History of the Press in Western New York

History of the Press in Western New York  (1847) 
by Frederick Follett

HISTORY

OF THE

PRESS OF WESTERN NEW-YORK:

BY FREDERICK FOLLETT.

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE

PRINTERS' FESTIVAL,

HELD JANUARY 18, 1847.

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ROCHESTER:

PRINTED BY JEROME & BROTHER, DAILY AMERICAN OFFICE.

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1847.

HISTORY

OF THE

PRESS OF WESTERN NEW-YORK;

PREPARED AT THE REQUEST OF A COMMITTEE,

BY FREDERICK FOLLETT, OF BATAVIA.

TOGETHER WITH THE

PROCEEDINGS OF THE PRINTERS' FESTIVAL,

HELD ON THE 141st ANNIVERSARY

OF THE

BIRTH-DAY OF FRANKLIN,

IN THE

City of Rochester, on Monday, Jan. 18, 1847.


ROCHESTER:

PRINTED BY JEROME & BROTHER, DAILY AMERICAN OFFICE.

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1847.

PRINTERS' FESTIVAL.

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The 141st Anniversary of the birth of BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was appropriately celebrated by the Printers of Western New York, on Monday, the eighteenth day of January, 1847.

The entertainment was served up in sumptuous style at the Blossom House. The large Hall was fitted up for the occasion. Three tables, capable of containing 62 persons each, were spread the whole length of the Hall, and furnished with all the substantials and dainties of the season, get up in splendid style, after beautiful models, and in the most approved manner. Near the head of the centre table was a very fine model of the first old fashioned Ramage Press used by Franklin, with a person dressed in pressman's garb, taking the impression. This article, which was quite a perfect thing of its kind, was constructed at the instance of the Messrs. Blossom, and by them ordered to be given to the author of the best original toast from abroad.

There were present on this occasion several of the Patriarchs of the Craft—Fathers of the Press in Western New York—who added much to the festivity of the occasion by their recollections of former times, and the hearty good humor with which, although long since immersed in other pursuits, they entered into the convivialities of the festival. Among those that were pioneers of printing in the early days of Western New York, were Augustine G. Dauby, editor and publisher of the first newspaper in Rochester in 1816, and now Postmaster at Utica; James D. Bemis, the Nestor of the Western New York Press, who was a publisher in Canandaigua near the commencement of the present century; L. H. Redfield, of Syracuse, an apprentice of Mr. Bemis, one of the earliest publishers of Onondaga county; Everard Peck, publisher of the second paper in Rochester, in 1818; Edwin Scranton, an apprentice of Mr. Dauby, and his successor as publisher; F. Follett, one of the earliest editors of Genesee county, who published a paper in Batavia in 1825; Ansel Warren, as old eastern printer and publisher, (now editor of the Perry Citizen,) who has seen much service in the profession, and is an antiquarian in the Craft; Franklin Cowdrey, who knows more of the ups and downs of a printer's life than any man living; Wm. A. Welles, an old eastern printer, who has passed through a great variety of fortune, not only in his profession, but in many other pursuits; and Philemon Canfield, an old Hartford publisher, who, although advancing in years, is still devoted to his profession in Rochester. The presence of these pioneers and patriarchs invested the occasion with an unusual degree of interest.

The festival was also honored by the presence of several Reverend gentlemen, formerly or still connected with the Press, viz: Rev. A. G. Hall, Pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church, of this city, formerly editor of the Rochester Observer; Rev. D. C. Houghton, of the Presbyterian Church in Le Roy; and Rev. J. Roxie, of the Methodist Church, editor of the Genesee Evangelist.

A goodly number of editors and publishers from abroad were present, among whom we noticed Dr. Foote, of the Buffalo Commercial; A. M. Clapp, of the Express; Jas. O. Brayman, of the Courier; S. S. Blanchard, of the Warsaw New Yorker; A. Warren, of the Perry Citizen; W. A. Seaver, of the Batavia Times; D. D. Waite, of the Advocate; C. B. Thompson, of the Le Roy Gazette; J. M. Campbell, of the Republican, Geneseo; E. S. Palmer, of the Allegany County Advocate; C. W. Dibble, of the Dansville Whig; Messrs. Kinney & McDermott, of the Syracuse Star; E. T. Bridges, Editor Watchman, Brockport; Geo M. Dana, of Ithaca, and several others whose names are not recollected.

Among the guests were a large number of ex-printers, some of whom have been connected with the Press in other parts of the country.

The meeting assembled at the Drawing Rooms of the Hotel about four o'clock, where a couple of hours were spent in sharpening the appetite, by social converse. About six, the company, headed by Adams' Brass Band, moved to the dining room and organized as follows:

President—A. G. DAUBY, Esq., Utica.

1st V. Pres't—Dr. T. M. Foote, Buffalo.

2d do—L. H. Redfield, Syracuse.

3d do—F. Follett, Batavia.

4th do—A. Warren, Perry.

5th V. Pres't—G. M. Dana, Ithaca.

6th do—S. S. Blanchard Warsaw.

7th do—C. W. Dibble, Dansville.

8th do—E. S. Palmer, Angelica.

1st Secretary—E. Scrantom, Rochester.

2d do—J. O. Brayman, Buffalo.

8d do—D. D. Waite, Batavia.

The following diagram will show the position of the guests at the table:



T. M. Foote, 1st V. P. A.G.DAUBY, Pres't L. H. Redfield, 2d V.P.
P Calfield A Strong Rev A G Hall E Scrantom W A Welles W S Falls
E Shepard G R Davis RvDC Houghton J O Brayman J A Hadley
J H Paterson J Rowley Rev J Robie D D Waite M L Greene J E Morey
H L Winants J Steel J D Bemis D McKay DD T Moore
C Comens M Hulett D Mann G T Frost
C Carver G F Terrell E Peck P Barry J W Benton
G Winn J W Barber Dr S Hamilton A Mann H H Winants
G Beers T Murmin Dr J Webster I Butts A Bennett
W W Bruff J Clough E Barnard D Hoyt L Disbrow
C H M'Donald B F Enos A A Schenck S P Allen D M Dewey N Sage
C A Waldo W Gardner H Cook
C Billinghurst E St Jermain W H Beach M Purcell W Alling
T C Schell J Barnard F Cowdry J Vick W R Wells G W Fisher
J S Tryon E R Andrews H Sanford C A Gregory J A Canfield W H Enos
C G Palmer S K Reed
C W Dibble 7th V P H K Walker G M Dana 5th V P SS Blanchard 6th V P RM Patterson E S Palmer 8th V P
J M Campbell G S Walker I Jerome E Bridges G Wilson T Summers
CB Thompson C Jerome J B Clark R H Benson J Curtis
C Beach C T Wilson S M Raymond J P Fogg BW Mansfield E Darrow
W B Clough G Holden H Raymond S B Stoddard E D Ely
L Chichester O Oleson H Gaul G Barnard
J G Reed J W Riggs J Kinney Dr AD Gordon P Homer E S Carpenter
L Chapin R M Watts W McDermott M M Mathews C R Beach W H Campbell
W C Foster GJ Lawrence R Bloss S G Crane
W A Sage H Parsons W Lovett J Martin jr
GW Westbrook M A Fisher R S Parsons J Scott J McMahon C Barnum
W Cowles L W Jerome H J Adams Richardson M Orr G W Haskell
J G Moore I M Hall J W Staring CJ Howland R M Colten
A M Clapp Lieut Lee W Dwyer A Scott PV Stoothoff
L B Swan Carmichael L E Gould
W A Seaver L Jerome E Chipman E L Swift CH Sedgwick M Miller
F. Follett, 3d V. P. Capt. Adams A. Warren, 4th V.P.


All being seated in the order indicated in the diagram, the President rose and addressed the audience as follows:

Gentlemen, Fellow Craftsmen, Brethren

I am entirely unable to give expression to the feelings of my heart on this occasion. Never before have I experienced a more overwhelming sense of the poverty of language to express in adequate terms the emotions that are struggling in my bosom for utterance, but which can find no tongue. I thank you, gentlemen, for the honor you have conferred upon me, but to the pleasure which it affords, is added a weight of responsibility, that to one unaccustomed as I am, to scenes like these, is oppressive and embarrassing. But when I remember that I am standing, as I know I am, among my friends, all of whom are more anxious to conceal than expose my defects, I am reassured, and feel that whatever expectations may have been formed, you will all be satisfied with that spontaneous outpouring of the heart, which however much it may lack in worldly wisdom, is the best and clearest index of the soul, and perhaps the most gratifying response that friendship and gratitude can give. Again, I thank you, gentlemen, for the honor you have conferred upon me; but think not that I am so lacking in all proper humility as to be insensible of the cause to which I am mainly indebted for it. There is a circumstance in the life of the individual who is now addressing you, which although it may constitute no just claim of merit, has been regarded by you a sufficient reason for placing him in the situation he now occupies. The circumstance to which I have referred is perhaps no otherwise important than as connected with the early history of the city in which we are; a city that has sprung almost like Minerva from the head of Jupiter, full grown. No, gentlemen. I am mistaken. Rochester is not full grown. Its past history is replete with wonders, but its future destiny, I trust, will not be less marked by extraordinary progress and the development of all the elements of its manufacturing and commercial prosperity and greatness.

When I look around, it is impossible for me to realize that I was the first printer who established business in this city. How brief a period in the history of a nation; how long in the life of man, has since elapsed. It is now more than a quarter of a century ago since I first came to this place. What were the precise motives that influenced me in choosing this as the place of my location, it is perhaps at this time difficult for me to say; nor can it be a matter of any consequence for you to know. It certainly had few attractions at that period; yet there were those even then who believed it destined to become a place of great importance, and their anticipations, sanguine and extravagant as they were supposed to be, have been in its rapid growth, more than realized. My main object, however, in coming here, was to establish myself in business, and to acquire, what every young man should be ambitious to acquire, not unearned and sudden wealth, but a hard earned competency, the just reward of labor and perseverance, and an unblemished reputation.

It would not be difficult for me to enumerate many incidents in the early history of this place. They are fresh in my recollection; but most of the actors have passed away: death has been busy here, and borne from you many of the "first settlers," and I will not remove the covering that shrouds them from the living, and cause them to appear before you either for amusement or instruction. But when I remember what Rochester was, and what it is, so closely associated with its rise and progress is one individual, that I cannot disconnect him from it or fail to see in its prosperity the wisdom and forecast with which he always seemed to me eminently endowed. Well do I remember the impression he made upon my youthful mind. He was a venerable man, and now through the lapse of more than a quarter of a century, I distinctly recognize the grave and circumspect demeanor that distinguished him and impressed all who saw him with a deep sentiment of respect. I speak of the gentleman who was the founder of this city, and whose name it bears—Col. Nathaniel Rochester. Other individuals are perhaps entitled to nearly equal credit and distinction. Some of them are yet living actors in the busy drama of life; efficient and influential members of your society, but I cannot enumerate them all, and will not make a distinction that might seem invidious. Let me however, say to you, gentlemen, that Rochester in 1847, with its busy, thronging population; its well paved streets; its magnificent churches; its elegant private mansions; its well built rows of stores; its flouring mills; its manufactories, and its work shops, is no more the Rochester of 1816, than the most finished piece of sculpture is the unhewn, rough and shapeless marble of the quarry: that this wonderful change has not been the work of a few individuals. It is not my wish, nor is it my purpose, to detract from the merits of any person; but Rochester as it is, is the creation of a mightier power than individual effort. The prodigious results seen here have been produced by the active and combined energies of a whole people, and are in part the necessary consequence of advantageous local position, and the enterprise and industry of every section of the State.

But, I have been digressing. We have come not here to trace the history of Rochester, but to pay deserved honor to the illustrious dead. We have met as brethren of one profession; as printers, proud of the virtues and the fame of a member of our fraternity. Franklin was a printer; and is there a member of the craft who is not proud of the distinction which he acquired. He may not be the worthier by what was done by that great man, but as he catches a glimpse of the bright halo that encircles his name and character, he will feel that a reflected glory rests upon himself, and with a steadier eye and firmer step ascend the rugged pathway that leads to the goal of an honorable ambition. But Franklin was not only a printer, he was a philosopher, a statesman and a patriot. He did not belong to our craft alone; that was his starting point, but in the race of life, the apprentice boy placed himself among the most distinguished of men. How fruitful of instruction is his example; how strong the incentive to honorable exertion it affords.

It was said by a celebrated Frenchman, Voltaire; and there is not less truth than beauty in the expression, "that some men are like statues, the higher they are elevated the smaller they appear." It was not so with Franklin. His statue has grown more colossal and imposing by the lapse of time and distance. There it stands on the proud summit of human greatness, and could that colossal form be invested with life and consciousness, and think, and feel, and see, as Franklin; thought, and felt, and saw, with what mingled emotions of amazement and delight would it contemplate the changed aspect and condition of the world, and how would its throbbing heart be filled with ecstacy and wonder as its vision rested upon its own loved native land.

The prescient mind of Franklin, great as it was, could not survey the boundless realms of unexplored learning and science; yet with a forecast that seems more the inspiration than the deduction of human reason, he foreshadowed the invention that has annihilated time and space—the magnetic telegraph—the wonder of the age, and which has inscribed the name of Morse, in letters of living light, on the same tablet upon which is emblazoned that of the immortal Franklin.

This discovery of the Telegraph I claim as purely American (by regular succession, as is said of the reign of kings) from the idea of Franklin, that electricity might be made the medium of thought, down to its inventor; and who is more worthy to hear the honors that gather round the name of the great philosopher and statesman than Professor Morse. They were not connected by blood, but their names are united by discoveries that will remain an unbroken chain of union while time shall last; and wherever the lightning's flash shall be seen or the roar of thunder heard, these two philosophers will be remembered as Americans whose scientific researches have benefited, enlightened, adorned and helped to give their country a name among the great, the learned, the wise, and the good in all time to come.

Our country is emphatically a new country; yet it already stands out "a bright and cheering example, the moral and political model and guide, the hope and admiration of the nations of the earth. But from the distant and shadowy past there comes to us no voice and no glory: we have not, in this new land, the mouldering tower and shattered column to awaken poetical interest; but the last quarter of a century, has it not been filled with what would have been considered, in ages gone by, events of thrilling romance? The most fertile imagination, one hundred years since, would have hardly dreamed of what is passing every day before our eyes; but time will not permit me to take even a hasty glance at the splendid and wonderful achievements of the human intellect; the peaceful acquisitions of science and art, and the general and rapid progression of the human race. Neither have I been able to more than barely alude to the general characteristics of the great philosopher and statesman whose birth-day we are assembled to celebrate. It is not necessary that I should have done so, for his history is familiar to you all. A knowledge of his fame and character is wide spread, not only throughout our land, but in every quarter of the habitable globe, where mental degradation and darkness have not interposed an impassable barrier to the light of truth, and vivifying rays of genius, of learning and of science. Who is there in a country where there is light, and knowledge, and civilization, that has not beard of Franklin, the printer, the philosopher, the statesman, and the patriot. His mind was cast in a peculiar die: his talents shone out in every department of thought, and he not only made a great and durable impression on human affairs, but there was an exuberant good nature, and a sweet and beaming benevolence in his disposition, that won the hearts of men. His soul was like a divine and noble temple, where truth, and candor, and virtue sat eternally enthroned.

Gentlemen, fellow-craftsmen, brethren; again I thank you.

The throne of grace having been addressed in an appropriate manner by Rev. Mr. Hall, the work commenced in good earnest. It is unnecessary to say that full justice was done to the viands, and that the castles, towers, temples and buildings of various shapes which the skilful hand of the cook had fashioned, fell like the walls of Monterey before the artillery of Gen. Taylor. The following is the bill of fare:

Oyster Soup.
ROAST
Alamode Beef, Roast Turkeys,
Roast Beef, Swans,
" Pork, Partidges,
" Veal, Chicken Pies,
" Pigs, Chicken Curry,
" Venison, Chicken Salad.
BOILED.
Ham, Turkey, (Oyster Sauce,)
Tongues, Chickens, (Celery " )
Mutton, (Caper Sauce.)
Venison Steak, (Currant Jells.)
OYSTERS.
Oysters Stewed, Oysters Scoloped,
" Fried, " Pattes.
FISH.
Boiled Codfish, (fresh,) Black Bass, (barbecued,)
Baked Codfish, Perch.
PASTRY.
Lemon Pudding, Mince Pies,
Plum do. Apple do.
Carrot do. Cranberry Tarts,
Apple do. Peach Pies,
Flour do. Squash do.
DESSERTS.
Apples, Almonds,
Grapes, Whip Cream,
Raisins, Ice Cream.

While discussing the dessert, which consisted of the choicest variety of fruits in season and out, Alexander Mann, Esq., the reader for the evening, announced the following regular toasts, which were received with rapturous applause:

Regular Toasts.

1. Benjamin Franklin—A Star whose brilliancy is not dimmed by the effacing hand or Time; his life presents a perfect copy for members of the Craft in every land. May each one be as free from errors when revised by the Great Proof Reader of the universe.

"Auld Lang Syne."

2. The Typographical Fraternity—Having Franklin for our guide, although made up of all sorts of matter, we challenge the world to produce one whose impressions will be as indelible, or who is as mighty.

"Come, brothers, arouse."

3. The Union—A capital font of superior figures, set up by Yankees, and worked with balls. The thirtieth edition shows the work was well justified and the register good.

"Yankee Doodle."

4. Washington—The brightest name in our country's history. No spot has ever appeared to mar its brilliancy.

"Washington's Grand March."

5. The President of the United States—The head of the National column. May he always be able to justify his public matter by the line of integrity.

"President's March."

6. The State of New-York—There are many stars of magnitude, but for large fonts, full cases, and abundance of sorts, politically, commercially, and typographically, thou excellest them all.

"March."

7. The Governor of the State of New-York—A. YOUNG compositor. May his works justify the confidence reposed in him by the people.

"Governor's March."

8. The Heroes of '76—Publishers of the History of the American Revolution: They set up their title at Bunker's Hill, and the last page at Yorktown, embellishing it with a spirited representation, of the surrender of an English army.

"Star Spangled Banner."

9. The Press—Freedom's chase which locks together in one em-brace those who would defend the principles for the maintenance of which the leaders of the Revolution used their shooting-sticks so effectually.

"Printers' Quick Step."

10. The Telegraph—Franklin caused the lightning to be obedient to his will, and Morse has made it the medium of thought.

"Moss Roe Waltz."

11. Common Schools—Through them the non-pareils of to-day become the paragons of to-morrow.

12. The Army and Navy of the United States.

"Hail Columbia."

13. The Ladies—Truly unique and beautiful specimens of Nature's typography—the paragon type of Heaven's love to man.

"The Girl we left behind us."

Volunteer Toasts.

The President having been called upon for a sentiment, said:

Gentlemen:—In responding to the call made upon me, I will detain you only for a moment.—It is not my purpose to make a speech. It is not necessary that I should do so, for the sentiment I intend to offer requires no explanation to be understood and appreciated by you all. It will find an echo in every bosom in which there is a heart that can feel and sympathise with that of its fellow-man. I have already spoken of the general and rapid progression of the human race; but much remains to be accomplished to complete its higher and more glorious destiny. It is an often repeated truism, that "intelligence is the life of liberty." The degraded and ignorant mind is in bondage; it is fettered and stultified; and neither knows its own nor the rights of others; of every member of the community, and of the whole community; but the regenerating light of knowledge is spreading over the world, and commensurate with its progress is the advancement of the human race, in comfort and happiness, and in its moral, social and political condition. I give you then, gentlemen:

The Spirit of the Age: A spirit that seeks the melioration of the condition of the toiling millions, and ensures to them a better, happier and brighter destiny.

The volunteers then flowed in thick and fast, in the following order:

By Erastus Shepard—Our venerated guest, James D. Bemis, the father of the Press in Western New York: May his noble form long withstand the pelts which are beating it, and his last edition be well bound in the book of life.

This sentiment was received standing, as a, mark of respect to the venerable gentleman to whom it referred.

Mr. Bemis responded in the following manner:

Mr. President and Gentlemen:—I am unable suitably to acknowledge the kind regard you have manifested for one so unworthy of it. I can only thank you, and as your time will be better used by others, I will abridge what I intended to say by remarking, that he must deem it a happy event in his life, who is invited to participate in this "Feast of Reason," prepared by our munificent friends of this beautiful city.

Who and what do we here behold! would be the involuntary exclamation of one who saw this "mill yard" thirty-five years ago, when one small store, a saw and grist mill, and a few rude dwellings only were to be seen. If the visitor had been absent during that period, he would be as greatly amazed at the magic changes which have been wrought, as was Rip Van Winkle on returning to his altered native village after his twenty years' asleep. He would find, instead of the few rough buildings scattered about the old fording place, of the Genesee, a splendid and bustling town, of 25,000 people—a commercial mart—a manufacturing bee-hive. And, in one of the spacious halls erected by their enterprise and taste, a large and festive company, composed of a fair type of the intelligence, the talent, and the spirit of the age, whose vocation it is to enlighten the minds and mend the hearts of others—to spread knowledge, modify public sentiment, encourage industry, and to keep our Republican form from being thrown [?]. We have seen or read of disparties consisting of the learned, the scientific, and the witty; but we have here a Digest of them all bound together and lettered, if not gilt, and combining all that is useful or pleasing for a reading people—and such are the people of Old Genesee. Printers, Editors, Correspondents, and others, in some way connected with the "art preservative of all arts," are met in this place to hear or be heard, and to commemorate the birth of the great Philosopher Printer—the immortal Franklin—a man, who,

"Take him all in all,
We ne'er may look upon his like again."

I offer you a sentiment:—

The Printers of Rochester: The tokens they have worked off to-day, have made impressions never to be erased.

By P. Canfield—Our Brethren in Buffalo: As our circular has not been responded to, we expect to hear a good report from them this evening.

Dr. Foote, of the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, returned thanks, and, after apologising for being unaccustomed to public speaking, remarked that on an occasion like the present reference to those illustrious in the craft was both natural and becoming. The memory of Franklin had been honored in fitting and most eloquent terms by the President. In the career of that great and illustrious Philosopher and Patriot, printing was but an incident; but there are others whose fame was all our own, whose memory should never die. In the infancy of the Art, printers were among the most learned men, and to their profound scholarship the world owed elegant editions of the most renowned Greek and Roman classics, till then almost utterly unknown, which editions are even now recognised as the most valuable extant. Especially are we indebted for these labors—to them a labor of love—to the Printers of Venice, a republic, then distinguished like our own, for the extent of her commerce, and the valor of her arms. It could scarcely be otherwise than that printers should be men of much literary cultivation. Men cannot long be engaged in embodying, in dull metal, "thoughts that breath and words that burn" without partaking, in some degree, of the same animating spirit. Printing is, in truth, a learned and liberal profession, whose usefulness, influence and dignity should never be forgotten or degraded by its members. The speaker concluded by giving, and commending to the emulation of all—The Scholar Printers of Venice.

L. H. Redfield, Esq., of Syracuse, 2d Vice President, responded to a call from the chair, as follows:

Mr President:—Not being accustomed to public speaking, I have, from recollection alone, collected together a few reminiscences, to which I have added some remarks, which, I hope, may not, on this occasion, prove entirely uninteresting. One of the earliest lessons, sir, which I learned in a printing office, was to follow my copy—even if it went out of the window. Early habits, sir, whether good or bad, are not easily dispensed with; I ask your indulgence, therefore, while I read my hasty and imperfect production.

My first acquaintance, sir, with the Press of Western New York, was in 1808. I commenced my apprenticeship in the office of the Ontario Repository, at Canandaigua, in the summer of that year. The only newspapers in existence at that early period, west of Cayuga Lake, were the Repository; the Geneva Gazette, by my respected friend, James Bogert; the Ontario Messenger, by John A. Stevens, and the Cornucopia, published at Batavia, by Benjamin Blodget. It is possible there may have been one or two others, but if there were I do not recollect them. The Repository, I believe, was established by Gould & Post, in 1803. Mr. Bemis became connected with the establishment about 1805. Under the direction of that good man, the Repository became one of the leading and most respectable journals in the State, and so continued for upwards of a quarter of a century, under his able and judicious management.

And here permit me, sir, to digress one moment, while I attempt to pay a deserved tribute of respect to my early and valued friend. Mr. Bemis, aside from a thorough knowledge of the duties of his profession, possessed a mild and even temper, and a dignity of deportment, which rendered him peculiarly well qualified to educate and instruct those who were placed under his care for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of our noble art. And well and nobly did he acquit himself of the difficult task. I hope there are many of his pupils still living to bear witness to the truth of what I say. For myself, I feel that I owe to that venerable and most excellent man, a debt of everlasting gratitude. Whatever of prosperity or success in life, I have enjoyed, I owe, mainly, to the early training and habits of business which he taught me, and to his judicious counsel and advice, in after years. My friend, (and the friend of us all, I trust,) is still living, and I rejoice that the severe malady with which (as you may know) he is afflicted, has permitted him to meet us around this festive board. All who know him will agree with me, that he is entitled to our sympathy in his afflictions, and to our grateful respect as a printer, and a man.

Excuse me, Mr. President, for this digression. I could not say less for the friend to whom I owe so much.

I think the Cornucopia must have been established about the year 1806 or 1807. Such a newspaper, at the present day, would be a curiosity—(I had almost said, a natural one.) It was about the size of a foolscap sheet, and frequently came to us on common wrapping paper—not such wrapping paper as is now made, but of the blackest and coarsest specimen of that quality of paper at that early day. And the type, (if they might be dignified with that appellation) were in keeping with the paper. Take it altogether, it was like a picture made for fun, and if a copy could now be found, it should be deposited in the museum.

Mr. Bogart's paper, at Geneva, was called the Geneva Gazette, and must have been established about 1806 or 1807. It was then a most respectable paper, both in size and mechanical appearance. It was conducted for nearly 25 years by Mr. B., its original founder, and is still in existence. Its worthy and amiable projector is yet living, and I regret that he is not here to make one of us on this interesting occasion. Mr. Bogert was one of the best printers in Western New York, as all printers, who were in the habit of visiting his office, can attest.

The Ontario Messenger was established by John A. Stevens, about the same time of the Geneva Gazette. It was printed on the old fashioned Ramage press, as were all the other papers I have named; indeed, there were no other presses in use at that early day. Mr. Stevens continued with the Messenger some 20 years. If I am not mistaken, Mr. S. was not considered a very good printer, but he was esteemed as a most kind and benevolent hearted man. I regret to add, that in after life, adversity overtook him, and yielding to intemperate habits, he finally ended his days in the poor house of this county. I well remember, that at the time I was an apprentice, it was a common practice to keep ardent spirits in the Messenger office, to be drank by those who visited the office on business, and by the hands. Is it strange, then, that the fate of our friend was thus melancholy?

David M. Day, who afterwards established the Buffalo Journal, as good hearted a man as ever worked a token or composed a thousand, was an apprentice in the Messenger office. What printer of Western New York does not mourn over his untimely end, and regret the fatal cause?

I see around me, sir, many younger members of the profession—they will pardon me in saying, Beware of the fatal rock on which these and other gifted brothers of our craft have been wrecked.

I am happy in being able to say, that, as a class, printers of the present day are among the most intelligent and successful advocates of temperance. It is a very rare occurrence to find one who indulges in the use of ardent spirits; still more rare to see any kind of ardents in a printing office. I congratulate you, brethren, upon this proof of the superior intelligence and moral worth in our profession.

I should have added, that in 1808 and '09, the Messenger was edited by Jesse Hawley, Esq., late of this city. It was in those years that Mr. Hawley published his articles on the (then) startling project of the Erie Canal. These publications did much towards creating a spirit of inquiry in relation to this splendid enterprise; but, unwilling as I am, to detract one jot or tittle of just praise from the efforts of Mr. H., history establishes the fact, that, to Joshua Forman, then of Onondaga, more than to any other man, belongs the credit of first originating, and afterwards assisting to perfect and accomplish this stupendous work—the pride of New York, and now the principal source of State wealth.

The next paper established in Western New York, was the Buffalo Gazette, by my fellow apprentice, Smith H. Salisbury, about 1812. We used to receive, in war time, our bulletins of news from the Gazette office. Smith was a right merry fellow—full of fun. But alas ! where now is he? He has worked his last sheet—his last proof has been taken—his form is unlocked by death, and he has passed to a new and final edition.

About 1816, I believe the first paper was published in this place, and, as we have been informed, by our respected friend who presides over us on this occasion. Soon after followed the Telegraph, by Mr. E. Peck. Since that period, others have sprung up here, at Buffalo, Palmyra, &c. &c, all over the country, to an extent which I will not attempt to enumerate.

In 1814, my apprenticeship having expired, and with nothing to recommend me but industry and a good trade, I wended my way to the county of Onondaga, to seek a livelihood by the art and mystery of printing. At that period there was but one paper in Onondaga county—the Manlius Times, by Leonard Kellogg. A paper called the Lynx, by P. C. Fay, had been established at Onondaga Hollow, but was discontinued in a year or two after its commencement. It was in this office, that our respected friend, Thurlow Weed, made his debut in the art of arts. Mr. W., in the short space of about 12 months, became printer's devil, journeyman, editor, and I do not know but finally proprietor of the memorable Lynx.

My humble sheet, the Onondaga Register, made its appearance at Onondaga Hollow in September, 1814. The Onondaga Gazette, by Evander Morse, was established at Onondaga Hill, in 1816. It was edited for some time by the celebrated Wm. Ray. Mr. Morse sold the establishment to our friend C. S. McConnell, and soon after went to Cincinnati, where he died.

The next paper in Onondaga county was the Manlius Republican, and was established by Mr. Weed, now the able and talented editor of the Albany Evening Journal. After a year, Mr. W. not meeting with the desired success, discontinued his paper, and soon after connected himself with the Press of this city.

The history of Mr. Weed is one full of hope and encouragement to the younger members of the craft; one which they may study with profit. Unaided by adventitious circumstances, he has raised himself from the humblest walk of life to be a respected friend and equal of the first men in our State. Such men are an honor to themselves and to their profession, as well as to the free institutions of our country—those institutions which recognise virtue and talents as the only passports to honor and renown.

From 1820, I will not attempt an enumeration of the newspaper establishments in Onondaga co. Many have come suddenly into existence, and disappeared as rapidly, while others, more favored, have stood quietly on, and are still in existence. The first Iron Press introduced into the county, I believe, was purchased by myself—and I also first introduced into Onondaga the composition roller, one of the most valuable improvements connected with printing ever invented. The county of Onondaga now numbers nine weekly papers—three daily and two monthly. Three of these establishments have Power Presses.

Without longer trespassing open your patience with these statistical facts, permit me to say in conclusion, the life of a Printer, Sir, as many of us well know by sad experience, is a life of toil, anxiety and self sacrifice—a life of great self denial. But, if it has its disadvantages, it has already its great advantage, and, as the art advances, will have greater.

For those who are willing to improve the mind, it affords a continued school for the acquisition of knowledge. It opens a wide field of influence and usefulness. There is, probably, no greater moral power than the power of the Press. Those who conduct it should be intelligent, virtuous, honest men. But to succeed in the profession, as a business, we must practice the most rigid rules of industry and economy, and learn to eat the bread of frugality and carefulness.

And great as have been the improvements in the mechanical facilities of the profession, it has not yet been discovered that the business will go of itself. It requires punctual attention, untiring perseverence, rigid economy and frugality, none the less for the wonderful character of its improvements. It is a business, in reference to which, or the emoluments of which, most people, not practically concerned, more widely err in their estimates than respecting almost any other. Nor is any class of mechanics so inadequately compensated for their labor, time, exertion, and usefulness counted, as the printers.

Before I sit down, sir, allow me to say, that the conductors of newspapers, and all connected with them, are deeply interested in the manner in which they discharge their public duties. The American press is subject to the charge of not having always maintained that high and honorable standing which should belong to it. Editors have too often allowed themselves to become mere gladiators, beating and bruising each other for the benefit of political leaders and the amusement of the vulgar. They have not always exercised towards each other that respect and that tone of bearing which is best calculated to elevate the editorial profession. A course of vituperation and detraction, towards each other, for mere differences of opinion, can surely never be necessary; and if indulged in, must be productive of results which ultimately tend to lower the standing and lessen the influence of those engaged. In this manner, it is to be regretted, has the character of our newspaper press been greatly injured, and its influence paralized. It can be elevated only by manifesting a higher regard for truth, and by inculcating and practising a more gentlemanly tone of bearing among its conductors. If editors will learn to respect themselves, and each other, as they should, then will the profession become more dignified, honorable, and influential—and not till then.

I offer, sir, as a sentiment -

A Free Press—Free from Licentiousness, and unpurchaseable. Free institutions. Equal and just laws, free from partial and grinding acts of monopoly. A free people—free to enjoy their own opinions in politics and religion, unfettered by political or spiritual domination

Col. Follett, of Batavia, being called upon, remarked that he had recently prepared a sketch of the press of Genesee county, and that he had exhausted himself on that subject, and should not therefore make a speech. He offered the following sentiment:

By Frederick Follett, of Batavia—Benjamin Franklin, the Sage, Philosopher and Printer: His name and his fame are coëxtensive with the limits of the habitable globe—time has not dimmed the effulgence of the one, or tarnished the lustre of the other.

By Ansel Warren, of Perry—Our Union: May her foul case (Slavery) be turned into pi, and together with her canon, balls, and all hell-ish instruments, be re-cast into rich fonts of pearl and diamond, and these re-set and imposed upon the impregnable bed of truth and securely locked in the chase of virtue, where it may produce an impression free of mackle, monk or frzar, and furnish full proof of her claim to stand as the head matter on the page of this world's history, and to a glorious and well justified form on the last great publication day.

By G. M. Dana—The Cause of Humanity: The printer has ever been found its true and zealous advocate, and while his hand can hold a stick and his arm work a press, he will never desert it.

By S. S. Blanchard, of Warsaw, editor of the Western New Yorker—The Magnetic Telegraph: The wonderful invention of the age; perfectly enigmatical to ordinary minds. The world is indebted to him whose natal day we have met to celebrate, for the astonishing discovery of bringing lightning from the heavens, and to the inventive genius of Prof. Morse for its incomprehensible adaptation to the purposes for which it is now used.

By C. W. Dibble, editor of the Dansville Whig—The Members of the Craft present to-night: The greatest assemblage of intelligence and public opinion Rochester ever had the honor to entertain.

By E. S. Palmer, Angelica—Editorial Courtesey: May editors remember that courtesey demands of them kindness and urbanity in their editorial intercourse. Let them, therefore, sheath the dagger, (†) and differ, as differ they must, like gentlemen who know each other to be honest but not unerring.

Mr. Dana, of Ithaca, here favored the company, at the request of the President, with a song, in excellent style.

Everard Peck, Esq., prefaced bis excellent, sentiment with the following remarks:

Mr. President and Gentlemen:—It will not, I hope, be deemed inappropriate to the joyous occasion which has convened us together this evening to call up interesting remembrances of those who in this part of the country have, within the recollection of many who are present, been associated with the Press.

As the publisher of a Newspaper for several years, I had an opportunity of being acquainted with a large number of Printers, some of whom have gone to their last resting place, while others are occupying stations of influence in the world. Among the most prominent of those who assisted in conducting or printing the Rochester Telegraph, was a gentleman whose early history bears a striking resemblance to that of the illustrious member of the craft whose memory we have met this evening, to honor. Both were cast in their boyhood upon their own resources, and both alike struggled manfully and successfully with poverty, and its trials and difficulties. It was an incident in Franklin's life, which every printer's boy knows, and which will never be forgotten, that he trundled his paper on a wheelbarrow, from the warehouse in Philadelphia to his printing office. I have known the individual whose name I will present to you, carry bundles of newspaper to his place of business, which none but a stalwart man whose limbs had been inured to labor, could shoulder. More than this; I remember to have seen him, when he first came to Rochester with his small and dependent family, carry in his arms from the Carpenter's shop to his obscure dwelling place, a table, of which essential article it was till then destitute; and more than all, though I saw him daily, and knew him intimately, I never heard him repine at his hard lot, or complain of his misfortunes.

In the success of a man who possessed talent and intellect that raised him afterwards to important State offices, and of which he need not have been ashamed if he had, like his honored fellow craftsman, been called to "stand before Kings,"—who submitted with so much philosophy to circumstances of trial and difficulty in which he was placed,—in the success of such a man I say, I have always felt a deep interest, and such examples, may, I think, be held up for the imitation of young printers, who expect to carve their way by their own exertions "to fortune and to fame." I give you

Thurlow Weed: Formerly Editor of the Rochester Telegraph, afterwards State Printer, and now Editor of the Albany Evening Journal.

This sentiment, it is hardly necessary to remark, was received with enthusiastic applause.

William S. Falls, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, being called on, remarked:

Mr. President—It has frequently occurred to me, that, after all, the great Typographic Brotherhood of this Nation have not, as fully as was befitting, appreciated the virtues, intelligence, and worth of their Immortal Patron—Benjamin Franklin—the good man and Printer, whose natal day we have met to commemorate. Had this been the case, would not the monumental slab indicate the fact? 'Tis true, sir, it may be said, his name occupies a position so prominent on the temple of Fame, and his memory is so indelibly engraven upon the hearts of his countrymen, that further mementos would be unnecessary. Yet, as fellow-craftsmen in the "Art preservative of all arts," ought we to tolerate this objection, and permit the consideration to rest here?

We are happy to know, that the skill of the artist has frequently been brought into requisition in order to place before the view of succeeding generations, the statue of our beloved Washington, whose memory is also cherished and revered by every true American? Is not the memory of Franklin to the Printer, what that of Washington is to the Soldier?

These thoughts, sir, have been more especially suggested, from reading in a recent publication, the following:

franklin's grave.

Franklin lies buried in the church-yard, corner of Fifth and Arch streets, Philadelphia, where an obscure stone, bearing his name, half obliterated, marks the spot. The Philadelphia Printers appear to have forgotten him. It is not alone, the Printers, however, but the whole city that is chargeable with gross negligence and ingratitude, in allowing his resting-place to go unmarked by a single monument. It appears that an obelisk was erected to his memory in Boston, in 1827, on the spot where repose the remains of his parents. The monument, we learn from the Transcript, is of granite, 27 feet in height and 7 feet base. In front is the name of Franklin in large bronze letters, and below it is a tablet of bronze, 32 inches long and 16 wide, sunk in the stone, on which is engraved his original inscription, upon the marble tablet which he placed there nearly a century ago. It is well known that Franklin wrote his own epitaph: we give it here, as it may be new to some of our readers:

THE BODY
of
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
Printer,
like the cover of an old book,
its contents torn out,
and stript of its lettering and gilding,
lies here food for worms;
yet the work itself shall not be lost,
for it will (as he believed) appear once mere
in a new
and more beautiful edition,
corrected and amended
by
THE AUTHOR.


Before submitting the sentiment which I wish to propose, I would respectfully ask: Would not the Printers of Western New York, so generally represented here this evening, esteem it a privilege to participate in the erection, in such place as shall hereafter be designated, of an appropriate memorial to the memory of him whose fellow-craftsmen we are proud to be? I submit the question, for the consideration of the members of the Profession, trusting that, on the gathering of the Craft, at our next Anniversary, they will be prepared to act in reference to the subject in question:

Franklin, the Printer: His name and memory should be alike endearing and sacred to the members of the Profession in this Republic.—May his fellow-craftsmen in Western New York manifest their appreciation of the worth and virtues of their great Prototype, and perpetuate his memory by the rearing of a suitable column, and thus exhibit to the world, that they have not "forgotten him."

By J. M. Patterson—Printers' Daughters: A pictorial edition of the book of nature. May they be bound (not in calf) but with the silken cord of love.

Br H. L. Winants—Our Country: The brightest upon which the sun sheds its rays. Its present position as the * on which the nations of the earth are looking with! was only secured by dealing out to its former boss more leaded matter than he could justify in his form.

J. A. Hadley, of the Committee of Arrangements—The Mexican War: An attempt on the part of the foremen and jours of two neighboring offices to knock into pi the forms of each other. If a period can be put to the work, without the further battering of head lines or squabbling of columns, none but the devil will interpose bis opposition.

By A. Mann, (for a lady)—The Press: With its thousand tongues it proudly defies the ravages of "Old King Time," and flourishes, and shall continue to flourish, with undecayed moral beauty and magnified power. While the most potent must submit to its mandates, the weak acknowledge its protection.

By J. E. Morey—Woman: The illuminated edition of a standard work, set up in pearl and bound in muslin. May she be locked up in the embrace of kindness and her form never be battered by man.

By D. D. T. Moore—The Plough and the Press: The main-springs of physical and mental life and improvement. May they ever be accompanied with sharp points and rich banks, and those who guide them possess sufficient skill to produce good register and an abundance of quoin.

By Geo. T. Frost—Clergymen Printers: Clear forms, exhibiting neither monks nor friars.

By J. W. Benton—Benjamin Franklin, Printer: The star of the craft without a parallel, who though poor, afforded the use of a "golden rule" for his guide. May the same rule glitter upon the works of each of the craft

By A. Bennett—Printers' Festivals: The daily occupation of the craft is a feast of reason. It is but right they should enjoy, once a year, a flow of soul.

By Isaac Butts—[Editor of the Daily Advertiser]—The Printers of Oregon and California: The first of a race who are destined speedily to diffuse the blessings of a republican civilization through vast regions yet unreclaimed from the primitive sons of the forest.

H. Cook, of the Daily Democrat—Our Absent Brethren: The loss is mutual; ours the pleasure of pressing their s; theirs a fat take.

By E. Scrantom—formerly an apprentice of A. G. Dauby—My own Case: The Master Printer who filled it, is with us to-night, at the head of the column.

Prof. Webster, formerly Editor of the American Medical Recorder, Philadelphia, then addressed the assemblage in the following language, and wound up with a sentiment:

Mr. Chairman—In rising to offer a sentiment, it is not my intention to trespass upon much of the time which can be so much better occupied by others; but as the sentiment I shall propose brings with it a series of historical reminiscences, it is hardly proper for me to restrain a few remarks.

When we take a glance through the long vista of past ages, we see that even from the very dawn of creation to the present day, the solemn—the emphatic warning given in the Garden of Eden has hung heavily npon the memory of man—"Dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return." We trace too in legible characters the history of individuals and of nations swept down before the scythe of time, and we cherish the legacy of intellect which they have bequeathed to us, whilst we are ever ready to acknowledge our indebtedness by keeping alive the memories of the benefactors of our race.

