Furman v. Georgia/Concurrence Marshall Appendices

Furman v. Georgia
Concurring Opinion, Appendices by Thurgood Marshall

Following refs are in footnotes, though not inline: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Introduction I II III IV V VI VII Appendices


APPENDIX IEdit

ABOLITION OF THE DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED STATES: 1846-1968

(States are listed according to year most recent action was taken)

Year of Year of partial complete Year of Year of State abolition abolition restoration reabolition

Iowa ............. 1872 1878 1965 Oregon ......... 1914 1920  1964 Michigan ......... 1847 [3] 1963
Delaware ......... 1958 1961 Alaska ........... 1957 Hawaii ........... 1957
South Dakota ..... 1915 1939 Kansas ........... 1907 1935 Missouri ......... 1917 1919
Tennessee ........ 1915 {ref|4a}} 1919 Washington ....... 1913 1919 Arizona .......... 1916 [5] 1918
North Dakota ..... 1915 [6] Minnesota ........ 1911 Colorado ......... 1897 1901
Maine ............ 1876 1883 1887 Wisconsin ........ 1853 Rhode Island ..... 1852 [7]

[408 U.S. 238, 373]

APPENDIX IIEdit

CRUDE HOMICIDE DEATH RATES, PER 100,000 POPULATION, AND NUMBER OF EXECUTIONS IN CERTAIN AMERICAN STATES: 1920-1955

Year Maine [* 1] N. H. Vt. Rates Exec. Rates Exec.

1920 ________ 1.4 1.8 2.3 1921 ________ 2.2 2.2 1.7 1922 ________ 1.7 1.6 1.1
1923 ________ 1.7 2.7 1.4 1924 ________ 1.5 1.5 .6 1925 ________ 2.2 1.3 .6
1926 ________ 1.1 .9 2.2 1927 ________ 1.9 .7 .8 1928 ________ 1.6 1.3 1.4
1929 ________ 1.0 1.5 1.4 1930 ________ 1.8 .9 1.4 1931 ________ 1.4 2.1 1.1 1
1932 ________ 2.0 .2 1.1 1933 ________ 3.3 2.7 1.6 1934 ________ 1.1 1.4 1.9
1935 ________ 1.4 1.0 .3 1936 ________ 2.2 1.0 2.1 1937 ________ 1.4 1.8 1.8
1938 ________ 1.5 1.8 1.3 1939 ________ 1.2 2.3 1 .8 1940 ________ 1.5 1.4 .8
1941 ________ 1.1 .4 2.2 1942 ________ 1.7 .2 .9 1943 ________ 1.7 .9 .6
1944 ________ 1.5 1.1 .3 1945 ________ .9 .7 2.9 1946 ________ 1.4 .8 1.7
1947 ________ 1.2 .6 1.1 1 1948 ________ 1.7 1.0 .8 1949 ________ 1.7 1.5 .5
1950 ________ 1.5 1.3 .5 1951 ________ 2.3 .6 .5 1952 ________ 1.0 1.5 .5
1953 ________ 1.4 .9 .3 1954 ________ 1.7 .5 1.6 2 1955 ________ 1.2 1.1 .5

Year Mass. R. I. [* 1] Conn. Rates Exec. Rates Exec.

