138), Professor F. Kielhorn (105), Dr. J. F. Fleet (44), Dr. L. D. Barnett (27), Dr. Luders (25), Rai Bahadur Hira Lai (24), Professor Sten Konow (20), Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya (16), Rao Sahib K. H. Sastri (15), Mr. B. D. Banerjee (13), Mr. T. Gopinatha Rao (12), Professor D. R. Bhandarkar (11), Mr. F. E. Pargiter (10), and Mr. R. Sewell (5 chronological articles).
Other contributors, and it must be remembered that no one but an accomplished scholar can deal with Indian Epigraphy, have been The Rev. J. E. Abbott (2), Messrs. K. V. Subrahmaniya Aiyar (4), V. Natesa Aiyar (1), Narayanasvami Aiyar (1), Prof. Venkatesvara Aiyar (7), Mr. R. Basak (4), Professor H. M. Bhadkamkar (1), Messieurs P. R. Bhandarkar (1), Padmantha Bhattacharya (1), C. Otto Blagden (1), Dr. T. Bloch (3), Professor G. Biihler (6), Dr. W. Cartallieri (1), Messieurs Ramaprasad Chandra (1), R. T. Charan (1), K. N. Dikshit (2), Dr. A. H. Francke (3), Messieurs M. B. Garde (1), Y. R. Gupte (3), Pandit Hirananda (3), Professor H. Jacobi (3), Dr. F. Kittel (1), Professor B. C. Mazumdar (5), Mr. R. C. Mazumdar (2), Father V. Melchisedek (1), Mr. G. H. Ojha (1), Messieurs J. R. Pantulu (6), K. R. Pantulu (1), K. B. Pathak (6), Diwan Bahadur L. D. Swamikannu Pillai (1), Professor R. Pischel (1), Messieurs T. Raghaviah (1), G. V. Ramamurti (3), Pandit Ram Kama (5), Mr. Lewis Rice (2), Pandit D. R. Sahni (4), Pandit H. Sastri (2), Messieurs T. P. Krishnaswami Sastri (3), K. Rama Sastri (1), Kuppusvami Sastri (1), Dr. T. von Schtscherbatskoi (1), Monsieur E. Senart (2), Messieurs V. S. Sukthankar (4), Taw Sein Ko (1), Dr. F. W. Thomas (1), Maung Tun Nyein, Messieurs (1), Arthur Venis (1), G. R. Venkoba (3), V. V. Vidyavinoda (1), S. V. Viswanatha (5), Dr. J. Vogel (1), Dr. E. W. West (1).
Other Supplementary Volumes issued by
The Indian Antiquary.
1. The chief Supplement to the Indian Antiquary has been the Epigraphia Indica in thirteen volumes, which have been separately dealt with, and in addition the following Supplements have been published as separate volumes or pamphlets.
2. Dr. J. F. Fleet's edition of Biihler's Indian Palaeography with Volume XXXIII (1904).
3. Don M. de Zilva Wickremasinghe's Index to Prakrit Words commencing with Volume XXXIV (1905).
4. Mr. R. E. Enthoven's edition of Mr. A. M. T. Jackson's Folklore of the Konkan, commencing with Volume XL (1911).
5. Dr. R. Hoernle's Discovery of the Bower MS., Volume XLII (1913).
6. Dr. L. D. Barnett's Alphabetical Guide to Sinhalese Folklore commencing with Volume XLV (1916).
7. Mr. N. B. Utgikar's translation of Garbe's Introduction to the Bhagavadgita, Volume XL VI (1918).
8. Mr. E. H. Man's Dictionary of the South Andaman Language, commencing with Volume XLVIII (1919).
9. Mr. N. Dey's Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediasval India, commencing with Volume XLIX (1920).
10. Mr. C. F. Usborne's Translation of Waris Shah's Story of Hir and Ranjha (1776), commencing with Volume L (1921).
11. Mr. B. P. Scattergood's The Scattergoods and the East India Company (17th and 18th centuries), commencing with Volume L (1921).
Printed and Published by B. Miller, Superintendent, British India Press, Maigaon, Bombay, for Sir R. C. Temple, Bart., C.B., C.I.K., F.S.A., The Nash, -Worcester, England.