It is a pleasing task to turn over the historic page; to examine the records of ages past, and to dwell in fancy among the sages of former times. We are thus able to trace the most important eras which characterize the march of science and of art, and thus to award just meed of praise where due.

It is not my intention, however, to go back to the earlier periods of history. Rome, in her palmiest days, either as a republic or an empire, throws no light upon my subject She had her Tacitus for her historian—her Cicero for her orator—and her Virgil, Lucretius, Horace, Terence, and Juvenal, for her poets. At the fall of this proud mistress of the world, a moral darkness overspread the fairest parts of the earth; her language became corrupt; the sciences were neglected; the voice of wisdom and the splendors of poetry were either restrained, or prostituted to the meanest purposes, and liberty was altogether lost. The northern barbarians who rushed with the impetuosity of a torrent upon this once formidable empire, extinguished the last spark that glimmered on the confines of science, and the shock which produced this effect vibrated through centuries. A universal mental desolation followed—the successful impostor from Arabia affected to despise learning—his schemes were those of ambition—ignorance in his followers was necessary to his purpose. A heaven of sensuality was opened to their view, to which they were to float through oceans of human blood. The liberal sciences were not only discarded, but death was the doom of the student. But when, after this dark and gloomy period, the barbarous models of the middle ages were put aside, and the noble languages of antiquity revived, learning once more reared her head from beneath the pressure, and the votaries of science continued to march onwards conquering and to conquer.

After the taking of Alexandria by the Arabians, learning fled the temple; the energies of mind seemed paralized; science and the arts drooped under the influence of barbaric sway, and it was leng ere the sun of science emitted a single ray of light to illumine the surrounding gloom. At length the returning warriors of the Crusades brought with them into Europe, a knowledge of Arabian literature; the fetters which so long had bound the genius of Greece were broken, and the revival of learning followed.

It is no part of my intention to follow the events which transpired between the Crusades of the 11th and 13th centuries, nor for a period long after; my object being principally to recall your attention to those which occurred in the 15th century of the Christian Era; and in so doing I shall endeavor to be brief, without, however, a strict regard to chronological order.

Mark a small portion of the history of this century, and what a spectacle do we behold to gladden the heart of the patriot and the philanthropist? We have arrived at that period when, by the adventurous spirit of a solitary individual, a new world was opened to view. The genius of Columbus presided at its birth; and where then the war whoop of the savage resounded through the stately forest, we now see the standard of science waving proudly with the flag that indicates its national existence.

A new and powerful impulse was given to the progress of literature and science on the taking of Constantinople by the Turks in the middle of this century, when the learned men were forced to seek an asylum on the classic soil of Italy; it was the era which gave a Joan of Arc to Orleans, and marked the expulsion of the Moors from Spain.

But we roust pass over these and other interesting incidents of the period, to bring to your notice that invention which stamps the 15th century as the most important era in the annals of the world. To John Gutenberg of the town of Mayence, in Germany, we are indebted for the discovery of the Art of Printing by moveable types. Wherefore, however, need I attempt to point out the results which have followed this invention, when they are so familiar to all of you? Look at its influence in our own and other lands, and we shall find that, from the moment when the Pilgrims of New England, lauded at Plymouth in 1620, in the hope there to enjoy that liberty of conscience which they were debarred in the homes of their ancestors, this powerful engine has accumulated strength with each succeeding year; it has illumined the darkness of heathen lands; it has spread the genial rays of truth and knowledge to the remotest corners of the earth; it has given to almost every man in this western hemisphere the privilege not to choose his ruler, but to select the servant of his will; and if the signs of the times are not deceptive, the period is not very remote, when not a vestige of feudal tyranny will remain, and when we shall see, through the instrumentality of this mighty lever, even a world regenerated and disenthralled.

As the boundaries of knowledge were thus enlarged, a spirit of inquiry was imbibed, a powerful stimulus was given to exertion, and the human mind emerged from the eclipse which it once suffered, and again reflected the image of the divinity whence it emanated. This period, then, we mark as the most interesting and important in the history of the world; by one mighty effort of intellect, we see the shadows which had so long hung over the paths of the sons of science removed forever; we see improvement traveling in the car of time, and in the few generations which have followed, we trace a succession of the most brilliant discoveries ever announced for ameliorating the condition of the human race.

But I must forbear further remarks, and conclude by offering as a sentiment,

The memory of John Gurtenberg: His epitaph is stereotyped on the intellect and the heart of the whole civilized world.

Mr. C. G. Palmer, of Rochester, after raising the curiosity of the audience to a very high pitch, by the following remarks, ended with a sentiment that drew forth uproarious applause.

In rising to propose a sentiment, Mr. President, I beg leave to vary somewhat from accustomed usage. Instead of paying the usual homage to our chosen rulers, or offering an oblation to the memory of some giant mind of a by-gone age, who has contributed to the developement or progress of our art, (both of which have been, or will be, better done by others,) I wish to pay a passing tribute of respect to one who, in a more humble sphere, and in a more silent way, has benefitted the press of our country. The personage whose health I would propose, is, perhaps, but little, known in political circles, or to the great mass of the people. But to very many of those connected with the press he is well known, and his sterling worth appreciated. He is known to them by the efficient and timely, if not extensive aid, he has rendered to the newspaper press,—and has endeared himself to them by the modest and unostentatious manner in which that aid was given. Displaying thus an enlightened and discriminating liberality, it might be expected he should be known,—as, indeed, he is,—as a genuine philanthropist—an ardent advocate for the largest liberty, and a warm friend of universal education; and consequently the friend of an enlightened, efficient and independent press, as contributing to those ends more powerfully than any other single means. It is true, he has rarely interfered to suggest literary or political reforms in the press,—believing that editors are a thinking as well as a writing fraternity; and that when reforms or improvements become necessary they will be as apt to perceive it as he. But, in the war which printers have to wage against vice, ignorance and prejudice, he has directed his energies mainly to the supply of their "commissariat" department—well knowing that without those "sinews" this war can be no more successfully prosecuted than any other. It is in this way principally that he has given that essential aid to the press, for which myself, as well as many others who have been engaged in newspaper publication, hold him in grateful remembrance. Those now connected with the press, and still receiving tokens of his favor, might, perchance feel a delicacy their patron in this public manner. But having myself been for some years disconnected with the press, and this its patron, I feel a freedom in here giving voice to my gratitude; and therefore, Mr. President, I propose to you

The health of the Man who pays in advance for his newspaper.

C. B. Thompson—The Ladies: Fair forms is the font of life. Without them, the page of our existence would be as blank as the fly-leaf in an abolition almanac, or the columns of a volume of nonsense.

By W. A. Wells—Printers Wives and Children: In the summer edition may they have a slice from a full case; and let them never be entangled among briars; or their impressions be sullied by monks; or their color withheld by the friars; nor let the guide ever lead them on a false line; and may they never be press'd to turn for sorts; or chase a lean page when closing-up the period of the last winter in the column of life; and when their forms are imposed and registered on their last bed, may they present a clear title to the mansions of bliss.

By D. D. Waite—Benj. Blodgett, the first newspaper printer west of Canandaigua.

James Tryon, City Clerk—Types: They are to thought and genius what speech may not always be—expression.

By James P. Fogg—The Press: The telegraph of mind—making thought immortal.

E. T. Bridges—The Festival: We meet here to night to do honor to the memory of Franklin; with strong hands and warm hearts; with sumptuous refreshments and soul-stirring music; we lack only the presence of the ladies to make as perfectly happy.

By S. P. Allen—Printers who have turned Soldiers: May they chase their enemies, lock up their forms, drive them hard with their shooting sticks, and after making a proper impression, knock them into pi.

By Dr. Schell—Washington: The figures of speech are too imperfect, monumental columns too inexpressive to do justice to so bright a Star in freedom's diadem.

By A. Strong—[Proprietor Democrat]—Woman: The diamond font—the choicest type in all our specimens—the ever ascending star in our hearts and our homes.

By C. Billinghurst—The Art of Printing: The sun of the intellectual world, whose rays are speedily destined to illuminate the dark regions of mind in all parts of the earth.

By A. M. Clapp, of Buffalo: The veteran members of the press: They have been faithful sentinels upon the ramparts of our national liberties; and now that the edition of their lives is nearly worked off, may their forms be well spaced out and corrected. And the last page of their history without pick, monk or friar.

By P Barry—Practical Printers: The working men, the bone and sinew of the world of letters. Benefactors, whose toil saves the minds of millions from starvation. Honor and happiness to them all, everywhere.

By F. Cowdery—Our country, "right or wrong:" Impose her form in a good chase; drive her quoins of defence with an iron shooting-stick, till so well locked up in equity, that in lifting to the press of national honor no pi be made for the devils to distribute!

Chas. Billinghurst, Esq., offered the following sentiment, complimentary to Capt. Adams and his Band, which was heartily responded to by the audience, and also by a beautiful strain from the band.

By C. Billinghurst—Capt.Adams, of the Rochester Brass Band: No one knows better how to set music to distribute sweet sounds or discourse them more eloquently.

The following jeu d'esprit was furnished by a guest, and read by Dr. Webster.

By a Guest—Bulls versus A Native American Mann and A Strong Democrat:

"Let dogs delight to bark and bite
For it's their natures to—
Let bears and lions growl and fight
For God has made them so."

"But editors should never let
Their angry passions rise;
Their pretty ☞ ☜ were never made,
To tear each other's I's."

When the mirth occasioned by this demonstration upon the combativeness of editors had subsided, Mr. Mann, of the American, arose and informed the doctor that he need expect no increase of business, for editors in their strifes never broke any bones.

The doctor looked rather blank at this announcement, and contented himself with telling the audience that he "never revealed the secrets of his profession." A decided insinuation.

By A. Mann—Our Hosts: Their name is no mis-nomer—all will admit who have sat at their board that they are in fact the yaller flower of the forest.

Mr. Dana here favored the meeting with "our native song."

By a Lady—The Lords of Creation: The first edition of a work which should fill up every household library. May each page added to the volume be perfect copies of the original.

By a Lady—Bachelor Printers: May an angel, not a devil, put their pi in order.

By a Young Bachelor Printer—The fair author of the above sentiment: May her father become a printer's father-in-law.

By another Lady—Benj. Franklin: May his mantle rest on the printers of Rochester, and may there be among them many bright stars to link the future with the past.

By Doct. Matthews—The enemies of a free press: May they be shod with sandals of red hot iron and compelled to travel over a desert of gunpowder.

By a Lawyer—The Editorial Fraternity—whilst advocating legal reform so earnestly and eloquently, may they now and then remember editorial reform, and bear in mind that whilst there is conceded to be abundant room for the former, some credulous and simple minded people believe there is some room for the latter.

By E. Scrantom—The Press: If tyrants attempt to lock it up, may they 'pay dear for the whistle.'

By Wm. B. Clough—Rev. Mr. Glover: The Father of the American Press, may his name live fresh in the hearts of the American People, as long as this land bears the name of a Republic.

By Jas. P. Fogg—The Washingtonians: The men of the days of the Revolution, drove from our Country the Red Coats of Great Britain, may the Washingtonians of our day drive out all the Red Noses.

By Geo. Brown—Gov. Smith, (alias Ferdinand) of Virginia: By recommending to the Legislature of that State, the forcible expulsion, from that State of 49,842 free people of color, "for no crime but that of having a skin not colored like his own," he has rendered himself deserving of the execrations of all honorable men.

By Thomas Baker—Henry Smith, of Troy, the Razor Strop man: Although he is constantly supplying the means of shaving the public—yet, unlike his namesake, the Governor, his repeated acts of kindness towards battered and worn specimens of humanity, lead us to regret that there are so "few more left of the same sort"

By. G. Holden—The Ladies: God bless them, it is only by their aid that man ever reaches a second edition.

By M. Miller—The Rio Grande: The crossbar of Uncle Sam's chase.

By J. A. Camp—Adam Ramage, the Inventor of the Ramage Press: If the first Adam sinned the second atoned for him.

By D. McKay—(an old printer and late jailor:) Although recently occupied in locking up forms with at least a twenty eight cross bar—and now a Jour on the Street Gazette, the old type case and press are remembered with pleasure.

By E. S. Palmer, of Angelica—Temperance: The child of progress—the friend of the human race—may her form never be battered—may she not fail to make an impression on every Printer's heart. If so she will prevent the getting out of sorts—save the use of caps and allow of clean and crowded sheets.

By W. W. Bruff—Temperance: A gem more valuable than agate, pearl or diamond—may its worth continue to be appreciated until all Columbias sons shall become sons of Temperance.

By L. B. Swan—(Major of the 'Grays,')—The Printer and Citizen Soldier: Sentinels on the watch tower of virtue and freedom—may their "shooting sticks" be ever ready to advocate or sustain the supremacy of the laws.

By A. Bennett—The Craft: May they ever stand by each other in solid columns and be firmly locked in the chase of friendship.

By Hiram K. Walker—The American Press: May she ever emulate the sapience, sagacity and true democracy which characterized the teachings of that distinguished statesman and philosopher, pressman, and compositor, whose memory we commemorate.

By G. M. Dana—The Printer: The real Governor of the world.

By P. V. Stoothoff, (who set the first type on the first daily paper west of Albany)—Our Crafts in Mexico: May they soon be engaged in furnishing Santa Anna with proofs of matter, the lines of which he cannot pi, and so squabble his columns with their shooting-sticks that he can never give another impression.

By W. C. Foster—Faust and the Devil: When really in partnership, more dangerous than "Gun Cotton."

By O. Olson—The Ladies: We admire their beau'y of form, and love them because we can't help it.

By William Ailing—The Press: As darkness reveals to the hunman eye unseen worlds, so the art of Printing has opened channels of communication which, if brought under a sanctified influence, will bless the latest generation.

By John C. Raymond, (of Elba, Genesee Co,)—The City of Rochester: A splendid work in two parts; the first form of which was laid, more than thirty years ago in a vast wilderness upon the banks of the Genesee for an imposing-stone; it has since been completed, revised, and neatly bound in boards, brick and stone, and contains many grand illustrations of the go-ahead principles of the Anglo-Saxon race.

By George B. Benjamin—Printers throughout the Union: Courtesy among the Craft—Friendship in trade—and a strict regard to each other's rights and privileges.

By Samuel M. Raymond—The Universal Brotherhood of Printers: Having Franklin for our guide in composing the volume of Life, we will follow our copy, justify every line by the golden rule of Heaven, show clean proof, get good register, and when locked up in Death's em-brace, the last sheet worked off and bound, the work shall be delivered into the hands of its Author.

By W. N. Sage—The Daily Newspaper: A busy Scavenger on the "world's highway"—picking up everything, from the revolution of an empire to the smallest sweepings from Madam Rumor's studio.

By Walton Gardiner—Benjamin Franklin: The honorable ennobler of our glorious profession in years gone by, whose memory and deeds will long be cherished by the craft of the Union: by his impressions may they make perfect register, and not permitting rats to meddle with their quoin, through the blessings of an overruling Providence may they ever prosper.

By J. W. Barber—Printers: May they have the Golden Rule for their guide, and may their virtues be stereotyped on plates of pearl and diamond.

By John Denio, Esq., of Albion—Benjamin Franklin: He was as incapable of unprincipled duplicity, as he was unerring in his researches in nature. He will live forever in hearts of the craft.

By Erastus Darrow—The Old Ramage Press: Superceded by what itself has wrought in the increased diffusion of light, by the power press and steam.

By Benjamin F. Enos—Simon Cameron: Forty years ago, the bare-footed Printer Boy; now U. S. Senator from Pennsylvania. Every young compositor would be justified in his attempt to follow copy.

By E. B. Jerome—Our Brother Typos on the Rio Grande: May they distribute the forms of the Mexican Army in the case of eternity.

By William R. Wells—Printers: Bound together in the chase of affection, they are always ready to distribute their quoins among their brother typos who have had the misfortune to run out of sorts.

By Mitchel Hulett—[Carrier of the Advertiser]—Delinquent Subscribers: May their head-lines be battered by the mallet of public opinion, their forms stirred up by the poles of a guilty conscience, and their bed be one of thorns, until they learn that there is 'no peace to the wicked.'

By Geo. W. Beers—

May we, like Franklin's electric kite,
Rise to a great and wondrous height
And like himself in honor rise
From Devil, to stations in the skies.

He who first locked up his form,
Pressed him, and a sheet was torn,
And a proof of him you now have seen,
From God's angelic tokened ream.

By Geo. W. Winn—The 'Art Preservative of all Arts:' An art, to accomplish which, requires energy and perseverance, and intellect and wisdom to bring it to perfection.

By H. L. Winants—[Junior Editor of the Rochester Advertiser]—The Printers in Mexico: May they beat the face of the enemy with American balls, batter the form of every monk that resists, squabble the friars, make a run on the quoin of the government, and net a form find a coffin on the banks of the Rio Grande.

By S. P. Allen, Editor Democrat—Journeymen Printers: None occupy stations more useful; none excel them in general intelligence and patriotism. With the illustrious Fathers of the craft for their guides, none can excel them in moral worth.

By Mathew Orr, Pressman—Woman: The most beautiful sheet ever issued from nature's press, being the best autograph of the Creator. May she ever prove a font of bliss to the printer, when he retires from Satan and the shooting-stick.

By A. A. Schenck—The Press: May it emanate power, purity and truth over the mental and moral world, as the sun beams enlighten the earth.

By George R. Davis, Sheet Boy—Franklin: Once flogged for knowing more than his master. May the devils of our day follow his example of application and perseverance; but escape the flogging.

By John Martin—Mexico: May our forces in Mexico never be destitute of shooting-sticks, and always have quoin sufficient to lock up the chase of glory, to their satisfaction.

By Joseph Steele—Gen. Taylor: A capital Leader for the American columns. They are without a parallel in sustaining the * * * and strips of their country.

By T. W. Haskell—Doct. Franklin first caught the lightnings wild—and Morse now rides post with the jade.

By Johnny Clough—['Devil' in the American office]—Slavery: A botched job, bearing the devil's imprint.

By George F. Terrell—The Union: A form to which seventeen pages have been added since it was first imposed by Franklin and his compatriots. May the sheet which shall ultimately be required to cover it, extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the 10th to the 70th degree of north latitude.

By Wm. Cowles—The Ladies: The best made up form ever locked in the embrace of man; may their impressions ever be fair and their proof-sheet clean from doublets.

By Carlos Comens—General Taylor: May he always display solid columns, have no break lines, no outs and plenty of canon and shooting-sticks.

By W. H. Beach—Buffalo, Our Sister City: Her representatives here would be an honor to the Empire State, in our national councils; may we meet again.

By James Rowley—The Craft: Their sheets are unfurled to every breeze; and although the winds of adversity may sometimes press hard upon them— still they stand up to their work as long as there is a quoin left.

By Robert M. Watts—May the fires of friendship and brotherly love which have been enkindled in our hearts to-night never be extinguished, but continue to burn.

By G. J. Lawrence—Gen. Taylor: The * of the army: May his services be registered in the hearts of his countrymen.

By Wm. McDermett, of Syracuse—Gen. Taylor: His shrewd conduct in pulling the Wool over the eyes of the Mexicans proves him to he possessed of Worth. May American Twiggs be so freely distributed among the enemy as to compel them to exclaim—Quit-man; shooting-sticks and slugs freely given out; and their colums so battered as to render a justification impossible without being over-run!

By Charles H. Donnell—Our Craft: May our brother typos of Western New York ever remember the birth-day of our "Old Veteran," and that we may ever be ready with our rules and sticks to join hand and hand to celebrate the 17th of January, as a token of respect for our brother typo—Benjamin Franklin.

By C. H. Sedgwick—Printers: Your mothers know you're out among the Blossoms.

By D. C. Houghton, a Printer Clergyman, of Le Roy—Benjamin Franklin: The printer who towed the lightnings, not so much to acquire the reputation of the philosopher as to convert them into "ministering spirits," to minister to his brethren, the heirs of the craft, in these latter days.

By C. R. Beach—Printers in the Army: With furnished shooting-sticks, a full supply of leads, and a case that shall lack no sorts, may the work assigned them be executed in a manner equally creditable to themselves and their profession.

By D. C. Houghton—The Press: The modern sibyl, whose leaves, ail written over with living truths or lying wonders, are borne on every breeze to the ends of the earth. May there be attending priests and scribes to arrange and set forth her responses, as the oracles of God, that they who treat to them may not he confounded.

By a Devil, from the Advertiser Office—Devils Incarnate: They claim no relationship with their ancient namesake, as he possess neither matter nor form.

By Isaac Butts, Editor of the Daily Advertiser—Derrick Sibley, President of our last year's Festival: An old typo, a useful citizen, and an honest man. Though far distant he will not be forgotten.

By George S. Walker—Our Youthful Typos: May their first impressions be as virtuous and dis-interestedly patriotic as were those of their illustrious predecessor—Franklin; and when their forms shall be locked up in the chase of death, may the Great Proof Reader find no errors in their proof.

By Michael Purcell—The Press: May it ever be the advocate and supporter of liberal principles;—bigotry is the offspring only of ignorance,

By Thomas Marrion, apprentice in the Advertiser office—Newspaper Patrons: When settling day comes round they should all remember that the boss has "the devil to pay."

By J. Barnard—The Ladies: Beautiful forms, hardered with loveliness and virtue.

By Theodore Summers, carrier boy for the Rochester American—Morning Papers: Very pleasant to those who see them first at breakfast; but not quite the thing to make a dark rainy morning cheerful.

By J. W. Riggs—The Devilship: A station from which Benjamin Franklin rose. May that name be the watch-word of every printers devil in the land.

By James Vick, jr.—Military Glory: A "whistle," like Franklin's, too dearly paid for.

By R. M Colton—Mine Host: He has distributed with a liberal hand the viands of life over his bank; and although many monks are seen, not a friar is discernable.

By E. R. Andrews—The Press: May it ever remain the tyrant of tyrants — the servant of the oppressed.

By E. St. Jermain—The Star Spangled Banner: May the time be not far distant before it shall wave over the Halls of the Montezumas.

By S. K. Reed—The Press: The palladium of liberty. May its benign influence continue to spread until the whole world is regenerated.

By C. Beach—Hon. J. Q. Adams: His nation's glory; a star of the first magnitude in the intellectual and political firmanent; brilliantly has he ran his course of honor and renown. As a detached star from that firmanent may he dash from earth to heaven, where it is hoped that he may find every error of his eventful life revised, corrected and registered in the book of life.

By John Smith—Babies: Pocket editions of humanity, issued periodically, and headed with small caps.

By Charles H. Carver—Apprentices: May they make the example of Franklin their guide. By following in the footsteps of so illustrious a leader their cases will never be foul, and their conduct will be bound in the cover of virtue and morality.

By C. T. Wilson—The Compositor's Rule: All classes profess to be governed by rule, but we get our living by it.

By J. W. Benton, of the Com. of Arrangements—The Editor and Printers of the Boston Chronotype: May their efforts to abridge Chirography prove as successful as their communication to us was pithy and gratifying.

By a Guest—Rochester Daily Newspapers: Notwithstanding the Butts, they Cook us an excellent repast—considering it is served up by A Mann.

By F. Cowdery—The Lightning Telegraphr A newsboy of the clouds; Franklin called him down, and Morse put him on his legs. May Br. O'Rielly not give up the extension of his leaders for want of sorts.

By Phineas Homan—(ex-printer's devil,)—The Publishers and Printers of the Rochester Papers: A Strong clique of the real Butts enders, admirably Cook-ed up. There is not A. Mann among them but is of the right sort.

By John Barnard—The Editors of Western New York: True patriots, who go for their country to A Mann.

By D. M. Brayman—The Lightning: It received its first lesson from Franklin; its second from Professor Morse.

By John McMahon—Horace Greeley: As an editor, he stands at the head of the column of the American press—a writer of acknowledged celebrity—a scholar and a printer—and is worthy of the example of the younger portion of the craft.

By Chas. A. Waldo—The Ladies: With virtue and intelligence, the most admirable forms ever imposed—and may Dame Nature produce 'more of the same sort.' And after many have been initiated into the orders of 'annexation' to supply the demands of the crafts and properties which may in every case prove agate to endless joy, may there always be a 'few more left' for gentlemen printers.

Dr Foote then closed up the proceedings with the following sentiment:

By Dr. Foote—A. G. Dauby, our presiding officer: He deserves our grateful acknowledgement for the ability with which he has presided on this occasion. May his case never run out of sorts, his form never be battered, nor his shadow never be less.

Mr. Dauby replied in a happy manner; expressing his gratitude for the honor conferred in selecting him as the President of the Festival, and bidding the company farewell, left the chamber amid the cheers of the assemblage.

The meeting re-organized, with Dr. Foote as chairman and passed the following resolutions:

Resolved that a committee he appointed to superintend the publication of the proceedings, accompanied by a history of the Press of Western New York, in pamphlet form, and to solicit subscriptions to defray the expenses thereof.

The chair appointed the following named gentlemen such committee:—Everard Peck, A Mann, H. Winants, Henry Cook, and J. A. Hadley.

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to designate the place of holding the Festival for 1848, and that every Printer within the district called Western New York, be earnestly and especially requested to be present.

The chair appointed the following gentlemen members of said committee:—F. Follett, Batavia, J. O. Brayman, Buffalo; J. A. Hadley, Rochester; R. Northway, Utica; and G. W. Dana, Ithaca.

The following resolution was adopted by acclamation:

Resolved, That the thanks of this company are due the Committee of Correspondence and the Committee of Arrangements, for their successful efforts to render this Festival what it was promised to be—a " feast of reason and a flow of soul."

The meeting then adjourned, at the early hour of half past ten.

A large number of letters were received from gentlemen who were unable to attend.

———

Old Papers

A number of old papers, specimens of the typography of former days, were presented for inspection at the Festival:

1. The "Connecticut Gazette," Jan. 21, 1758; published at New Haven. Name of the publisher not given. This is a very curious specimen of typography. It was presented some years since to the editors of the Democrat, by Mrs. Corey, of Chili.

2. "Essex Gazette," Nov. 1, 1774; published by Samuel and Ebenezer Hall, at Salem, Massachusetts. This paper is filled with revolutionary matter.

3. "Supplement to the Essex Journal and Merrimack Packet;" Dec. 4, 1778, containing the proceedings of the meeting in Boston which threw the tea overboard. It is about seven inches by nine, and was distributed gratuitously. Printed at Newburyport, by I. Thomas and H. W. Tinges.

4. "Poughkeepsie Journal," of December 31, 1799, clad in mourning for the death of Washington, and containing a full account of his funeral.

5. "Columbian Centenial," of November 19, 1794; printed by Benjamin Russel, Boston, filled with general news of the day.

6. A Boston paper, name tern off, dated Jan. 4, 1791, presented by Mrs. C. U. Hamilton, of this city. It has for its motto, " A Free Press maintains the majesty of the people."

7. "Hampshire Gazette," March 1, 1815, containing the Treaty of Peace between the U. States and Great Britain. Published at Northampton, Mass., by Wm. Butler. Presented also, by Mrs. Hamilton.

8. "Auburn Gazette," June 10, 1818; published by Thomas M. Skinner, filled with the general news of the day. From Mrs. Hamilton.

9. "Hampshire Federalist," Jan. 28, 1808, printed at Springfield, Mass., by Thomas Dickman. This paper is rather severe upon Mr. Jefferson and his measures.

Isaac Butts presented a copy of Puffendorf's Law of Nations, in a good state of preservation, printed at Oxford, England, in 1710.

Copies of the "Oregon Spectator" and "Matarooras Reveille," were presented by H. L. Winants.

———

The Band.—We deem it scarcely necessary to repeat what is so well known to our readers, that Capt Adams' Band acquitted themselves in the handsomest possible manner. The music was appropriate and displayed great taste, in selection. Every sentiment, grave or gay, had its appropriate air. The presence of the Band gave additional animation to the Festival.

———

SONG,

Written for the 141st Anniversary of Franklin's Birth Day.

BY W. H. C. HOSMER.

Air—"Star Spangled Banner."

Ere the glorious Art that we love was invented,
Restoring the lustre Earth wore in her morn,
A picture the map of Creation presented,
How dread and forbidding—how lost and forlorn
More dark than the midnight of dreary November,
A pall was spread over the region of mind;
The fires of the Past had gone out and no ember
Was saved from the wreck to illumine Mankind.

The Genius of Liberty, bleeding and fettered,
Lay weak and heart crushed in a pestilent cave.
While cowled Superstition, morose and unlettered,
Consigned with rude hand murder'd Hope to the grave.
Truth walked through the world, with a visage dejected,
And Error, appareled in sable, was King;
The Harp of the Poet hung mute and neglected,
The red rust of ages corroding each string.

Then hail to the Press by which fetters were broken,
And dungeons unbarred to the visit of Day-
Our glorious Art that in thunder hath spoken,
The night-hag of Ignorance scaring away.
Plumed minions of Pomp, with their pagentry hollow,
Before its effulgence dissolving, grew pale
As vapory clouds at the smile of Apollo
Roll back, and the face of the waters unveil.

And hail to our brother, calm Tamer of lightning,
The Pride of his country, and Terror of Kings!
Whose fame, though his body in dust, ever bright'ning
A pure, holy light on America flings.
The Staff of the Sage in his hand was a weapon
That aided in conflict a Washington's glove;
While prize we the relic, no foe the will dare step on
The green turf that covers a Patriot's grave.
Avon, January 12th, 1847.

CORRESPONDENCE.

His Honor, the Mayor of Rochester, sent in the following note in reply to an invitation to participate in the festivities of the occasion:

From Hon. William Pitkin, Esq.. Mayor of Rochester.

Rochester, Jan. 18th, 1847.

Gentlemen—Your kind note of invitation to the "Franklin Birth-day Festival" was received with much gratification; and although precluded from joining in your festivities on this occasion, I sympathise most cordially in your respect for the memory of that distinguished Philanthropist and benefactor of mankind.

In political history, our country will ever boast of Washington and of Franklin, and you may well exult that one of those illustrious names stands enrolled in the catologue of your "crafty" fraternity.

Permit me respectfully to offer the following:

The Craft—May they render due honor to the maxims associated with the name of {sc|Franklin}}, by issuing a new edition of clear proof that they are fonts only of virtuous intelligence, and of moral and political truth; then shall the imposing stone furnish a corrected impression upon the sheet of public sentiment, and register there a point of admiration!

I am, gentlemen,

Yours, with every respect,

William Pitkin.

To Wm. S. Falls, Esq., and others, Committee of Arrangements.

———

The following Letters and Sentiments were received from the Craft abroad:

From James Harper, Esq., Ex-Mayor of New York.

No. 52 Cliff street,

New York, Jan. 7, 1847.

Gentlemen:—It was with a lively sense of pleasure that I received your invitation to be present at the Festival of the Printers in Rochester, celebrating the anniversary of Franklin's birth-day, on the 18th inst. It is a gratifying honor to be remembered on such an occasion by a body of men so intelligent and so useful, and I find also a personal gratification in the reminiscence that, if I am not deceived, I worked in the same office with the worthy Chairman of your committee, some thirty years ago. If my arrangements permitted, I would gladly be with you in the body, as I surely will be in the spirit; for I love the craft, and, like all true sons of the craft, I honor and reverence the memory of him in whose name you invite me to be present.

This honor and this reverence, gentlemen, has dwelt in my mind from my earliest boyhood.—One of the first books I ever read—how well do I remember its worn-out type and coarse whity-brown paper—was a Life of Franklin; it was, in admiration of his character, that, before I had ever seen a printing press, my boyish determination to become a Printer had its origin; and for the measure of success that has attended my labor I am greatly indebted to the maxims of "Poor Richard." All must appreciate the lofty fame of Franklin—the Statesman and Philosopher—but we, gentlemen, can do more than this; there is a warmer, a more genial feeling in our hearts, when we proudly recall the name of Franklin, the Printer.

I beg leave to propose the following as a sentiment for recognition in your festivity:

The noble Craft of Franklin: With a child's toy he gathered fire from the clouds; but his mighty engine of the Press spreads abroad the fire and light of truth, dispersing the clouds of ignorance and error.

With the highest respect,

I remain yours, truly,

James Harper.

To P. Canfield, &c., Committee.

———

From Samuel Bowles, Esq., Editor and Proprietor of the

Springfield Gazette.

Springfield, Mass., Dec. 2, 1846.

To the Committee of Correspondence for the celebration of Franklin's Birth-day, at Rochester.

Gentlemen:—It would give me great pleasure to accept your kind invitation, and attend the celebration of the anniversary of the Birth-day of Benjamin Franklin, if circumstances should permit; but if I am not with you in person, I shall be with you in spirit. I should much enjoy an interview with so many of my fellow craft; with some of whom I am personally acquainted. The Chairman of your Committee is an esteemed friend, with whom I worked at press in early life, and in whose company I have spent many instructive and happy hours.

Nothing can be more appropriate than a Printers' celebration of Franklin's Birth-day. Though most of his life was spent in the public service, in eminent and highly responsible stations; though distinguished as a Patriot, Philosopher, and a man of Science, he never lost his first love for the Typographic Art: and to his latest day, showed that he enjoyed the sight and operations of a Printing Office. Till near the close of his life, he was a patron of the Art. He was indeed a paragon in our profession, and we cannot find a better model. It is as a Printer and Editor that I revere the character of Franklin, as much as in any other portion of his life. In that capacity he loved as well to guide the rays of mind, as he did afterwards, when a Philosopher, to guide the rays of lightning.

Yon have done well and deserve the thanks of the Typographic Brethren, for arranging a celebration of this kind, in Western New-York, where many of the Printers are Sons of New England; and I trust the time will come when this anniversary shall be regularly celebrated in the city of Franklin's Birth, and the scene of his first labors; for no where else on earth can it be done with more propriety than at the old American fount of Printing, of Science, and of sound principles.

On such occasions, it is customary to allude to one's own history and experience. My life, thus far, has been devoted to our profession. Five years an apprentice—one year a journeyman—and more than twenty-seven years in the business of editing and publishing a newspaper. Eleven years of my labors were passed in Connecticut, and the remainder in this Commonwealth, the home of my ancestors. Though not an old man, I happen to be one of the oldest in the profession now in service in Massachusetts.

During the time that many of us have been connected with the business, we have seen many of our patriarchal brethren pass away from among us,to their long home. Isaiah Thomas, Benjamin Russeell, George Goodwin, Jesse Buel, Zachariah Poulson, John Lang, and many other stars of the American fount, have set—leaving us their character and examples for our imitation and benefit. We have seen the business keep pace with the rapid improvement of the Arts in the country. Great and rapid improvements have been made in the facility and execution of our works, especially that of the Press. Newspapers have quadrupled in number, and their circulation has become like the leaves of the forest in autumn. While we are conscious that the Press has been instrumental of immense good, in the spread of general intelligence, and enlightening the public mind, it is to be regretted that its moral character has been too often stained by corrupt and unworthy hands.—It is a mighty engine, for weal or woe, and would that all those who direct it, had a higher sense of their responsibility. As the first production of the American Press was the Freeman's Oath, so should it labor unceasingly to protect and defend the Freeman's Rights—to elevate his mind and improve his morals.

I submit the following sentiment:

The Printing Press—May those who direct it, ever he faithful to the People's rights—to the principles of Virtue and Morality—to Truth—to Independence of action,—unaided by power, and uninfluenced by gain.

With my best wishes for your health and prosperity, accept assurances of sincere respect and regard.

Samuel Bowles.

———

From James R. Trumbull, of the Hampshire Gazette Office.

Northampton, Mass., Dec. 12, 1846.

Mr. Canfield and Gentlemen of the Committee:

Sirs—Yours of Nov. 9 was duly received. In reply, I forward the enclosed communication, which is at the disposal of your Committee.—Please forward an account of your celebration.

Respectfully yours,

Jas R. Trumbull

The Press.

" 'Twas the voice of the Press—on the startled ear breaking
In giant-born prowess, like Pallas of old;
'Twas the flash of intelligence gloriously waking
A glow on the cheek of the noble and bold;
And Tyranny minions o'erawed and affrighted,
Sought a lasting retreat in the cloister and cowl.
And the chains which bound nations in ages benighted
Were cast to the haunts of the bat and the owl."

With the day that gave birth to the invention of Printing, dawned the brightest era the world ever saw. It broke upon the midnight darkness of the fifteenth century, like morning from a densely clouded sky. Its course was onward, destined, like the sun, to irradiate in its progress the whole habitable globe; yet more silent than twilight's gathering tints. Year by year, it increased.—Three centuries have rolled away since its introduction, and now it is the mightiest agent for weal or wo in existence.

The discovery of this art ranks third among the greatest events the world's history records. Its superiority consists in the immense difference between mind and matter. He who gave to the iron steed its panting breath, or he who drew down Heaven's own lightening and guided it along the wiry track, claims no partnership in Fame's award with him who placed the printed page before the mind. The inventions of others, in their greatest perfection, act only upon the ontward, the mortal man; while that of Faust operates upon the divine, the immortal, the soul. To it belongs the task of elevating the noblest part of humanity,—the intellect,—that which raises man above the brute, and renders him but "little lower than the angels." So great are its advantages that it seems a drop from the overflowing cup of God's goodness, bedewing the earth, yet so tainted by sinful human nature, as to retain scarce an element of its original character. Never, since from chaos sprang this beautiful world, has there existed a power capable of such illimitable control over the passions of men. Like the irresistible music of the fabled Syrens, it lures the unsuspecting upon the quicksands and into the whirlpools of life, or, like the demi-gods of old, with brazen club uplifted, attacks vice in its strong holds, crushing with resistless force the monster's hydra heads.

Consecrated in its first efforts to the cause of morality and religion, the Press holds no second place among the great renovating agents of the world. One of the first books printed was from the manuscript of the amanuensis of the Holy Spirit. Commencing with the greatest of books—the Bible—it has spread throughout the civilized world, alike instrumental in extending both religion and vice. Scarcely had the invention found an existence, ere it became mainly efficacious in perfecting one of the most beneficial reforms the world ever witnessed.

Whilst this noble art was slowly spreading itself throughout Europe, a little barefooted boy was seeking his daily food, in a city of Germany, by singing from house to house. In subsequent years he entered the monastery. In the secret recesses of the Dominican cloister, was matured that mind, whose powerful workings borne abroad upon the pinions of the press, shook to its very centre the throne of the Caesars, drove the minions of Popery within the walls of Rome, and shook defiance at them as they stood cowering beneath the shadow of the Vatican. The true religion had become defiled. Its Omnipotent Author raised for its renovation, first the press, afterwards its operator. Had it not been for the aid of printing, the dark clouds of Popery, closing above the meteor flash of Luther's terrific struggle with the powers of darkness, would have hung with deeper gloom even now about our heads.—Dependant upon the imperfect pen of the scribe for its propagation of his writings, a single bonfire might have destroyed the slender frame-work of the reformation. But with the re-productive energies of the Press at its control, books—Phoenix-like—rose from the ashes of those burned before, and the Papal Bull, consigning the works of Luther to the flames, became the surest means of their immortality. The results of that glorious reformation, effected by the Press while yet in its infancy, will be felt at time's remotest boundary.

This great reformation was the first, but not the only achievment of the Press. It has raised the world from the midnight of heathenism to the noon-day brightness of civilization. "But how are the mighty fallen!" This powerful agent, degraded from the proud eminence of its youth, has become, in its crowning manhood, but a servile instrument for inflaming man's lowest passions.

The legitimate province of the Press is the formation of the literary taste of the public. Whatever reading is required by the community at large, the Printer furnishes. Those who wield the power of the Press, possess the ability to lead the minds of the people in their search after truth, or bid them grovel in the depths of licentiousness and crime. That their aim should be to elevate rather than depress, all will admit: but that the mass or reading put forth at the present day is debasing in its tendency, is equally true. Glance abroad for a moment. Crime seems to be increasing in rapid ratio. Every few days chronicle some new outrage, present to the public a further infringement of law and shows that human passion is gaining a fearfully powerful ascendency. Almost every public print brings to light some new development of human depravity. Yet the accounts of these cold-blooded murders, these heart-rending evidences of the wickedness of man's heart, are eagerly sought after, and devoured with avidity by the generality of readers. In fact, the publication of such articles has become one item, and that not a small one, of the subsistence of the newspaper press. The tendency of it is obvious. In the language of another: "When some monstrous or unusual crime has been revealed to the public, it seldom passes without a sad repetition. A link in the chain of intellect is struck, and a crime is perpetrated, which else had not occurred." Thus the very reason urged, "that crimes are published to prevent repetition," in the end accomplishes that which it sought to avert.

" 'Tis this sustains that course licentious tribe
Of tenth-rate typemen, gaping for a bribe
That reptile race, with all that's good at strife,
Who trail their slime through every walk of life,
Stain the white tablet where the great man's name
Stands proudly chiseled by the hand of fame;
Nor round the sacred fireside fear to crawl,
But drop their venom there and poison all."

Such, then, is the present state of the newspaper press, making the everlasting misery of its readers a means of subsistence. But there is a greater and deadlier evil. Sin cloaked under the garb of holiness. Falsehood dressed in the habbments of truth. It is the world of fiction. The novels so eagerly sought after by all classes—the works of Sue, Bulwer, and a host of others. They stand before the public naked representations of the most degraded states of human society, with no plea for their recommendation except that the public taste requires them. Vitiated as public sentiment has become, it has been brought to that state in a great measure by such works published under the guise of representing the evils of society as a warning to others. Flint and steel when brought forcibly in contact, emit a spark: so "the too close inspection of crime may grow into criminality itself." "The object of the successful novel writer is to make a saleable book, and the cant about the amelioration of society is merely a trick of authors, whereby they hope to add a degree of dignity to their pages that shall gild the pill of their licentiousness."

Beside the novels of foreigners we have authors of the same stamp among ourselves, capable of accomplishing even more evil in the limited sphere in which they move than their more gifted cotemporaries. The novelettes of Ingraham, what are they, as a general thing, but memoirs of "her whose steps take hold on hell?" Year after year the Press is sowing such trash broadcast over the land. The public will feast upon the demoralizing pamphlets of Ingraham, or the splendid conceptions of the more gifted Sue, and laying them aside, turn to the newly-printed Journal, yet damp, to gloat over horrid tales of seduction, murder and crime of every description. Is such a proper-state of society? Is this the grand mission of this greatest of agencies? No! the watchman has come down from his tower, and, mingling with the giddy throng, is hurrying them on to ruin and destruction.