1920 ________ 2.1 1 1.8 3.9 1 1921 ________ 2.8 3.1 2.9 2 1922 ________ 2.6 2.2 2.9 1
1923 ________ 2.8 1 3.5 3.1 1924 ________ 2.7 1 2.0 3.5 1925 ________ 2.7 1.8 3.7
1926 ________ 2.0 1 3.2 2.9 1 1927 ________ 2.1 6 2.7 2.3 2 1928 ________ 1.9 3 2.7 2.7
1929 ________ 1.7 6 2.3 2.6 1 1930 ________ 1.8 2.0 3.2 2 1931 ________ 2.0 2 2.2 2.7
1932 ________ 2.1 1 1.6 2.9 1933 ________ 2.5 1.9 1.8 1934 ________ 2.2 4 1.8 2.4
1935 ________ 1.8 4 1.6 1.9 1936 ________ 1.6 2 1.2 2.7 1 1937 ________ 1.9 2.3 2.0 1
1938 ________ 1.3 3 1.2 2.1 1 1939 ________ 1.4 2 1.6 1.3 1940 ________ 1.5 1.4 1.8 2
1941 ________ 1.3 1 .8 2.2 1942 ________ 1.3 2 1.2 2.5 1943 ________ .9 3 1.5 1.6 2
1944 ________ 1.4 .6 1.9 1 1945 ________ 1.5 1.1 1.5 1 1946 ________ 1.4 1 1.5 1.6 3
1947 ________ 1.6 2 1.5 1.9 1948 ________ 1.4 2.7 1.7 1 1949 ________ 1.1 .5 1.8
1950 ________ 1.3 1.5 1.4 1951 ________ 1.0 .9 2.0 1952 ________ 1.0 1.5 1.7
1953 ________ 1.0 .6 1.5 1954 ________ 1.0 1.3 1.3 1955 ________ 1.2 1.7 1.3 3

[408 U.S. 238, 374]

APPENDIX IIIEdit

CRUDE HOMICIDE DEATH RATES, PER 100,000 POPULATION, AND NUMBER OF EXECUTIONS IN CERTAIN AMERICAN STATES: 1920-1955

Year Mich. [* 2] Ohio Ind. Minn. [* 2] Rate Ex. Rate Ex.

1920 ___ 5.5 6.9 3 4.7 2 3.1 1921 ___ 4.7 7.9 10 6.4 4.4 1922 ___ 4.3 7.3 12 5.7 2 3.6
1923 ___ 6.1 7.8 10 6.1 2.9 1924 ___ 7.1 6.9 10 7.3 3.2 1925 ___ 7.4 8.1 13 6.6 1 3.8
1926 ___ 10.4 8.6 7 5.8 3 2.2 1927 ___ 8.2 8.6 8 6.3 1 2.6 1928 ___ 7.0 8.2 7 7.0 1 2.8
1929 ___ 8.2 8.3 5 7.0 1 2.2 1930 ___ 6.7 9.3 8 6.4 1 3.8 1931 ___ 6.2 9.0 10 6.5 1 2.9
1932 ___ 5.7 8.1 7 6.7 2 2.9 1933 ___ 5.1 8.2 11 5.6 3 3.5 1934 ___ 4.2 7.7 7 7.1 4 3.4
1935 ___ 4.2 7.1 10 4.4 2 2.6 1936 ___ 4.0 6.6 6 5.2 2 2.3 1937 ___ 4.6 5.7 1 4.7 5 1.6
1938 ___ 3.4 5.1 12 4.4 8 1.6 1939 ___ 3.1 4.8 10 3.8 3 1.6 1940 ___ 3.0 4.6 2 3.3 1.2
1941 ___ 3.2 4.2 4 3.1 1 1.7 1942 ___ 3.2 4.6 2 3.2 1 1.7 1943 ___ 3.3 4.4 5 2.8 1.2
1944 ___ 3.3 3.9 2 2.8 1.4 1945 ___ 3.7 4.9 7 4.0 1 1.9 1946 ___ 3.2 5.2 2 3.9 1 1.6
1947 ___ 3.8 4.9 5 3.8 1.2 1948 ___ 3.4 4.5 7 4.2 1.9 1949 ___ 3.5 4.4 15 3.2 3 1.1
1950 ___ 3.9 4.1 4 3.6 1 1.2 1951 ___ 3.7 3.8 4 3.9 1 1.3 1952 ___ 3.3 4.0 4 3.8 1.3
1953 ___ 4.6 3.6 4 4.0 1.5 1954 ___ 3.3 3.4 4 3.2 1.0 1955 ___ 3.3 3.1 3.1 1.1

Year Iowa Wis. [* 2] N.D. [* 2] S.D. Neb. Rate Ex. Rate Ex. Rate Ex.