"All are not such? On no, there are, thaink Heaven
A noble troop to whom the trust is given.
Who all, unbribed, on Freedoms rampart's stand
Faithful and firm, bright wardens of the land.
By them the Press stil lifts its arms abroad,
To guide all-curious man along life's road;
To cheer young Genius, Pit's tear to start,
In Truth's bold cause to rouse each fearless heart."

Yet a reformation great as that commenced by the humble son of the miner of Mansfeldt, is required to purge our land from this evil. The renovation of the church was brought about by one of its most devoted followers, and who more appropriate to undertake this work than the Printers themselves? Or what time better calculated to act on the subject than the birth-day of the Printer, Philosopher and Statesman you celebrate to-day? Why wait longer? We see men shot down in cold blood. Murder palpable as sunlight is committed, and yet the law acquits the perpetrator, and the people shout and clap their hands when the judge proclaims the murderer free, and he goes forth unpunished to clasp his bloody hands with theirs. Wherefore this? Because public opinion will not punish seduction as a crime. Yet the very instance cited had its origin in the demoralizing reading of the present day. To allow the Press to put forth such works as are daily being published, and refuse the aid of law for the punishment of crime resulting from such reading, is like prohibiting, by the statute, physicians from attempting the core of fever, and at the same time filling the land with large bodies of stagnant water, upon whose maleria fever rides with fearful speed.

Fellow Printers? let us put our hands to this work. We may do much to remedy the defect, if nor eventually wholly to remove it. But it is a work that requires time, days, weeks, months, years. Let us then be up and doing.

————

From Edwin Croswell, Esq., of the Albany Argus.

Albany, January 14, 1847.

Gentlemen:—I regret extremely that it is not in my power to accept your kind invitation for the Anniversary you so appropriately celebrate on the 18th inst.

The illustrious Sage and Patriot, whose birth you commorate, will ever command the homage of mankind. To the world, scarcely less than to our own country, his life was, from first to last, a benefaction, which the world has acknowledged by all the tokens which confer renown or express gratitude. We may say, with a slight paraphiate, that he was one

"Who, born for the Universe, ne'er narrow'd his mind.
Nor to Party gave up what was meant for Mankind."

But if all men, of every condition and pursuit, feel and appreciate his excellence, and his eminent example of Practical Good, how peculiarly may the Press, all Printers, and the World of Letters, do honor to his memory! he was, if you will allow the figure, a type of the great Art, which has so much contributed to the advancement of Knowledge, the spread of Christianity, the elevation of the Masses, and the progress of Freedom or Opinion, and the true principles of Government.

But I regret my inability to commune with you personally, and with the large number of intelligent Printers whom your festival will bring together, at this time particularly. It is an appropriate occasion to form or renew associations with our fellow- craftsmen, and to advance the general interests of the fraternity, by combining and directing its strength and intelligence to that object. In an age when invention, discovery and art are gaining some of their most brilliant triumphs, and when the application of a mighty agent to the transmission of intelligence, is producing not only wonders but revolutions in the destiny and labors of the press, it is wise to confer together, as often at least as the annual return of this festival. I do not venture upon particular suggestions at this time; for the practical skill and good judgment of those present, will afford the best guide to measures for the common well being of the craft, and for the promotion of interests that are closely identified with the public good—but the subject is one which you will no doubt regard as worthy of your consideration.

I venture to enclose a sentiment:

The city of Rochester: The pride of Western New York—the centre of a wide region, fertile in intellect, art, and the sources of wealth—fitly chosen for the annual commemoration of an event which gave to the world both the type and substance of their high qualities.

And with my best wishes for your prosperity, individually and collectively, subscribe myself,

With great respect,

Your fellow-citizen,

Edwin Croswell

To P. Canfield, Erastus Shepard, &c.

————

From Levi S. Backus, Esq., a Deaf Mute, and Editor and Proprietor of the Canajoharie Radii.

Fort Plain, N. Y. Jan. 13th, 1847.

Gentlemen:—Circumstances beyond my control have prevented an earlier attention to your kind communication in reference to the contemplated Festival in the city of Rochester, and I trust this may reach you in due time for the interesting and commendable object you have in view. It would, indeed, be a source of much pleasure to me to be present and participate with you in celebrating the "Anniversary of the birth-day of the Immortal Franklin." But, gentlemen, it does not perhaps occur to you that I am a Deaf Mute. The kind Providence which has lavished upon me many other blessings, has, for wise purposes I doubt not, withheld two of the senses which are requisite to a full appreciation and enjoyment of the many agreable things which will contribute to the joyousness of the occasion referred to. However, I shall be with you in heart and spirit; and am cheered by the anticipation of a rich-treat in the perusal of the reported proceedings of the Typographical Fraternity, who will congregate to commemorate the birth-day of one whose name needs no extraneous expletives or adjectives to qualify and adorn it; but sui genius, the name of Franklin will be borne down to future times in the hearts of admiring millions, as that of one who ever stood forth in the true nobility of nature, and courted no aid but a virtuous self denial, and the highest state of mental refinement.

Accept, gentlemen, my acknowledgments for your polite invitation, and excuse my unwillingness to tax the time and mar the pleasures of brethren of the Press who will be with you, by placing myself in a situation where I should require the tedious interpretations which would be necessary to even an imperfect appreciation of the pleasurable sayings and doings which will no doubt distinguish your Festival. Accept likewise my best wishes for the happiness of yourselves personally, end of those of the craft generally, who shall be with you at the approaching Anniversary.

Agreeable to your request, I communicate the following sentiment:

The Deaf-Mute—He hath ears but he hears not, tongue but he speaks not—like the type, his language is a mute but eloquent interpreter of the heart's aspirations and though he may have "music in the soul," his lips are for ever sealed to its utterance. Long may a kind Providence put it into the hearts of Legislators to smooth the rugged pathway of its stricken children.

The following are communicated by my Foreman and Pressman:

By T. S. Burrell—Franklin: The noble example of patience, virtue and industry in every relation of life, from the humble apprentice to the world-renowned Statesman and Philosopher; though great at his mould or his case yet he was humble as the favored associates, of Kings and Queens. His life will never cease to be an inspiring example to mankind while there is a type to record his virtue, or a candle to illuminate his graphic page.

By J. Allen—Franklin and Prof. Morse: The former brought the Lightning from heaven, and played with the "mysterious agent" as a familiar friend; the latter chained it to "the car of improvement," and the strange story of his achievement thrills along the "nerves of the country," and challenges the hesitating admiration and wonder of the world. May no rude hand interrupt the mysterious intercommunication of spirit by severing the links which unite the congenial souls of the two.

Respectfully ,&c,

Levi S. Backus.

To P. Canfield, Geo. Dawson, and others, Committee.

———

From James M. Scofield, Esq. of the New London Democrat Office.

New London, Conn. Dec. 22, 1846.

Gentlemen:—I acknowledge with gratitude, the invitation you have so courteously extended to me, to be present at the Festival to he held in your city on the approaching anniversary of the "Birth Day of the immortal Franklin."

That name, the Printer's talisman and American pride, has in it a power to stir up high thought, and noble resolve in the soul; and to nerve to vigorous action even the humblest of Earth's children, promising success in all they undertake.—Industry smiles wherever it is uttered, feeling that it indicates what her votaries may accomplish. Patriotism rejoices in it as pointing to her truest reliance. Republicanism sees in it the appellate of her best representative in the simplicity of his life. Science walks more proudly as she hears it uttered, remembering that the only "ribbons of royalty" with which he deigned to sport, were the ribbon lightnings of heaven; and that these he used not to decorate his person, but for the world's good; and Humanity points to that name, and utters her most willing speech, "that indicates a man!"

It is fitting, therefore, that his brother craftsmen should honor his memory by noticing the day of his nativity in an appropriate festal gathering, and my only regret in reference to it is, that my numerous calls of business duty will not allow me to be present with you in person; though be assured my heart will be there.

Please accept the following as a sentiment:

Franklin—Our Art—Our Country—Light and Liberty: Words calculated to inspire thoughts in the Printer's mind, of which his whole life should be a vivid impression.

And believe me,

Yours, very respectfully,

Jas. M. Scofield.

Messrs. P. Canfield Committee.
and others,

———

From H. C. Frisbee, Esq., Founder of the Fredonia Censor.

Fredonia, Nov. 30, 1846.

P. Canfield, Esq. Chairman Committee:

Sir:—Your notes, of the 9th and 16th instant, in which you solicit information in relation to the history of the Press in Chautauque County, and also an invitation to your next Celebration, came duly to hand. I would most cheerfully comply with your request, were it in my power to do justice to the subject; but sir, I should as soon think of writing a biography of the "Flying Dutchman" as giving a "full and authentic" history of the Press in Chautauque County. Why, sir, the hebdomadals that have been are numerous enough; but they have come and gone like Banquo's ghosts, and I can have only an indistinct recollection of Gazettes, the Republicans, the Phoenix, the Couriers, the Inquirers, the Times, the Eagles, the Whigs, the Beacons, et cetera, et cetera, that have at different periods arisen to shed their intellectual rays as yearlings or perhaps monthlings, and then have gone to the shades of endless night. But, sir, as I believe that I am the oldest "Boss," in these "diggins," I may be able to give you a specimen or two of the interesting manner in which newspaper establishments are started and conducted in new countries.

The Chautauque Gazette was the first paper established in Chautauque County, commencing with the year 1817. The means for effecting this were subscribed by individuals in sums of from five to thirty dollars with the expectation of their being refunded; but owing to the difficulty of sustaining even one press in the county at that early day, they were subsequently mostly relinquished. This paper was conducted about five years, by James Hull, when it was discontinued for a year or two and then again resumed by him; but after two or three years' fitful existence, it ceased to be.

The second paper hatched in the county was the "Chautauque Eagle," upon the heights of Mayville in 1819; but in a year or two its fate could be found recorded in the good old New England Primer:

"The eagle's flight
Is out of sight."

Next in order comes the protege of your humble servant. The "Fredonia Censor" was established in March, 1821. At its commencement the proprietor had scarcely entered upon his 21st year. With a hired establishment—the materials of which would now be looked upon as a perfect burlesque, the press having been manufactured hy a blacksmith and carpenter in one of the new towns in Ohio, and the types, which were few in quantity, mostly worn down to the "third nick," —with some forty subscribers, and for the first three weeks not a single paying advertisement—he commenced the flattering career of editor and proprietor of a newspaper. But if the establishment was a humble one, it called for some privations and the strictest economy to carry it on. For the first year his principal help at typesetting was a lad of some nine years of age, and on publication days a chair maker flourished the balls. [By the way, have you one of these time-honored but now obsolete symbols of the art among the decoration of your festive hall? And would not a Printers' National Museum, where should be collected and preserved specimens of the "art preservative of arts," be the best mode of noticing its advancement?] To make board come cheap, he lodged himself before the office fire and stowed away his bed in the morning in a cubby hole. But did not he whose natal day you are so joyously commemorating do as humble a thing when he trundled his paper through the streets of Philadelphia on a barrow? And did he not afterwards stand before Kings and coursel with their Ministers? This system of economy and industry in due time worked its legitimate effect. And how has it been with other members of the craft in Western New York? Have they not risen by similar means from poverty to wealth; though peradventure reverses may have subsequently overtaken some of them? How is it then with your Williams, your Merrills, your Rogerts, your Bemis, your Pecks, your Days, and your Salisburys? The "Fredonia Censor," after being conducted for seventeen years by its founder, was disposed of at his own price at an advance of some fifteen hundred per cent, upon its original cost. It is now in its twenty-sixth year; and although it has been once burned out, it has never failed of issuing promptly a whole sheet from its commencement to the present time.

There are now six well conducted newspapers in Chautauque County, all receiving a respectable patronage, which have come into existence in the following order:—The "Fredonia Censor," "Jamestown Journal," "Mayville Sentinel," "Westfield Messenger," "Frontier Express," and "Panama Herald."

Gentlemen, it would have given me unfeigned pleasure to have met you at the festive board upon this glorious occasion; but since that privilege is denied me, I give you as a sentiment,

The Pioneer Printers of Western New-York: The true disciples of the Immortal Franklin.

H. C. Frisbee.

——

From J. S. {{sc|Herrick, Esq., Foreman of the Daily Herald Office.

Cleveland, O. Jan. 10, 1847.

Gents.:—Your kind invitation came duly to hand, to attend the approaching Festival given in honor of the birth-day of the immortal and beloved Franklin—a practice which has so long been unobserved; and it is to be hoped that what you have commenced in Rochester may extend throughout our country. I would much rather give a verbal answer to your invitation, but circumstances are such that it would be impossible for me to be present. My heart and best wishes will be with you. I can anticipate no one thing that would give me more pleasure than to be with you. You will, therefore, (as requested in your circular,) please accept of the following sentiments from the brethren of the craft in the office of the "Cleveland Daily Herald:"

By Wm. C Sadd—The 17th of January: May its yearly occurrence never cease to thrill with gratitude the bosoms of the American people, for the eminent services rendered them by the world-renowned patriot, statesman, philosopher, and PrinterBenjamin Franklin.

By J. J. Bebee—The Printer's Profession: Emphatically the profession.

By J. C. Sage—The Craft in Mexico: May they use the shooting-stick with their usual agility, lead well the enemy's columns, and then return with a ☞ full of quoin.

By E. B. Foote—Printers: May health and success attend them; and let the man who would seek to pi their happiness be ignominously kicked to death with the sheep's-foot.

By the Devil—Benjamin Franklin: In youth; honest and unassuming; in after life, a correct type of the virtuous, a symbol of the man, true to its inflexible original. His were days lighted by the finger of truth, rendered transcendently brilliant through the severest trials. He is indeed departed, but his name and memory live cherished and revered.

By J. S. Herrick—Benjamin Franklin: A true type of all that is noble and virtuous, which the craft would find phat copy to select from. May all of our numbers seek to em-brace the principles that actuated him through life.

Yours, respectfully,

J. S. Herrick.

To Messrs. Canfield, Dawson, &c.

———

From A. Donnelly, Corresponding Secretary of the Baltimore Typographical Society.

Baltimore, Md., Dec. 30, 1846.

Mr. Canfield and others, Committee:

Gentlemen:—I have been instructed, by a resolution of the Baltimore Typographical Society, to acknowledge the receipt of your very kind invitation that we should be present, by representative, at your festivities in honor of the immortal Franklin.

The Society feels flattered by your invitation, and a very strong desire exists among our members that we should be represented at your Festival; but this being, with us, the busiest season of the year, and the delicate health of our President not permitting him to take so long a journey at this inclement season, it will not be possible for us to be present. Under other circumstances, the Printers of Baltimore would be most happy to meet the Printers of Rochester, and of the Union, around the festive board—especially upon so interesting an occasion as the anniversary of the birth-day of the illustrious Franklin—a man whose name is identified with the most glorious periods of our history as a Nation—whose dignified and manly advocacy of the cause of Liberty, at a very critical period of the struggle of our fathers, elicited the respect, at least, of foreign courts, and who, in his philosophical researches and moral teachings, reflected honor upon our young Republic, and entitled him to the lasting gratitude of our countrymen, in all succeeding generations. As he was, too, one of the pioneers of our craft on this continent, it is peculiarly proper that the Printers should celebrate the birth-day of one whose whole life was devoted to the edification and happiness of his fellow-man.

The Baltimore Typographical Society returns you, gentlemen, the warm hand of friendship, with the best wishes that your Festival may pass off to the satisfaction and happiness of all who may participate therein.

The following sentiment you may offer, if you think proper, in behalf of our Society:

Benjamin Franklin: Though no majestic column of brass or marble is raised to perpetuate his fame, his name and memory will live as long as liberty continues to have a votary, or the storm-cloud to be charged with electricity.

With high respect, I am, gentlemen,

Your fellow-craftsman,

A. Donnelly,

Cor. Sec. Baltimore Typ. Society.

————

From Peter R. Mead, Esq., Foreman of the Book Establishment of the Messrs. Harper, New-York.

New York, Jan. 12, 1847.

To Philemon Canfield, and others:

Gentlemen:—Through the politeness of the Hon. James Harper, we have just been gratified with the perusal of the "Circular" you addressed to him, in which yoy request some "sentiment" from those employed in the establishment of the Messrs. Harpers. We cheerfully comply; but we have, been admonished to do so speedily, and we must therefore be brief. Allow us to express our pleasure at the kind spirit and brotherly love which pervade your communication. How much it is to be regretted that this fraternal spirit is not more common among the craft! The seeds of jealousy and distrust have been sown among us, and we are no longer brothers. We know of no means better calculated to bring about and perpetuate a feeling of harmony and union among the craft then festivals such as the present; and, thus thinking, we hail the return of the birth-day of the Immortal Franklin, with no ordinary gratification. As we cannot be present with you we send you our best wishes for your enjoyment, and hope this anniversary may be fruitful in beneficial results, and contribute much to bring about a sentiment of good-fellowship among Printers throughout the Union. We send you the following sentiments, to be used at your pleasure:

By F. Saunders—Benjamin Franklin: The Bacon of the New World—a "tria juncta in una"—Philosopher, Patriot, and Printer: his name and fame equal the glory of Science, Literature, and his Native Land.

By P. Baldwin.—Benjamin Franklin: A perfect specimen of Nature's noblemen.

By J. Cheetham—Franklin and the Press: The man who first grasped the lightning—his craftsmen have made it their messenger. Hope now points to the latter as the engine which is to give Knowledge, Liberty and Love to the world.

By T. Cook—The International Copy Right: Justice to others, opportunity for native talent, and a great step to regain the respectability for our art which it once had.

By D. Montesquieu Hodges—The Typographical Art: May it hurriedly be rid of all mere animal machines, and may he receive his just reward (the supreme contempt of all honorable and high-minded men,) who would even attempt to supersede them by machinery minerally and vegetably compounded.

By G. Stremmell—Benjamin Franklin: May each and all of us present a title-page to the world with as few imperfections as him whose virtues we are here met to commemorate.

By Peter B. Mead—The Art of Printing: The second "Light of the world," and handmaid of the first: may its rays penetrate and enlighten every recess of the habitable globe.

Very respectfully yours,

Peter B. Mead.

————

From Messrs. Wilson & Geer, Proprietors of the Chicago Journal.

Chicago, Ill., Dec. 4th, 1846.

Gentlemen:—Your Circular of invitation soliciting our attendance at the Festival to be given in your city, in honor of Franklin, is before us.

The pleasure it would give to us to be present on the occasion, be assured, would afford us the highest gratification: that while mingling with the craft around the festive board, we might be reminded the more forcibly of the lofty character and brilliant virtues of that "Printers' Boy" whose birth-day yon invite us to honor in your company. But we regret that the press of business and sorts of that type forbid our acceptance of your polite invitation, and hence this sheet.

Be pleased, therefore, to accept the assurances of ourselves, and your typographical brethren in our office, of our regard, and believe us to be, with the following sentiments which we offer,

Very respectfully,

Yours, truly,

Wilson & Geer.

By R. L. Wilson—Whilst it look a Franklin first to guide the lighting to the earth, it was reserved for a Morse to govern and render it useful after its arrival. Air, "Quick Step."

By N. C. Geer—Benjamin Franklin: The most exalted excellence, in the most condensed form.

By J. M. Patten—Copy: It takes the fattest kind to afford a lean Rat a good living.

By J. J. Langdon—May the printers never think of the double line, until they are satisfied they can raise a form. [Our Devil offers the bet of a pound of butter, that this gentleman is an old bachelor.]

By Wm. F. Gregory—The rule of our action: May printers not always depend upon brass.

By G. E. Brown—The "West" in general, and "Chicago" in particular. Nature's fairest impression!

By A. Garrett—The Sheets that are in the wind: May they speedily be wet down with cold water.

By C. N. Lewis—An art above all arts: To make clean pi in a printing office.

We have some twenty others, (twenty journeymen and four apprentices,) but think this will suffice:

All hands—The Fraternity of Rochester and all Guests with them: Plenty of Phat Copy.

————

From J. D. Buchanan, Esq., of the Organ Office.

New York, Jan. 12, 1847.,

Gentlemen:—Your favor of the 9th November, 1846, was duly received.

To commemorate the anniversary of the birth-day of so eminent an American, by a public festive association of the Typographical Fraternity, is an object for which you have my best wishes for a happy enjoyment, on the 18th, and may its recurrence be annual. Although unable to enjoy a personal pleasure, my spirit will be with you. I tender you the following sentiment:

The Boston Printer: Utility, Patriotism, Moderation, were the attributes of Franklin. Having enjoyed the fruits of the useful and the glorious, may our countrymen always remember to practice the magnanimous traits.

I remain, gentlemen, respectfully,

Your ob't servant,

J. D. Buchanan.

To Messrs. P. Canfield, Geo. Dawson and others, Committee.

————

From J. O'Leary, Esq., Foreman in the Courier Office.

Lockport, N. Y., Dec. 30, 1846.

Gentlemen:—Absence from home at the time of the arrival of your favor, will, I trust, be sufficient apology for any late compliance with its request of a response.

You will, gentlemen, please to accept my warm thanks for the honor done me by your polite and brotherly invitation to attend the celebration of the anniversary of the birth-day of the Immortal Franklin.

I fear that business will not permit my attendance on that occasion; a circumstance which I deeply regret, as it promises to be a gathering of congenial spirits, which it is not one's lot often to witness or enjoy.

I bid you a hearty God-speed in the undertaking. It is a laudable enterprise. Their is something practical—substantial, about it; something more than mere pleasure to be attained—which carries it far in advance of most other assemblages of the day. If persevered in, it must have the most happy effects. Its tendency would be to promote more of a familiar and brotherly feeling among the craft generally, than at present prevails. It will give us a better knowledge of each other; and as we become more acquainted, I am satisfied we shall like each other better. At all events, I little fear that we shall have occasion to be ashamaed of the font!

But aside even from these considerations, could a nobler object—a higher or more intellectual source of enjoyment be ours, than to commemorate departed worth—to spend an hour in remembrance of the treat and good Franklin—of him whom "antiquity would have worshipped as a god, or praised as one having dealings with a supernatural power;" but who, viewed through the milder and truer medium of modern times, is presented to our view, a self-made man—his name first on the roll of enduring Fame, and his memory venerated and fondly cherished by an intelligent and patriotic people?

As a sentiment, I would propose:

Our Fellow-Craftsmen in Mexico—First alike at feast or fray; ever ready to leave their stick and case, and shouldering their muskets, with the national bodkin, march to correct the errors of the Mexicans, either in columns, in line, or in the chase.

Wishing you, gentlemen, in behalf of brother typos employed in the establishment, and also for myself, and through you, to the assemblage, individually and collectively, a pleasant and joyous celebration of the anniversary, and hoping you may witness and enjoy many a happy return of the same, I remain,

Yours, respectfully,

J. O'Leary.

To Messrs. Philemon Canfield, Geo. Dawson, and others, Committee.

————

From R. H. Shankland, Esq., Editor of the Cattaraugus Republican.

Ellicottville, N. Y., Dec. 11, 1846.

Gentlemen:—Your favor, under date of the 9th ult., inviting me to attend the celebration of the birth-day of the Immortal Franklin, to be held at Rochester on the 18th proximo, came to hand a few days since. It would afford me much pleasure to be present and join my brethren of the craft in the festivities of the occasion, but my duties are such in the office that it will be out of my power to do so. I rejoice to see the printers of Western New York so mindful of the memory and fame of our illustrious craftsman; though dead, he still lives in the hearts of all who appreciate true greatness. As your festival will be a banquet to printers, permit me to offer one of Franklin's sentiments:

"Eat not to fullness—and drink not to elevation."

Yours, respectfully,

R. H. Shankland.

To Messrs. P. Canfield, Geo. Dawson, &c, Com.

————

From M. P. Christian, Foreman in the Detroit Advertiser Office.

Detroit, Mich., Dec. 15, 1846.

Gentlemen:—I had the pleasure of receiving a Circular from your Committee a short time since, requesting my attendance at a Festival to be held in our city on the 18th of January next, the Anniversary of the birth-day of the Immortal Franklin—our guardian spirit—for which I return my sincere thanks.

Nothing would give me more pleasure than a personal attendance on the occasion, not only for the purpose of paying homage at the shrine of him whom we all adore, but to meet and exchange friendly salutations with my fellow craftsmen of a neighboring city and State. But the season of the year in which that celebration takes place—when all personal intercommunication is almost wholly cut off—and the necessity of my presence here, render it impossible for me to visit you on the present occasion. I will therefore offer you the following sentiment:

Benjamin Franklin:—The Printer, Patriot and Philosopher,

His was the mighty mind,
That dared conceive the bold design,
Of leading Lightning captive.

In every clime monuments of his greatness have been reared to shield mankind from the bolts of heaven. Printers will ever adore him whom the elements obey, and the electric spark of love thrill every heart at the mention of his name.

With respect, &c,

M. P. Christian.

To Messrs. P. Canfield, Geo. Dawson, &c, Com.

————

From L. Mills, of the Palladium Office, Oswego.

Oswego, Jan. 11, 1847.

Gentlemen:—Your circular informing me of the determination of the Printers of your city to celebrate the approaching "anniversary of the birth-day of the immortal Franklin, and soliciting my attendance or a communication," etc., was duly received. Desirous of meeting with you and our typographical brethren who will assemble on that occasion, and hoping that it might be in my power to do so, I have delayed a compliance with your request for an early response until the present time, for the purpose of enabling me to communicate a positive reply. But I regret to inform you that my engagements are such that I cannot consistently be with you on the occasion referred to; and that I must deny myself the unfeigned pleasure and gratification which such an interview with my fellow-craftsmen would afford me.

It is a proud reflection for the members of our profession that their great American Prototype—one of the earliest pioneer Printers of our country—was the exemplary citizen, the true patriot, the great statesman, and the profound philosopher—Benjamin Franklin; and it is highly creditable to the taste and public spirit of the Printers of your city that they have engaged in and resolved to continue the celebration of his birth-day—an era in the history of the world which will never be forgotten while intellect is appreciated and virtue honored.

Let the memory of Franklin be generously cherished by the craft; let his virtue and his deeds be perpetuated and made examples for all who may now or hereafter profit by their imitation; and let his countrymen, grateful for his early and zealous devotion to the cause of their Independence, ever preserve in their recollections, and regard in their action, his wise precepts and patriotic counsels.

I trust that these Festivals will be continued from year to year, and that each succeeding one will exhibit an improvement upon the former, by engendering increased regard for the welfare of all those belonging to the craft, and renewed zeal in the promotion of ail its various interests.

In conclusion, gentlemen, permit me to offer you the following sentiment:

The Junior Members of our Craft: May they study the history and emulate the virtues of the great and good Franklin, and learn from his example that happiness is the reward of integrity and benevolence, and success the fruit of industry and perseverence.

In haste, respectfully and truly, yours,

L. Mills

To P. Canfield and others, Committee.

————

From Rufus A. Reed, Esq., of the Cortland Co Whig.

Homer, N. Y., Dec. 17, 1846.

Gentlemen:—The obligation of engagements, such as all Printers can appreciate, and with which they can sympathize, will prevent my acceptance of your kind invitation for the 18th of January. How deeply I regret it, I need not say.

Blessing on the memory of Franklin! His mission it was—and no man fulfilled it so well—to dignify labor—to exalt the character of the working man. He built upon the foundation of the mechanic, the superstructure of the philosopher, the statesman, the sage; and while he omitted no grace, he exerted every energy. Your remembrance of his value to the age which he adorned, is worthy of those who follow his craft, and who practice his sound precepts.

Accept the following sentiment, and believe me that I wish yon all joy at your noble Festival:

The American Laborer: It is the glory of our country that he is the synonyme of the American Citizen.

With high respect, yours, truly,

Rufus A. Reed.

To P. Canfield, Chairman of Committee.

————

From George Dawson, Esq., Associate Editor of the Albany Evening Journal.

Albany, January 15, 1847.

Gentlemen:—I have delayed communicating with you until the last moment, because I hoped to be able to attend your Festival in person. Circumstances, however, render it impossible. This, to me, is a source of deep regret; for I have looked forward to your Celebration with great interest. I know how much I shall lose, because I know how much you have done to render the occasion "a feast of reason and a flow of soul."

The Printers of Rochester and Western New York have set a noble example to their brethren elsewhere. The spirit of the craft had lost its lustre. Many of its "high places" had been filled by those who have not "from youth up," inhaled the heart-expanding atmosphere of the Printing Office. However high-minded and honorable such men may be—however desirous of dealing justly by their journeymen, they cannot fully understand us, for they have not imbibed that inexpressible but felt sympathy which exists between practical Printers everywhere.

This state of things, more than any other, has tended, of late years, to render less frequent than formerly, these Typographical reunions. But you have removed the embargo, and trust your good example may be generally followed. It becomes those whose proudest boast it is that we have passed through every grade of the profession, to show to others that the disciples of Faust and Franklin, appreciate the dignity of their craft, and the value of that good-fellowship which these Anniversary Feasts never fail to engender.

Please accept from me the following sentiment:

Journeymen Printers: Intellectual columns in the Temple of Freedom.

Yours, very respectfully,

George Dawson.

To Messrs. Canfield, Shepard and others.

————

From John W. Angel, Foreman in the office of the Geulph and Galt Advertiser

Geulph, C. W., Dec. 14, 1846.

Gentlemen:—I should ere this have acknowledged the receipt of your kind invitation to join the brethren of the craft of your city, in celebrating the anniversary of the Birthday of the immortal Franklin, but that I thought it would be in my power to be present on the occasion; in which case no answer would be necessary; but having since ascertained that I cannot possibly be with you at that celebration, I feel bound to reply, trusting you will excuse the delay.

Myself an American, I feel doubly gratified in seeing you tender your hospitality to your brother "typos" across the lake, and I can assure you they are deeply sensible of your kindness, and will heartily co-operate with you.

Trusting you will receive my sincere thanks for your kind invitation, and that nothing may prevent you from celebrating the day with the spirit you anticipate,

I remain, Gentlemen,

Your most obedient serv't,

John W. Angell.

To the Corresponding Committee of the Franklin Festival, Rochester, N. Y.

————

From F. W. Palmer, Esq., of the Journal, Jamestown.

Jamestown, Dec. 2, 1846.

Gentleman:—Your circular of the 9th ult., asking the attendance of the proprietor of this paper at a celebration of the anniversary of the birth-day of Benjamin Franklin, to be held at Rochester on the 18th of January, was duly received at this office on the 26th of Nov. In said circular there was a solicitation of the sentiments of your fellow-craftsmen in this establishment.—For one, sirs, I feel bound to respond to the invitation. If there is one man of the past, above another, to whose memory I would unite in doing honor, it is the venerated Franklin. Possessed, in his youth, of far less advantages than hundreds of the craft now, who, if they desire knowledge, despair, calling their lot a rigid one, and their advantages for education circumscribed, he struggled against difficulties, and surmounted barriers, which would have made less resolute minds quail with fear. Although far from condemning schools and colleges, he overleaped them, and without the aid which they bestow, climbed to the very apex of the temple of Science. With his own hands he wrought out his own destiny. The unaided and self-created genius which glimmered in the Printer's boy at Boston, shone with brilliant splendor in the Philosopher and faithful Representative at Philadelphia, and in the patriotic Ambassador at the Court of St. James. Benjamin Franklin is to the Printer what George Washington is to the Soldier, to us all. And cold must be the bosom of that disciple of Faust, which beats not with emotion at the mere mention of the name of him to whom the nation will ever owe a debt of gratitude—and who added such undimmed lustre to the pursuit which we, as Printers, are engaged in.

May your celebration of the anniversary of the birth-day of the Father of Printers, be all that such an occasion should be.

Yours, respectfully,

F. W. Palmer.

To P. Canfield and others, Committee.

————

From John Chubbuck, Esq., or Lockport, N. Y.

Lockport, Dec. 8, 1846.

Brothers of the craft:—With profound sincerity, I congratulate you for your Heaven-approved design to pay a distinguished tribute of respect to our fellow-craftsman, the immortal Franklin. The covers of the precious "old book" are laid aside, and the sacred pages are scattered over the wide world, as emblems of him who found no equal, and shall never cease to exist. His virtues should be recorded in letters of gold upon our national tablets, and indelibly stamped upon the mind of every craftsman, that they may be transmitted to posterity through succeeding generations.

Although I cannot be with you, my heart is with you, and will continue to be, so long as such celebrations are put in operation; for they will show to the world that you appreciate the talents of that renowned Sage, Patriot, Statesman, and Philosopher. Nothing is better calculated to emulate you, to raise your sleeping energies and show yourselves participants in the blessings of a free country, in the procuring of which our reverend ancestor acted a glorious part. But if I rightly understand, you do not assemble to contemplate his numberless virtues, but to honor them; and in doing so, you have the best wishes of your fellow-craftsman,

John Chubbuck.

Philemon Canfield and others, Committee.

————

From D. Bennett, Esq., of the firm of Bennett, Backus & Hawley.

Utica, Jan. 6, 1847.

Gentlemen:—We should be most happy to set down our sticks, and leave our cases, and unloose our hold of the bar, were we not so closely locked up and pressed for quoin, it would afford us untold pleasure to enjoy with you the proposed celebration. Accept our thanks for your kind invitation, and be assured that we shall ever strive to justify the columns of the "Art preservative of all arts."

"Our hands" send you a few sentiments.

1. Franklin's industry, perseverance, integrity, temperance and benevolence in the age in which he lived, present him as a model worthy of our imitation.

2. Our Craft—May every Apprentice follow copy of Franklin's virtues, every Compositor produce a clean proof thereof, and every Pressman exhibit an unmackled form, and every Master workman present an illustrated page of them in his country's history.

3. The Printing Press—May its light continue to spread until it covers the whole earth as the waters cover the great deep.

4. Geo. R. Perkins, the great Mathematician—While a roller boy in Mr. Clark's office, Cooperstown, he said to that gentleman, "when I become a man of scientific attainments, you can tell people I was once a roller boy." Boys, do yon hear that?

The above may be relied on as a fact.

Yours, very respectfully,

D. Bennett.

To P. Canfield, and others, Committee.

————

From Myron H. Rooker, Esq., Compositor in the Atlas Office, Albany.

Albany, Dec. 14, 1846.

Gentlemen:—I acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 9th ult., requesting my attendance at the "Celebration of Franklin's Birth-Day" in your city, on the 18th of January. I exceedingly regret that it is not in my power to comply with your kind invitation; for I assure you nothing would give me more pleasure than uniting with my fellow-craftsmen in celebrating and paying that respect, which is so justly due, to the day which ushered into the world, one whose name will be linked with the profession to the very end of time.

It affords me peculiar gratification, gentlemen, to learn that my brethren of Rochester are making such an attempt—an attempt to unite more closely the brotherhood in our State; and I look to it as a powerful instrument in raising still higher the position of our profession in the estimation of the world.

With the improvements and intelligence daily being added to our business, certainly there should be no retrogradation—its march should be onward, and I know of no single mode better calculated to advance its movements than a periodical assemblage.

In connection with your Festival, in my opinion, there should be held a convention, for the purpose of taking into consideration such matters as do most infinitely concern the business—for the adoption of such measures as will benefit and afford protection to those connected with it—to encourage a correction of abuses, and bind more closely the obligations and duties of one to another. If this were done, I humbly submit, then the whole object of the worthy undertaking in which yon are engaged, would be fully carried out.

But to do this, it will be requisite to have a representation from all parts of the State. This, I should think, could easily be had; and should Rochester, (and I hope it may be the case,) take to herself the duty of calling, in connection with their already established annual Celebration, a Convention, she will be looked to with pride by the Printers not only of our own State, but of all others in the Union.

In conclusion, gentlemen, I wish you all that pleasure which I feel is so certain to be derived from a social meeting like yours. May the warm feeling of friendship pass around your board with all the fervor so characteristic of the hearts of which it is composed. I present you the following sentiment.

The Printers of Rochester and their second Proof Sheet: Revised and corrected, it is now clean; may the work be bound so strongly as to last, an honoring monument, through eternity.

Truly yours,

Myron H. Rooker.

To Philemon Canfield, &c, Committee.

————

From George P. Morris, Esq., of the Home Journal Office, New York.

Office of Home Journal, 107 Fulton St.,
New York, Jan. 8, 1847.

Dear Sir:—Indisposition and pressing avocations have prevented an earlier reply to your kind letter of the 17th ultimo, requesting "an Ode from my pen to be recited on the 18th inst. in honor of the Franklin Festival." I would comply with your polite invitation with pleasure, were it in my power. My time is so much occupied just now, that I can scarcely find leisure for the ordinary requirements of society. On another occasion I shall be most happy to meet your wishes.

Thanking you sincerely for your courtesy and kind considerations—and wishing you a clear sky—good appetites, and a pleasant gathering of our brethren of "the craft,

I remain, dear sir,

Yours very cordially,

Geo. P. Morris.

Wm. A. Welles, Esq.

P. S.—Allow me the pleasure of sending you a toast, which you may offer on the occasion, in my name, if you think proper:

Woman—An exquisite edition of "Paradise Regained."

————

From W. W. Woolnough, Esq., of Battle Creek, Mich

December 28, 1846.

Gentlemen:—Your Circular, containing an invitation for me to attend a celebration to be held in the city of Rochester, in honor to the birthday of the illustrious patriot and statesman, Benjamin Franklin, came to hand over a week ago; but the pressure or business has prevented me from making a reply as soon as perhaps, necessary.—In communicating to you, gentlemen, my answer, I regret to say that I cannot be with you. It would afford me inexpressible pleasure to meet with you on the day set apart, and join in the festivities, in honor of the genius and virture of the Prince of Typographers. My heart is with you.

Perhaps, there is no individual to whom we owe so much in all respects, as to him whose bright actions you will appropriately celebrate. As a man of genius, he had few equals, and certainly no superiors. Brought up to the laborious profession of our craft, and industriously laboring for its elevation during its infancy, he yet found time to employ his mighty genius for the advancement of those branches of science, the rapid progress of which emphatically mark the present age. Is it not, then, peculiarly fitting that we should claim him as our own: as the great and beloved representative of the "Art Preservative of all Arts?"

Allow me to wish you success in this noble enterprise; for it is thus bolding in admiration the virtues of our great men, that we inspire this rising generations to emulate their actions.

Accept, gentlemen, my sincere thanks for the honor conferred, and present to the great body of printers, (who will doubtless be present on the occasion,) the compliments of one who, though doomed to be absent in body, will be present in spirit.

Please accept the following sentiment:

Benjamin Franklin: The faithful and fearless advocate of our national independence, the profoundly wise and benificent philosopher— his public services demand our lasting gratitude, while his bright name and untarnished honor will ever be the pride and glory of the American citizen.

Yours, very respectfully,

Walter W. Woolnough.

————

From Wm. A. Carpenter, Esq., a Pioneer Typo.

Buffalo, Jan. 15, 1847.

Brother Typos:—Chance has just thrown in my way an opportunity of reading your Circular of the 28th nit., inviting the craft to attend, at Rochester, on the 18ih inst., the celebration of Franklin's Birthday.

Finding that I shall not be able to enjoy the pleasure of attending the celebration, I give, for your disposition, some "incidents" of my own professional life, in aid of your proposed history of the Press of Western New York, as also a sentiment for the occasion.

The 1st of December, 1796, I commenced learning the printing business. On the 1st Tuesday of January, 1803, I became the proprietor and editor of a Press in Goshen, N. Y., and lost it by fire in 1805. Soon after I occasionally worked as a journeyman, until I came to reside at this place in 1810. There being no printer here, I am now the oldest resident member of the craft in this part of "the then west."

In October, 1811, Messrs. S. H. & H. A. Salisbury established the Buffalo Gazette, the first paper printed in this county, and I helped them out with their first number. The same year I moved to Batavia and assisted Mr. Benjamin Blodgett as printer and editor of the Republican Advocate for about two years. In 1814 I returned to this county and assisted the Messrs. Salisbury's in the management of their paper until the close of the war.

Mr. David M. Day in July, 1815, established the Niagara Journal, it then being Niagara county. I helped him issue his first number. These two printing establishments were the only ones in this county for about 12 years. The former is continued to this day, (with a great many of the subscribers of its first numbers,) under the title of the "Buffalo Patriot, (Weekly) and the "Commercial Advertiser," (Daily.)

The first Tuesday in January, 1817, I established the Chautauque Gazette, at Fredonia, beat and pulled, with my own hands, the first number, it being the first paper printed in Chautauque co. I soon sold to Mr. James Hall, a partner in the interest of the establishment.

In 1818, I purchased Mr. S. H. Salisbury's interest in the Buffalo Gazette, and became a partner with his brother, Mr. H. A. Salisbury, and in about three months sold to him. In 1826, I again associated myself with Mr. H. A. Salisbury as partner and assistant editor of the Buffalo Patriot, until 1834, when I retired from any responsible part in the duties of the Press.

From my first intercourse with the craft, I have, felt a deep interest in their welfare, and have also, at all times and on all occasions, been willing to advise and assist them, whether doing the duties of the printer's devil, or elevated as an editor.

I offer the following sentiment:

The Editorial Chair:—May it be filled with gentlemen of tact and talent, ready and willing to defend the Rights of Man and the Liberty of the Press.

Accept my best wishes for the health and happiness of the craft. Wm. A. Carpenter.

P. Canfield, Chairman, &c.

————

From A. H. Baily, Esq., of the Chronotype.

Boston, Mass., Jan. 13, 1847.

Gentlemen:—Your elegantly printed Circular, issued in anticipation of a celebration in your city upon the occasion of Franklin's Natal day, was received with pleasure; and as the time approaches, allow me, in behalf of the craft in the Chronotype Office, (who of course cannot be present,) to return thanks for your regard, and our hearty wishes that the coming Festival may be a really 'good time' to all who may be privileged to participate.

Your kind invitations, gentlemen, could not be received at any other point in the wide world with a warmer welcome than at this, the Printer Philosopher's Birth-place—where the first scintillations of his genius flashed forth, attracting the attention of those who were then considered the peers of Literature and Science—where, perhaps, fortunately, he received such early impressions of tyranny as caused him ever to oppose that antipode of Freedom—and where, too, he spiritually parted with home and relatives, rather than submit to injustice and oppression.

But, happily, those pioneer times of our art and his genius are rapidly advancing to a blessed and glorious maturity. The union of the two is fast 'knocking into pi' ignorance and intolerance—intelligence is not now a by-word of reproach, but a pass word to honors—and our youth are not beaten for knowing more than their masters!

At the time of the above mentioned incidents, there were in this city—and consequently in all the north—but two newspapers, where now we have about fifty. Of morning dailies, our city supports 12—to wit: an Advertiser, which gathers more fat from the trade than any other sheet—a Courier, noted for its grammer and independance—an Atlas, whose broad shoulders are given to the support of the whole 'Whig' world—a Post, which is a mighty pillar of the 'Democracy'—a Times, never 'out of joint' in its arrangements, except by the breaking of the Telegraph— a Mail, that 'can't be beat' by Uncle Sam's, or any of 'that sort'—a Bee, that collects much honey from a band of practical Printers—an Eagle, that aims to soar in a purely 'Native' element—a Star, which shoots where'er a funny Corporal sends it—a real Whig, battling strongly against human oppression—a Herald, young and active—and last, though least only in size, a Chronotype, the impress of the present and a 'Wright' index of the future. We have also 4 evening dailies—comprising a Transcript, with a Lady Editor and 'host of admirers'—a Journal, of events on land and 'Bubbles' at sea—a Traveller, which 'girdles' New England much more faithfully than Puck did the earth—and a Herald the eldest twin of its morning brother. The residue of our periodical publications consist of weeklies and semi and tri-weeklies, devoted to all subjects now in public contemplation.

Since the days of Franklin, there have been improvements in our art much greater than there have been in the language. The styles and faces of types have been constantly changing and gradually approaching perfection, until it now really seems as if the ne plus ultra of taste and elegance in 'letter' had been reached. Prices have been also reduced, so that any enterprising Printer, with a few 'quoins' in his pocket, and leaded matter in his head, can easily procure the materials to set up shop, and thus press his way, sometimes to fortune, and ever to ——— fame. Undoubtedly, as a class, our laborers are among those receiving the least reward pecuniarily—but it should be a source of honorable satisfaction to know that we are leaders who can't be left out of any line of progress in the great body politic.

I have intimated that there has not been much comparative improvement in our language, but allow me, as a convert to, and practitioner of Phonotypby, (spelling by sound, or pronunciation,) to say a word in favor of that system. It relieves the language entirely of those almost inexplicable and really absurd characteristics which render it so difficult for foreigners to master, and in the simiplest manner possible illustrates the pure Saxon dialect. It will restore Babel to harmony, and prove the great instrumentality by which all Nations shall 'see eye to eye'—the advent of the 'good time coming,' in the Millennium. And for this great reform, your own Rochester has furnished a most able Teacher and Lecturer, in the person of Mr. Augustus F. Boyle—which will some day be a proud 'fixed fact' in the history of letters.

But as my form is nearly full, I must close up in few words. The name and fame of Franklin are indeed the Nation's treasures; but it cannot be denied that the Art of Arts followed by him in his youth, was the inducing agency which made the sure foundation for his future greatness. His example is truly a worthy model for the imitation of all members of our craft in all times and climes: yet let us remember the enlightening influences of our profession are open to us as to him, and that with a devoted application to its powers, we are under the greatest teaching granted by the great Author of Intelligence.

I will conclude by sending a sentiment:

Printing: The powerful lever, based upon the fulcrum of Thought, by which the mental world shall be lifted into an orbit of light and knowledge inferior only to the brilliancy and glory of Heaven.

A. H. Bailey.

Our hands send you the following sentiments.

By Elizur Wright, Esq., Editor of the Boston Chronotype—The Pavors of the High Road to Immortality to others: beginning at the lower end may they finish their job at the summit.

By F. A. Cheever, Foreman—The Printers of Rochester: Worthy of all praise for their regular and spirited celebration of this Anniversary. May their example be imitated until the "Franklin Festival" shall be proverbial throughout the Union.

By A. H. Bailey—The cities of Rochester and Boston: The indispensable granaries of the New World: the one for the body, the other for the mind.

By Daniel K Chase—Printers of Rochester: We are with you, not in form but in heart. May our interests be linked together with that Telegraph whose magnet is brotherly love.

By Frank Eastman—The Printers of Rochester: When they have surmounted the proud eminence attained by the illustrious member of the craft, the Anniversary of whose Birth-day they are now met to celebrate, may they still keep in view the noble motto of their noble State—"Excelsior !"

Rochester: The "Bread City"—both for bran and brain.

To the unmarried Printers of Rochester: May they, when locked up in the chase of matrimony, be so well justified as never to fall out.

Rochester: Its mills furnish the best flour in all our Northern borders, which gives fat takes to every body that loafs upon it.

The Printer Volunteers: May they handle their shooting-sticks with the best success, and may their forms be returned from the squabble unbattered.

The Ladies of Rochester: The fairest Nonpariels in the case of womanhood—of beautiful fact and elegant form. May they ever be well matched, and prove the founts of happiness for innumerable castings.

The Type-Setting Machine—More "infernal" than Fiesch's, and better adapted for raising hell then all the devils this side of Pandemonium.

————

From T. H. Hyatt, Esq., Editor of the Daily Globe.

New York, Jan. 14, 1847.

Gentlemen: Your letter inviting me to meet with my fellow craftsmen of Rochester and Western New York, to commemorate the Anniversary of the birth-day of the immortal Franklin, came to hand this day. I know you will need no assurance of my sincerity, when I say to you it would afford me the most heartfelt satisfaction to meet once again and exchange cordial greetings with my brother Printers of Western New York; and especially gratifying would it be to me to meet you on go interesting an occasion as that of commemorating the Birth-day Anniversary of our ever-to-be-revered Patron Saint, the illustrious Franklin. But duties here, connected with my profession, that none but Printers and Editors can ever fully understand and appreciate, will deprive me of the much wished-for pleasure of joining you on that festive occasion.

I trust you will have a happy and joyous meeting. The Birth-day of Franklin is a day that ought to be remembered and commemorated to the end of time! The brilliant fame, the glowing example, the undying name, of Franklin the Printer, have been to me "as the cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night," in guiding and cheering me along the checkered path-way of my professional career, from the days of my boy-hood to maturer manhood.

Franklin !—It is a name that will be canonized and perpetuated so long as the Art of Printing shall be known! The Spirit of Freedom! It will be felt and cherished while there is a Printer's heart to beat, or a bosom left to throb with generous emotion! The Fame of Franklin !—It will last as long as Liberty shall be known on earth, or the Lightnings shall flash through the Heavens ! I would rather have such a name, such a character to bequeath to my posterity—the mantle of such a spirit to let fall upon the shoulders of my cherished sons; than all the fame and glory of a Caesar or a Napoleon; than all the wealth of a Rothschild, a Girard, or an Astor.

But my feelings are carrying me away with the enthusiasm of my theme—and I must close this hastily written apology, by assuring you and the printers of Western New York who shall congregate together at Rochester on Monday next, that I am with you in spirit and feeling, although at the same time engaged on a distant "Globe."

As a sentiment, allow me to offer:

Ben. Franklin: The industrious Printer, the fearless Editor, the sagacious Statesman, the skilful Diplomatist, the pure and unflinching Patriot, the common-sense Philosopher, the honest Man. What he was, may every Printer strive to become.

Wishing success and happiness to you all, I subscribe myself

Your Friend and Fellow-Craftsman,

T. Hart Hyatt.

Messrs. P. Canfield, and others, Committee.

————

From J.N.T. Tucker, Esq., of Syracuse.

Syracuse, Jan. 15, 1847.

Mr. President, and Gentlemen:—I can scarce conceive of an event, which would be more gratifying to my feelings, or in which I should feel more highly honored, than in making one of your joyous number on the grand occasion which has assembled you. But, I am, unfortunately, out of sorts, and my form is not capable of being raised from the bed where the presswork of disease has badly squabbled it. The most I can do, therefore, is to put my head and a ☞ on an extra sheet, and send you a few lines of proof, that though absent in body, yet I am with you in the spirit of your festal scenes, and as an humble member of the profession, greet you.

Were I to be present with you and permitted to speak, I can now think of no topic more important than, "the character and influence of the Press of the U States."

Protected, as our Press is, by the genius of our Government and by its laws, we are placed in a position, where we may soon learn, if we have not already learned, the matchless and measureless influence of the Press.

Our Press is Free, so far as our laws are concerned. It should be continued so forever. But one course can prevent its continuance—that will be the voluntary subsidency of it, by its managers.—No laws can ever be passed in this country, restricting the freedom of the Press, while the proprietors and managers thereof, maintain their present and now increasing intelligence and freedom.

But, let the force of money—the love of party—the love of sect or any other selfish consideration take the place of an enlightened, independent Press and its "glory is departed" and will be "given to another" power.

It is a fact, which may well fill the mind of every member of the honored profession with just pride, that, at the present day, there is no class of men, in the individual or collective capacity whose influence in shaping the character of our country—practically considered, is equal to ours. And this truth extends as well to moral and religions as to civil character. Let the press maintain a high, dignified, independent, unbribed, pure ground, in relation to political doctrines and measures, and the people will initiate and emulate it. So with regard to morality and social order. The maxim of an ancient writer, "Like Priest like People," is not so true, at the present day, as, "Like Press like People.

If this truth is admitted, it will require but a casual glance at the manifold interests of mankind to inspire the philanthropic heart of our enlightened conductors of the Press with high and sacred ambition to be, what Providence basso wisely ordered attainable.

And, great as has been the devotion of many of the most ably conducted and popular presses, to the exclusive interests of the political parties which have supported them, yet, it is among the most gratifying signs of the times, that these presses are beginning to exhibit the most commendable independence, and to publish facts in the history of their country, as well when they reflect dishonor as when they confer honor upon their affiliations. Let this course become more general—let it prevail every where—let the motto, at least in practice, with every press, be: "Without Concealment—Without Compromise"—and let the spirit which inspires all, the general good, and there is no country in the known world where the honor of a connexion with the Press can equal that of our own.

Here—not titles—not wealth—not empty honors distinguished men. The republican doctrine of our happy Republic, is Worth makes the man—Talent and Virtue distinguish him. When these enter into the qualifications of the managers of the Press, we may expect to see, us we now daily see, science and the arts—knowledge and virtue—adorning as well the cottage of the poor as the mansions of the rich. Dotted all over as our land is, with Printing Offices, and falling in every place like snow flakes, as are the pages of the Newspaper, daily and weekly, speaking to all classes in praise of real merit instead of factitious and artificial, the people cannot help feeling admiration for the real virtues of their distinguished fellow men. One sentence, perhaps, written with one pen full of ink, and put in type, in half an hour in the streets of the city—in an hour thousands have read it there—another day tens of thousands get it—it is copied by another daily and weekly sheet and in a week millions have read a valuable truth which becomes a text and theme for millions of ears beside. Yet the writer, scarcely dared hope his own readers would notice it.

Thus, great good or great harm is within the power of your hands, my worthy friends. You can elevate, still higher, and render superlatively great, or you can bring down and destroy our country.

But, I may be tresspassing upon time which can be more profitably employed—or if not, I may already have arrogated to myself the utterance of suggestions more forcibly and appropriately made by more wise and venerable persons; I will therefore farther detain you only by offering the following sentiment.

The Press: A lever whose impressive power, if pulled by the united hands of the craft, will put a period to vice, and leave a fairer impression upon the face of our nation, and give the pages of as history in future, a brighter lustre than all other influences combined.

With great respect,

And Fraternal Regard.

J. N. T. Tucker.

————

From W. L. Crandall, Esq., of the Onondaga Democrat.

Syracuse, Jan. 16, 1847.

Gentlemen: I find it impossible to meet you at the Festival, on Monday, in honor of the most illustrious Patron of our craft. My regret is greatly enhanced by the fact, that around your festive board will be gathered a host of noble spirits, who do honor to our pursuit. To join with them, and with the retired Patriarchs of our craft who will be present, in rendering homage to the illustrious Name you celebrate, and to exchange friendly greetings with each man, I need not say would indeed be a pleasure such as is rarely afforded on a public occasion.

It is now nearly ten years since I became connected with the Press of Western New York, at Buffalo. An abrupt and unexpected termination of my engagement there, resulted in my location at this place. You will therefore acquit me of all indelicacy when I say to you, that, during the period which has intervened, I have watched with peculiar interest the course, prosperity and character of the Press of Western New York. I can say to you, truly, that I have observed its onward course, with heart-felt pride. It would, indeed, be difficult for me to point to any district in our Union, more distinguished for the enterprise, character, and enlightened views of the Press.

Permit me to add a word in reference to Central New York, confining myself to our own village—soon to be the "City of Syracuse." When I came here eight years ago, it contained two weekly newspapers, one of fair, the other of diminutive, proportions; the combined circulation being about 2000 copies. There are now published six weekly newspapers, with an aggregate circulation of between ten and eleven thousand, each of which is decidedly superior in size and mechanical execution to either published at the former period; while, with limited exceptions, the demand is purely local. Besides, there are two well sustained daily newspapers.

With an apology for having so long detained you, permit me to offer this sentiment:

The Press of Western New York: May its conceded enterprise be equalled only by its prosperity, usefulness and high character.

Very respectfully,

W. L. Crandal.

To the Committee, Rochester.

————

From F. Morley, Esq., Editor of the Courier.

Palmyra, Jan. 16, 1847.

Gents—An answer to your letter of invitation to the "Franklin Festival," proposed to be held in your city on Monday next, has been deferred from time to time, under a hope that circumstances could be so shaped as to admit of my participation with you in the enjoyments of the occasion. The situation of business and other matters, compels me, however, at almost the last moment, to abandon any idea of being present with you. I regret this the more, that similar circumstances prevented attendance upon your festivities of last year; but I beg you to be assured that though not personally present, my sympathies will be very closely identified with you.

Please propose, in my name, the following sentiment:

Journeyman Printers—Often "Poor Richards" in pocket, but always "Rich Benjamins" in a disposition to divide their "last crust" with more needy mortals. Good "works" are none the less valuable, if they happen to be destitute of "gilt covers" and "marble edges."

Two workmen in my office, also propose the following:

By E. J. Whitney. The Ladies—May they be locked up in the chase of benevolence; embraced in a line of love; and——away with scorn the ☞ of ingratitude.

By A. C. Dryer. The members of the craft assembled at Rochester on the 18th, who may reserve a corner of their hearts for the poor "devils" whose want of quoin compels them to keep their forms at home. Very truly yours.

F. Morley.

P.Canfield, Esq., and others. Com. of Arrangements.

From J. J. Mattison, Canandaigua

Canandaigua, Jan. 18th, 1847.

Gents:—Your kind invitation to attend to-day a Festival of our Craftsmen in your city, in honor of the Birth-day of the Immortal Franklin, was received some time since. Up to a late hour last evening it was my intention to have been present, but I regret to say that circumstances now forbid me leaving my stand long enough to do no. I am gratified to learn that this day is becoming one of general festivity and rejoicing among Printers, and I trust it will ever be celebrated among them in honor of that brightest ornament of the "Art preservative of arts."

I beg to thank you for your invitation, and to offer the following sentiment for your table:

Benjamin Franklin: The Printer's Boy and the Ambassador: The most brilliant star in the galaxy of eminent printers. A Paragon republican, whose soul was an inexhaustible font of Nonpariel.

Yours, truly,

J. J. Mattison.

To P. Canfield and others, Committee.

————

From S. H. Parker, Esq., of the Daily Gazelle.

Geneva, N. Y.. Jan. 16, 1847.

Gentlemen of the Committee:

Finding it impossible for us to attend in person the celebration of the birth-day of Franklin, on the 18th inst, we beg to offer this, our grateful remembrance, of the virtues of one who not only shed lustre upon the profession, but upon the American name and nation.

Please accept our thanks for the polite invitation to your festival, and convey to those who may be present on the occasion, our heartfelt wishes for their prosperity and happiness; assuring them that although not present in person, we are with them in spirit and feeling.

Respectfully yours,

J. & S. H. Parker.

I propose the following sentiment:

Printers in Battle—The late actions in Mexico, in which they were well represented, prove that they are equally as good with the shooting-stick in the field as in the office.

By H. C. Gilbert—The American Army: May its columns never be pi-ed, or even squabbled.

The senior partner wishes me to say that he is out of sorts; that his form is locked up in the chase of misery, and put on the bed of sickness.

S. H. P.

————

From J M Alvord, Esq., of the Republican Office.

Geneseo, Jan. 16, 1847.

Gents—Not being able to attend your Festival, on the 18th, permit me to offer the following:

The Volunteer Printers—Always ready at their country's call: may their communications to the Mexican columns be leaded and well justified.

Respectfully yours,

Johnson M. Alvord.

————

From G. W. D. Andrews.

Rochester, Jan. 18, 1847.

My dear Sir:—I beg leave to acknowledge, with many thanks, your very kind note of this morning, inviting me to the "Festival." I regret very much, that circumstances which I cannot control, will deny me the great gratification of being with you, and the very worthy and distinguished fraternity whom you represent. But although absent in body, I shall be present in spirit.

Allow me to offer you the following sentiments:

The Reign of the Press—The Freedom of the World.

Allow me also to conclude, by subscribing myself Yours, very truly,

Geo. W. D. Andrews.

To Geo. T. Frost, Esq., one of the Committee.

————

From J. T. Norton, Esq.., or the Livingston Co. Whig.

Mt. Morris, Jan. 16, 1847.

Friend Canfield—Sir: Your kind invitation was duly received, and through you, I wish to acknowledge the receipt of many cordial and warm-hearted invitations, extended to me by my follow-craftsmen generally, of Rochester.

I had fondly cherished the hope that I should be able to be present on that joyous occasion, to meet many of my old brothers; but, owing to circumstances beyond my control, I find, this morning, that it will be impossibe for me to be present in form, and would therefore offer the following sentiment:

The Printers here assembled: May they never have their forms battered by the ☞ of adversity, or their brightest anticipations knocked into pi, but may they ever be found with full cases, and an abundance of quoin; and when their forms shall have been worked off from this terrestrial world, may they go to the Great Author with a proof sheet that will need no revision or correction. I remain, truly yours, &c,

James T. Norton.

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From B. F. Hubble, Esq., of the Star Office.

Syracuse, Jan. 18, 1847.

Gentlemen:—Obliged to deny myself the pleasure of accepting your kind invitation to be present at the Festival, allow me to propose a sentiment:

A Free Press: Inseparably connected with civilization and moral progress; the handmaid of Christianity and the palladium of a Nation's Rights—may those who wield its power be not unmindful of the sacredess and dignity of their mission.

Yours, fraternally.

Franklin B. Hubbell.

P. Canfield, and others, of the Committee.

————

Early Printers, Male and Female

From Josiah Snow, Esq.

Rochester, Jan. 11, 1847.

Gentlemen—Your note inviting me to-participate with the Typographical Society of this city, in celebrating the anniversary of Franklin's Birth Day, was duly received. I intended to have been present; but unforeseen demands on my time will prevent it. I am under the necessity of going east. I regret it much. Had I been assembled with you, I intended to have given a brief history of the pioneers of Printing in this country, providing it will escape the many speakers you will enjoy.

A few years since, I spent a few days in the Massachusetts Antiquarian Library, founded by one of our craft, Isaiah Thomas, Esq., at Worcester. He made a noble bequest to the Institution. Not only was his purse extended to it, but the most of his extensive library. It contained more works of antiquity than all other libraries on this continent. He was the "Prince of Researchers," and gatherer of old books. The old gentleman, at my request, handed me the following memoranda of the introduction of Printing into the Colonies:

Cambridge, Mass. Stephen Daye, 1639
Boston, " John Foster, 1647
Philadelphia, Pa. Wm. Bradford, 1684
New London, Ct. Thos. Short, 1709
Newport, R. I. James Franklin, 1732
Annapolis, Md. Wm. Parks, 1726
Williamsburgh, Va. Wm. Parks, 1729
Charleston, S. C. Eleazer Philips, 1730
Woodbridge, N. J. Samuel Parker, 1752
Newbero, N. C. James Davis, 1755
Portsmouth, N. H. Daniel Fowle, 1756
Savannah, Ga. James Johnson, 1762
Vermont, Jadah Paddock, 1781

From the time the first newspaper was published in in 1704 to 1775, being a period of seventy-one years, 78 different papers were printed in the colonies, and just one-half of them were suspended before 1775. As remakable as it may appear, 16 of them were either conducted or published by women! being near one quarter, either directly or indirectly controlled by ladies! What is more to their credit, with one exception, those in existence prior to or at the time of the Revolution, favored Liberty. Two of these ladies were Colony Printers, and two of them State Printers after the Revolution in New York and South Carolina. And more; every Printer in the Colony of Rhode Island, was a champion for equal rights, while in other States many were vacillating. You can set that down to the credit of little Rhoda, the land of freedom in religious opinions—the land that sheltered Roger Williams.

As the last toasts at all public dinners are usually given to Woman, I wish yon to bear in mind the women of our craft—the help-mates and pioneers of the press in this country. A brief sketch of them may not be uninteresting, particularly at this time, when the "Rights of Women" are publicly discussed.

Anne Franklin.—The first paper printed in Rhode Island, was at Newport, in 1732. James Franklin, a brother to the Doctor, was publisher. He died soon after, and his widow continued business several years. She was printer to the colony, supplied blanks to the public offices, published pamphlets, &c. The Newport Mercury, which is now regularly issued, was given out of this printing office in 1756, and is the oldest paper in the country. In 1745, Mrs. F. printed for the government an edition of the laws, containing 340 folio pages. She was aided in her office by her two daughters. They were correct and quick compositors and very sensible women. A servant of the house usually worked at press. Gregory Dexter, an early settler of Providence, usually worked for her when she had a large job or an almanac to get out. It seems printing with type was not her only business. Read her advertisement:

"The printer hereof, prints linens, calicoes, silks, &c, in figures, very lively and durable colors, and without the offensive smell which commonly attends linen printed here."

Mrs. Sarah Goddard, was also a printer at Newport in 1776. Sue was born in Rhode Island, and widow of Giles Goddard, a printer of New London. She received a good education, and was well acquainted with many branches of literature. She had the management of a newspaper, and conducted it with much ability for two years, when John Carter associated with her, under the firm of Sarah Goddard, & Co.

Mrs. Margaret Draper was the widow of Richard Draper. She published the Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter, after his death. It was the first paper established in North America. All the newspapers excepting hers, ceased to be published when Boston was besieged by the English. She left Boston with the British army and went to England, where a pension was settled upon her by the government, for life.

Mrs Cornelia Bradford was the widow of Andrew Bradford, who died in Philadelphia, in 1742. She continued the printing business for a number of years, and retired with a sufficiency of 'worldly lucre.'

In the same city, Mrs. Jane Aitkin, at the death of her father, in 1802, continued the business. Her reputation was high, from the productions which issued from her press. She was also noted for her correctness in proof-reading.

Mrs. Zenger, the widow of John P. Zenger, who published the second newspaper established in New York, carried on the business for years after his death. She was a modest and moderate woman; the exact reverse of her husband, who managed to have as many libel suits on hand, as a certain literary character of our time. The consequence was, Zenger got into full intimacy with the prisons for giving public utterance to has liberal views. Mrs. Z. conducted the "New York Weekly Journal" with ability for three years until 1748.

Mrs. Mary Holt, widow of John Holt, and publisher of the "New York Journal," in 1703, was appointed printer to this State. The paper did powerful service during the revolution.

Anne Katharine Greene, was born in Holland. In 1767, she succeeded her husband in publishing the Maryland Gazette, the first paper printed in that State. She executed the Colony printing and continued the business to her death, in 1775.

Mrs. Hassebotch—The first printer in Baltimore, was Nicholas Hassebotch. He was succeeded by his widow, who done up business with expedition. In 1773, a missionary had a Bible in his hand, explaining it to a party of Indians. He pronounced it to be "the Gospel—the truth—the word of God." "What," said one of them, "did the Great, All Powerful make this Book?" "Yes," replied the missionary, "it is his work." The Indian taking the literal import of the words, answered indignantly, "I believe it to be a great lie. I go to Baltimore last month, when I see Dutch woman make him. The great spirit want no more Dutch man to help him."

Mrs. Mary Katharine Goddard, was sister to Wm. Goddard of Rhode Island, who established the Maryland Journal. Coming from a State where free toleration was allowed, he was apt to write rather harshly. He was several times mobbed, and had finally to quit the State and return to Providence. His sister Mary conducted the paper for eight years, took in job work and acted as postmaster until 1784. She was spirited in her writings, and nothing but her sex saved her from frequent flagelations.

Mrs. Hannah Boyle, published a paper at Williamsburgh, Va., in 1774. It favored the Crown and lived but a short time.

Clementine Bird, succeeded her husband in the Virginia Gazette in 1773. T. W. Jefferson was a contributor. She died in 1775.

Mrs. Elizabeth Timothee, after the death of her husband in 1773, continued publishing the Gazette in Charleston, S. C. She conducted the press two years, when her son took it.

Anne Timothee, the widow of the son of Elizabeth, just mentioned, after the revolutionary war ceased, revived the Gazette, which had been established by the elder Timothee. It had been discontinued while the British troops were in possession of Charleston. She was appointed printer to the State, and held the office until 1792.

Mary Crouch, was the widow of Charles Crouch, and born in Rhode Island. Her husband established a paper in opposition to the Stamp act in Charleston, S. C. Mrs. C. continued the paper until 1780, when she removed to Salem, Mass., and took her press and type with her. She published a paper at Salem for some years, and returned to Providence, with a purse sufficient for "creature comforts" during her life.

Penelope Russell succeeded her husband in printing the "Censor" at Boston in 1771. She not only set type, but while at her case, invoked her muse and put up type on tragical events in an interesting manner, without any written copy.

In Connecticut, Mrs. Watson, the widow of Ebenezer Watson, who died in 1777, continued one of the publishers of the Courant at Hartford for two years, when a gentleman of "steady habits" took her as a sleeping-partner. The Courant is still published.

There are other female printers of the last century, but I have now wearied your patience.

Permit me to remind you, that while drinking to the memory of the Fathers of the Fraternity in this country, to give the Mothers of the Art an extra bumper. Respectfully yours,

J. Snow.

————

From John Gatewood, Esq., of the Woodstock Sentinel Office.

Woodstock, Va, Dec. 4, 1846.

Gentlemen:—Your kind circular of the 9th ult., inviting me to be present at the celebration of the approaching Anniversary of the Birth-Day of Benjamin Franklin, has been received. I most sincerely regret that my pressing engagements deny me the privilege of being with you on that occasion. Be assured, gentlemen, that it would afford me unspeakable pleasure to participate with my brethren of the craft in commemorating the natal day of that great man. The name of Franklin is peculiarly endeared to Printers—a name honored and cherished by the civilized world. As a Philosopher, the god-like genius of Franklin towered to the very heavens—bringing the Thunder King down from his chariot of fire in the clouds, and corking him up in a bottle! As a Statesman, he exhibited matured wisdom and unerring judgment and forecast. As a Patriot, he exhibited the most exalted attachment to his country.

In conclusion, gentlemen, permit we to offer the subjoined sentiment:

Printers: Heaven bless them! May they stick to the rule of Virtue,—live by the guide of Wisdom,—run well in the chase for Honor,—never exhibit foul cases nor battered faces,—and, finally, when they shall be laid out for distribution on Death's imposing stone, may they exhibit a proof free from outs and doublets, and enter into the celestial office of the Great Master Printer of the Universe! So mote it be.

Believe me to be, gentlemen,

Very respectfully, your ob't serv't,

John Gatewood.

Messrs. P. Canfield, &c., Com.

————

From M. G. Atwood, Esq

Alton, Ill., Jan. 8, 1847.

Gentlemen—The Circular inviting my attendance at the Printers' Festival, to be holden in Rochester, on the next anniversary of the birth-day of the immortal Franklin, reached me some time in the last month. A press of business has prevented me, till now, from responding to the token which recognizes me as a member of the craft.

As I can only be with yon in "spirit," at your request, the following remarks are submitted, with the understanding that they shall not be considered libelous by the competitors referred to.

Fellow Craftsmen—Within a few years some bold inroads have been made into our typographical territory. To say the least, it seems very unfair that the lightning which our Franklin had subdued, and made peculiarly his own, should not be content with being quietly directed to the earth, but stealing the mantle of its master, it has set up printing. Dispensing with stick and press—with its stand and case at Washington, it strikes its impressions on a tympan-sheet at Buffalo! While the rail-cars are progressing with all the speed of steam, freighted with the product of the bones and sinews and brains of poor Printers—this new rat has, in less than no time, sent all the news in advance, on its railroad of wire—and all our news-papers cease to be new before they are printed! I hope that this unjust aggression upon the rights of the craft will be suitably noticed by the brethren. I would, also, call their attention to another most powerful opponent, who has but recently used his rays in eclipsing the fraternity. I refer to the Sun, from whom better things might have been expected. It was but the other day that I saw a copy of a page of the St. Louis "Reveille," which he had re-printed, without type or press, changing the Printer's long primer into most beautiful diamond. It has been truly said that our craft are in possession of the fulcrum, sought by Archimedes, whereon, with their lever—the press—they are moving the world. I wish to admonish the brethren that there is danger of losing this fulcrum, through the intervention of such interlopers as I have named.

It is my sincere desire that the art, which has commemorated all other inventions, and immortalized the great and good in all ages, should survive these shocks, and withstand the scorching rays of its new rival, who has recently set up both printing and painting—but, should it be otherwise, after its long career of unbounded usefulness, I would propose the following sentiment as a subject for its requiem:—

The Art of Arts: whose origin, even is enveloped in mystery.—The power of man has failed to buffet its influence, or to hush its thunder-tones—it has withstood the shafts of ignorance and superstition, and diffused the word of God to all the world—and in its proud career of glory, it has quailed only before the lightnings, and the Sun of Heaven.

Hoping that your Festival will serve to strengthen the bond of union between the brethren of the Craft, I remain, yours truly,

M. G. Atwood.

To Messrs. Canfield, Shepard & Fisher, Com.

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Letter to the Celebration Committee.

——

We yesterday received the following letter from the extreme North-West, written by John N. Ingersoll, Esq., of Copper Harbor, on Lake Superior. It will be noticed that it was 26 days longer coming to hand, than the European correspondence. When we take into view that the mail only leaves there once a month in the winter, and is then transported on the back of an Indian more than one thousand miles, the wonder is that we received it with so much expedition. The News, of which Mr. Ingersoll is the proprietor, has a circulation of 500. He sent three copies, which we regret were not received in season to have been laid by the side of those from Oregon and Monterey.

——

From John N. Ingersoll, Esq., Editor of the Lake Superior News.

Office of Lake Superior News,
Copper Harbor, Dec. 2, 1846.

Mr. J. A. Hadley—Dear Sir: Your kind note, in behalf of the Committee of Arrangements, inviting my attendance at the Printers' Festival, in Rochester, on the occasion of the Birth Day of Benjamin Franklin, has been duly received, and for which you will please convey to those gentlemen my unfeigned thanks for this distinguished mark of their favor.

Nothing, I assure you, could afford me greater pleasure than to meet with my fellows of the typographical fraternity of Rochester in the observance of the anniversary of that day which gave to the world a great Philosopher, to political science a profound Teacher, and to the republic of letters an American practical Printer. Distance, however, and the bad state of the roads, must preclude my attendance.

As a sentiment for your social occasion, permit me to offer—

The Sons of Faust in Rochester, and the Printers of America—May their shadows never be less.

I remain, Dear Sir, Very respectfully, yours with esteem, John N. Ingersoll.

————

☞ The following sentiments accompanied documents received by the Committee of Correspondence, and have not before been published:

By Samuel Green, of Hartford, Ct., of the sixth generation of Printers in regular succession from Samuel Green of Cambridge, now 80 years of age, and who has a son Samuel, also a Printer: Journeyman Printers—May they never use their energies in a bad cause — and their reward be always commensurate to their labors.

By D. E. Sill, Esq. Editor of the Cattaraugus Whig: Benjamin Franklin Smead—the first Printer in Cattaraugus: our proper Franklin.

By Orsamus Turner, Esq., of Lockport: Our Craft—Progressive harmony and fraternal feeling among ourselves; cultivated in every way not in compatible with our different positions and duties; a better appreciation of what is due to us from those for whom we labor with head and hand; and a determined concert of action to attain it.

By E. J. Fowle, Esq., of Penn Yan: The Printers of Western New York—Men of worth, talent, and patriotism. Would they but learn to treat each other with the respect that marks the intercourse of men of the other learned professions, they might enjoy what is now denied them - a fair participation in the honors and emoluments of the Republic, which their toils for the public weal, by night and day, richly entitle them to.

————

☞ The following volunteer toasts were omitted in their proper place:

By C. A. Gregory—George Dawson: Though absent, not forgotten. May his late residence become his future home.

By S. B. Stoddard, of the firm of Stoddard & Freeman, Paper Makers—The Printers and Paper Manufacturers of Western New York: Mutually dependent one upon the other—may you never lack the means to support us, nor we the ability to supply you.

☞ The sugar model of an old-fashioned Ramagé Press, alluded to in the account of the Festival, was awarded to the daughter of a Printer in Ithaca. Her sentiment was the one given by Mr. Mann, "for a Lady." The Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements acknowledges the receipt of a very pretty epistle from his youthful friends, the fair Editress of "The Garland," and the Editor of "The Cobbler," publications issuing from the Press of the far-famed "Clover Street Seminary," Brighton. They complain of not having received an invitation to be present at the Printers' Festival, and also, that they were not permitted to compete for the splendid Miniature Ramage Press, which was awarded to the "young, beautiful and accomplished daughter of a Printer, residing in a distant put of this State," as the author of the best sentiment offered on that occasion. For this apparent neglect, she modestly insinuates that the "Committee deserve to be forever haunted by the remembrance of 'The Girl they left behind them!' " The Committee regret the omission complained of, and beg to assure Master C. and Miss M., that, on the recurrence of the Festival in Rochester, they shall not be forgotten.

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Franklin Festival—European Correspondence

The small number of communications received from Europe, is attributable to the fact, that no mail-steamer left England, after the reception of our Circular, in time for the 18th. Those now received will appear in the pamphlet, preparing for publication.

The following letter from James Montgomery, has called up to the mind of the Chairman of the Com. of Correspondence, interesting reminiscences. Some forty years since, before he was familiar with the writings and personal history of Mr. M., an Englishman recently arrived at New York, conversing of the new publications in the literary world, spoke with admiration of Montgomery's productions, and from recollection, recited "The Lyre." The writer of this was soon after engaged in printing a volume of his poems, embracing The Wanderer of Switzerland, The West Indies, and several minor poems. The spirit of Liberty infused through these productions, found a warm response in his bosom; and a feeling enkindled of admiration for the man, no less than for the poet, which the lapse of time has served but to enhance; and in days of prosperity and adversity—in hours of affliction and of joyous exaltation, some lines of this Christian, poet have been adapted to tranquilize the spirit, producing "A calm to those who weep."

Mr M. early became an orphan, his parents having died in the West Indies while on an embassy of mercy as Missionaries; the son was trained with the utmost religious care by the Moravian Brethren. His poetic turn was soon apparent, and the productions of his pen enriched the columns of the Sheffield Register. The publisher fled his country to avoid prosecutions for sedition or libels, under the stringent laws then in operation to prevent the inculcation of revolutionary principles. Mr. M. became proprietor of the Register, and changed the name to "Sheffield Iris." In the year 1795, Mr. M. was prosecuted for permitting to be printed in his office and old ballad on the Destruction of the Bastile. He was fined ₤20 and imprisoned three months. In 1796, he was again punished by a fine of £30 and imprisoned six months, for publishing remarks respecting a riot, which were proved to have been true. But the blameless life of this persecuted man disarmed his oppressors; and the judge who unjustly pronounced sentence against him, afterwards treated him with great personal consideration. This unjust suffering must have deepened that innate love of liberty, every where so prominent in his works. There are some strong points of resemblance in the works of the gifted and amiable Cowper, and those of Mr. M., who has long been a warm admirer of Mr. C.

These remarks may have been too much extended; but the cheap literature of the day has a tendency to divert the attention, and vitiate the moral and intellectual taste, especially of the young, to the exclusion of works of superior minds, and of pure moral influence. The pleasure and profit of perusal are greater and far more durable, when the author is worthy of, and receives our confidence and esteem.

Mr. M. is more than 75 years old; but impelled by a desire to promote the rational pleasure of others—so characteristic of this good man—has exceeded our fondest expectations. His autograph is still good, and much resembles the impression to his works published by Lea & Blanchard. Philadelphia.

P. Canfield.

——

The Mount, near Sheffield,
England, Dec. 29, 1846.

To the Committee for celebrating the Anniversary of the Birth-day of Benjamin Franklin, at Rochester, New York, in 1847.

Gentlemen:—Circumstances, which I cannot here explain, have hitherto prevented me from acknowledging your Circular applications to persons on this side of the water—in reference to your proposed celebration of the Birth-day of the illustrious Franklin. Great infirmity, both of body and mind, (neither of them ever strong) has so far brought down my spirit, and quelled my poetic fire, if I once had any, that I seldom meddle with verse, except in its humblest form—a Hymn or an occasional Sketch like the following. This, however, has cost me so much labor to make it brief, and yet comprehensive, that I may fear you will be more disposed to commend my self-restraint, than congratulate me on my success. Such as they are, though probably too late for your patriotic purpose, even if approved, please accept these few lines as a proof that my heart is with you, though my hand has been too slow to present it, with the best wishes for the fulfilment of your own most enlarged hopes for the future welfare of your country, and all its inhabitants living and to be born between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. So long may the common bond of Union, the Mother tongue of both, be spoken in the Father land of each, and Britain and America, having one literature, perpetually interchanging benefits, remain to the end of time as distinct and as amiable as day and night, which never encroach upon each other, but make the world beautiful and fertile for the abode of all the dwellers upon the face of it; under those two great lights, which the wise and beneficent Creator made in the firmament of heaven, and set them for signs, and for seasons, and for years, (Gen. I. v. 14 to 18.) "And God saw that it was good."

I am, very truly,

Your friend and serv't,

J. Montgomery.

———

Franklin—The Printer, Philosopher and Patriot.

BY JAMES MONTGOMERY.

He called down Lightning from the Sky,
And, e'er the Thunder made reply,
The flash, like Inspiration, came,
Heaven's own pure fire through all his frame;
Not the dread bolt, whose sudden stroke
Prostrates the Tower or rends the Oak;
A touch, a pulse, a spark revealed
A secret from all ages sealed;
One trembling moment, in its flight,
Drew such a train of wondrous light,
That his wrapt spirit seemed to pierce
The mystery of the Universe;
And scan the Power, which like a Soul,
Informs, expands and rules the whole,
God's hidden minister, whose will
All Nature's Elements fulfil.

There standing, when the deed was done,
That victory of Science won.
He planted where his foot had trod
His conquering Spear—the Electric Rod !
A trophy, simple and sublime—
His monument, defying Time.

That was to him a glorious day.
Whose time can never pass away;
Philosophy had triumphed there,
A nobler Wreath he lived to share;
He lived, a brighter day to see—
His country by the PRESS made free !

P.S. I beg to state that since the year 1825, I have had no other connection with the Press, than as an author, occasionally appearing in prose or rhyme.

—————

From the Letterpress Printers of the "Mark Lane Express" Office.

London, Dec. 24, 1846.

Gentlemen:—Sympathy with the fraternal spirit which induced your Committee to communicate with us, we are happily impelled to respond, at the same time applauding your virtuous enthusiasm in the cause of the illustrious Franklin, and the sociality evinced to us from the Western shores of the Atlantic.

Were we able to accept of your invitation to be present at the Anniversary of the Birth-day of the Printer, Philosopher, and Statesman, we should with unbounded joy, be willing to join your social band; but, this not being probable, we can only imagine the happiness that would ensue from such a meeting.

Accept, then, from a body of fellow-laborers in the cause of civilization, our most sincere and heart-felt thanks, at the same time informing you, that your notice of us in this far-distant land, awakens such feelings as should always possess the human breast—namely, feelings of goodwill to all men.

Did we eulogise the merits of Franklin, it would be vain: they are already known throughout the earth—his maxims alone form a considerable portion of the ethics of the human race. It is for us then, to profit by them, and endeavor, to the utmost extent, through their agency, to improve ourselves and others.

In writing you farewell—and in regret at our separation—we have only to state, in the names of thirty individuals, our ardent satisfaction in the cause you have so energetically undertaken. Should fortune compel us to visit your country, we will not fail in calling at the good city of Rochester.

Signed in behalf of the Chapel,*

J. P. Parson, Father,

Jas. Coleman, Clerk.

——

  • Probably all the craft in Western New York may not have a knowledge of the existence, or use of "Chapels." We would state, that they are composed of the workmen in each office—duly organized; in case of misunderstanding among the men, or between the employer and men, the Clerk notifies all the members to appear, by sending a quoin crossed with chalk; the place of deliberation is around the imposing stone. The Chapel has cognizance of all matters pertaining to the general interests of the craft. p. c.

—————

Canadian Correspondence.

——

The Committee of Arrangements acknowledge the receipt of a letter of apology for the "Craft" of Toronto, from the gentleman presenting the latter sentiment—several of whom, up to a late hour, contemplated an attendance, in propria persona, but found it quite impracticable to do so. This being the case, it was their intention to have forwarded their sentiments by telegraph, but they were again disappointed, as the wires had become disarranged. However, he adds, "we hope to be among the *** on the next Anniversary, and em the opportunity of shaking ☞ ☜ with some of your able confreres and justify ourselves in their ii for our apparent neglect. The following are the toasts referred to:

By Joseph H. Lawrence, Esq., Printer and Publisher of the "Christian Guardian"—Peace—Union—and Prosperity:–May we ever enjoy the first—long live to promote the second—and never be without the third !

Bv James Watkins, Esq., Foreman in the "British Colonist Office"—The Electric Telegraph!—All praise to it! as a British Colonist of Toronto, can, in a second of time, transmit his kindest wishes to an American and Democrat of Rochester, and hopes that its lightning wires may cement a friendship between them as lasting and imperishable as the name of him, who, being at once a Printer and Philosopher, first drew the electric fluid from Heaven to Earth, to subserve the interests of Man.

Rochester, January 25, 1847.

Frederick Follett, Esq.

Sir:—The undersigned, a Committee appointed at the Printers' Festival, held in this city on the 18th instant, to superintend the publication of its proceedings, have deemed it fitting to include in connection with such publication, a History of the Newspaper Press in Western New-York. Materials for this purpose have, to some event, been collected by different members of the Craft, and placed in our hands. But, as they are in most instances hastily prepared, as well is imperfect in their character, it has occurred to us that the object in view would be best attained by requesting some gentleman competent to the task, to prepare from such and other sources, a succinct and connected History. Our attention has been directed you, Sir, as eminently qualified, by an acquaintance of nearly thirty years with the Press in this part of the country, to undertake the work.—Your consent will place not only us, but the Profession generally, under very great obligation—and we earnestly beg that it may not be withheld.