1920 ___ 1.7 [* 3] 4.2[* 4] 1921 ___ 2.2 4.9 1922 ___ 3 1.8 4.5
1923 ___ 2.1 2 2.2 4.1 1924 ___ 2.7 1 1.8 2.1 4.4 1925 ___ 2.7 2 2.3 2.0 4.0
1926 ___ 2.3 2.6 1.8 2.7 1927 ___ 2.4 2.6 1.6 3.5 1928 ___ 2.3 2.1 1.0 3.7
1929 ___ 2.6 2.3 1.2 3.0 1930 ___ 3.2 3.1 3.5 1.9 3.5 1931 ___ 2.5 1 3.6 2.0 2.3 3.6
1932 ___ 2.9 2.8 1.2 1.6 3.7 1933 ___ 2.9 1.9 1.2 1.7 3.2 1934 ___ 2.3 2.4 1.6 3.0 4.4
1935 ___ 2.0 3 1.4 2.3 2.0 3.4 1936 ___ 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.2 2.5 1937 ___ 2.2 2.2 1.6 .1 2.0
1938 ___ 1.4 4 2.0 2.4 .9 1.6 1939 ___ 1.8 1.4 1.2 2.8 2.1 1940 ___ 1.3 1 1.3 1.4 2.2 1.0
1941 ___ 1.3 1 1.4 2.3 1.0 2.1 1942 ___ 1.2 1.6 1.4 .9 1.8 1943 ___ 1.0 1.1 .6 1.4 2.4
1944 ___ 1.7 1 .9 .9 1.6 1.3 1945 ___ 1.6 1 1.6 1.0 2.0 1.2 1 1946 ___ 1.8 2 .9 1.5 1.1 2.1
1947 ___ 1.9 1.4 .4 1.0 1 2.2 1948 ___ 1.4 .9 .9 2.0 2.5 1 1949 ___ .9 1 1.3 .7 2.3 1.8
1950 ___ 1.3 1.1 .5 1.1 2.9 1951 ___ 1.5 1.1 .5 .9 1.0 1952 ___ 1.5 1 1.6 .8 2.3 1.6 1
1953 ___ 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 2.0 1954 ___ 1.0 1.1 .5 1.5 2.3 1955 ___ 1.2 1.1 .8 1.8 1.3

FootnotesEdit

  1. [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for persons found guilty of killing a peace officer who is acting in line of duty, and for prisoners under a life sentence who murder a guard or inmate while in confinement or while escaping from confinement.
  2. [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for persons convicted of first-degree murder who commit a second "unrelated" murder, and for the first-degree murder of any law enforcement officer or prison employee who is in the performance of the duties of his office.
  3. 3.0 3.1 [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for treason. Partial abolition was voted in 1846, but was not put into effect until 1847.
  4. [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for rape.
  5. [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for treason.
  6. [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for treason, and for first-degree murder committed by a prisoner who is serving a life sentence for first-degree murder.
  7. [408 U.S. 238, 372] Death penalty retained for persons convicted of committing murder while serving a life sentence for any offense.

Based on National Prisoner Statistics No. 45, Capital Punishment 1930-1968, p. 30 (Aug. 1969).

  1. 1.0 1.1 [408 U.S. 238, 373] Maine has totally abolished the death penalty, and Rhode Island has severely limited its imposition. Based on ALI, supra, n. 98, at 25.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 [408 U.S. 238, 374] Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have completely abolished capital punishment. North Dakota has severely restricted its use.
  3. [408 U.S. 238, 374] Iowa, North Dakota, and South Dakota were not admitted to the national death registration area until 1923, 1924, and 1930 respectively.
  4. [408 U.S. 238, 374] South Dakota introduced the death penalty in 1939.

Based on ALI, supra, n. 98, at 28. See also id., at 32-34