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servants,

EVERARD PECK,

ALEXANDER MANN,

H. L WINANTS,

HENRY COOK,

J A. HADLEY.

Batavia, January 28, 1847.

To Everard Peck Esq., and others, Committee.

Gentlemen:—Your note of the 25th instant, came duly to hand, in which you express a desire that I should write out a History of the Newspaper Press of Western New-York. I feel a strong desire that this task should be performed by some one. The period is fast hastening on when many, if not most of those engaged in the early establishment of the Press in this section of the State, will be swept from the scenes of their early labor, and many of the facts connected with this undertaking, will die with them. If such a task, therefore, is to be accomplished, it is very desirable that it be done at once. I feel flattered that the Committee have designated me to perform this duty, and, agreeable to your request, Gentlemen, will undertake it, although I cannot hope to do it that justice which the subject would seem to demand.

Your obedient servant,

FREDERICK FOLLETT.

INTRODUCTION

TO THE

HISTORY OF THE PRESS

IN

WESTERN NEW-YORK.


In undertaking the task of writing out, or compiling a "History of the Press in Western New-York," I confess I enter upon the duty which the partiality of the Committee have selected me to perform, with no little distrust of my capacity to do it that justice which the subject demands, or which the Committee and the public at large, and the Profession in particular, have a right to expect from him who shall undertake it. But having consented to the task, it only remains for me to discharge its requirements to the best of my ability. I would rather, it is true, the mantle had fallen upon the shoulders of some one else—older and wiser heads among the "Craft" could have been found—those who could have done the subject full and ample justice—but I am also aware that it is not always convenient or practicable to engage their services in such an undertaking. Although at this stage of the task I cannot assure the Committee that their expectations are in the least degree to be answered, still, however. I think I may promise them one thing—which is, that

"I will nothing extenuate.
Or set down aught in malice,"

in what I may have to say in relation to the Press of Western New-York. Having retired from its duties, its cares, and its perplexities,—having a conscience void of offence against any who have preceded, or who may be now In the active prosecution of their labors in that interesting department of life, I think I may claim for myself the merit of being a disinterested witness.

The "Press" and a "Printer!" Who is not proud to be associated with the one, and classed with the other? Never has the genius of man been able to offer to the world, viewed in all its parts, any thing that at all compares with that of the Press. Its capacity for good and evil is unbounded. As an engine of moral and political power it has no equal—it is the grand regulator of the world, and its power is alike felt and acknowledged, as well by the prince on the throne, as by the dweller in the hamlet. It is the lever by which the great operations of the world, political, moral, and social, are moved. How vastly important then, that this power is not misplaced.

It is said there are certain classes in society who are literally good for nothing—that in almost any position, as the geologist would say, they are "out of place." This remark, however, loses all its force when applied to Printers, as the very reverse of it is true—they seem to be "in place," in all the varieties of situations in which their lot may be cast. Let the reader cast his eye around him. In one of the Territories of this Republic a Printer may be recognized, who has exchanged the stick and the case, and been robed with executive power,—again, among those "grave and reverend signors" who occupy that most august body, the Senate of the United States, and there you discover a Printer—look among the fighting men of our country, in the ranks and clothed with official dignity, and there you will find the Printer—look, also, among the Divines, the Doctors, the Politicians, and indeed, among almost every branch of industry or calling in society, and Printers are to be found! And last, though by no means least, the Craft can point with proud and glorious satisfaction to Benjamin Franklin!—He is an example, of whom, not only Printers, but the world may be proud. The Society of him who called, and tamed, the lightning from the clouds, has been sought and courted by the proudest monarchs of the earth! Other benefactors of mankind have lived—but none whose brow has been wreathed with prouder laurels than that of Franklin.

It may not be inappropriate to the designs of the Committee, and the purposes of the "Franklin Festival," to place together in this convenient form, a short account of the first discovery, and the early progress of the "Art of Printing." Such accounts, I am aware, are not without an existence—but in very many instances they are placed beyond the reach of the mass of readers, by being coupled with other matter, thereby rendering them too cumbrous and expensive to be brought into the circle of the general reader. Presuming that I shall be pardoned for such a digression, I will endeavor to furnish such a synopsis, which I doubt not, will be new, and perhaps, interesting, to many who may be induced from curiosity or otherwise to peruse these pages, if not to some of the members of the Craft.

Previous to the discovery of the Art of Printing, the thoughts of men were preserved and given to the world, (and a very circumscribed portion of it, too, owing to the great price which was demanded and received for manuscript books,) in writing. At this age of the world it is very difficult, if not almost impossible, to realize the existence of such a state of things. Dark, indeed, must have been the age, when knowledge and learning were thus pent-up, and shut out from the world! But a brighter day was in store, and soon the Art of Printing burst upon the world like a flood of light—shooting its bright effulgence into the inmost recesses, and corners of the habitable globe!—awakening a new spirit, with higher and nobler aspirations, in the breast of man!—the store house of knowledge was unlocked, and its treasures which had been so long hidden from the "vulgar gaze," scattered to the winds of heaven.

It is impossible to say at what particular juncture of the world the germ of the Art of Printing took its rise, or had its origin. Those who are deep skilled in Antiquarian researches have discovered that for at least two thousand years before the present era, the art or method of reproducing impressions, although rude and imperfect in their design and execution, had an existence. Egypt furnishes abundant evidence of this. The art of coloring was practiced by the Egyptians, and was continued by them until a more advanced state of society, and the want of something of a more general application, induced them not only to apply the art to inscriptions, at first painted or engraved upon the statues of their deities, but also entered into the more common affairs of life.

The site of the ancient city of Babylon also presents some very remarkable evidences of the existence of the art of imprinting, which consists of inscriptions upon the bricks used in building.—Some of these early evidences of the art are now in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, the British Museum, and the library of the East India Company. The imprint will compare with those stamped upon the coarser article of earthen-ware.

Other specimens of Assyrian art, showing still greater perfection and progress in it might be evidenced. China is by no means destitute of interest in this particular, and many cases might be cited to show the existence of an art, closely approximating to that of Printing, long before it was known to the nations of Europe. But it is not my purpose to give a full and perfect expose of this subject, the readers of these pages will expect nothing more than a mere glance at the art in its progress to the era of its perfection, if indeed it may be said to have arrived at that proud eminence now.

Although it is fair and safe to assume that the art, in the rude state I have mentioned, existed among the inhabitants of the old world, it is a no less remarkable fact, that among the Greeks and Romans, original and ingenious as they were, scarcely a vestige has been left by them to show their knowledge of its existence.

Nothing can be shown as evidencing the existence of a knowledge of the art of transferring characters, even among nations comparatively civilized, from the times above referred to, until the intervention of a vast lapse of time, when an attempt was made at engraving pictures upon blocks of wood. Upon this point great diversity of opinion exists as to time, but I believe the best writers on the fine arts concur in the opinion that the art was invented in the latter part of the thirteenth century, by a "brother and sister of the illustrious family of Cunio, lords of Ivnola, in Italy." The book made by these youthful artists, for they were twins, and only sixteen years of age, is the first evidence we have of block-printing.—If any of my readers have the curiosity to examine this subject more particularly, I would refer them to the Encyclopedia Britannica, edited by Professor Napier.

Thus far the art was confined to single blocks, and its progress slow and tedious. Venice furnishes good evidence of the existence of this art among its inhabitants at an early day, and from an edict issued by the government, bearing date 1441, interdicting the importation of "work of the said art that is printed or painted on cloth or on paper, that is to say, altar-pieces (or images), and playing cards," it is clearly evident that the art was by no means confined to the Venetians, but had spread over the continent to such a degree as to seriously threaten the prosperity of the artists of that city. As connected somewhat with the Art of Printing, I will here state, although the particular time cannot be settled, that playing cards were in existence in 1254, for in that year they were interdicted by St. Louis on his return from the Crusade—and also by the Council of Cologne in 1281. They were first introduced into Germany in 1300.

From single blocks, the next advance in the art of Printing was by a series of blocks, and it was by this means that the first books were printed, among the most important of which was, the "Historiae Veteris et Novi Testamenti seu Biblia Pauperum." Its extent was forty leaves, printed on one side, and on as many separate and distinct blocks—the blank sides of the sheets then pasted together, forming one leaf. It has been impossible to locate the exact time at which this book was printed, but it is supposed to have been somewhere between 1420 and 1430.

Passing over minor points, and I have been compelled to do so in more instances than one, I am now brought to that most important and interesting era in the Art of Printing, in the true and literal signification of that term; and which also involves the perplexing and still agitated question, as to where and by whom was it invented?—Similar contentions have arisen upon other subjects—the birth-place of Homer was claimed and stoutly contended for by many cities, all deeming it an especial honor to have given to the world so illustrious a personage. So with the Art of Printing. Harlem, Strasbourg, and Mentz, claim to have been the nursery from which sprung an art which has exercised such a mighty power and influence on civilization, and contributed in so eminent a manner to the cultivation of the human intellect. Other places have interposed their claims, but there seems to be no proof to sustain them. The best writers upon this subject, indeed it seems to be almost universally admitted, agree that to one of the three cities above named, belongs the honor in question.

It will not be expected that I shall go at length into the discussion as to the place, or to whom, belongs the honor of the invention of Printing in its true sense. To do so would occupy too much space, and would, after all, be an unprofitable discussion.

Harlem interposes a claim for one of its citizens, Laurence Koster, or Laurent Janszoon Koster (or Custos.) The support of this claim rests mainly upon the narrative in the Bataviae of Hadrinus Junius, written in 1575, and published in 1588. But little credit is given to the truth of this narrative— some calling in question, (and among that number Santander), the very existence of such a man as Koster! There are others, who being unable to decide between the conflicting claims, are willing to divide the honor, and while they are disposed to concede to others the credit of the discovery of Printing with moveable types, claim for Koster the merit of inventing printing from blocks.

From the best reading I have been able to give the subject, although as I have said before, there are conflicting claims, and backed as some of them are by ingenious and plausible arguments, still I am decidedly of the opinion that to John Gutenberg, a native of Mentz, belongs the discovery of the Art of Printing. The proof in favor of this proposition, to my mind, is full and satisfactory. The story of his having stolen the types of Koster, is too ridiculous to need even an attempt at refutation.

The first printed edition of the Bible, from cut metal types, was issued by Gutenberg, in 1450, the completion of which is said to have taken seven years—so that the work must have been commenced in 1443. John Fust (commonly called Faust,) and Peter Schoeffer, formerly partners of Gutenberg, but into whose hands the establishment had fallen on the failure of Gutenberg, used the same type in their edition of the Psalter printed in 1457 and 1459. The edition issued in 1457, is the first book ever printed bearing the name of the place where printed, those of its printers, and the date of the year when printed!

Gutenberg, after his failure, started the business anew, and as it appears, with complete success, for in 1465, he abandoned the business, and "entered into the service of Elector Adolphus of Nassau, as one of his band of gentlemen pensioners, with a handsome salary, as appears from the letters patent, dated the 17th of January, 1465." He died on the 24th of February, 1468.

Fust and Schoeffer were neither of them original Printers. The former was a wealthy goldsmith, and the latter, a scribe. They were probably induced to enter the business with Gutenberg, simply as a matter of money-making.—There is no doubt, however, but they contributed very greatly to the perfection of the art in that day. To Schoeffer is the world indebted for the first suggestion of casting type in matrices. These men continued the business, and in addition to the Psalter issued in 1457 and 1459, they also published it in 1490 and 1502, and what is a little remarkable, it was always printed on the same type. In 1460, they published the Constitutiones Clementis V., and in 1462, the celebrated Latin Bible. Fust lived but a few years to enjoy this triumph of his art, for he was carried off by the plague, in Paris, about the year 1466. Schoeffer survived him many years, and is supposed to have died in 1502.

A controversy has existed in England as to when, and by whom, Printing was introduced into that country. In my judgment, however, no serious difficulty exists in this matter. To William Caxton no doubt belongs the honor of first introducing the art into England. This has been denied, and the chaplet sought to be placed upon the brow of Frederick Corsellis—but the attempt has utterly failed. It has been supposed, also, that the first printing was done at Oxford, but this falls to the ground with the attempt to rob Caxton of the honor due his name, for the first printing done in England, was a book issued by him, from his press established at Westminster, probably in one of the chapels attached to the Abbey, entitled the "Game of Chess." The completion of this work took place on the last day of March, 1474, and from this must be dated the dawn of the Art of Printing in Old England. Caxton died in 1494, aged 82 years.

Printing may be said to have been introduced into the Colonies of America, in January, 1639, for in that year a Press and Types arrived, having been shipped from England by the Rev. Jesse Glover, who, however, died on the passage.—The Printer engaged to accompany the Press from England, Stephen Daye, on arriving at Cambridge, Mass, set up the business, and the first work that emanated from this attempt to introduce Printing into the Colonies, was the "Freeman's Oath," which was followed by an Almanac. To show the favorable light in which this undertaking was viewed, at that early day, the following may be taken as evidence. It is from the records of the General Court of Massachusetts:

"Att a General Court held att Boston, on the eighth Day of the eighth moneth, 1641, Steeven Daye being the first that sett upon Printing, is graunted 300 acres of land, where it may be convenient without prejudice to any town."

Printers at that early day, like those of the Craft in more modern times, were by no means exempted from the ills of life—for in 1642, it appears from the Records, that Daye was under the necessity of pledging one of his lots in Cambridge, to secure the payment "for a cow, calf, and heifer"—that in 1643, for some dereliction of duty, the particulars of which are not stated, the "Court ordered that Steeven Daye, shall be released, giving £100 bond for his appearance." In 1649, he becoming embarrassed with debts, was succeeded by Samuel Green. In 1668, Daye died.

In 1660, Marmake Johnson, a Printer, was sent over from England, with another Press and Types, which also was established at Cambridge, and the particular design of which was to print the Bible in the Indian language. Johnson brought a letter with him from his patrons in England, which, among other things, contains the following very singular announcement:

"We have out of our desire, to further a worke of soe great consernment [the printing of the Bible in question] agreed with an able Printer for three years upon the terms and condition, enclosed. Mr. Johnson, the Printer, and for his incurrageraent in this undertaking of printing the bible in the Indian language, his name may bee mentioned with others as a Printer and person that hath bine instrumentall therein; for whose diet, lodging and washing wee desire you to take care of."

Johnson was unfortunate—got into difficulty—was fined by the Court—turned out of employment when the Bible was completed, and finally died in 1675. Green, who succeeded Daye, carried on the business at Cambridge for fifty years, and died in 1702, aged 87.

These men, therefore, GLOVER, DAYE, GREEN, and JOHNSON, may be regarded as the Fathers of the Art on this Continent. It is impossible at this day to tell the trials and adverse fortunes, the perplexities and the hardships, through which they had to pass. That they were many and grievous, I can well imagine. But they were the pioneers in a glorious undertaking—and thrice gloriously has it succeeded!

At the dates above enumerated, no Newspaper had yet been published in the Colonies, nor was there, until 1704, April 20, when the first number of the News Letter," by John Campbell, Printer, book-seller, and Post-Master, was issued at Boston, In 1693, William Bradford commenced the Printing Business in New-York.—This was the dawn of Printing in the "Empire State." What mighty revolutions have since been wrought! From the fountain thus established, innumerable streams have sprung into existence, fertilizing and enriching the proud domains of Art, Literature, and Science, until our noble State has assumed a commanding pre-eminence among the sisters of this mighty Republic! Long may she occupy that enviable position.

This much have I deemed it, not only proper, but necessary to say, before entering upon subjects that more properly and legitimately belong to the "History of the Press in Western New-York." It struck me, and I doubt not it will be so viewed by the Craft generally, that it would be essentially proper to give this running account of the earliest introduction of Printing into this country.—Thus a foundation has been laid for what may follow.

FREDERICK FOLLETT.

Batavia, March 16, 1847.

THE PRESS IN WESTERN NEW-YORK

It may be well, before going any farther, to settle the bounds of the field marked out by the Committee of the Franklin Festival, in which I am to labor. Originally, it was denominated the "Genesee County" but now wears the distinctive appellation of "Western New-York," and embraces, if I am correctly informed, that portion of the State lying west of a line running north and south through Seneca Lake. Its settlement may probably be said to have commenced about the year 1787. An enumeration of its inhabitants, in 1790, showed a population of 1100. What a contrast with Western New-York at the present day. The Counties handed over to me for the purpose of the present publication, are Alleghany, Cattaraugus, Cayuga, Chautauque, Chemung, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Niagara, Orleans, Ontario, Seneca, Steuben, Tompkins, Wayne, and Yates. These counties, or most of them at all events, belong to what may, perhaps, with propriety, be denominated Western New-York—but some of them are without the pale of what may be fairly termed the "Genesee Country." The territory embraced in the above counties, contained, as appears by the census of 1845, a population of 682,823. In the short space of fifty-nine years, what a complete change has come over the face of the country—then, a howling wilderness—now, converted into cities and villages!—then, peopled by bands of roving savages,—now, teeming with a dense population of hardy and industrious men, through whose toil the wilderness has literally been made to blossom like the rose! This is the result of civilization, coupled with industry, intelligence, and indomitable perseverance.

STEUBEN COUNTY.

This County seems to be the first in which an attempt was made to establish a Newspaper Press in Western New York. In 1796, William Kersey and James Edie, commenced at Bath, the publication of a paper entitled the "Bath Gazette and Genesee Advertiser."

In 1816 or '17, David Rumsey commenced, at Bath, the publication of the "Bath Gazette."

About the same time Benjamin Smead started a paper called the "Steuben Patriot," to which was soon after appended, "and Allegany," making the amended title read, "Steuben & Allegany Patriot."

In the fall of 1819, Erastus Shepard commenced the publication of the "Western Republican," and continued it until 1822, when the materials went back to Elmira, and the publisher to an eight years' foremanship in the office of James Bogart, at Geneva.

Charles Williamson, if I mistake not, is considered as the founder of Bath. He was the agent of some foreign land-owners in Western New-York, which was the means, no doubt, of imparting to him, and to his acts, an influence far greater than was possessed by others. His imagination, I am told, did not stop at the founding of a Village, but soared in the prospective, to the development of the resources of a City. For this purpose, a race course was laid out, a Press was established, and various things were done, which were deemed essential by him to mark the founding of a magnificent city—at least in the imagination! The great power and influence of the "Patroon of the West," as Mr. Williamson was sometimes called, did not save the "Gazette & Advertiser" from a fate too common among similar establishments of a later day. How long it managed to keep up an existence—what became of its materials or its publishers, are questions entirely out of my power to answer.

Benjamin Smead relinquished the business to two of his sons in 1824 or '25, and the paper has since been published under the title of the "Farmer's Advocate."

David Rumsey, who made the attempt in 1816 or '17, to revive the old Gazette, was from Salem, Washington County. The attempt seems not to have been a successful one, as the paper was continued only about a year, when the materials were disposed of to Mr. Cowdery, who took them to "Olean Point."

Thus have I been compelled to turn off "Old Steuben," with a mere skeleton picture of what her press is, and has been. This is no fault of mine, neither is it the fault of the Committee who originally had this matter in charge. It is the more to be regretted, as Steuben was the first county in which an attempt was made in Western New York to establish a Newspaper Press.—The Printers of that county have been desired to furnish the data upon which a more full and perfect sketch of its rise and progress could have been traced. They have failed to do it, with them rests the fault.

ONTARIO COUNTY.

The next County in order, in which the Printing business was established, is Ontario County. Lucius Carey, in 1797, tempted by the love of gain, or the more philanthropic principle of spreading light and knowledge into the dark recesses of an almost unpeopled country, selected Geneva, as his head quarters, from which he issued the "Geneva Gazette and Genesee Advertiser." Either the good people of Geneva did not appreciate the motives which induced Mr. Carey to come among them, or for some other good and satisfactory cause, and which I am unable to say, for the records of the times are blind on this subject, true it is, however, that the attempt was a failure, for soon after, he removed the establishment to Canandaigua, and in 1802 sold it to a company of "ten federalists," who procured it to be "published for the proprietors," by John K. Gould, who had previously been employed in the office of the Albany Sentinel. Under this arrangement, in May, 1803, the first number of the "Western Repository and Genesee Advertiser" was given to the world, the "Salam Editorial" being from the pen of Nathaniel W. Howell.

The paper was thus continued until October, 1804, when James D. Bemis became interested in the establishment as joint proprietor with Mr. Gould. Mr. B. soon became sole proprietor of the paper, and in 1828 disposed of it to Morse & Harocy. Various proprietors have since that period, been interested in the publication of the "Repository," until at the present time, it is in the hands of George L. Whitney.

Opposition, says the old adage, is the life of business, and the "Repository and Advertiser" were not long permitted to enjoy, like Alexander Selkirk, the consciousness of undisputed monarchy, for 1806 ushered into existence the "Ontario Messenger," by John A. Stevens.

Isaac Tiffany was the projector of the "Ontario Freeman," a little paper started in the same village in 1803. Its light was soon after extinguished, and all memorial of its doings have passed away with it.

Eben Eaton, whose brother was somewhat conspicuous in the famous Tripoli expedition, started a paper at Geneva in 1800, called the "Impartial Observer and Seneca Museum." It lived but a short time.

The "Geneva Gazette," by James Bogart, was established at the delightful village of Geneva, at the foot of Seneca Lake, in the year 1806.

A. N. Phelps, started a paper called the "Republican," at Canandaigua, in 1824. It soon after passed into the hands of Thomas B. Barnum, and was finally discontinued.

Another paper was for a time published in the same village by George Wilson and O. P. Jackson—but no particulars have been furnished in relation to it.

W. W. Phelps commenced in Canandaigua, in 1827, an Anti-masonic paper, with the title of "Phoenix," which soon after passed into the hands of R. Royce, and changed its name to that of "Freeman"—in 1836 it was joined to the "Repository," which paper was then in the hands of Orville L. Holley, and finally its name has become extinct.

In 1824 a small paper had its rise in the village of Naples. It was called the "Village Record." Who claims the honor of bringing it into existence, or when it took its exit, is more than I am able to chronicle.

This, so far as I have been furnished with the material, comprises the sum total of the Newspaper Press in the County of Ontario; and I am sorry to say it is woefully deficient in many of its parts. But what has become of the men who figured in their establishment? To this inquiry I propose to devote a brief space, and will endeavor, so far as it can be done, to answer the interrogatory.

Of Lucius Carey, the man who first planted the standard of the Newspaper Press in Ontario County, I regret to say no means are at my disposal to trace his personal history from the time he disposed of his establishment in 1802. It is reasonable to conclude, however, that he has long since worked off his last page, and been distributed in the case prepared for all beings. I regret that so little is known of his early history, but am unable to supply the deficiency.

John K. Gould, who succeeded Mr. Carey and published the paper for the "proprietors," died in 1808. As an interesting reminiscence in the history of the "Repository and Advertiser," it may be stated that Judge Howell, who wrote its prospectus, still lives to peruse its columns in the 44th year of its existence! Blest with age and honors, he has survived, a living witness to the mighty improvements that have been going on around him.

JAMES D. BEMIS who became interested with Mr. Gould, in the publication of the "Repository and Advertiser," in 1804, is still living at Canandaigua. Mr. B. has been extensively engaged in Printing, Bookselling and Binding in that village.

I will here state, that in relation to Mr. Bemis, I shall be a little more particular, and give the facts in his case a little more minutely, than I shall do in other cases. His age—the position he occupies in relation to the Press In Western New York, demands this much at my hands. Mr. B. first came to Canandaigua, 15th January, 1804, and was then about 21 years of age. His first business was the establishment of a Bookstore, being in partnership with the proprietors of the Albany Bookstore. In October of the same year, he sold out to Myron Holley, and was then induced to buy one half of the Printing establishment, for which he paid $700. In 1810 he purchased back the bookstore of Mr. Holley, and added to the establishment a Bindery. He was also Agent for Ink Makers, Type Founders and Press Manufacturers. By the way, however, for many years he made his own Ink.

Previous to the opening of the Canal in 1825, Mr. Bemis was very extensively engaged in the Book and Stationery business. Instead of procuring articles in either branch of business in New-York, as is now the case, Merchants were very generally through the West, supplied from his establishment, swelling his sales from 20 to $30,000 a year. The whole of this immense business, aside and in connection with the other branches of industry in which he was engaged, was done under his own eye. He was thus compelled to work all day—and, to keep up the Editorial department of his paper, and his private correspondence, write half the night.

Many apprentices have gone forth from his employ, and many of them can bear ample testimony to the substantial benefits they have received, in their efforts to buffet the waves of fortune, at his hands. These efforts have always been received with favor by him, and he has never been backward in contributing to their complete success. He is the oldest representative of the Newspaper Press in Western New-York, now living, and is looked upon with no little veneration and regard by those who are now actively engaged in that branch of business.

It must be recollected that in 1803, the "Repository and Advertiser" was the only medium for the distribution of the intelligence of the day, west of Utica—that its materials were rude and uncouth—yet at this establishment was done all the job work for the land offices, together with the legal and business advertising, for all the region west of Onondaga, and in some instances, from Canada. Its circulation was about 1000. The mode of circulating papers, at that day, is by no means devoid of interest—but I am disposed to let Mr. Bemis tell it in his own way:—

"Not the least interesting part of the "Repository" establishment, was the post-riding, or mode of distribution, which affords an amusing contrast to the present lightning way of doing things. The most important route was the western, and he who supplied it was, in those days, of as great consequence as is now the superintendent of a railroad. Imagine a small, hump-back, cross-eyed, deaf—old man—and you may see honest Ezra Metcalf, who was as trustworthy as he was ugly—mounted on a skunk horse, and you have the post-rider. And now for his business: In an old-fashioned pair of saddle-bags, were stowed from 150 to 200 papers. On the top of this was a small portmanteau, containing the United States Mail, with a padlock; but whether the key was intrusted to the rider, as it might safely have been, is not remembered. Thus mounted, with tin horn in hand, which he blew when he got in the saddle, he set off,

'The herald of a noisy world,
News from all quarters lumbering at his back.'

"The arrival and departure of 'old uncle Ezra,' was an event, and caused a gathering of divers citizens, who felt as much anxiety about it, and what he carried and fetched, as do our citizens for the movements of the railroad cars. Errands were sent by him, and he always had some word from our neighbors who lived thirty or a hundred miles off. Once in three months he would bring from the postmasters at Fort Niagara, Lewiston, Buffalo, Batavia, and other settlements, lists of letters to be published. His route from Canandaigua and back, was as follows: first, via Boughton Hill and Mann's Mills to Northfield, and the Genesee River, which he forded. This was a point where a tavern, a saw-mill, and a few other 'improvements,' were found. Thence north to Handford's Landing, perhaps to Charlotte, at the River's mouth, where was a store-house, and a few other buildings; then back to the Ridge Road, which led by Oak Orchard tp Lewiston, then down to Youngstown and Fort Niagara. Returning to Lewiston, he went up the River to the Falls, and to New Amsterdam, on Buffalo Creek, an Indian trading place where the whites had a few stores. This was his western terminus. Homeward, he came by the Four Mile Creek, Eleven Mile Creek, and Vandeventer's to Batavia, the seat of the Holland Land Company, and a place of some note; thence to Ganson's Settlement, the Genesee River through Hartford, Charleston, and Bloomfield, and Canandaigua, where he was waited for every Saturday, having been five days in performing his circuit."

This is a primitive picture, but many is the man and the woman still living, who can bear witness to its truthfulness—who can well remember the almost feverish anxiety with which the day of the coming of "old Ezra" was looked for by the tenants of the vast wilderness, and the joy or sorrow he was wont to bring among them, according to the tenor of the despatches of which he was the bearer. The above is also a picture of early Printing in Western New-York. I can only hope that Mr. Bemis, one of its earliest pioneers, may yet long be spared among us, as a noble monument of fair and upright dealing—and that when he shall be finally gathered to his fathers, he may be welcomed with, "well done, good and faithful servant."

Isaac Tiffany, the founder of the "Ontario Freeman," in 1803, was originally from New-Hampshire. He first settled at Niagara, U. C, where he was for a time, Government, or King's Printer. His widow, who over fifty years ago bore him company from his native state, is still living, and a resident of Lockport. He was the father of Judge Tiffany, of Adrian, Michigan. The time of his death is not known.

John A. Stevens commenced the publication of the "Ontario Messenger" in 1806. He was a kind, affectionate and good hearted man, and very generally esteemed by all who knew him. He died some fifteen years since.

James Bogart, in 1806, established the "Geneva Gazette," and continued at its head for 27 years. The same paper is still continued, but it is in other hands, and whose I am unable to learn from the materials placed in my hands. These omissions are perplexing, but the fault is not mine. Mr. Bogart after leaving the Press has been Collector of Canal Tolls at Geneva, and still occupies a prominent position among the intelligent citizens of that thriving and delightful Village.

Of Eben Eaton, I can say nothing, for his name is not mentioned, except that he established a paper at Geneva in 1800.

A. N. Phillips, who commenced the publication of the "Republican" at Canandaigua in 1824, was a nephew of the somewhat celebrated M. M. Noah, of New-York—he continued its publication for a short time—sold out, and returned to New-York. If I mistake not he is dead. He was succeeded by

Thomas B. Barnum, who continued the paper for a few years. Mr. B. was a young man of respectable acquirements, but before time and experience had given scope for their full and complete development, he was called to his last account.

W. W. Phelps started the "Phoenix" in 1827, the year succeeding the outrage upon the person of Morgan. The paper was intended as an organ of the Antimasonic party, which by that time had begun to assume a political aspect. It soon after passed into the hands of R. Royce, of whom I know nothing. Of Mr. Phelps, I can only say, that he has left the Press, and taken to the Pulpit. He Joined the Mormons, and when last heard from, he was at Council Bluffs.

Orville L. Holley was for a time at the head of the "Repository" establishment. He is a man of more than ordinary talent, and while under his charge that paper was sustained with considerable ability. Mr. H. was afterwards Surveyor General of the State, and at one time, if I mistake not, associated with Mr. Ward, of New-York, in the publication of the "Anti-Masonic Review". I am informed he is now a resident of Troy, and has been the Editor of the "Albany Daily Advertiser."

Morse & Harvey took the "Repository" from Mr. Bemis. In 1835, Mr. Harvey died. Mr. Morse is still living, but not, I believe, connected with the Printing business. Since the death of Mr. Harvey, the paper has passed into various hands, and is now under the control and management of

George L. Whitney, through whose exertions and preserverance the former creditable reputation of the paper is kept up and sustained.

I regret very much that the means have not been placed within my reach by which the history of the "Ontario Messenger" could be traced up to the present time. It has passed through many hands since it was relinquished by Mr. Stevens. At one time it was under the control of Thomas B. Hahn, who relinquished it on being appointed postmaster of Canandaigua, but I cannot tell who are the conductors of it now.

There are some reminiscences connected with the "Messenger" office, personal to the writer of these pages, which I cannot refrain from mentioning. It was the first Printing Office that I ever beheld, and its workings were a mystery, too deep and subtle for my youthful mind to fathom. Having a brother, Oran Follett, an apprentice in that office, I was of course more frequently led to visit it than I should otherwise have done. It was in that office that I obtained the first money that I ever received from my own labor! The amount was 6¼ cents, and was the reward for my labor in folding a certain number of papers. These circumstances were no doubt the determining points, which finally induced me to become a Printer.

MONROE COUNTY.

Printing was first introduced into what now constitutes the City of Rochester, and present limits of Monroe County, in the year 1816. In years that are past, the site of that city was familiarly known as the "Mill Yard!" In vain does the early settler look for the foot-path, the trail, that used to lead him to the fording-place of Genesee River. It is not so much the lapse of time that has obliterated these old land-marks, as it is the progressive and onward march of the arts and civilization. These have stripped the land of its forest-trees—have raised those many and valuable monuments of taste, religion, and industry, which are, I might almost say, the peculiar characteristics of the City of Rochester. Forty years ago, and Rochester was surrounded and embedded in a wilderness—then, instead of the busy hum of life, the progress of the destiny of man, the hammer of the mechanic and artizan, was only to be heard the roar of its cataract, the notes of the bird of night, or the howling wolf! But a change has come over the face of nature, and the wild and picturesque, have receded before the beautiful and substantial monuments of man's genius and industry, and reveal to our view the City of Rochester in all the pride of its young, but proud spirit.

Even in its infant state, Rochester had excited the hopes and aspirations of a member of the Craft. To the mind of Augustine G. Dauby, then an apprentice with Ira Merrill, in the office of the "Utica Patriot," it offered inducements for the establishment of a Printing Press. Accordingly, early in the year 1816, he commenced the publication of a small sheet, called the "Rochester Gazette." Sometime afterwards John Sheldon became associated with him. Mr. S., I believe, continued in the establishment about ten months, and then removed to Detroit. Oran Follett was, for a brief period, in company with Mr. Dauby. In 1821, he disposed of the establishment to Levi W. Sibley. After the separate organization of Monroe County, the title of the paper was changed to that of "Monroe Republican," and was under the charge of Derick Sibley, and Levi W. Sibley, until November, 1825, when it passed into the hands of Whittlesey & Mumford, who, in company with Edwin Scrantom, continued its publication until July, 1827, when they sold out, and it was merged in another paper.

In 1818, July 7, Everard Peck & Co., in connection with their Book-Store, established the "Rochester Telegraph," the mechanical department of which was conducted for about a year by Derick Sibley, aided by his brother, L. W. Sibley. In 1824, it was enlarged, and Thurlow Weed employed as Editor of the paper. In 1825, Mr. Weed purchased the establishment, and, with Robert Martin, issued it semi-weekly until 1827, when Mr. Weed withdrew from the concern, and during the year 1828, it was published daily by Mr. Martin.

In October, 1825, Marshall, Spalding & Hunt established the "Rochester Album," which continued on its course for two or three years—was purchased by Mr. Martin, and united with the Telegraph.

On the 25th of October 1826, Luther Tucker & Co., commenced the publication of the "Rochester Daily Advertiser," issuing in connection with it a weekly, called the "Rochester Mercury." In 1829, Tucker & Martin united the two daily papers, giving it the name of the "Rochester Daily Advertiser and Telegraph," with a weekly, the "Rochester Republican."—In 1830, Hoyt & Porter took the place of Mr. Martin, and Henry O'Rielly was placed in the editorial chair, which post he occupied until 1838, when he was appointed Post Master of Rochester, and Thomas W. Flagg assumed the chair which had been thus vacated. In 1840, Thomas H. Hyatt bought the establishment and became the sole proprietor. On the 1st of May, 1842, another revolution in the establishment took place, and it passed into the hands of Hiram Bumphrey and Cephas S. McConnell. Joseph Curtis, on the 1st day of January, 1844, succeeded Mr. Bumphrey. In October, 1845, McConnell & Curtis sold the establishment to Isaac Butts, and in October, 1846, Harvey L. Winants was admitted as a partner, under the firm of I. Butts & Co., by whom the paper is now conducted.

The events of 1826, called into existence, in January, 1828, the "Rochester Balance," by D. D. Stephensen. This name, however, was soon after discarded, and "Anti-masonic Enquirer" substituted in its place, conducted by Thurlow Weed and Samuel Heron. In February, 1829, Daniel N. Sprague purchased Mr. Heron's interest, and on the 30th March, 1830, Mr. Weed retired, leaving the establishment in the hands of Mr. Sprague, who continued it until the 20th October, 1831, when Erastus Shepard, then of Palmyra, united the "Western Spectator" with the Enquirer—enlarged the paper, and became its only proprietor until November, 1832, when Alvah Strong was admitted a partner, and by them the paper was continued until February 18, 1834, at which time another establishment was united with it, and a new paper issued.

Soon after the Enquirer was started, E. J. Roberts commenced the publication of "The Craftsman," which was published for about a year and a half, and was then discontinued.

The "Rochester Observer," a semi-monthly religious publication was commenced in 1827, by the Rev. Mr. Sill, who hired it printed by L. Tucker & Co. In 1828, it was published for Samuel Chipman, by Elisha Loomis. In 1830, it was printed by Albert G. Hall. In 1832, it was sold to Hoyt & Porter, who, after publishing it for a short time, transferred its subscription list to the New-York Evangelist.

In 1828, Peter Cherry commenced the publication of a miscellaneous paper, called the "Western Wanderer,"—soon after it passed into the hands of Edwin Scrantom, and assumed the title of the "Rochester Gem." Mr. Scrantom disposed of it in 1833, to John Denio. In 1834, Shepard & Strong became the proprietors, and its publication was finally discontinued by Strong & Dawson, in 1843.

The "Genesee Farmer" sprung into existence in 1830, by L. Tucker & Co., edited by Naman Goodsell. It was started a weekly, but in 1832, it was enlarged and published monthly. Mr. Goodsell left the establishment about this time, and brought forward "Goodsell's Genesee Farmer," which was printed by George Smith—it soon after passed into the hands of Shepard & Strong, and was by them discontinued. Mr. Tucker continued the Genesee Farmer, and for a while it was under the editorial charge of H. L. Stevens—then of Wyllis Gaylord, of Onondaga County, until 1839, when Mr. Tucker removed to Albany, where it was united with the "Cultivator,"—Soon after this, Elihu F. Marshall and Michael B. Bateham, started the "New Genesee Farmer," which was placed under the editorial supervision of Mr. Bateham, until 1841, when Henry Coleman became Editor, and eventually owner of the establishment. In December, 1842, Charles F. Crosman bought the paper, and disposed of one half of it to Mr. Shepard. It was continued by them until 1844, when it passed into the hands of Benjamin F. Smith and James P. Fogg. In 1845, Daniel D. T. Moore, became the proprietor, and Dr. Daniel Lee, Editor, with P. Barry as conductor of the Horticultural Department, and it is thus published at the present time.

The "National Republican," a weekly paper, by Sidney Smith, was commenced in the spring of 1831, and was thus continued until 1833, when a daily was issued from the same office until the winter following, when Mr. S. disposed of it to Shepard & Strong. The "Monroe Democrat" took the place of the National Republican and of the Enquirer, and the "Rochester Daily Democrat" that of the Evening Advertiser. In the spring of 1836, George Dawson purchased an interest in the Democrat, and edited the papers until August, 1839, when he sold out to the other partners. In April, 1842, he again became interested in the establishment, purchasing Mr. Shepard's half of it. In November, 1846, Mr. Dawson sold out to Henry Cook and Samuel P. Allen, who, in company with Mr. Strong, now carry on the establishment.

On the 19th of October, 1839, the "Workingman's Advocate," a daily paper, was started at Rochester, and was the offspring of a "strike" among the Journeymen Printers of the city. A press, type, and other material was purchased of Delazon Smith, by George T. Frost, William S. Falls, and Cornelius S. Underwood, and by them placed at the disposal of the Typographical Association. The establishment was committed to the care of Messrs. Underwood, Falls & Frost, and the editorial department, to Henry C. Frink, who at the same time discharged the duties of foreman in the Book and Job office of William Ailing. A weekly paper was also issued from the same office. About the first of April following, it was purchased by James Vick, jr., and George T. Frost, and its name changed to that of "Evening Advocate." Mr. Frost afterwards disposed of his interest to Alonzo Bennet. It was thus continued for about a year, when it passed into the hands of John I. Reilly & Co., and was merged in the "Evening Post." This firm continued the Post, in connection with a large weekly called the "Western New-Yorker," until the first of January, 1843, when they came into the hands of Erastus Shepard, who continued them until the November following, when they were both discontinued.

In 1840, William A. Welles commenced the publication of the "Rochester Daily Whig," and continued it through the political campaign of that year, when it was thrown up.

Abiathar M. Harris and Thomas H. Hyatt started a paper at Brockport, but at what time, I am unable to say. It was afterwards in the hands of Jeremiah O. Balch, and at a still later period in the hands of Ansel Warren. A paper is now in existence in that village, called the "Brockport Watchman," and is conducted by Edwin T. Bridges.

A paper was commenced at Honeoye Falls, in 1840, by Mr. Hough. How long it was continued is not stated.

The "Voice of Truth, and Glad Tidings of the Kingdom at Hand," a weekly Second Advent paper was commenced on the 1st of February, 1844, by Elder Joseph Marsh, who still continues its publication.

On the 23rd of December, 1844, Leonard Jerome and Josiah M. Patterson commenced the publication of the "Rochester Daily American," Alexander Mann, Editor. A weekly paper was also issued at the same time. In July, 1845, Lawrence R. Jerome became interested as co-partner in the establishment, and it was conducted under the firm of J. M. Patterson & Co. until January 1st, 1846, when it became the property of Leonard and Lawrence R. Jerome exclusively, by whom it has since been published, under the firm of Jerome & Brother. In September, 1846, Dr. Daniel Lee became associated with Mr. Mann in the editorial department, and in March, 1847, Reuben D. Jones became one of the editors of that paper.

The "Genesee Evangelist" was commenced in the city of Rochester, in the spring of 1846, by Rev. John E. Robie. It is respectable in size and appearance, and is said to be the first weekly religious newspaper in the nation which has an existence or was ever projected at the low price of one dollar a year. It is not denominational in its character, though its editor and proprietor is a minister in one of the evangelical churches. The paper is said to have been well received wherever it has become known, and to bid fair for a long and healthful existence.

The "Genesee Olio," a literary paper, by Franklin Cowdrey—and the "Christian Offering," a religious paper, by S. B. Shaw, both semi-monthlies, are also published at Rochester.

[In addition to the papers already enumerated, the following have been published in Rochester during the last nine years, for a period varying from three to eighteen months but none of which have now an existence there. Particulars are not known:—The "Watchman," an infidel paper, weekly, by Delazon Smith. "Daily Sun," neutral, by Alfred Oakley. The "Jeffersonian," a daily political paper, by Thomas L. Nichols. The "Penny Preacher," a small religious publication, issued weekly, by Erastus Shepard. The "Western Luminary," a Universalist paper, printed weekly, by Rev. J. M. Cook, and others, but now published in Buffalo. The "True Genesee Farmer," devoted to agriculture, N. Goodsell, Editor, a monthly paper, by Wm. A. Welles. The "Medical Truth Teller," devoted to the Thomsonian practice, by Dr. Justin Gates. The "Evening Advocate," a small daily paper, neutral, by Alonzo Bennet & Robert A. Willson. The "Rochester Telegraph," a small weekly publication, devoted to items of news, neutral, by George A. Knapp. The "Youth's Temperance Banner," monthly, published by the Executive Committee of the Youth's Temperance Society, of Rochester.—Eds. American.]

It is by no means to be taken for granted, that the above list comprises all the papers that have been commenced in the city of Rochester—but it is all the Committee have furnished me with.

This, then, is the extent of the Newspaper Press in Monroe County. From the data furnished me, I have endeavored to present the facts as they exist in reference to those establishments. I now propose to take a survey of the battle-field, and trace out, so far as it can be done, the personal history of those who have been actors in the scenes described. First, then, let us call up the case of

AUGUSTINE G. DAUBY. This gentleman, as before stated, was the first person who attempted to plant the standard of the Press in Monroe County. He was a pupil of Ira Merrill, and learned the "art and mystery of type setting" at Utica. Mr. D. is a fine and noble specimen of the Craft, and very justly enjoys the confidence and esteem of all, who, in the social relations of life, or in a business capacity, are thrown in his way. In 1816, by means of a small patrimony, he was enabled to purchase a Ramage Press, and such other materials as were deemed necessary, and with this "setting out," he launched his bark at the "Mill Yard," and forthwith issued to the "dwellers in the wilderness" the first number of the "Rochester Gazette." Various successes attended this new undertaking in a new country. Sometimes he was cheered by the opening view before him, and at others depressed by the difficulties that are inseparable from such an undertaking, and under such circumstances. In this way he struggled on for a little more than three years, and was just beginning to reap the reward that he so justly merited, when all his hopes and expectations were nipped in the bud by the destruction of his office, by fire! This catastrophe befel him on the 7th of December, 1819. Efforts were immediately made to put the young Printer on his legs again, and through the kindness of the citizens, the April following, 1820, saw Mr. Dauby again in the "full tide of successful experiment." In 1821, he disposed of the establishment to Levi W. Sibley, and returning to Utica, started the "Oneida Observer." Near the close of Mr. Monroe's administration, he received the appointment of Post Master at Utica, an office which he has held until the present time, although two administrations have been in power since, whose advent to office was strenuously opposed by Mr. Dauby. A life of toil and industry has given him a competency for old age. Long may he be spared to enjoy it.

John Sheldon, who was in company with Mr. Dauby for a short time, removed to Detroit immediately after leaving the establishment of the Rochester Gazette.

Oran Follett, who was in company for a time with Mr. Dauby, after Sheldon left, will be spoken of more at length in the "Recollections of the Press in Genesee County."

Derick Sibley and Levi W. Sibley, were somewhat conspicuous in the early establishment of Printing in Monroe County. The former gentleman was appointed to preside at the Printers' Festival held last year, and discharged the duties in a manner highly gratifying to all present. He was elected by the citizens of Monroe County to the legislature of this State, and also filled other responsible public offices. To show the manner in which business is done in a new country, and the expedients to which its inhabitants are obliged to resort, it may be stated, that at one time, 1818, the two Sibleys received essential aid in the prosecution of their business, from the personal assistance at case of a noble and generous-hearted sister! That sister is still living, the affectionate wife of a member of the Craft, and the mother of as large and interesting a family as any in the city of Rochester. Derick Sibley has recently removed to Cincinnati, Ohio. Levi W. died in August, 1844.

Whittlesey & Mumford were at one time the proprietors of the Monroe Republican.—Frederick Whittlesey, and William W. Mumford—the former, Vice Chancellor of the 8th Circuit, the duties of which laborious office he has discharged with great fidelity and ability for several years, and the latter a lawyer of some eminence in the city of Rochester.

Edwin Scrantom was the first Apprentice to the Printing Business in Rochester. He still lives there, a worthy and respected citizen—is now an Alderman of the city, and is doing an extensive business as an Auction and Commission Merchant, &c. &c. He is deserving of success, and the indications are that he is in a fair way for its accomplishment.

Everard Peck has been more or less connected with the Printing and Bookselling business in Rochester for many years. With good business habits, and strict integrity of purpose, he has worked his way through life thus far with success. He has retired from his former pursuits, but continues to reside in Rochester, where, in its infancy, he commenced business thirty years ago, and in the growth and prosperity of which he has always manifested a lively interest.

Jesse Peck was Foreman in the office of the "Telegraph," from 1818 to 1825, when the establishment was transferred to Mr. Weed. He was for several years after, connected with Everard Peck and David Hoyt, in the Printing and Bookselling business. He is now one of the firm of Peck & Stafford, Book and Job Printers, New Haven, Conn. He was a first rate Printer, a worthy man, and a favorite among the Craft.

Thurlow Weed. In the history of this gentleman, the "young Printer" has the highest incentives to a manly battle with the trials and perplexities of life. With scarcely, if any other advantages than those derived from the schooling of the office, he has risen to an eminence which but few others have attained as the conductor of a public journal. Without meaning or intending any disparagement to others, I may be permitted to say, that Mr. Weed is blessed with a large and generous soul—always alive to the wants and necessities of his fellow men, and always giving in such cases, so long as he has a shilling in store. Indeed, he has sometimes been known to carry this principle too far—forgetting occasionally, in the outpouring of his generous heart, that "charity begins at home." However, as Editor of the Albany Evening Journal, and State Printer, he has, it is thought, accumulated a sufficiency to carry him through life with ease and comfort, if indeed, he were disposed thus to live.

Robert Martin was associated with Mr. Weed in the publication of the Rochester Telegraph from 1824 to 1829 or 1830, when he returned to Albany, and engaged in the Daily Advertiser and Gazette in that city, with which he had previously been connected. He died a few years after.

Elihu F. Marshall was a well known and respected citizen of Rochester. In company with Mr. Dean, he was engaged in printing and bookselling. He established, in or about 1825, an excellent weekly newspaper, called "The Album," which, after several years of successful operation, was merged in the Telegraph. Mr. Marshall was the author of a Spelling Book extensively used at that day. He held the office of City Treasurer. He died in Rochester some five or six years ago.

Mr. Spalding was also connected with the press in Rochester, but of him the records are nearly silent. Mr. S. died a few years ago at Avon—in a stage coach in which he was traveling in company with his wife. His disease was consumption, and death overtook him in these strange and unexpected circumstances.

John H. Hunt was an apprentice in the Telegraph office, and afterwards one of the publishers of the Album. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1846, from the city of New York, where he now resides.

Luther Tucker and those associated with him, were the pioneers of the Daily Press west of Albany. The Printing Business is greatly indebted to the persevering industry that characterizes the life of Mr. Tucker, for the great and growing impetus that has been given to it in the city of Rochester. Patient and enduring to the last, no obstacles however formidable they might seem to others, were too much for him to grapple with and surmount.—He has thus fought his way through the trials and adversities of life, and is now reaping the reward of his industry in the successful publication of the "Cultivator," an Agricultural paper printed at Albany.

Henry O'Reilly is another name conspicuously identified with the Press of Western New-York. He also is a practical Printer, and a man possessing a strong and vigorous intellect, schooled by many years of service in the arduous duty of a newspaper Editor.—He is indefatigable as a man of research, and the public are greatly indebted to him for his work entitled, "Rochester and Western New-York," published a few years since, and in which is contained a vast fund of information, personal, statistical, and local, which had it not been for him must have been soon lost and forgotten. He was for a number of years Post Master of the city of Rochester, and is now, and has been for some time past, engaged as the Agent for the Magnetic Telegraph Company, in superintending the erection and completion of those lines of communication at the West and South. He has prosecuted the business with great vigor and perseverance, and many of them have been brought to a successful completion under his management. He too, is a man of unbounded benevolence and charity, caring more for the woes of others, than the necessities of self. So much so, indeed, that it amounts to a fault. In this he errs—but it is an error of the head, for the heart is essentially right.

Thomas W. Flagg succeeded Mr. O'Reilly in the Editorial chair. I can say nothing of his personal history, for the simple reason that it is unknown to me

Thomas H. Hyatt, is a member of the Craft, and was from 1840 to 1842, at the head of the Advertiser and Republican. After relinquishing the business, he retired upon a farm in the vicinity of the city of Rochester, and there devoted his time and his money to the development of the "art of farming."—He was the means of introducing many valuable and rare kinds of stock into Monroe Co., and has done much to advance the cause of Agriculture. He is now one of the proprietors, and also the Editor, of the Daily Globe, published in New-York.

Hiram Bumphrey was for some time, previous and subsequent to his proprietorship, the Editor of the Advertiser and Republican. He is not a Printer, but left the plow to assume the duties of the quill. During the command which he exercised over the columns under his charge, the paper was very creditably sustained. Mr. B. is now Canal Collector at Rochester. The open, frank, and generous nature of the Major has secured him many friends.

Isaac Butts and Harvey L. Winants are now the publishers of the same paper.—The former, I believe, is not a Printer, but the latter is. The slight acquaintance I have had with these gentlemen, does not permit me to speak of their personal history. The paper is well conducted, and handsomely sustained.

In the catalogue, as connected with the Press in Rochester, appear the names of D. D. Stephenson, Samuel Heron, Daniel N. Sprague, and many others, of whom it would give me great pleasure to speak more at large, but my knowledge of their history will not warrant me in so doing. Of Mr. Sprague it is however stated, that he was in 1830 associated with Mr. Weed in the Rochester Anti-Masonic Enquirer, and after Mr. W. left Rochester to commence the publication of the Evening Journal at Albany, Mr. S. for a time continued the former paper. He is at present the Editor of the Wooster Democrat in Ohio, a paper which he has published for 12 or 14 years.

Erastus Shepard, is a name honorably connected with the business of Printing in Rochester. Mr. S. is a native of New Hartford, Conn., but spent his childhood is Oneida County, and entered the office of his cousin, Ira Merrill, in 1810, being then 14 years of age. His fellow-apprentices were George Camp, Chauncey Morgan, his brother Augustus, Chester Gurney, and Augustine G. Dauby. The latter was Mr. Shepard's senior at the business, one day, which of course threw the burden of carrying papers, treading pelts, fetching water, and distributing extras, upon the shoulders of Mr. S. long after Mr. D., had been excused from the performance of those necessary branches of the business. But notwithstanding all this, I have heard Mr. S. say, they always lived upon the best of terms. For six long years they sat at the same table, and shared at night, the same bed, without any of those petty broils which are too apt to mar the dull routine of the days of apprenticeship. The close of the war left Mr. Merrill, who, in addition to Printing, was also largely engaged in the Book trade, as it did many others—a total wreck in business. Mr. S., as I have heard him express himself, was thus left, at the age of 20, to "shack for himself," and with but little knowledge and less experience, he entered into business at Ithaca. As might reasonably be anticipated, he was unsuccessful. He frequently reproaches himself for not making higher aims, while an apprentice. Through the kindness of his employer, he was permitted to attend school during the days of his probation. The teacher reproached him on one occasion for not preparing, as was the custom, a piece for declamation. But young Shepard, like most other boys of his age, was wise in his own conceit, and very promptly answered his teacher, "I do not expect to become an orator—it is enough for me, if I can make a first rate journeyman Printer!" He was permitted to have his own way, but has ever since deeply regretted his obstinacy, and self-will, and I mention it here, to warn apprentices of the present day to avoid a similar course. There is another point upon which Mr S. always speaks with feeling and earnestness, and his admonition to the young is, "Be not impatient of restraint." He attributes his own preservation from the path of the destroyer, to the pious care of the man who was wisely chosen by his parents to take charge of his youthful career. He says that "in tracing the lives of those youth who did not enjoy the same watchful care, or those who cast off those wholesome restraints, I find many, alas! too many, who have made shipwreck of themselves, and become burthens to society." He also says experience has taught him a wholesome lesson, and he sometimes volunteers it for the benefit of his young friends, who may be endeavoring to clamber up the ladder of life, which is—"Never leave a good situation to embark in uncertainties, without something better than fair words and surface promises from political demagogues, who have 'chestnuts to pull out of the fire.' " This is good advice, and coming from one of the Craft, who already in advance of half a century, is entitled to weight and consideration. It is a warning to the young, and by them should be heedfully considered.

Alvah Strong is one of the partners at present engaged in the publication of the Rochester Daily Democrat, and a man of great perseverance and industry, to whom much credit is due for the advancement of the art in that city.

Ansel Warren, like too many of the Craft, has had more experience in originating and publishing newspapers, than has been a source of profit to him. He has published papers in several counties in this State. Some years since, while printing a paper in Saratoga, Albany Co., his office was totally destroyed by fire. At present he is publishing the "Free Citizen," at Perry, Wyoming County. He enjoys the esteem and respect of the fraternity of his acquaintance, as a gentleman of candor and integrity.

E. J. Roberts, for a while the conductor of a paper in Rochester, was originally in the same business at Kingston, Ulster County, where he printed a paper also called the "Craftsman."—He was doing a fair business, and prospects were bright before him—but, in an evil hour, he purchased a lottery ticket, and had the misfortune, as the sequel will prove, to draw the one half of $20,000! After this Kingston was too small to contain the little body of our friend Roberts. He immediately sold out—repaired to New-York, and there formed a copartnership with M. M. Noah. He and the Major were soon at variance—a personal difficulty ensued, in which tradition says the Major came off second-best—a dissolution followed, and soon after Mr. Roberts made his appearance at Rochester. From thence he went to Buffalo, where he was for some time concerned in the Newspaper Press, from which place he removed to Detroit, where he was similarly engaged. Was Police Justice of the city, and finally Clerk of the Senate of Michigan. Whether he is still a resident of that city or not, is more than I am able to say. Mr. Roberts is by no means deficient in talent, but he is wanting in that firmness and decision of character, which is so essential to success in life. If, in early life, he had learned to "let well enough alone," his success would have been by no means problematical.

Elisha Loomis, who at one time was the Printer of the Rochester Observer, served his apprenticeship in the office of Mr. Bemis, of Canandaigua—went out as Missionary Printer to the Sandwich Islands, and on his return located at Rochester.

Albert G. Hall also printed the same paper, and following the example of some who had preceded him, he filled up his leisure moments by close application to classical studies, and was finally licensed as a minister. He is now the worthy Pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church in Rochester. Here is an example, not only for the apprentice, but for the journeyman also. It only requires the will, and the deed is easily accomplished.

Peter Cherry, the founder of the "Wanderer," has experienced many "ups and downs" since that period. He has acquired the art of Portrait Painting, in addition to that of Printing, and now pursues that of the former profession, in Rochester.

Many names follow as connected with different publications, but with whose private history I am wholly unacquainted, and of whom, therefore, I can say nothing.

George Dawson. Every body knows George. Proud of being a member of the fraternity, he is a good companion, a ready writer, as well as a ready debater, and a man of unconquerable perseverance. In the spring of 1836, he left his post as reporter in the Senate for the Albany Journal, and became one of the proprietors of the Rochester Democrat. In 1839, he sold out, and became interested in the establishment of the Advertiser, at Detroit, Michigan. He was afterwards appointed State Printer, finally sold out, returned to Rochester, and again became interested in the Democrat, but is now one of the Editors and proprietors of the Albany Evening Journal.

Henry Church Frink, although not occupying that prominent position usually pertaining to the corps editorial, but choosing rather a retiracy, possessed a vigorous and well-stored mind. Previous to assuming the editorial charge of the Advocate, he frequently contributed to the columns of the Rochester papers, many valuable articles on intricate subjects connected with Science and the Arts. The Mathematical and Astronomical calculations were furnished by him, to publishers of almanacs in Rochester and other places, for a series of years. He was also the author of a work entitled, "Alow and Aloft—on Board and on Shore," 178 duodecimo pp. It was designed to aid in the great Temperance Reformation, to which it doubtless contributed, as the work speedily attained to a second edition. He served an apprenticeship to the business with Marshall & Dean, in Rochester. Their office subsequently passing into the hands of Mr. William Ailing, he was elevated to its superintendence, which station he occupied for a number of years, and until Mr. A., in the spring of 1844, disposed of his office to Messrs. Canfield & Warren, when he removed, with his family to New-York city, to enter into the service of John T. Trow & Co., as proof reader in their extensive Book establishment. He had occupied this situation, however, but a brief period, when he was obliged to desist, on account of an affection of one of his legs, which had now assumed a serious aspect, caused by a severe injury received on board ship while crossing the Atlantic several years previous. It was now deemed necessary to resort to amputation. To this he calmly resigned, but was soon pained by the discovery that a cure was not to be expected, as the operation was performed below the seat of the disease. Disheartened and in this deplorable condition, in the fall of 1845, amid great bodily suffering, be returned to his friends in Western New-York. He finally reached the residence of his brother-in-law, Mr. Eber Kendall, then of Lockport, where he lingered but a few days, when he was relieved by death of his earthly sufferings.

Henry Cook and Samuel P. Allen, both Printers, are the Editors of the Daily Democrat, and exhibit great industry and perseverance in the conduct of their paper.

William A. Welles. This gentleman is a Printer, a Sailor, a Traveller, and a Writer of considerable ability. All who attended the last year's Festival, or have read its proceedings, are better acquainted with his life and history than I can hope to make them. He is evidently a genius, but the best energies of his life have been spent in ministering to the gratification of a roving propensity.

The "Rochester Daily American," is in the hands of L. & L. R. Jerome. This paper is of but recent comparative origin, but it has already assumed an important position among the newspaper press of the city where it is published. Its proprietors are energetic and persevering in their business. Alexander Mann is the Editor of this paper, and seems to be admirably adapted to the duties of his station. Recently, as before stated, Dr. Daniel Lee and R. D. Jones have become associated with Mr. M.

With this sketch, brief and imperfect as it is, I must close the notice of the Newspaper Press of Monroe County. Many, and I doubt not, worthy members of the Craft have been passed by in silence. It has not been my desire to do so—but ignorance of their personal history has compelled me to take this course. Upon this, I rest my plea of justification. From what I know of the Jurors in this case, I anticipate a triumphant acquittal.

ERIE COUNTY.

The Newspaper Press in this County, since the first attempt to plant its standard there in 1811, has undergone many changes and fluctuations. This is more or less true in regard to most kinds of business, but holds peculiarly so in regard to the Newspaper Press, in its infancy, in all sections of our country. The pioneers—those who clear the way for its introduction, rarely reap the reward that is due them. After struggling through the night of adversity, and just as the dawn of brighter hopes is about to break upon them, they are haunted by the ghost of accumulated debts, the result, generally, of neglect and indifference on the part of those who were most strenuous for the undertaking, but who, having accomplished their own ambitions and selfish purposes, now turn a cold shoulder upon him who has been mainly instrumental in their advancement. Young adventurers should be on their guard against the tricks of such men. I do not intend these remarks particularly for the County of Erie—they will apply, like the weather calculations of an Almanac, to almost any meridian.

The first paper established in this County, the "Buffalo Gazette," was issued on the 3d of October, 1811, by Smith H. and Hezekiah A. Salisbury, brothers. In Jany. 1818, S. H. Salisbury transferred his interest to Wm. A. Carpenter. In the April following, Mr. Carpenter disposed of his share in the establishment to H. A. Salisbury, his partner, who changed the title of the paper to "Niagara Patriot." On the separate organization of Erie County, in 1820, the title of the paper was again changed to "Buffalo Patriot." In 1826, Mr. Carpenter again occupied the "chair Editorial." It was, however, for a time vacated by him, and his place occupied by Harvey Newcomb, in 1829, who continued in it for about a year, when it was again resumed by Mr. Carpenter, who occupied it until 1834. The first number of the "Daily Commercial Advertiser" was issued from the same office on the 1st of January, 1835, and was under the Editorial charge of Guy H. Salisbury, whose health compelled him to withdraw from it at the close of the same year. On the 1st of January, 1836, Bradford A. Manchester purchased one half of the establishment, and it was conducted under the firm of Salisbury & Manchester, and under the editorial charge, at one time, of Dr. Thomas M. Foote, and for a short period, of Theodore C. Peters. On the 1st of July of the same year, H. A. Salisbury retired from the concern, leaving it in the hands of Dr. Foote and Guy H. Salisbury, associated with Mr. Manchester, by whom it was conducted until August, 1838, when Almon M. Clapp merged the "Standard," then published at Aurora, in the weekly "Patriot," and became one of the Editors and proprietors of the "Commercial" and "Patriot." Mr. Manchester soon after withdrew from the establishment, leaving it in the hands of his partners, by whom it was carried on, under the firm of Salisbury, Foote & Co., until May, 1839, when Salisbury and Clapp disposed of their interest to Dr. Foote and Elam R. Jewett, which latter gentleman was then publishing the "Daily Buffalo Journal," and which by this arrangement, was merged in the "Commercial." The paper has since been published by these gentlemen, under the firm of E. R. Jewett & Co., — Dr. Foote, Editor, assisted by Dr. Daniel Lee.

The "Buffalo Republican," weekly, was established in April, 1828, by William P. M. Wood. In September following it passed into the hands of Smith H. Salisbury and William S. Snow. In April, 1829, Mr. Snow relinquished his interest to Mr. Salisbury. In the spring of 1830, it passed into the hands of Henry L. Ball, who sold out in 1831 to Charles Faxon and James Stryker, the latter of whom had edited the paper while in the hands of Mr. Ball, and continued in that capacity until October, 1834, when Mr. Faxon bought his interest, and Horatio Gates became Editor. Israel T. Hatch, in '31, and Henry K. Smith, in '34, were likewise its political Editors. In the spring of 1835, the "Bulletin," a weekly, and the "Daily Star," both of which were then published by James Faxon, were purchased by Charles Faxon, who merged the "Bulletin" in the "Republican," continuing the "Star" as the daily. In August, 1838, Mr. Gates retired, and William L. Crandal assumed the editorial duties. In December of that year the establishment was destroyed by fire, and the publication of the paper necessarily suspended for several weeks. It was however resumed in 1839, by Quartus Graves, who had bought out Mr. Faxon, and Mr. Gates returned again to his Editorial duties, assisted for a brief period, by J. W. Dwinelle. In 1840, Mr. Gates again vacated the chair, and it was taken by Stephen Albro, assisted for a few months by J. C. Bunner. In April, 1841, Samuel Caldwell, superseded Mr. Albro, who, after a few weeks trial, relinquished it to J. C. Bunner, who continued at his post until Mr. Graves sold out to Henry Burwell, 1st of Jany. 1842, who changed the title of the paper to "Democratic Economist," upon which occasion Henry White was installed Editor. On the 1st of October, 1842, Joseph Stringham purchased the establishment, and issued the daily under the title of "Mercantile Courier," and assumed its Editorial charge. On the 1st of July, 1846, the Daily "National Pilot," published by Bradford A. Manchester and James O. Brayman, was united with the "Courier," and the paper was carried on under the firm of Stringham, Manchester & Brayman, until November of the same year, when Mr. Stringham relinquished his interest to his partners, and Guy H. Salisbury was associated with Mr. Brayman in its Editorial management, and by them it is still conducted.

On the 14th of January, 1846, Almon M. Clapp, Rufus Wheeler, and William M'Credie, under the firm of A. M. Clapp & Co., commenced the publication of the "Morning Express;" the editorial department being assigned to Mr. Clapp, and in October, W. E. Robinson was associated with him.

In January, 1847, a daily and weekly, bearing the title of the "Republic," was issued by an association of Journeymen Printers, under the firm of Livingston, Albro & Co.

In July, 1841, a semi-monthly publication, under the title of "Western Literary Messenger," was commenced by John S. Chadbourne. In July, 1842, Charles D. Ferris became an equal partner in the paper, and it was thence-forward issued weekly. Mr. F. remained in it for one year, and sold out to Jesse Clement. In May, 1846, Mr. Chadbourne retired and was succeeded by Charles Faxon, 2d, and the paper is now published by Clement & Faxon.

On the 1st of June, 1845, the "Buffalo Medical Journal and Monthly Review of Medical and Surgical Science," an octavo of 24 pages, was commenced by Dr. Austin Flint, as Editor and publisher. At the end of the first year it was enlarged to 64 pages.

The "Western Cataract," a weekly Temperance paper, was established in January, 1845, by Lyman P. Judson, and has passed through the hands, successively, of James Dubois, W. B. Williams, and Chauncey Hulburt. By the latter its title has been changed to that of "Western Temperance Standard," under which title it is still continued.

In June, 1846, Rev. L. S. Everett commenced the publication of the "Western Evangelist"—from the same office, also, is issued the "Ambassador," both devoted to the Universalist denomination.

In December, 1837, a German paper was established, called "Der Weltburger," by George Zahm, who was killed in 1844, from which time until the fall of 1845, it was carried on by the administrators of his estate, under the Editorial charge of Jacob M. Zahm, when it passed into the hands of Dr. F. C. Brunck and J. Domidion, who commenced issuing it semi-weekly, and enlarged the weekly sheet.

The "Telegraph" is the title of a weekly German paper commenced in November, 1845, by H. B. Miller, and edited by Adolphus Hilman.

The "Springville Express" is published by Edwin Hough, in the village indicated by its title, in Erie County. It was established there about two years since.

The above, the "chronicles of Erie" assert, is a history of the living Press of that County. But where are the "mighty dead"? Let us look around among the tombs that have swallowed them up, and see if their past history cannot be dragged forth and deciphered from the fragments that remain.

The second paper that made its appearance in the village of Buffalo, was in July, 1815, by David M. Day, called the "Niagara Journal." On the erection of Erie County, the title was changed to "Buffalo Journal." It was edited by the leading politicians of the day, until about 1822, when R. W. Haskins became its principal Editor. In 1826, Oran Follett became a partner, and the Editor. In 1827, R. W. Haskins was admitted to a copartnership, and as joint Editor. In 1830, Follet and Haskins retired, leaving the paper in the hands of Mr. Day. In 1834, he sold out to Elijah J. Roberts, who in the summer of that year issued a daily under the name of "Daily Advertiser," which lived only about six weeks. Col. Morgan was assistant Editor with Mr. Roberts, and the late Comfort M. Butler, one of the publishers. In the early part of 1835, the paper was suspended. In the meantime, however, Mr. Day had established another paper, the "Buffalo Whig," of which R. W. Haskins was Editor. The personal popularity of Mr. Day was too much for the "Journal," and it went down. Soon after, Mr. D. purchased the title and subscription list of the defunct, and added that of "Journal" to his paper. On the first of January, 1836, Mitchenor Cadwallader and Dr. Henry R. Stagg, became interested with Mr. Day, and in the February following, commenced the "Daily Buffalo Journal," the editorial care of which was committed to Messrs. Cadwallader and Stagg. In 1837, Mr. Day retired, and the paper was continued by Stagg & Cadwallader until the fall of 1838, when the establishment passed into the hands of Elam R. Jewett, and Dr. Daniel Lee and J. B. Clarke were installed as Editors. In May, 1839, the "Journal" was" merged in the "Commercial Advertiser."

In 1824, in September, John A. Lazelle and Simeon Francis issued the first number of the "Buffalo Emporium." From December, 1826, it was issued semi-weekly, and was discontinued in the latter part of 1829. It was the first paper issued in Buffalo oftener than once a week.

In the winter of 1827 or '28, Charles Sentell and Mr. Haywood, started a paper called the "Western Advertiser." The late Oliver Forward and James Sheldon were contributors to it. Its existence was prolonged only for about three months, when it was united to the "Buffalo Patriot."

In the spring of 1830, Horace Steel commenced the "Buffalo Bulletin." About Feb., 1834, it was bought by James Faxon, and Mason Brayman became its Editor. It was afterwards, as before stated, merged in the "Republican."

In August, 1835, the "Transcript," daily and weekly, was started by Henry Faxon, and edited by E. J. Roberts. In December, Edward H. Tompson, became the Editor. It went down after an existence of six months.

About this period several small daily sheets were issued, which had but a brief existence of two or three weeks, and then descended to the "tomb of the Capulets." The "Daily Whig," and the "Daily Enquirer," are the only ones of this class that can be called to mind.

In the winter of 1835, a little weekly sheet was started called the "Locofoco." It lived but a few weeks, when its light was extinguished.

During the winter of the "Patriot War," a little weekly sheet, called the "Buffalonian," made its appearance, under the auspices of an association of journeyman Printers. It was soon after issued daily by F. B. Ward & Co. At first it was edited by Mr. "Anon." The thing taking pretty well, this Mr. Anon, soon after turned into Mr. Geo. Arlington. Its wit, humor and biting personalities soon procured for it a large circulation, and this Mr. Anon, alias, Geo. Arlington, was again changed into Thomas L. Nichols. In the fall, Mr. N. left the establishment and started another of similar character, called the "Mercury." The "Buffalonian" was continued under the editorial charge of J. D. Dwinelle, but being divested somewhat of its obnoxious character, its popularity began to wane, and after some two months it was bought out by Mr. Nichols, and united with the "Mercury." In 1839 it went into the hands of N. R. Stimpson, who published it until the succeeding spring, when it ceased to exist.

In 1838-9. Abraham Dinsmore published the "Sun," daily and weekly. In the May following it passed into the hands of E. H. Eastabrooks, and was discontinued in October.

Thomas Newell, in the spring of 1839-40, started a daily and weekly paper, called the "Buffalo Centinel." It was edited for a brief period by Thomas L. Nichols, and for about three months by Henry Reed, Jr. It was discontinued in the fall.

In the summer of 1840, the "Morning Tattler," daily, was issued by Langdon, Fouchette & Schaeffer, and edited at first by George W. Bungay, and at a later period by Thomas L. Nichols, for a short time. It was subsequently published for a few months by John S. Walker, as the "Morning Times," but soon after, as tradition says, "went dead one day."

The first number of "Honest Industry" was issued in the summer of 1840, by Dr. Daniel Lee. It never reached a second number, but died in its effort to burst forth into existence.

The "Phalanx," edited by Charles D. Ferris, and published dally and weekly, was commenced in 1840. It was discontinued at the end of six weeks.

In 1840, a German weekly paper, called the "Volksfreund," was established. It was edited by Adolphus Meyers. It was discontinued after the election of that year.

Another German paper called the "Freimuthige," was started January 1st, 1843, by Alexander Kranse and Adolphus Meyer. It was discontinued in the summer of 1845.

The "School Reader" is the title of a weekly publication commenced in 1842, by A. W. Wilgus, and edited by R. W. Haskins. It lived for one quarter and expired for want of patronage.

The "Sublime Patriot' was published in the winter of 1841-2, by Thomas Jefferson Southerland. It was issued semi-monthly, but its course was soon run.

A weekly paper, bearing the name of "Buffalo American," was commenced in the winter or spring of 1842, by Thomas Foster and C F. Butler. It was designed for the mechanical and working classes. It was in existence only one year.

The "Daily Gazette," was commenced in August, 1842, by Charles Faxon, 2d, and soon after a weekly was issued, called the "Old School Jeffersonian," which sustained the administration of President Tyler. In the February following these papers were discontinued, when H. A. Salisbury, Bradford A. Manchester and James O. Brayman, issued daily and weekly, the "Buffalo Gazette." This paper was continued until Febuary, 1845, when it was discontinued, and Messrs. Manchester & Brayman established the "National Pilot," with Mr. Brayman and R. W. Haskins as editors.

The "Temperance Standard," devoted entirely to the cause of Temperance, was published one year, 1842, by H. H. Salisbury and A. M. Clapp.

The Rev. Thomas Gross commenced the publication of a Universalist paper, called the "Gospel Advocate," in 1822. After the expiration of the first year it passed into the hands of Simeon Burton, who continued it for three years. It then came into the hands of Rev. L. S. Everett, Rev. Theopholis Fisk, and M. Tuttle, who continued it until 1828, when it was removed to Auburn, and afterwards united with the "Evangelical Magazine," at Utica.

The "Warning," says the Editor of the Buffalo "Courier," was a little periodical, published we think once a fortnight, during the year 1828, by Rev. Jabez B. Hyde, and which was entirely devoted to the explanations of the personal wrongs and grievances sustained by him, in consequence of the action of the Buffalo Presbytery upon his ministerial functions as missionary among the Indians. It was a curious specimen of typography, as Mr. H. bought some old type, and learned to set them in his old age, for the purpose of spreading his case before the public, and composed the matter with his own hands, without much reference to the established rules of the art."

Of another sheet, the Editor of the "Courier" makes the following remarks:—"There was a periodical printed and published at the Mission House, on the Indian Reservation, near this city, for several years, in the Seneca language; under the charge of the Missionary, Rev. Asher Wright. It was designed to aid the religious teachings to the Indians, which the Mission was instituted for. We paid a visit to the 'office' some years since, and found the workmen engaged upon it, were a couple of young Indians, who had been taught enough of the 'art and mystery' to set up the gutturals that make up their native tongue. The paper has been removed to the Cattaraugus Reservation, since the Senecas have left our vicinity, where it is now printed. Its present title is 'Mental Elevator,' but whether that was its original name, or when it was commenced, we have not learned. The numerous accented characters which are employed in the Seneca language, make the paper much resemble the Phonographic prints—only a little more so."

The "Gospel Banner" was a monthly, published by Benjamin Clark, of Alden, and printed in Buffalo, in 1832 or '33. The particular design of this paper was the union of all Christians into one body—of course the doing away of sects, and the observance of the seventh day as the Sabbath. The benevolent designs of Mr. Clark have not yet been consummated.

The "Buffalo Herald," was the title of a Presbyterian paper, by Rev. Randolph Stone, which was commenced in 1831. Some misunderstanding occurring with the Printer, the paper was discontinued upon reaching its second number.

The "Young Men's Temperance Herald," was started in 1835. It lived one year. Its conductors were Abel M. Grosvenor and Ezra B. French.

In 1837 or '38, Nathaniel Potter, Jr., commenced a monthly publication, called the " Philanthropist." It embraced a wide and extensive field, and went for the general welfare of all mankind—for universal peace and non-resistance. One year closed its labors of love.

A Presbyterian publication called the "Buffalo Spectator," was commenced in 1836, by J. and W. Butler, under the editorial charge of Rev. Stephen Peet. It lived about two years.

In 1836 or '37, the Bethel Society commenced a monthly publication, under the title of "Bethel Magazine," designed for the moral, religious and intellectual improvement of the sailors and boatmen on the Lake and Canal. Its name was afterwards changed to that of "Bethel Flag," and after bearing up gallantly against adverse winds and storms, about a year ago it was obliged to strike. It was then united with the "Sailor's Magazine," New-York.

The "Friend of Youth" was commenced in 1839, by Rev. A. T. Hopkins. It was published monthly, and devoted to the moral training of the young. It died in its youth, having survived only one year.

The Rev. Doct. John C. Lord, on the 1st of March, 1841, commenced the publication of the "Western Presbyterian," which was continued for one year.

The "Literary Enquirer," semi-monthly, under the auspices of the Buffalo Lyceum, was started by William Verrinder, Jany. 1, 1833. But politics proved to be in greater demand than literature, and after struggling against adverse fortunes, for two years, the establishment was removed to Fredonia, Chautauqua County, and transferred into a political newspaper.

The "Buffalo Garland," a weekly literary sheet, was commenced in 1840, by Geo. W. Bungay. It was but of short duration.

N. H. Bannister, who has contributed somewhat successfully to the literature of the Drama, commenced the publication, in 1841, of "Bannister's Life in Buffalo." The work proved a failure, and was abandoned after a trial of a few weeks. Abraham Dinsmore was the Printer.

"The Impetus," a quarto publication, by E. W. Spaulding, was commence in the summer of 1845, and continued for six months, when its motive power ceased to act, and the impetus was no go.

In 1822, Lewis G. Hoffman commenced the publication of the "Black Rock Beacon." As long ago as that, it will be recollected the village of Buffalo and the village of Black Rock, were very much in the condition of the ancient houses of York and Lancaster—each contending for the crown of supremacy.—Many who may be induced to read these pages will remember the fierce and unrelenting war that was for a long time carried on between the two places—bitter and acrimonious on both sides. The Press, in such a contest, was indispensable, and this led to the lighting up of the "Beacon." The late Gen. Peter B. Porter was the Ajax of the "Rock," and contributed liberally to the columns of the "Beacon." The war was gallantly fought on both sides—and it was of long duration—but like every thing else, it was destined to have an end. Buffalo came forth victorious from the contest, and was crowned the "Queen City of the Lakes." The fires of the "Beacon" were extinguished in 1824. In the latter part of the same year, Bartemas Ferguson commenced the "Black Rock Gazette," which he continued to published until August, 1825, when it passed into the hands of Smith H. Salisbury, who carried it on until the fall of 1827, when the establishment was removed to Buffalo, and there published under the title of "Buffalo and Black Rock Gazette," until April, 1828, when it was discontinued.

In February, 1826, Daniel P. Adams commenced the publication of the "Black Rock Advocate." It was under the editorial charge of Dr. M. G. Lewis. It was sustained one year, and then discontinued.

But one more location in which an effort has been made in Erie County to establish the Press, remains to be spoken of. In that case, I will let the Editor of the "Courier" tell the tale in his own happy style. It follows:—

"The village of Aurora—or rather the two villages, as they formed a disjunctive conjunction—had ambitious aspirings in 1835, that required the establishment of newspapers to aid the development of the advantages and resources of that fine town and adjacent country. Accordingly in August, of that year, the "Aurora Standard," was issued at East Aurora, by our fellow editor, Almon M. Clapp, and a well conducted paper it was—one of the best of the country Press. It was neutral the first year and then came out whig. In the fall of 1838, the "Standard" was merged in the "Buffalo Patriot," as was likewise its editor and publisher. The "Aurora Democrat" was started about the same time with the "Standard," at the West village of Aurora, by Deloss E. Sill. It was, as its name indicates, democratic in politics. At the expiration of a few months it was discontinued, and the materials moved to Ellicottville, Cattaraugus County, where Mr. Sill now prints the "Cattaraugus Whig." Since then, Aurora, East or West, has had no local organ, save the "Watchman," an unique little thing, the size of a sheet of letter paper, printed by Master O. C. Hoyt, who had learned a smattering of type setting, and got a small lot of old type together, out of which he made a paper, which was printed on a cheese-press. It soon shared the fate of many a cotemporary of larger dimensions and pretensions, and was not."

This, so far as the records show, presents a history of the rise, progress, and in many instances, the decline and fall, of the Press in Erie County. The picture, although it may be a faithful shadowing forth of the original—although the artist may have done his duty with great faithfulness and impartiality, still it cannot by any means be said to be a flattering one. But there is a corner of the canvass unoccupied, which it will now be my endeavor to fill up. It will not be my purpose to speak of all the actors in the dramas enacted in the establishment of the Newspaper Press in this County, and for the very obvious reason, that in regard to many of them, their personal history, to me, is an entire blank. Necessity, therefore, and not design, will compel me to leave the picture still in an unfinished state.

Smith H. and Hezekiah A. Salisbury were the first to break ground in the attempt to establish the Press in Erie County. This was in 1811, when this section of the State was just emerging from a wilderness state. From the notice of the Press of this County as contained in the "Buffalo Courier," the public are led to infer—indeed it is so stated—that the brothers Salisbury made the attempt together, and at the same time. This is slightly at variance with the recollection of Mr. Bemis, who states that the old Press and Types originally used in the establishment of the "Ontario Repository," "were taken to Buffalo in 1810, and the first paper set up in that place was the 'Buffalo Gazette,' by Smith H. Salisbury, who, after the war, was joined by his surviving brother Hezekiah." I cannot take it upon myself to say which of these accounts is true—the probability, however, is that Mr. Bemis is mistaken, as he no doubt states the fact from simple recollection of the matter—whereas, the author of the statement as furnished through the "Courier," no doubt has the authority of the surviving partner for the truth of the statement therein contained. The apparent disparity in relation to time, in fact amounts to nothing. Mr. Bemis does not say that the paper was issued in 1810—simply that the materials were taken to Buffalo in that year. After struggling against the adverse fortunes that usually attend the early establishment of the Newspaper Press in an untried field, one of the brothers, Smith H., has silently sunk to his final rest. The other, Hezekiah A., still lives to witness the complete triumph of the art in the very place, where 36 years ago, the effort must have been looked upon as little short of the dreaming of a disordered mind! Mr. Salisbury is very justly regarded as one of the fathers of the craft in Western New-York. I have not the means at hand for determining the precise population of Buffalo, (at an early day called New-Amsterdam,) at the time the Mesars. Salisbury commenced the publication of the "Buffalo Gazette," but the probability is, that it did not exceed 5 or 600!—perhaps not so many. But civilization, and the means of disseminating knowledge, go hand in hand in this country. The surviving brother, although associated with the earliest recollections of the Press in Erie County, never served a regular apprenticeship at the business of Printing. For something like a year he was under the tuition of Mr. Bemis, but at the end of that time, like many boys of the present day, he repented, no doubt, "having learned the trade," and again betook himself to the cultivation of the soil. However, when his brother made known to him his intention to launch his bark at the foot of Lake Erie, he resolved to take passage with him, and has thus become a Printer, without serving an apprenticeship. Although advanced in years, he still occupies his post at the case.

David M. Day. This gentleman's name is early associated with the attempt to establish the Press in Buffalo. Mr. Day learned his trade with Mr. Stevens, in the office of the "Ontario Messenger," and started in business at Buffalo, in 1815. He was a rare and eccentric genius—full of wit, humor and fun, and wonderfully gifted with the rare and valuable faculty of making friends, and obtaining work. But he has run his race, and although unfortunate in some particulars, still he has left behind him the remembrance of many virtues. It may justly be said of him—the only enemy he had, was himself.

William A. Carpenter. Here is another name long identified with the business of Printing in Western New-York. In 1818, his name is found associated with that of H. A. Salisbury in the publication of the "Buffalo Gazette." But long before this, he was engaged by Benjamin Blodgett—say in 1812 or '13—to publish the "Genesee Intelligencer," then the only paper printed at Batavia, in Genesee County. Mr. Carpenter has done much to build up and sustain the Newspaper Press, in this section of the State. In doing this, he has necessarily had to encounter many hardships and trials, but he rode out of the storm gallantly, and yet lives to witness the blessings that have been showered upon his country in the establishment of a Free Press. He is still a resident of the city of Buffalo.

Thomas M. Foote. Although the Doctor is not himself a practical Printer, he is, nevertheless, a practical Editor, and devotes himself with great assiduity to his profession. He has done much to raise the standard of the Press in Buffalo.

Almon M. Clapp. This gentleman is now one of the Editors of the "Morning Express." He is also a practical Printer, and one of the best of the craft, and through his exertions much has been contributed to the advancement of the art in Erie County.

Bradford A. Manchester, Jas. O. Brayman and Guy H. Salisbury, are the Editors and proprietors of the "Buffalo Courier," and are entitled to great credit for the perseverance, industry and skill with which they prosecute their calling.

It must not be expected that I can follow out the innumerable number of names that have been connected, at one time and another, with the Newspaper Press of Erie County. Although it would be a pleasure to do so, still I am fearful such a course would be the means of augmenting these pages unnecessarily, or at least beyond what the Committee might have anticipated of me. There are many names honorably connected with the Press in this County, and who have contributed in no small degree to its ultimate success, through all, and the many and serious difficulties it has encountered, whose personal history it would give me pleasure to narrate, were it not for the reason above assigned.

The history of the Press in this county is one of admonition and should be received as a lesson of caution by the aspirants for political or literary fame. Men who make politics a trade, are bad councellors to the young who are about to engage in the establishment of a newspaper. Generally, they are the first to volunteer their counsel, and promise aid—but in nine cases out of ten, "they have an ax to grind," and no sooner is that accomplished, than their promises are forgotten. The wants, and the business of a place, should be the guides in such a case. A want of attention to these simple rules would save many a young man from the mortification of a failure, and consequent embarrassment through life. Besides, there would not be so many ephemeral publications thrust upon the world, and by this means dividing a patronage among four, that is scarcely competent to sustain one well conducted newspaper. The great mortality that has prevailed among the Newspaper press of Erie County is by no means an isolated case. Other counties, and other sections of country, present a similar state of things. If properly heeded by those who are to come after us, the lesson may be of infinite value.

CATTARAGUS COUNTY.

At a comparatively early day the attention of the Craft seems to have been directed to the intellectual wants of the inhabitants of this County.—It only adds another to the innumerable evidences already in hand, of the untiring perseverance and industry of Printers. Cattaraugus at the early day indicated, offered no peculiar inducements which called for the establishment of a Press within its borders. It may have had advantages, prospectively—but they have proved ideal and imaginary. But an opening was thought to present itself, and a Printer stood ready to embrace the opportunity.

In 1818, Benjamin Franklin Smead established at Olean, a paper called the "Allegany Mercury," which he continued about two years.

In 1826, Richard Hill commenced the publication of a paper at Ellicottville, which was continued for about three years.

G. N. Starr, in 1829, began the "Lodi Freeman and Messenger," at the Village of Lodi. He continued at its head for something like three years, when it passed into the hands of E. Hough; soon after which event it ceased to be published.

The "Ellicottville Republican," by Deloss E. Sill, was started in 1833, and continued for one year, when it was transferred to R. H. Shankland, by whom it has been continued under the title of "Cattaraugus Republican."

Rufus W. Griswold made another attempt, in 1836, to establish a paper at Olean, which he dignified with the title of "Olean Advocate." Its existence was brief—the old complaint, want of adequate support, soon killed it off. Out of the ruins of the "Advocate," like the Phoenix from the ashes, sprung the "Olean Times," by Dudley Bryan, who continued it for a year, and it then passed into the hands of Mr. Woodcock. Another year's probation, and the "Times" ended its career.

The "Cattaraugus Whig," by Deloss E. Sill, was commenced at Ellicottville, in 1840, and is still published by the original proprietor.

In 1842, J. J. Strong commenced at the Village of Randolph, the publication of the "Randolph Herald," which he continued for one year.

The prospect before Mr. Smead, when he located himself at Olean, must have been anything else than flattering to the young and joyous aspirations of a youthful adventurer after fame and fortune. But I am told he was strongly tinctured with the love of novelty, spiced with the spirit of adventure. He thought, no doubt, from the topography of the country, that Olean at some future day was to rise up and be dignified with the title of true greatness—that a city in embryo lay hid among the waving forest, and like the cold and inanimate marble, it only required the effort of man to speak it into existence! As a powerful engine in this great and wonder-working process, a Press was necessary, and Fate stamped her seal upon Mr. Smead as the man to undertake it. He was a man of industry and perseverance, and contended stoutly against the tide that set against his hopes, but all in vain. Olean refused the destiny he had marked out for her, and in retaliation for so much and deep ingratitude, Mr. Smead abandoned her to her fate. The gentleman under consideration, was not only a Printer, and an Editor, but also a Poet!—and as he contemplated the source from which Olean was to derive its greatness, would break forth in the following strain:

"As I stood on the banks of the deep Allegany,

I saw the smoothe tide flow majestic along;

I saw the high Mountain, the Valley and Daisey,

And heard the last note of the Emigrant's song."

Richard Hill was one of those rare, odd, and eccentric geniuses, so common with those who hail from the "Emerald Isle." It seems he published a paper at Ellicottville about three years, but whether it was dignified with a title or not, has not transpired. Its publication depended entirely upon the fancy or caprice of Richard. It may be said to have been published semi-occasionally. If any thing worthy the Editor's note happened to travel over the hills of Cattaraugus, and reach the peaceful and pleasant village of Ellicottville, out came Richard's paper, duly chronicling the events of the day—on the contrary, if there was a want of news in the market, the issue was postponed. Mr. Sill, who furnished the facts in relation to the Press in this County, tells the following story of Richard:—"Some of our citizens will remember the burning of the Court House and Jail, in 1829, and the tour of Sheriff Saxton to Albany, with a view to get a law authorizing a new building. The trip was performed so expeditiously, that it is said the embers of the house were yet smoking, when Saxton arrived with the Act authorizing a new one! So great an event was celebrated by a general jubilee.—Dick, it is said, on this occasion, got so full of glee, that on returning home at night, he mistook Dr. Ward's house for his own, and cried out to Mrs. Ward, supposing her to be his wife, 'Kape quiet—I say, kape quiet, Kate; Saxton has got home with the Court House in his pocket, and we shall have some news for the papers.' " It is related of him that he was one day discovered in the very literary pursuit of endeavoring to yoke a pig—the modus operandi was truly original. He bored a hole in a board, and then set to work driving it on over the nose, endeavoring thereby to stretch the hole to the capacity of the pig's neck! Richard's ideas in this matter did not coincide with those of the pig, and he abandoned the attempt in despair. His aspirations for Editorial fame succeeded no better than his attempt to yoke the pig, and he abandoned the enterprise.

R. H. Shanklin, aside from his avocations as Publisher, and Editor of the "Cattaraugus Republican," has also found time to serve the people of that County in the capacity of Surrogate—a distinction not often accorded to the Editorial fraternity.

Rufus W. Griswold, who was at one time located at the head of navigation of the Allegany River, has abandoned the case, and also the pursuit of Newspaper editing, and has entered the field for literary fame. He is now a resident of Philadelphia, and his name will be readily recognized as the author of a number of works, especially the "Poetry of Flowers and Flowers of Poetry." He also compiled and edited the "Poets and Poetry of America." In 1835, he was engaged at the Printing business at Syracuse, but subsequently, however, he became a Baptist minister. It is no doubt fortunate for Mr. Griswold that Olean failed to yield him a competent support.

[From Graham's Magazine for June, 1845, we extract the following—Mr. G. was one of the regular contributors to that periodical. "He studied theology, was seduced from preaching into editing, forsook the newspapers to travel, and storing his mind richly by observation and study, settled down as a man of letters. He was always the ardent and sincere friend of the unfortunate. In 1840, in New-York, with the aid of a few others, he founded a library in The Tombs, and two Southern merchants, who then were in confinement there, subsequently presented him a piece of plate with the following inscription:

Post Nubila Phoebus.
TO RUFUS WILMOT GRISWOLD,
WHO BROUGHT PLEASURE TO OUR PRISON, AND
MADE US FORGET OUR HOMES WHEN
WE WERE WITH STRANGERS.
Ingratus unus miseris omnibus nocet.

His sermons are his finest compositions, and he delivers them from the pulpit with taste and eloquence."

Mr. G. is a man of uncommon ability, excellent taste, and very remarkable devotion to literature. His "Poets and Poetry of America," a work of great merit and popularity, has won him reputation on both sides of the Atlantic. No author among us has done so much in behalf of the nationality of American literature as he. His industry is indefatigable, and his energy unconquerable. Mr. G. affords an excellent example of what a Printer may become, and of the honor reflected upon the Craft by the learning and talent of its members. He is still a young man, and his friends indulge high expectations which few are better able to fulfil.—Eds. American.]

J. J. Strang, who published the "Randolph Herald," is now a prophet among the Mormons at Voree. Whether he finds his new calling more congenial to his feelings than his old, I am unable to say.

There are other names connected with the Press of Cattaraugus, with the personal history of whom I am wholly unacquainted. Mr. Sill has committed one error in relation to the Press of this County, and had well nigh led me into it, also. Franklin Cowdery, June 10, 1819, commenced the publication of the "Hamilton Recorder," at Olean, which he printed one year, in company with a son of Benjamin F. Smead,

Mr. Cowdery would have it understood that he printed the first paper in Cattaraugus County, which he says was in 1819. Mr. Sill says B. F. Smead commenced a paper at Olean in 1818.—Here seems to be a direct contradiction, and I must leave it to others to reconcile it with the truth.

It has been the fortune of Mr. Cowdery to be engaged in the establishment of many newspapers—he has been the pioneer in many counties, but has always left the nest, when comfortably warmed, for others to occupy.

CHAUTAUQUE COUNTY.

The struggles and vicissitudes through which those have passed in this County, who have engaged in the establishment of the Newspaper Press, have been many and varied. The first attempts were made when the county was new, and before its capacity and its resources were fully developed—success under such a state of things must always be looked upon as doubtful—indeed, the cases are very rare where the original founders of a newspaper, in a new county, have been successful in the undertaking. If ill success, therefore, has attended the craft in Chautauque County, In more cases than one, it is by no means a rarity confined to that county alone—they have only followed in the footsteps of those who have preceded them, in Western New-York, generally.

The first paper established in this County was the "Chautauque Gazette," at Fredonia, in 1817, by James Percival.[1]

The "Chautauque Eagle," by Robert J. Curtis, was commenced at Mayville, in May, 1819, and was continued about a year.

The "Fredonia Censor," by Henry C. Frisbee, was commenced at Fredonia, in 1821. Mr. F. continued at its head for 17 years, when it passed into the hands of E. Winchester, by whom it was published three years. It then came into the possession of R. Cunnington, who published it one year. W. McKinstry then became the proprietor, by whom, and by W. McKinstry & Co. it has been published for the last five years.

The "Peoples' Gazette" was commenced in 1824, at Forrestville, by William S. Snow. It was continued for a short time, and then united with the "Chautauque Gazette," at Fredonia.

In June, 1826, Adolphus Fletcher commenced at Jamestown, the publication of the "Jamestown Journal." It is now published by Warren Fletcher, a son of the original proprietor.

The "Western Star," was commenced In June, 1829, at Westfield, by Henry Newcomb. It was continued for about two years.

In 1828 Morgan Bates commenced the publication of the "Chautauque Republican," at the village of Jamestown. It was continued for about five years, during which time it had some seven or eight different proprietors.

The "Genius of Liberty," a religious publication was commenced at Jamestown, in 1829, by Lewis C. Todd. It had an existence of about two years.

In 1834, the "Chautauque Whig," was started at Dunkirk, by Thompson & Carpenter, who continued it, jointly, or individually, until 1845. At a later period, it has been known by the name of the "Dunkirk Beacon."

The "Mayville Sentinel" was established in 1834, and printed by Timothy Kibby. In March, 1835, it passed into the hands of Beman Brockway, who published it for the proprietors until Dec. 1836, when he purchased the establishment. In 1837, H. E. Purdy became interested in the paper, and continued it for a year and a half, and then retired, leaving it in the hands of Mr. Brockway. It is still published at Mayville, by John F. Phelps.

The "Westfield Messenger" was commenced at the village indicated by its title, in August, 1844, by C. J. J. Ingersoll, by whom it is still published.

The "Frontier Express," was established in June, 1846, at Fredonia, by Perham & Cutler, and is still published by them.

The "Panama Herald" was commenced in the village of Panama, town of Harmony, in August, 1846, by Dean & Hulburt, and edited by Thomas Graham. It is now in the hands of Steward & Pray.

The above comprises only a part of the papers that have had an existence in this County. Some of them, however, have lived so short a time, that it can scarcely be said that they had an existence at all. I have not been furnished with the facts by which to enable me to say where, or when, they were published. The following, it is thought, embraces a full and perfect list of all the papers that are, or have been, published in this County, indicating the place where published. Of this number, only six remain to tell the fate of their associates:—

Mayville—Chautauque Eagle, Republican Banner, Mayville Sentinel, and the Tocsin, a temperance paper.

Fredonia—Chautauque Gazette, Fredonia Censor, Fredonia Gazette, Western Democrat and Literary Enquirer, The Pantheon, Frontier Express, and Botanic Medical Journal.

Westfield—Western Star, Chautauque Phoenix, American Eagle, Westfield Courier, Western Farmer, Westfield Lyceum, Westfield Advocate, Westfield Messenger.

Jamestown—Jamestown Journal, Genius of Liberty, Chautauque Republican.

Forrestville—Peoples' Gazette, Western Intelligencer.

Van Buren—Van Buren Times.

Dunkirk—Chautauque Whig, Dunkirk Beacon.

Panama—Panama Herald.

The papers at present published in the County seem to be tolerabiy well supported, the "Fredonia Censor" issuing weekly about 1000 papers—the "Jamestown Journal" 700—the "Mayville Sentinel" 1000—the "Westfield Messenger" 600, and the "Panama Herald" 500. If they are paying subscribers, this is very well—if, as is too often the case, they are mere men of straw, taking the paper without ever intending to pay, the number is altogether too large.

H. C. Frisbee, the original founder of the "Fredonia Censor," seems to have fought his way through great, and what would have appeared to some minds, insurmountable difficulties and obstacles, in establishing himself in business. "With a hired establishment—the materials of which would now be looked upon as a perfect burlesque, the Press having been manufactured by a blacksmith and carpenter in one of the new towns in Ohio, and the types, which were few in quantity, mostly worn down to- the 'third nick'—with some forty subscribers, and for the first three weeks not a single paying advertisement—he commenced the flattering career of editor and proprietor of a newspaper." His principal assistant in type setting the first year was a lad some nine years of age, and on publication days he called in his neighbor, a painter in a chair shop, [H. H. Seaver, of Rochester,} who assisted him at the Press, in the capacity of ball-man. To lessen his expenses, which from the meagre patronage he was receiving, became an absolute duty, he lodged himself before the office fire. Could success be doubtful with such a man ? By no means. By great industry, and the practice of the most rigid economy, he forced the "fickle goddess" to smile upon him. Such men deserve success, and under the peculiar and favorable institutions of our country, scarcely ever fail to command it. Such is the early career of Mr. Frisbee. It is worthy the imitation of members of the craft at the present day.

B. Brockway, who was for many years at the head of the "Mayville Sentinel," is another notable instance of what may be effected by industry and economy. These necessary prerequisites to success in almost any undertaking in life, were the capital upon which he commenced business. He has made good use of the investment. He is now the Editor and proprietor of the "Oswego Palladium," and I am happy to learn is on the high road to success.

Of the other gentlemen who have been associated with the Press in this County, I know but little—not enough to warrant me in speaking of their personal history. This County, like most others in Western New-York, has been prolific in the number of its newspaper establishments, and has consisted of the usual assortment—good, bad, and indifferent.

ORLEANS COUNTY.

The history of the Press in this county is embraced in a comparatively small compass.—Whether the inducements held out for the establishment of the Newspaper Press in this County have been less than others—or whether the craft have been forewarned from the results that have followed the attempt in other counties, I am unable to determine—the fact, however, is undeniable, that fewer attempts have been made in Orleans to establish the Press, regardless of the ability of a place to support such an establishment, than in almost any other county in Western New-York.

In 1822, while the present County of Orleans was a part of Genesee County, Seymour Tracy made an attempt to establish the first newspaper ever printed within its limits. The paper was published at Gaines, and was called "The Gazette." It was continued about four years.

In 1823, Franklin Cowdery commenced the publication, at Newport, (now Albion,) of the "Newport Patriot." He continued it for nearly two years. In Feby. 1825, the establishment passed into the hands of Timothy C. Strong, who soon after changed its name to that of "The Orleans Advocate." In Feb. 1828, Mr. Strong again changed the name of his paper, calling it "The Orleans Advocate and Anti-Masonic Telegraph." In Feb. 1829, another annual change took place by dropping the word "Advocate," leaving the title to read the "Orleans Anti-Masonic Telegraph." In the June following, " Antimasonic" was discarded, and it stood forth simply as the "Orleans Telegraph." But the spirit of change did not stop here—it soon after assumed the title of "American Standard." In March 1830, J. Kempshall became proprietor of the establishment, and continued its publication until Sept. 1832, when it again came into the possesession of Mr. Strong, and took the name of "The Orleans American." In April, 1844, Mr. Strong disposed of the establishment to J. & J. H. Denio, by whom it has since been published.

Daniel P. Adams published a paper at Medina in 1833 or '34—but what was the name of it, or how long it was published, I have not been able to learn.

In August, 1837, J. & J. H. Denio established a paper at Medina, which they continued until May, 1842, called the "Medina Sentinel."

In October, 1829, C. S. McConnell commenced, at Albion, the publication of the "Orleans Republican," which he continued until Feby. 1841, when he disposed of the establishment to H. W. Depuy, who continued it for a few months, and it then passed into the hands of an association of gentlemen, and was thus continued until 1845, when H. E. Purdy assumed the charge of it, and in July, 1846, C. S. McConnell again became the Editor and proprietor of the "Orleans Republican."

Many of the citizens of Genesee County, at least, will remember Seymour Tracy—a "one legged Tracy," as he was usually called. Previous to starting the paper at Gaines he resided at Batavia, but his grossly intemperate habits unfitted him for business—and for certain reasons was held in low estimation where he was best known. No wonder, then, that his attempt at Games was an unsuccestful one.

Of Mr. Cowdery I have before spoken. In the "Genesee Olio," of 30th Jany. 1847, a semi-monthly; which he now publishes in Rochester, Mr. Cowdery says—" We were also first, and did the very first printing ever done in Orleans County." This statement is at variance with that furnished by Mr. Denio, in relation to Printing in this County, which is, that Mr. Tracy established himself in business at Gaines, in 1822, and Mr. Cowdery, at Albion, in 1823. The fact is not, perhaps, material in itself, although if Mr. Cowdery was the pioneer of Printing in this County, he should have the credit for it.[2]

Timothy C. Strong was originally, I believe, from Vermont, and previous to his establishment in Orleans County was the conductor of a paper at Palmyra, in Wayne County. He was a man possessed of many good qualities, and contributed his proportion in the establishment of the Newspaper Press in Western New-York. But he has worked his last token, and been called to another world.

Of the Messrs. Denio, I have no personal knowledge. The senior in the firm is of opinion that Printing during the time when Mr. Tracy flourished at Gaines, commanded a better return for labor than at the present day. He cites as an instance going to prove this fact, that Tracy charged the County eighty dollars for printing two reams of county orders, and that the Supervisors actually allowed the account of sixty-eight dollars! But the days for such prices have gone by. Steam and competition have made sad work upon high prices.

C. S. McConnell, before his location in Orleans County, conducted a paper in Onondaga. Soon after relinquishing his interest in the "Orleans Republican," he became a proprietor in the "Rochester Daily Advertiser," where he prosecuted the business successfully for a few years, and finally, in 1846, returned to Albion, and is again at the head of his old paper. Mr. McConnell is a true disciple of Franklin, and an honest man.

Of the others who have been identified with the Press in this County, I can say nothing—with some of them I was a stranger, and do not therefore feel at liberty to meddle with matters entirely personal in their character.

LIVINGSTON COUNTY.

This County cannot claim an exemption from the common lot which is too often the result of newspaper printing. What has been the fate of the craft in other counties, may be said to be more or less true of those in Livingston County. They have been attended by the usual mutations, changes, and final extinction, which follow in the wake of all human affairs. The first paper printed within the territory that now marks the bounds of this County, was commenced

In 1817, by Hezekiah Ripley, and was called the "Moscow Advertiser and Genesee Farmer." It was located in the village of Moscow. He continued it for some time after the erection of the County, in 1821, when it passed into the hands of James Percival, and was by him removed to Geneseo, and its name changed to that of "Livingston Register." In 1829, it passed into the hands of Anson M. Weed and Allen Warner. Mr. Weed died in the winter of 1831, and it was continued for a short time by the surviving partner, when it passed into the hands of Mr. Percival, who, in 1832, sold it to Elias Clark, who continued it until he was elected County Clerk, in 1834, when he disposed of it to William H. Kelsey and Richard M. Miel, and the latter, in 1835, became sole proprietor. Ha was succeeded by D. S. Curtis, and its publication was suspended in 1837. It soon after, however, recovered its position, and for a short time was published by Hugh Harding, who was succeeded, in 1837, by John Kempshall, and continued by him until the fall of 1840, when it ceased to exist.

In 1822, Chauncy Morse established the "Livingston Journal," at Geneseo, and afterwards took into copartnership Asahel Harvey. In 1829, Levi Hovey became the proprietor of the establishment, and continued it until the spring of 1831. He became embarrassed, and abandoned the paper, and was succeeded by Benjamin Denison—then H. F. Evans, Evans & Woodruff, and William J. Ticknor. The paper was discontinued in 1834 or '35. In the fall of the latter year the establishment was purchased by David Mitchell and W. H. Kelsey, who established the "Livingston Democrat." This paper was suspended in the year 1837. In the fall of that year a new Press and types were added to the establishment, and S. P. Allen commenced the publication of the "Livingston Republican," and in September, 1846, retired, leaving it in the hands of John M. Campbell, by whom it is now published.

In 1830, David Mitchell and Benjamin Denison established the "Dansville Chronicle," at the village indicated by its title. It was started as a neutral paper, but afterwards came out Anti-Masonic, when Mr. Denison left it. Its title was changed to that of "Village Record." It had but a short existence.

The Western New-Yorker," at Dansville, was published by A. Stevens & Son. The "Dansville Whig," by George W. Stevens succeeded it, and was continued by Charles W. Dibble, for one year, when it was again transferred to Mr. Stevens, by whom it is now published.

The "Dansville Republican," was established by David Fairchild, in 1842, and has been continued alternately by himself and his sons. It is now published by Geo. H. Bidwell.

The "Mount Morris Spectator" as established in 1835, by Hugh Harding. It is still published by him.

The "Genesee Valley Recorder" was established by Ira G. Wisner, and was published for a short time in 1842-3, at Mount Morris. Mr. W. died not long since at the West.

The "Livingston County Whig," by Geo. B. Phelps, was commenced in 1843, at Mount Morris. It is now in the hands of James T. Norton. For a few months a Daily was issued from this office, but it is now discontinued.

The "Geneseo Democrat," was commenced at Geneseo, in 1843, by Gilbert F. Shankland, and is still continued by him.

Mr. Ripley, the founder of the first paper in this County, is now in one of the Western States. From the best intelligence I can obtain, he is in Belvidere, Illinois. After throwing up his hand, and relinquishing the Printing business in this part of the State, he was for a while, the keeper of a public house at Lakeville, Dansville and Hammondsport—but the probability is he found this business as thankless and unprofitable as Printing, and resolved to try his fortune in the West. He is a clever, honest and intelligent man, but is too unstable in his purposes to succeed well.

Mr. Percival has been seized with a migratory fit, and leaving the scene of his former labor, he next appears before the public as the Editor of a paper in Butler County, Ohio, and more recently at Lancaster, in the same State. The Press upon which the first paper in this County was printed, was an old Ramage, upon which the "Albany Argus" was once printed. It is now in the office of the "Mount Morris Spectator."

Mr. Kempshall. Of this individual, Mr. Allen in his notes of "Early Times" in this County, says—"Since leaving here he has been a Dorr Patriot in Rhode Island, a 'Jour' in New-York and elsewhere, but several years since we lost trace of him. He was a noble-hearted, generous fellow, unfortunate, and often troubled with what he called 'blue devils,' or melancholy. We should not be surprised to hear of him in Oregon or California. He was a brother of Hon. Thomas Kempshall, of Rochester."

But I must bring this sketch to a close. It must not be expected of me that in these running notices, I can particularize all who have been interested in the Press in Livingston, or any other County. There are various reasons which render it impossible for me to do so. In very many instances the readers of these pages will be able to supply any omissions that may be the result of want of time, or the facilities of information, to make them complete.

WAYNE COUNTY.

The territory embraced in the now County of Wayne, was originally a part of Ontario. The Press found its way into it, however, while it was yet a branch of the original tree. But then, the local causes which are so prolific in giving life to newspaper establishments did not operate with that force, that they did after its separate organization as a County. Then it is, that rival villages, local causes, and many other considerations well known to the hopes and expectations of men who fancy they have written upon their brow the certain index of future greatness, call for the establishment of that great level of public opinion—the Press. These causes are general in their nature, and have operated, no doubt, more or less in this County.

The first paper established in the territory now constituting the County of Wayne, was by Timothy C. Strong, at Palmyra, and was called the "Palmyra Register." This took place on the 26th day of November, 1817. This Press was continued by Mr. Strong, with occasional changes of title—for which he was particularly famous—until October, 1823, when it passed into the hands of Pomeroy Tucker, and its then title, the "Western Farmer and Canal Advocate," superseded by that of "Wayne Sentinel," which name it still retains, and is now conducted by Mr. Tucker.

The "Lyons Republican," was established at the village of Lyons, August 3, 1821, by George Lewis, and was discontinued Feb. 22, 1822.

The "Lyons Advertiser" was commenced at the same place, on the 31st May, 1822, by Hiram T. Day. This paper underwent various changes of name, and was successively published by Ephraim J. Whitney, E. J. & W. W. Whitney, Barker & Chapman, Chapman & Chapman, and William F. Ashley, and is now published, with the title of "Western Argus," by Chas. Poucher.

On the 11th of March, 1828, the "Palmyra Freeman" made its appearance at Palmyra, published by D. D. Stephenson. He was shortly afterwards succeeded by J. A. Hadley, who subsequently removed the establishment to Lyons, where the paper was continued under the title of "The Countryman," with Myron Holley as associate Editor, and was thus continued until Nov. 1831; when its publication was suspended for a season. It was afterwards resumed as the "Lyons American," by Myron Holley; and in 1836, the establishment was removed to Clyde, where it reappeared as the "Clyde Gazette," by Denison Cord. The present "Clyde Eagle," by Stephen Salisbury, Jr., is believed to be a continuation of the same concern, although after a suspension of a number of years.

In 1828, '29 and '30, a monthly paper entitled "The Reflector," devoted to science, ironical castigation, and amusement, by "O. Dogberry, Jr.," was published at Palmyra, the whole term of its existence being about two years.

In November, 1829, "The Newark Republican" was established at the village of Newark, by Jeremiah O. Balch, and was continued by him until July, 1831, when the paper was discontinued.

In June, 1838, David M. Keeler commenced the publication in the same village, of the "Wayne Standard," and it was continued by him until August, 1839, when he disposed of it to an association of gentlemen, by whom it was continued under the name of the "Newark Aegis," Stephen Culver officiating as Editor, and F. G. Norton and G. W. Gould, as Printers, until January, 18-40, at which time Norton and Gould became the ostensible proprietors, and for awhile thus continued by them jointly, and then by Norton alone, the same Editor officiating until May, 1840, when the establishment reverted back to the association, and the paper was discontinued.

In July or August, 1840, David M. Keeler again assumed the publication of the paper under its former name, "The Wayne Standard," until July, 1843, when it passed into the hands of H. L. Winants, who continued its publication for about one year, and it was then discontinued.

The "Western Spectator and Wayne Advertiser," was commenced at Palmyra, by Luther Howard, and Erastus Shepard, June 9, 1830. In April, 1831, the title of the paper was changed to "Spectator and Anti-Masonic Star," and continued by Mr. Shepard until, in the same year it was merged in the "Anti-Masonic Inquirer," at Rochester.

The "Palmyra Whig," by Wm. H. and Saml. Cole, was commenced at Palmyra In February, 1838. It was afterwards removed to Lyons, where it is still continued as the "Wayne County Whig," by William H. Cole.

The first number of the present "Palmyra Courier," by F. Morley, was issued May 28, 1845, and is still published by him.

The above, I am aware, is imperfect in many particulars—but I am not sufficiently well acquainted with the facts in the case to make an intelligible correction. Mr. Tucker, who furnished the facts so far as they have been given, refers to Mr. Winants, of the "Rochester Daily Advertiser," to furnish the data in relation to the Press in the village of Newark. Mr. W. promised me he would do so, but I have never heard from him on the subject.

Myron Holley, whose connection with the Press is above adverted to, acted a distinguished part in the public affairs of Western New-York. He was one of the original Canal Commissioners, and afterwards a leading politician of the Anti-Masonic party. In his later years he removed to Rochester, and attached himself politically to the Anti-Slavery or Liberty organization. He died at Rochester, and his remains repose in the beautiful cemetery of Mount Hope, under an obelisk erected by his Liberty party friends.

Mr. H. was a gentleman of fine taste, irreproachable life, uncommon talents, and great uprightness of character.

E. B. Gradin was at one time the conductor of the "Wayne Sentinel," but his name does not appear as connected with that paper, in its proper place. It is true, Mr. Tucker says, in a sort of codicil to the statement of the Press in this County that, "the largest printing job ever done in it, was the first edition of Jo Smith's 'book of Mormon,' or the 'Golden Bible.' This was done at the office of the "Wayne Sentinel," by E. B. Gradin, the then publisher of that paper, in 1829-'30. The edition of the work was 5000 copies, and the price paid for the job, including the binding was $3,000." If other omissions have occurred, and it is possible there have, the fault must be charged to others, not to me.

Graham H. Chapin, who was at one time connected with the Press in this County, is now no more. He was a Lawyer by profession—a worthy, upright and honorable man. For one or two terms he represented Wayne and Seneca in the Congress of the United States—subsequently, upon his removal to the city of Rochester, he was District Attorney of Monroe, and so far as I am aware, in all these stations, discharged his duty with the most scrupulous fidelity. He died while in the execution of his professional duties.

J. A. Hadley, who was for a time interested in the Newspaper Press at Palmyra, and also, at Lyons, still lives to honor the profession of which he is a worthy member. No man within the sphere of our acquaintance takes a stronger, or a more decided stand for the improvement of the members of the craft, or the craft itself, than Hadley. He is a practical Printer, and a good one. While he had charge of the "Freeman," in 1829, he wrote and published the first article that ever appeared against "Mormonism." He had previously had the printing of the "Book of Mormon" offered him, and at a price which would have made it a fat job; but he was not to be bought in this way—his love of truth and justice were greater than his love of money—and being satisfied in his own mind that Smith was an imposter, he considered it his duty to do all in his power to "ungown him." The task, however, cost him the few subscribers he had, predisposed to "Mormonism." Upon the heels of that article followed the general newspaper war upon the "golden humbug." Mr. Hadley is now the Foreman in the establishment of the "Rochester Daily Democrat."

The Press in this County seems now to have assumed a position of considerable permanency and stability, and I most sincerely hope and trust that those engaged in it are reaping a reward commensurate with their deservings. As a general thing, however, this is far from being the case.

NIAGARA COUNTY.


This County has made wonderful advances in the way of improvement, and especially since Erie was set off from it in 1821. Since that time the "Cataract County" stands forth as one of the most prominent among those of Western New-York. Her advantages in soil, timber, and water power, have been an inexhaustible source of wealth to her citizens, and have given ample scope for the employment of labor and capital.

The first paper printed in the County was located at Lewiston, where it was continued for a short time by Bartimeus Ferguson, who was from Canada—the establishment was one that had been brought from Scotland, by Andrew Heron, and used for several years in Canada, mostly at Niagara. In the winter of 1822, Ferguson removed his establishment to Lockport, the County Buildings having been located there, and the village just commenced. The title he gave his paper was the "Lockport Observatory." In August, 1822, it passed into the hands of Orsamus Turner, who continued its publication until 1826. Soon after the paper was removed to Lockport, another took its place at Lewiston with the title of "Lewiston Sentinel," by Oliver Grace. In 1826, the two papers were united at Lockport under the title of the "Sentinel and Observatory," by Turner & Grace, for a short time, and afterwards by Chipman P. Turner and N. D. Lathrop. In 1828, the establishment went into the hands of Asa Story, and its name changed to that of "Lockport Journal." In 1829, It was purchased by Peter Besancon, Jr., and after a short time its name was changed to that of "Lockport Balance." In 1833 or '34, a paper that had been in existence a short time, printed by P. Baker, and called "The Gazette," was merged with it, and it afterwards sported the name of "Balance and Gazette," by Baker & Besancon. During the same year in which the alliance was formed, it was again dissolved, and Besancon became the sole proprietor—changed the name back to "Balance," and shortly afterwards sold out to Isaac C. Colton, who published it until 1836, and then sold out to Thomas H. Hyatt—he published it until the winter of 1837, and sold out to Turner & Lyon, who, in 1835, had started the "Niagara Democrat," with which paper the "Balance" was finally merged. Turner & Lyon published the "Democrat" until 1839, and then sold out to T. P. Scoville. The paper was continued by him, with the exception of two years, when it was in the hands of Samuel Wright, until August, 1846, when it passed into the hands of Turner & M'Collum, by whom it is now published.

In 1827, the "Niagara Courier" was started in Lockport, by Mitchener Cadwallader. In 1834, he sold it to George Reece. In 1839, Reece disposed of it to Thomas T. Flagler. In 1843, it passed into the hands of Crandall & Brigham, by whom the paper is still continued.

In April, 1846, Stevens & Humphrey commenced the publication of the "Niagara Cataract" at Lockport, and the paper is still published by Mr. Henry and Mr. Fox, to which latter gentleman Mr. Stevens disposed of his interest in February, 1847.

In 1828 or '29, a small paper was started at Lockport, and continued for about two years, which gloried in the name of "Priestcraft Exposed." It was printed by Edwin A. Cooley.

About the period of the "Patriot War," a paper was published at Lewiston called, I believe, the "Frontier Sentinel," by T. P. Scoville.

The above is supposed to comprise a full list of the different papers that have been published in this County. If any are omitted, it is through mistake—not by design.

Orsamus Turner may be regarded as the father of the Press in this County. It is true, he was not the first to lift the curtain through which the intellectual light of the Press was to be let in upon the denizens of Niagara — but soon after the experiment was made, he was found at the helm, and either as a Publisher, Editor or assistant Editor, has continued at his post from 1822, to the present time. Mr. Turner is a strong and vigorous writer—quick to perceive and prompt to execute his purposes. For one or two years he was Collector of Canal Tolls at Lockport—a post of great responsibility, the duties of which he discharged with entire satisfaction to the public, and with credit to himself.

David S. Crandall. This gentleman is senior Editor of the "Courier." He is not a practical Printer—but he is at home in almost everything else. David is a rare and eccentric genius—full of fun, music and frolic. Well do I remember the many times that he has relieved the dull monotony of a long and tiresome stretch through the Texan Prairies, by his ever ready wit, and the constant effervescence of his full and generous spirit. Nothing discouraged him, or in the least damped his ardor. Whether longing for water, or drenched with rain—whether bedded for the night in the open Prairie, surrounded by howling wolves, or cramped with the gnawings of hunger, he was always the same. Cool and determined, he was never thrown off his guard. A better companion or a truer friend does not exist. Since his return from the South he has been once or twice elected Clerk of Niagara County, and has now vaulted into the Editorial chair. It is entirely unnecessary for me to say he has my best wishes for his success.

Isaac C. Colton has left the Press, and taken to the profession of the law. He is still a resident of Lockport.

Chipman P. Turner was for a time connected with the Press of this County. He possesses many good qualities, both of the head and heart, and has been variously connected in business. He is now Deputy Collector for the Port of Black Rock.

Thomas F. Flagler was for a number of years at the head of the "Courier" establishment, and during the time he was in business, he was twice returned a member of the Legislature from Niagara County.

CHEMUNG COUNTY.

With the history of the Press in this County it can hardly be supposed, that I should have any personal knowledge. I have not, and therefore rely entirely upon others for the facts in regard to it. The facts which follow in regard to this subject have been furnished by C. G. Fairman and are no doubt mainly correct.

The first paper ever printed in this County was called the "Telegraph." It was established in the village of Newton, now Elmira, by Prindle & Murphy. Mr. Fairman says he has obtained a copy of it, and that it is a rare relic of antiquity—the paper upon which it is printed, would in these days be considered unfit for wrapping. This was soon discontinued, and the "Vedette" took its place. In size and appearance this paper followed very nearly in the footsteps of its predecessor. This latter paper lived its allotted time on earth and was succeeded by the "Tioga Register," by Job A. Smith in 1822. In 1828 its title was changed to that of "Elmira Gazette." In 1831, Brinton Paine became associated with Mr. Smith. Mr. Paine continued in the establishment until March, 1833, when he retired, leaving it in the hands of Mr. Smith. In 1835, Mr. Paine purchased the establishment, and was its sole proprietor, employing Thomas Maxwell as Editor. In 1837, Cyrus Pratt became connected with Mr. Paine, and Mr. Maxwell retired from the Editorial chair. In 1838, Mr. Pratt bought out Mr. Paine. In 1839, it was printed by Pratt & Beardsley, who continued its publication until 1841, when it passed into the hands of Mason & Rhodes, who are its present publishers.

The "where-about" and "what-about" of its various publishers, is a difficult matter to determine. Mr. Paine, however, is still in Elmira, engaged in the Drug and Medicine business. Mr. Maxwell resides in Geneva.

The "Elmira Republican," says Mr. Fairman, as near as can be ascertained, was launched into existence in the "Dark Ages." The first tangible period in its history is 1828, when it was purchased by a company, and for the first year thereafter was called the "Elmira Whig"—James Durham being its publisher. Then came an interregnum of six months. In 1829, it re-appeared again under the management of C. Morgan—William Murphy, Editor. It was now called the "Elmira Republican and Canal Advertiser." It soon after passed into the hands of John Duffy, and reverted back to its original simplicity, being called the "Elmira Republican." In 1832, it was bought of the company by Birdsall & Huntly. It was conducted by them until March, 1826, when Mr. Huntly retired, and the paper was continued by Ransom Birdsall until 1841, when it was purchased by Polley & Caster, by whom it was conducted one year. Mr. Caster then disposed of his interest to D. M. Cook who subsequently purchased the entire concern. Three months after this event, Mr. Cook died, and the paper passed into the hands of E. S. Huntly and William Polley, under the firm name of Wm. Polley & Co. It was conducted by them for two years, when in November, 1845, they disposed of the establishment to S. B. & G. C. Fairman. In July, 1846, the former retired, leaving it in the hands of the latter gentleman. In June, 1846, under the Telegraph excitement, the "Elmira Daily Republican" was issued. But it proved an unprofitable experiment, and in about two months was abandoned.

The "Democratic Citizen," published at Jefferson, was established about three years ago by J. I. Hendrix. He is still its publisher and Editor. The Press upon which it is printed was formerly used to print a paper at Horseheads, the name and date of which I have been unable to ascertain. The same Press was subsequently used in the office of the "Chemung Democrat," which was published at Havana a short time. This did not meet with sufficient support, and it was removed to Jefferson, and the "Democratic Citizen" established.

The paper is now called the "Havana Republican" has been published about twelve years. It was established by Nelson Colegrove, and has been published by several different individuals—among whom were Barlow Nye, and T. I. Taylor. Its present Editor and proprietor is W. H. Ougly.

The above, according to Mr. Fairman's own opinion of the matter, is an imperfect sketch—owing mainly to the fact that those who had it in their power to render it more complete and full, failed to supply him with the requisite data to enable him to carry out his original design.

CAYUGA COUNTY.

The attempt was made at an early day to establish the Press in this County, dating back to 1798. Henry Oliphant in his letter to the Committee puts forth the following interrogatory—"What other County in the Western District had a paper as early as 1798?" This he will find answered by a reference to the County of Steuben, where he will find a paper was established as early as 1796. Cayuga must therefore yield the palm. In June, 1845, Mr. Oliphant published the following in his paper, under the head of "The Past and Present." As it embodies the kind of information sought, I shall give it as I there find it, in preference to any remarks of my own:—

"The first newspaper printed in what now constitutes the County of Cayuga, of which we have any knowledge was the "Levana Gazette, or Onondaga Advertiser"—a small affair of 17 inches by 20, printed by R. Delano, in 'Scipio, Onondaga county, S. N. Y.' July 20th, 1798—Terms $2 per annum. The 3rd No. is before us, printed upon paper that would now scarcely be thought suitable for wrapping—as likewise the No. for November 21st of the same year, which owing to the failure of the paper-maker to supply the requisite quantity of paper, or to the falling off of custom, is greatly reduced in size, being only 15 inches by 19—and printed upon paper which can scarcely be compared to the coarsest and bluest of the tobacco paper of the present day.—Another paper—the "Western Luminary"—of similar character and appearance was published for a short period at Watkin's Settlement Scipio — and when, in 1799, Cayuga County was formed, and the county business transacted for the time being at Aurora, the office of "The Aurora Gazette," was soon to be observed, located in a log edifice a little towards the south end of the village. This was published by Messrs. H. & J. Pace, upon type which had probably done good service in the old world for some twenty, thirty, or forty years, the long s of which and numerous other traits bearing evidence of its antiquity—and which after the removal of the county buildings to this village in 1805, was used in enlightening our early citizens through the columns of the "Western Federalist." Its first competitor, if we mistake not, in 1814, the "Cayuga Patriot," originally issued from the upper story of a wagon maker's shop in Mechanic street, (then Lumber Lane,) forming a small weekly quarto of 8 pages—which has now for many years been published in another shape by Mr. Isaac S. Allen. Then came (in 1816) the "Auburn Gazette," which, in typographical and business appearance, was very far ahead of any thing to be found in this section. It was commenced by Messrs. Skinner & Crosby, the former of whom was still connected with the business as publisher of the "Gazette, Republican and Journal," until January, 1841.

In 1824, the "Auburn Free Press" was commenced by Mr. Richard Oliphant, and although at that time the sheet upon which it was issued was thought to be of a monstrous size—being larger than any of the preceding publications in this section, yet it now appears scarcely credible that it was not near half the size of our present sheet—its number of inches being 520, while ours is 1176. In the above list of papers we have overlooked the "Cayuga Tocsin,"" commenced at Union Springs, in 1812, which after a brief career there, was removed to this town, soon to lie down among the things that were—only to be called to mind at this day by the establishment of its namesake in 1839—now published by Messrs. J. C. Merrell & Co.

Until the time of the establishment of the Free Press, in 1824, the old Ramage or Screw Press, was the only kind used in this section—and until 1829 the only mode adopted in the bestowment of Ink upon the form or type, was by the use of large, heavy, clumsy leather balls. But from that time improvements have rapidly followed each other. The introduction of the Washington Cast Iron Press, in '24, accompanied as it was, by the composition roller, in '29, had greatly reduced the labor previously experienced—and the still more recent invention of Seth Adams & Co., of Boston, one of which has just been procured by us, cannot fail to make a still more thorough change in every thing connected more especially with book-printing. This press, with the assistance of one person to supply it with paper, and another to turn the wheel, will get off more than four limes as many sheets in the course of a day, as the article in ordinary use; and when it is considered that each sheet may be of double the usual size generally used upon the old press, the great advantage will be apparent to all. It is a beautiful invention; and judging from its workings for the few days it has been in operation, promises to work admirably—'making books' at a rate which only a few years since, would have been looked upon as altogether beyond belief. With the exception of a few of this invention in New-York, and a single one in Albany, this is believed to be the only article of the kind in the State, affording advantages to such of our publishers as wish to avail themselves of its expeditious movements—and to our citizens generally, a view of one of the finest specimens of mechanism ever formed."

The publication of the above article by Mr. Oliphant seems to have aroused the dormant early recollections of our friend Weed of the "Albany Journal," and called forth the following, which is too good to be lost. Speaking of the article quoted above, Mr. Weed says:

"Here is a delightful reminiscence. It recalls events and brightens images which would have long since faded out, had they not left their impressions upon the mind in its spring-time. Who that remembers Western New-York thirty-five years ago, can look upon the change without amazement? Instead of the every day, gradual progress which industry and enterprise, guided by intelligence, accomplishes, it seems as if some Fairy had passed through the wilderness, converting, by a touch of its wand, tangled forests into waving fields, log-cabins into splendid mansions, Indian wigwams into Christian Temples, and blind foot-paths into Railroads and Canals.

"Thirty-three years ago, every newspaper in this State, and nearly all in the Union, were as familiar to our eye as that which now bears our imprint. Then each Exchange Paper had its appropriate wire, and was regularly filed. Ihen Printing was quite another affair. Machinery has robbed "the Art preservative of all Arts" of much of its glory. Rollers and Steam do the work which Franklin performed. Printers now learn but half the duties which pertained to our craft in other days.

"The allusions in this article to the "Western Federalist," the "Cayuga Tocsin," and the "Cayuga Patriot," carry us back to an early period in the history of the Press of Western New-York. We shall never forget Messrs. H. & J. Pace, of the "Western Federalist," at whose office we called in 1812, when on our way to obtain a situation in the "Cayuga Tocsin" office. Those dumpy little Englishmen were mounted upon stools, setting type that must have been cast soon after the Reformation, for they were worn nearly down to the first nick. Everything about the office, including its Proprietors, would have induced the belief that they came out of the Ark, if there had been authority for supposing that Father Noah took a Printing Office on board.

"After resting a few hours at Auburn, we footed it on to "Spring Mills," in the "Old Town of Scipio," where we renewed our acquaintance with the space-box and shooting-stick, in the "Tocsin" office, a paper that rejoiced in one "Royal T. Chamberlain," as its "Editor and Proprietor." Scipio was then the largest and richest town in Western New-York. They have since cut it up into four or five towns.

"The Printing Office was situated upon the Lake, but we boarded some three miles back, with the Proprietor's Father. The walk from the farm to the office, in the grey of the morning, and the return at twilight, was always delightful. The country was just passing from the primeval to the pastoral state, so beautifully illustrated in Cole's magnificent picture of the Course of Time. We were quite enchanted, and looked forward to much enjoyment there. But our hopes were soon dashed. Our 'Editor and Proprietor' fell in love! Miss S———, who won his heart, rejected his hand! Instead of consoling himself with the philosophy which assures us that there are as good fish in the sea as those that refuse to be caught, he would sit whole days upon a particular log looking at the house in which the idol of his affections resided. Business was of course neglected, and in a few weeks the 'Tocsin' ceased to sound its alarms.

"Nor shall we ever forget the 'upper story of a wagon-maker's shop' where the 'Cayuga Patriot' was first printed, for there we worked and played and laughed away most of the winter of 1814. Samuel R. Brown, who published the 'Patriot,' was an honest, amiable, easy, slip-shod sort of a man, whose patient, good-natured wife was 'cut from the same piece.' Mr. Brown, the year before, had been established at Albany with a paper called the "Republican,' under the auspices of Gov. Tompkins, Chief Justice Spencer, and other distinguished Republicans, with whom Mr. Southwick, of the 'Register,' ond then State Printer, had quarrelled. But the enterprise, like every other in our old friend Brown's hands, failed, and he next found himself at Auburn, then a small village without a sidewalk or pavement, and save Sacket's Harbor, the muddiest place we ever saw. Mr. and Mrs. Brown were originals. Neither of them, so far as we remember, ever lost temper or even fretted. The work in the office, was always behind hand, and the house always in confusion. The paper was never out in season, and neither breakfast nor dinner were ever ready. But it was all the same. Subscribers waited for the paper until it was printed, and we waited for our meals until they were cooked. The office was always full of loungers communicating or receiving news. And but for an amateur type-setter, (Richard Oliphant, late editor of the 'Oswego County Whig,' and brother of the Editor of the 'Auburn Journal,') to whom we became much attached, and who, though a mere boy, used to do a full share of the work, the business would have fallen still farther behind hand. It is not perhaps unworthy of remark here, that three excellent and much esteemed Printers, became such, without dreaming of their destiny, in consequence of attachments we formed for them in their childhood. We allude to Richard Oliphant, of Oswego, the late John Visscher, of this city, and the late E. P. Pellett, of the 'Chenango Telegraph.' John Visscher, when a mere boy, the son, as we then supposed, of affluence, living next door to the 'Albany Register Office," passed all his leisure time with us, and became, without any expectation of pursuing the business, a good Printer. This proved most fortunate, for when adversity came upon his Home, he was master of a profession which rendered him independent. Mr. Pellett when a boy worked upon his father's farm, a mile from the village of Norwich, but the moment the labor of the day was over, he started for our office, where for months, he was assiduously and diligently employed. Some years afterwards, when he had moved to Rochester, and a paper was wanted at Norwich, the Farmer's Son left his plough and became its Printer, Publisher and Editor, in all of which positions he not only sustained himself, but rose to eminence.

"But we forgot that these reminiscences possess no interest for general readers. The 'Auburn Journal' article warmed up our memory, and it has been running away with us."

In addition to the facts in the articles above quoted. It is proper to state that in Sept. 1816, the "Advocate of the People," was commenced by Henry C. Southwick, advocating what was then known as the "Low Salary Party." In 1827, the "Gospel Messenger," an Episcopal publication, was commenced by the Rev. Doct. Rudd—after a few years it was removed to Utica, where it is still published.

In 1833, the "Cayuga Democrat," was commenced by Frederick Prince.

In 1829, Henry Oliphant became the proprietor of the "Auburn Free Press," previously published by Richard Oliphant, which by uniting with the "Cayuga Republican," in 1833, till that time published by Thomas M. Skinner, gave rise to the "Auburn Journal and Advertiser," which continued in the hands of Henry Oliphant until Sept. 1846. The "Auburn Daily Advertiser" was commenced by Henry Oliphant in March, 1846, which, with the Journal, was disposed of at the time before stated, to Henry Montgomery, formerly of Lancaster, Pa.

The "Northern Christian Advocate," a Methodist paper was commenced in 1841. It is under the Editorial charge of Rev. Nelson Rounds, and has a weekly circulation of near 6,000.

The "Star of Temperance," by L. H. Dewey, was commenced in 1845, and, I believe, is still published by him.

In 1846, Professor Maffitt established a monthly publication, the object and design, or even the name of which, I have not learned. The number for December closed its existence.

All the facts in relation to the Press in this County have not been furnished, which it would have been desirable should have been placed upon record. Among others, a prominent omission occurs in not mentioning the name of Ulysses F. Doubleday, who was long and honorably connected with the "Cayuga Patriot." Mr. D. was also a Member of Congress from the Cayuga District, and was for a time, I believe, Keeper of the Auburn State Prison. If I am not mistaken he is now in the Bookselling business in the City of New-York.

SENECA AND YATES COUNTIES.

It is to be regretted that a more particular and minute history of the Press of these two Counties could not have been obtained. E.J. Fowle has furnished what may be regarded more in the light of a personal history of himself, than a general one of the Press—in doing so, however, although himself a resident of Yates, he has given a mere glimpse of the early history of Printing in both these Counties.

In a letter to the Committee of Correspondence of the Franklin Festival, under date of Dec. 24, 1846, Mr. Fowle says: "I date my connection with the Press from 1816, when I commenced as an apprentice with Michael Hayes, in the office of the "Ovid Gazette." The County of Seneca had then just been cut up by the formation of Tompkins, and the Courts removed to Waterloo. The first paper ever printed in this County, the "Seneca Patriot," by George Lewis, had followed the location of the Courts. One object in starting the paper at Ovid was to get the Courts back half the time. This was accomplished after several years struggling. Lewis soon after this event sold out at Waterloo, to Hiram Leavenworth, who now, I believe, conducts the "Journal," at St. Catherines," C. W. [In 1827, when the Compositor of this entered upon his apprenticeship in the office of Wm. L. Mackenzie, at York, now Toronto, he recollects frequently to have heard the name of Mr. Leavenworth mentioned as a Journeyman having been employed in that office the year previous. That he is a good Printer and a gentleman of taste, the exceeding neatness of the paper which he continues to publish in the flourishing village of St. Catherines, affords ample proof. Unlike his old employer, it is believed Mr. L. is possessed of a goodly share of this world's goods, with which to supply the wants of the decline of life.] Mr. L. had not been long established, when, on account of some trifling misunderstanding with a few of the would-be office-holders of that day, he was invited one evening by one of the clique to a conference at the hotel, and while thus engaged, the others went into the Printing Office and stole and ran off with the Press, Types, and all, and the poor Printer returned only to find a vacant room. So much for the liberty of the Press!

"The appearance of most of the papers of those days would afford a rich treat, if copies could be found. They were generally of very small dimensions—were printed on some day during the week, the proprietors not being very particular which, and the date affording no evidence. Whenever the "boss" or the boys had been lazy or frolicking too much, a column or two of the latest news in Great Primer or Double Pica, was set up by way of helping along. The advertisements were rendered very conspicuous by a caption in Cannon, and many of the cuts were of domestic manufacture, and would represent almost anything, 'without,' as the almanac makers used to say, 'material alteration.' "

Mr. Fowle remained in Ovid some five years—went to New-York, where he worked for Alden Spooner, and the Messrs. Harpers—returned to the West—worked for William Ray, the Poet, at Geneva, and for B. B. Drake, at Waterloo, and again for a while at Ovid. In the fall of 1823, he went to Penn Yan, and started the "Yates Republican." Previous to this time, however, A. H. Bennett had commenced the "Penn Yan Herald," the name of which he soon changed to that of "Penn Yan Democrat," and which is still continued by his son, Clement V. Bennett, and Alfred Reed. Mr. F. continued the "Yates Republican" something like twelve years, when he abandoned the Press and Types for "Dry Goods, Groceries, Crockery, and Hardware," in which business he is still engaged. The paper, under various titles and proprietors, is still continued. Since he quit it, J. A. Hadley, now of Rochester, ——— Gilbert, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, and William Childs have had charge of it.—It is now in the hands of Rodney L. Adams; the daily called the "Telegraph," and the weekly the "Yates County Whig,"

There is also a paper published in Yates County, at Dundee, called the "Dundee Record," but I know not by whom, or how long it has been published.

TIOGA COUNTY.

The materials from which to furnish a history of the Press in this County, are meagre in the extreme. Mr. Calhoun, the Editor of the Oswego Advertiser, has supplied the only data from which any facts can be gathered in relation to it, and he complains that others, from whom he had a right to expect assistance in the matter, have failed to give him any whatever.

The "American Farmer" was established by Stephen Mack, somewhere about the year 1800. In 1815, it was purchased by Stephen B. Leonard, since Member of Congress from this District, who changed the name to the "Oswego Gazette."—Mr. Leonard conducted it 20 years, and sold out in 1835, to Shurtleff & Bull. This firm was dissolved in 1837, and the paper was carried on by J. B. Shurtleff till February, 1839, when his office with its contents was destroyed by fire. In May, the same year, the "Gazette" was again started by E. P. Marble, who continued to publish it about two years, when it passed into the hands of C. C. Thomas, under the Editorial charge of Alanson Munger. Mr. Thomas published the paper seven months and sold out to Thomas C. Wood, who employed Gideon O. Chase as Editor. In 1843, another paper bearing the name of the "Owego Gazette," was established, by H. A. Babe, formerly of Towanda, Pa. In 1844, Wood's "Gazette" went down, and Babe continued to publish the other until July, 1845, when he sold out to Thomas Pearsall, who continued in charge of it until May, 1846, when he sold to D. & C. F. Wallis, by whom it is now carried on.

Attempts were made at various times to establish a second paper, and the "Republican," by Mr. Chatterton, was in existence nearly a year, about 1833. In 1836, A. H. Calhoun established the "Owego Advertiser," which is now continued by him.

WYOMING COUNTY.

This County originally, or at least all except what has been taken from Allegany and added to it since its separate organization as a County, belonged to Genesee. In this County, as in most others, a disposition has existed, to augument, unnecessarily, the numbers of Newspapers. In many cases they were not demanded by the business wants of the County, and as a necessary consequence, their existence has been fleeting and ephemeral. It is hoped past experience will operate favorably upon future enterprise.

The first paper printed in what is now Wyoming County, at Warsaw, was in 1828, by L. & W. Walker, and was called the "Genesee Register." It did not number six months when it expired.

The "Warsaw Sentinel" was established by Andrew W. Young, in May, 1830. He continued its publication until December, 1831, when he purchased the "Republican Advocate," at Batavia, and merged the "Sentinel" in that paper.

In 1833 or '34, David Scott established in the Village of Attica a paper called the "Attica Republican." How long it was continued, I am unable to say, but it is stated to have eventually run into the "Attica Balance," by E. A. Cooley, Mr. Scott continuing a regular, or occasional, contributor to its Editorial department, until it underwent another change, and came out the "Attica Democrat" under the entire control of Mr. Cooley. It thus continued until 1846, when it ceased to exist.

In 1834, the "Genesee Recorder" was established at Perry, by George M. Shipper. It did not live out its first year.

The "American Citizen" was established by an association of gentlemen, at Warsaw, in 1836. It was printed by J. A. Hadley, and for the first few months was under the editorial supervision of A. W. Young, after which time it was assumed by Mr. Hadley, and the paper was thus continued for one year, when it was removed to Perry, and published by Mitchell & Warren. Soon after this event, Mr. Ansel Warren retired, leaving it in the hands of Mr. David Mitchell, who continued it until January, 1841, when it was removed to Rochester, where it was published one or two years, and then discontinued.

It 1838, a paper was established at Pike, and at first was called the "Pike Whig," but was afterwards changed to the "Pike Gazette." It was conducted by Thomas Carrier, and lived about one year. It was established to further the project of creating a new County, whose "seat of government" should be at Pike.

In 1839, Ansel Warren, in the office of the "American Citizen," published "The Watchtower," for the Baptist Association. It was edited by Elder Elon Galusha, and Rev. Charles Van Loon. It lived but one year.

In 1840, a campaign paper was printed at Perry, called "The Register," under the Editorial management of Isaac N. Stoddard and John H. Bailey.

In 1841, the "Perry Democrat" was established at the Village of Perry, under the Editorial charge of Peter Lawrence. It is still continued by him.

The "Western New-Yorker" was commenced at Perry, in January, 1841. It was at first edited by John H. Bailey, who was afterwards succeeded by Barlow & Woodward, and by them the paper was removed to Warsaw, in the summer of the same year, soon after the location of the County buildings. It was published by these gentlemen until January, 1842, when Mr. Woodward retired, leaving it in the hands of Mr. Barlow.—In November of the same year, Samuel S. Blanchard entered the concern, and continued with Mr. Barlow until January, 1843, when Mr. Barlow retired, leaving it in Ihe hands of his partner, by whom it is still published.

In 1843, "The Countryman" was established at Perry, by N. S. Woodward. It was intended as a successor to the "American Citizen." It soon passed into the hands of Daniel S. Curtis, and its title was changed to "The Impartial Countryman." It was thus continued until August, 1846, when Ansel Warren appeared as its conductor, and issued the paper under the title of the "Free Citizen." It has now, however, just departed this life, having died about the 1st of April, of the present year, of that dreadful malady, so fatal to many of the Newspapers of Western New- York—want of sufficient patronage.

In 1844, the "Wyoming Republican" was commenced at Warsaw, by E. L. Fuller. Its publication was discontinued about the first of March, 1847.

The "Attica Telegraph" was established in the Village of Attica, in October, 1846, by Abraham Dinsmore. It is still published by him.

The "Christian Investigator," is published at the office of the late "Free Citizen," and edited by William Goodell.

Of those who have been, or now are, interested in the Newspaper Press of Wyoming, I propose to say a few words. Andrew W. Young is mentioned in the "Recollections of the Press," of another County. In addition to what is there stated, I will simply remark, that he is now engaged in the State of Ohio, in publishing a work similar to the one put forth in this State, on the "Science of Government"—and with every prospect of complete success.

David Scott has left the Editorial Chair entirely, and is now devoting himself to the active business duties of life—a Merchant, Miller, &c. At one time he was a Member of the Legislature from this County. His political course has been rather erratic, and it is a favorite remark of his, "that upon a Presidential Election, he is never in the minority." Whether this implies change, on the part of David, or the parties of the day, is left for others to decide. I mention the fact, simply to show the peculiar character of the man. He possesses considerable force of mind, and withal, many good qualities.

[J. A. Hadley. This gentleman, as will be seen in the preceding pages, has had much to do with the Newspaper Press in Western New-York. He has taken an active part in two Festivals held in Rochester, and, it will be observed is a member of the Committee for the publication of these proceedings. It is with regret, however, that we learn he is about to leave the city, and the superintendence of the Democrat office—a situation which he has occupied for the last eight years, doubtless, to the entire satisfaction of the employers and employed of that establishment—and contemplates soon to remove to Watertown, Jefferson County, Wiskonsan. He designs publishing a paper in that town on his arrival there, to be entitled the "Watertown Chronicle." Mr. H. is one of the tallest specimens of the Craft, being six feet four inches in stature, which is only two inches less than that of his fellow-craftsman. Long John Wentworth, of Illinois. He is a clever soul, and every inch a gentleman, and we most cordially wish him in his projected enterprise, that success and prosperity to which he is so justly entitled.—Eds. American.]

Samuel S. Blanchard is still at the head of the "Western New-Yorker," and it is but justice to say, that in his hands, the paper has been well and creditably sustained.

Abraham Dinsmore was formerly an apprentice in the office of the writer of these pages—and without meaning or intending any disparagement to others who may have occupied a similar position, I trust I may be permitted to bear testimony to the great fidelity with which he discharged his obligations while thus situated. Since that time his course has not been so familiar to me. In a business point of view, I wish him the most unbounded success.

Of some of those engaged in the Press in this County, I know nothing of their personal history—while others have been noticed elsewhere.

GENESEE COUNTY.

The Newspaper Press in this County, in its struggling infancy, has had the same difficulties to contend with, that have beset the attempt in other Western Counties. The following history of its rise, progress, and present condition, is supposed to be correct, or nearly so, in almost every particular, athough to gather these facts together has been the result of considerable labor.

The first paper printed in the County of Genesee was established at Batavia, then, as now, the County Seat, in the spring of 1807. At the date, or near it, indicated below, I addressed a letter to Benjamin Blodgett, Esq., asking information in relation to the early history of the Press in this County. I received the following letter from him, and I cannot do better justice to the subject than by copying the letter entire. It is as follows:—

Pembroke, Nov. 25, 1846.

"Friend Follett:—I this morning received your note asking information of the 'rise and progress of the Art of Printing' in this County. I regret that I am not able to give you a more minute account. Not having preserved a file of my old papers, I have to depend merely upon memory. The first paper established in this County was in the spring of 1807. Elias Williams purchased in Manlius, an old Ramage Printing Press that had been laid aside as useless, and a Box of Old Type in pi, intended to sell for Type metal, and brought them, in the winter of that year, to Batavia. After a laborious winter's work of assorting his old Type, and patching up the old Press, he published the first number of a paper called the 'Genesee Intelligencer.' This paper was printed upon a half sheet of Medium size, with a subscription list of 100, and two or three columns of advertisements from the Holland Land Company, one Elopement, and one Runaway Apprentice Boy, for whose apprehension a Bag of Bran was offered as a reward. [3] This was all the advertising patronage, if my recollection serves me right, that the paper commenced with. The paper was a sorry looking thing—the mechanical execution being so bad that it would have puzzled a Philadelphia Lawyer to find out what it was. I ought to have preserved a copy—it would be looked upon by the craft at this day, not only as a literary but a mechanical curiosity. Williams becoming disheartened at the shabby appearance of his paper, and about to fail for the want of funds, induced me to go into partnership with him. Anxious to see my name at the head of a newspaper, as Printer, Publisher, and Editor, too, of the 'Genesee Intelligencer,' I embarked my all of this world's effects in the enterprise, which amounted to the vast sum of forty-eight dollars and seventy-five cents, the hard earnings of the summer before, as Pack Horseman and Cook to a company of Surveyors on the Holland Purchase—a pursuit better fitted to my capacity, at that day, than Editor of the 'Genesee Intelligencer.'

"About the first of July, 1807, the firm of Williams & Blodgett resumed the publication of the 'Intelligencer' with an increased subscription list and advertising patronage. After publishing 13 numbers, Williams went to Alexander to attend a Military Review, and has never since been seen or heard of in this country. This unceremonious leave-taking of Williams put a mighty damper upon the prospects of Mr. Editor Blodgett, who instead of realizing the golden dreams he had anticipated, found himself involved in debt about $300, flat on his back with the fever and ague, which continued about six months without intermission; and for the want of help, not being a practical Printer myself, was obliged to abandon the publication of the 'Intelligencer.'[4] However, in the spring of 1808, I rallied again, and in company with a man by the name of Peek, I started the 'Cornucopia,' (a very classic name,) with an enlarged sheet and new type, under the firm of Peek & Blodgett, with a subscription list of about 300. In the fall of 1811, Peek was taken sick and died, and with his death the 'Cornucopia' went down.

"I then, under the mechanical superintendence of David C. Miller, (afterwards Colonel, with his little Cane and Breeches,) commenced the publication of the 'Republican Advocate,' with a new Press and new Type, and continued its publication for several years, when I sold out to Colonel Miller, who became sole proprietor of that paper.

"Your friend,

"BENJAMIN BLODGETT."

This was the first paper ever established, I believe, which was called the "Advocate." Since that time, however, many a bantling has sprung into existence bearing that cognomen.

The "Republican Advocate" continued in the hands, and under the direction of Col. Miller until April, 1828, when he took into Co-partnership Charles Sentell, by whom it was conducted until July, 1829, when it passed into the hands of Charles W. Miller, and was continued by him until the 21st of Nov. 1831, when he died. The paper was continued without any acknowledged proprietor, until the 17th of January, 1832, when it passed into the hands of Edwin Hough and Andrew W. Young, the latter gentleman having been engaged in the publication of the "Warsaw Sentinel." On the 13th Nov. 1832, Hough left the establishment in the hands of Young. On the 8th of April, 1835, Young transferred the office to Lewis & Brown, who continued the paper for three weeks, and then it reverted back again to Mr. Young. The establishment was then sold to C. C. Allen, who continued its publication for four weeks, when he surrendered the establishment to Mr. Young again. Young printed a half sheet to give the paper an existence, and then, on the 8th of June, 1835, sold out to Waite & Cooley. This co-partnership continued until the 16th of Sept. of the same year, when Cooley retired from the establishment, leaving it in the hands of Mr. Waite, by whom it is still continued.

On the 3rd day of February, 1819, the first number of the "Spirit of the Times," was issued at Batavia, by Oran Follett, on which occasion the writer of this made his first attempt at Type setting. The "Times" was continued by the same proprietor until May, 1825, when Frederick Follett, purchased the establishment of his brother, and was duly installed Editor and Proprietor, and continued as such until August, 1836, when being fired by an extra love of liberty, and desiring to participate in the struggle then in progress in Texas, sold the establishment to a number of gentlemen, and repaired to the country of the "Lone Star." The establishment was then placed in the hands of Nelson D. Wood, who continued at its head until the writer's return, who, on the 17th of August, 1837, again found himself at the head of the "Times," and continued in that capacity until the 11th of June, 1840, when the "Times," passed into the hands of Lucas Seaver, who continued its publication until the 28th of January, 1845, when he disposed of it to William Seaver, and William A. Seaver, by whom it is still continued under the firm of Wm. Seaver & Son.

The publication of the "Leroy Gazette" was commenced in the village of that name, about the year 1826, by J. O. Balch, who continued it until 1827, when he disposed of it to Starr & Hotchkin, who continued in partnership about a year and a half, when Hotchkin retired, and sometime in 1828 Henry D. Ward became associated with Mr. Starr in its publication, and thus continued until 1832, when Ward left the establishment in the hands of Mr. Starr. In 1833 Richard Hollister became the owner, Starr continuing as the publisher. In 1835, Rufus Robertson became part owner, and in 1836, sole proprietor of the establishment, and then in connection with F. L. Goodrich, as partner continued the paper until Jany 1838, when Robertson disposed of his interest to Seth M. Gates and Martin O. Coe, by whom, with Goodrich as the owner of the other half, it was continued until Nov. or Dec. 1838, when it passed into the hands of Cyrus Thompson, who continued its publication until June, 1840, when the present proprietor, C. B. Thompson, became the owner and has since continued the publication of the "Leroy Gazette"

In the year 1829, Orestea A. Brownson, as Editor, and Freeman & Son, as Printers, commenced the publication, in the village of Leroy, of the "Genesee Republican and Herald of Reform," which had an existence of a year or two, and was then discontinued.

The "People's Press," owned by an association of individuals, and printed by Benjamin Blodgett, was commenced in the village of Batavia, in 1825, and was continued by Mr. Blodgett for about a year, when it passed into the hands of Martin, Adams & Thorp. Soon after Mr. Martin retired from the establishment leaving it in the hands of Adams & Throp—another change soon after took place, and the establishment passed into the hands of Adams & McCleary. The paper was afterwards merged in the "Spirit of the Times" and finally its name has become extinct.

The "Morgan Investigator" was the title of a small paper published at the office of the "Republican Advocate" soon after the excitement of 1826 broke out. It was continued about a year and then expired. Its title is a sufficient indication of the purposes of its origin.

The "Masonic Intelligencer" was also started about the same period, and for purposes directly the reverse of the former. It was published at the office of the "People's Press." It attained about the same age.

The "Farmer's and Mechanic's Journal," published at Alexander by Peter Lawrence, was commenced on the 4th day of Nov, 1837. It was continued there until its purchase and removal to Batavia in June, 1840.

On leaving the office of the "Spirit of the Times," June 11th, 1840, the writer of this in connection with Peter Lawrence, who until that time had published the "Farmer's and Mechanic's Journal," at Alexander, commenced, in the village of Batavia, the publication of the "Batavia Times and Farmers and Mechanics Journal," the first number of which paper was issued on the 18th day of June, 1840. Lawrence continued in the establishment for two or three months, when the writer took the establishment into his own hands, and continued its publication until the 20th of Sept., 1843, when the "good will" of the establishment was disposed of to Lucas Seaver, who was then the proprietor of the "Spirit of the Times."

The "Temperance Herald" was the title of a small paper printed by Lucas Seaver, and issued from the office of the "Spirit of the Times." The first number was issued in March, 1842, and was continued for one year. It was devoted, as is implied by its title, to the cause of Temperance.

The "Genesee Courier," by E. Bliss, was established at Leroy in the Spring of 1844. It was continued about one year, and was then discontinued. Mr. Bliss is now publishing a paper at Racine, Wisconsin.

Having gone through with an enumeration of the different Newspapers established in this County for the last forty years, my task may be considered as ended. But what has become of the founders of those establishments? This inquiry is an interesting one, and it may not be wholly unprofitable to give the answer.

Elias Williams, the pioneer of the Newspaper Press in this county, as has before been stated, left the field of his early labors in a most abrupt and unceremonious manner — and, as stated, has never since been seen or heard of in this county. Whether he was spirited away, by some of the evil geniuses, who in early times were associated with the Craft in the minds of the vulgar or uninformed—or whether he was actuated by a more noble and magnanimous principle, and "left his country for his country's good," is really more than I can say. It however has been suggested to us by his old partner, that the reason why Williams thus made himself scarce in these parts, was this:—Previous to the review in question both proprietors of the "Intelligencer"—(Printers are celebrated for their military propensities[5])—were elected Corporals of a Company in Batavia, and on repairing to Alexander to be reviewed, Williams thought, especially as it was the bounden duty of military men to fight, that he would get up a little bit of a row—and as it generally happens in such cases that somebody must get licked, the lot fell, most unfortunately, upon Williams. Having got most essentially thrashed out—both eyes put in mourning, for the sins of the inner man, I suppose, he decamped. One thing, however, is certain—Williams has left an interregnum in his history which it is impossible for me to supply, and I am therefore compelled thus to leave his name wrapped In mystery and doubt.

Benjamin Blodgett, the next in order as the pioneer of Printing in this County is still living. After catering for many years, for the appetite of the reading public, he abandoned the Printing business, and commenced catering for the traveling public. Who that has travelled on the great thoroughfare to Buffalo, before the introduction and completion of the iron roads, does not remember the "Richville Cottage?" It was a frequent remark of travellers, that at no place between Albany and Buffalo, did they fare so well or so bountifully, as at the "Cottage"—and this was kept by our old friend Benjamin Blodgett, who still resides at Pembroke, and I hope he may long continue in the enjoyment of the blessings of this life. Speaking of the "Richville Cottage," brings to our mind a very happy notice of cur old friend which originally appeared in the "Knickerbocker," written by the lamented Willis Gaylord Clark, in 1836, and is as follows:—

"Traveler!—as thou wendest towards the West, if thou art within some fifteen miles of Batavia, and thinkest of pausing for the night, rescind the mental resolution, and post on to that town. There shalt thou experience a good bed, and delicious rest, with the murmur of the Tonnawanta breathing upon the night air thy quiet lullaby. Do this; to the end that, rising in the morning, thou go to Richville, and there to breakfast, which is an hospitable town, and hath an hotel whose superior is not to be found, whether they go to the south-west or north-west, or indeed to any point of the compass. Comfortable and expeditious Blodgett! The voluminousness of thy periphery indicateth the epicure; upon the pullets thou sacrificest, are the pin-feathers of youth; thy warm cakes are done deliciously brown; thy yellow butter, thy irreproachable eggs, thy unimpeachable coffee—my mnemnocal palate remembers them all. Murder Creek, too is in thy vicinity; as it goes moaning onward under the rude bridge that spans it, the reflection of bright red mills upon its shore as they give back the sunbeam, gives it murder's proper hue and 'damned spot.' The tradition is, that a poor crazy old man was killed here by the Indians, many years ago, in the early settlement of the country:

'May he be true, may he be no so'
We'll grant it is, and let it go so.'

At any rate, (Blodgett, I thank thee for the sentence,) if Richville hath the memory of death, it hath likewise, and in full profusion, the means of life."

—— Peek, whose first name I have not been able to learn, although diligent inquiry has been made, died in this Village in the fall of 1811, while engaged in the publication, with Blodgett, of the "Cornucopia."

David C. Miller. It cannot be denied but what Miller possessed a very considerable degree of talent, and a reasonable share of shrewdness. All will remember the conspicuous part he bore in the exciting times which followed the abduction of William Morgan, in 1826. Miller was afterwards elected County Clerk—took the stump as a candidate for Congress—was defeated, and finally left, in 1832, or '33, cursing the party, or its leaders, as guilty of ingratitude. The last intelligence of this man located him at Cleveland, Ohio.

Oran Follett continued the publication of the "Spirit of the Times," until 1825, when he sold out. In the fall of 1824, he was returned a member of the Legislature from this County. After disposing of the "Times," he united with Day & Haskins in the publication of a paper at Buffalo. From thence he removed to Sandusky City, Ohio, where he now resides, and is President of the Board of Public Works in that State.

Frederick Follett, his successor in the publication of the "Times," continued it from 1825 until 1840, with an interruption of one year—then published the Times & Journal, until 1843—since which time he has been serving the public in the capacity of Post Master of the Village of Batavia.

J. O. Balch, the founder of the "Le Roy Gazette," the last I heard of him, he was a resident of the State of Illinois. Whether he is still in the Printing business, or what are his prospects in life, is more than I can say.

Elisha Starr is still living, and a resident of Milwaukie, Wisconsin—a clever, good natured, easy soul, well calculated to pioneer the way to fortune for others, but never ready to grasp it for himself. I hope the "blind goddess" will yet see fit to force a fortune upon him.

Beriah B. Hotchkin. The whereabouts of this branch of the Corps Editorial of Genesee County is unknown to me.

Henry D. Wade, some years since, took up his line of march for the West, and at one time was figuring as Cashier of a Bank in Illinois.

There were a number of owners of the "Gazette" after this, but as they did not belong to the Craft, we are disposed to pass them by until we come to

Franklin L. Goodrich. This gentleman is still in the land of the living—and at present has charge of the mechanical part of the Republican Advocate.

Cyrus Thompson, who had charge of the "Gazette" from l838 to 1840 has left the case and taken a stand upon the soil. In other words, he has turned farmer.

Charles B. Thomson, who is now the editor and proprietor of the "Gazette," is doing better, I hope, in the way of his profession, than his predecessors. The paper seems to be better sustained, and has every indication of affording a good living.

Orestes A. Brownson, who edited the "Genesee Republican," is now, and has been for a number of years, the Editor of the New England Review—a man of great and acknowledged talent, but somewhat ultra and impracticable in his views. The following story is told in connection with this gentleman:—Some years since, while in England, the Hon. Daniel Webster called upon Lord Brougham. Various topics formed the theme of conversation, until finally the literature of America was touched upon. Being aware that Webster and Brownson were inhabitants of the same city. Lord Brougham made the following inquiry of his visitor:—"I suppose, Mr. Webster, you are well acquainted with Mr. Brownson?" With real or affected ignorance of the subject of inquiry, Mr. Webster replied, "Brownson, Brownson—what Brownson do you mean, Sir?" "Why, O. A. Brownson, to be sure. Sir." "I do not know the man," replied Mr. Webster. "Well, then," answered Lord Brougham, "permit me to tell you, Sir, that you have not the honor of an acquaintance with one of the greatest writers in America!"

Andrew W. Young is still living. He resides at Warsaw, in the County of Wyoming. Since leaving the Printing business, Mr. Young has turned author, and his work, upon the "Science of Government," designed for a School Book, has met with an extensive sale, and is deservedly popular. Mr. Young has been twice elected to the legislature from Wyoming, and was returned a member of the late Convention to revise the Constitution of this State, from the same County Lewis & Brown. The former gentleman is the Editor of a paper at Marshall, Michigan, where he has resided for some years. Mr. Brown, I believe, is also printing a paper in Michigan.

C. C. Allen prints the "Sciota Gazette," at Chilicothe, Ohio, and if the appearances of the paper indicate anything, he is doing well.

Daniel D. Waite still presides at the head of the "Republican Advocate," and unlike his predecessors in the Printing Business in Batavia by good management and strict economy, has been able to sustain himself respectably, and lay by something for a rainy day. I certainly rejoice at this, although it is unlike the luck of Printers generally. We hope his case may always be full.

E. A. Cooley, who was at one time concerned in the publication of the "Republican Advocate," and who afterwards published a paper in Attica, Wyoming County, is now publishing a paper at Beloit, Wisconsin Territory.

Daniel P. Adams, for some time one of the publishers of the "People's Press," like too many of the Craft, belongs to that order of men whose pilgrimage through life seems always to be "up hill." Honest and industrious, he makes a good living. After leaving Batavia, he published a paper at Black Rock. He is now a journeyman in Buffalo.

John Thorp, another publisher of the "People's Press," went to New-Orleans, and fell a victim soon after, to the prevailing fever of that region.

David C. McCleary, who was also, at one time, the Editor of the "People's Press," now slumbers with the silent dead. Mr. McCleary was a young man of no ordinary talent. He was an easy and forcible writer, and had he lived, would have become conspicuous among the writers of the age. But his health was always feeble, which finally compelled him to abandon the active duties of life. He repaired to the home of his childhood, in Vermont, but it was only to mingle his ashes with those who had preceded him in the drama of life. His death was universally regretted. He was a brother-in-law of Col. William Seaver, of this Village, and now the senior Editor of the "Times."

Peter Lawrence, originally of the "Farmers & Mechanics' Journal," and afterwards associated with Frederick Follett In the publication of the "Times & Journal," is now Editor of the "Perry Democrat." Mr. Lawrence is a rare genius—full of humor, wit and jovial good feeling—a fast friend and an unflinching enemy. Like too many of the same profession, he is satisfied with doing well, without attempting to do better.

Lucas Seaver. It is far more difficult to speak of the living, than the dead. The subject now under consideration is, in every sense of the word, a living one. He was, in years gone by, an apprentice in the office of the writer of this, and for that reason, if for no other, I feel that I am privileged to speak with freedom. With warm and generous impulses, misfortune never appeals to him in vain, and he too often permits these impulses to displace from its seat the trite, but too frequently neglected adage, "charity begins at home." He is firm in his friendship—jovial, kind-hearted, and generous in his intercourse with his companions; firm, manly, and unflinching in his walk through life thus far. I can only hope in his case, and this hope is extended to all of whom I have spoken, that his case may always be full—that he may never run out of sorts—and that when the last token shall be finished and the form locked up for its final transition, he, with them, may be distributed among the great font of the blest, without a monk or a friar to mar the beauty of their last page.

GENERAL REMARKS.

I have endeavored in the preceding pages to give as faithful a History of the Newspaper Press of Western New-York, as the materials furnished me, and my own recollection on the subject will permit. If, in reference to some of the Counties, that history is not so close and full as could have been desired, the fault is attributed to those who ought to have felt most solicitude on the subject; but who, from negligence, or it may be, the press of other avocations, have omitted to communicate, although repeatedly requested to do so by the Committee of Correspondence previous to the Festival, and subsequently by the Committee of Publication, with either of those Committees or with myself, furnishing such facts as would have contributed to the correction of the same. — Two Counties, Allegany and Tompkins, I have been compelled to leave out entirely, and for reasons wholly beyond my control. Persons in those Counties supposed to be competent have been notified of the intentions of those Committees, and that it was very desirable that the work should be full and complete, so far as the Counties embraced in the scope of the Committee were concerned—but all to no effect.

Among those who may be regarded as belonging to the older class of settlers of this interesting portion of New-York these reminiscences must have the effect of renewing scenes and events long past, and that otherwise might have slumbered in oblivion. Among Printers, they will possess a peculiar interest. The changes and improvements that have been made in the Newspaper Press for the last fifty years, have been truly wonderful—and although this remark is true in relation to the whole country, still it has peculiar force when applied to this part of the State.—From a humble and precarious business, it has risen to one of gigantic magnitude. From the home-made wooden Press, with worn and indifferent type, and with scarcely a sufficiency of those to set up a seven-by-nine sheet, may now be seen the beautiful Power Press, propelled by steam, with type of the most exquisite shape and finish. More is now accomplished in minutes, than used to be performed in hours! Any one who will take the trouble to visit the magnificent Printing Establishments in Rochester and Buffalo, will admit the truthfulness of this remark.—This branch of business has fully kept pace with the other improvements of the day, and added very greatly to the general, and I may add, the almost universal diffusion of knowledge and information among the people.

Now, as formerly, there is a too prevalent error among the people, or at least a certain class of them, aided more or less by the ready credulity of members of the Craft, to augment the number of Newspaper establishments. It is too often the case, that young and inexperienced members of the profession suffer themselves to be made the dupes of aspiring political demagogues, and senseless, but noisy, reformers of the ills of life, and are thus reduced to embark in the busy turmoil of the day, without any substantial basis upon which to rest their hopes of success. To this cause, no doubt, may be attributed most of the failures that have attended the establishment of the Press, in this, as well as other portions of the state. Success in such cases is scarcely to be expected, and, indeed, ought not to be desired.—Young men should be particularly cautious about embarking in such enterprises, as a first failure, generally speaking, haunts them through life,—loading them down, with hopeless debts, and damping their ardor for future combats, and a successful struggle with the enterprise of the day.

I must be permitted before closing these remarks, to bear my most unqualified approbation to the good that must inevitably result to the profession—and if to them, to the public also—in the due observance of the annual return of the natal day of their feilow-craftsman, the great, and ever-to-be-remembered, Franklin. The Printers of Rochester were the first to move in this matter, in Western New-York—nobly and generously have they carried it forward thus far. They deserve, and I doubt not, will receive, the thanks of the Craft generally. Such a gathering of the Craft—entertaining as they do, various and discordant opinions on many of the exciting topics of the day—is calculated to do good. It tends to soften the asperities of party strife—gives them better conceptions of one another, and leads to the cultivation of a personal good will, that cannot fail to exhibit itself ill the prosecution of their individual business. Let the annual return of the day, therefore, be hailed with joy and delight by the Printers of Western New-York.

NOTE.

The Committee beg to make an explanation in respect to the mechanical execution of This publication. Partly for the sake of economy, (the pamphlet being issued at the risk and expense of the Committee,) and partly for other reasons, this atyle of typography has been adopted. They trust the Craft will appreciate their efforts, and make proper allowances for unavoidable deficences.

In respect to the History, the Committee are under the utmost obligations to Mr. Follett, for the kindness with which he undertook, and the ability with which he executed, the labor they assigned him.

It is due, however, to the Committee, to the Craft, and especially to Mr. F., to say, that in many cases the sources relied on for information, have either wholly or partially failed. Nevertheless, a great amount of exceedingly interesting facts will be found embodied in this history; and the Committee indulge the hope that the present publication will prove the forerunner of future works, more extended, full, and important than it has been in their power at this time to provide.

  1. There seems to be a contrariety of opinion in relation to this. Mr. Frisbee, formerly of the "Censor," and the oldest Printer in the County, says—"This paper was conducted about five years, by James Hull, when it was discontinued for a year or two, and then again resumed by him; but after two or three years' faithful existence, it ceased to be." Mr. McKinstry, the present proprietor of the "Censor," says—"It was commenced by James Percival. *****This paper continued to be published successively by Percival, Carpenter & Hull, and James Hull, till sometime in 1822 when its publication was suspended." I am inclined to think Mr. McKinstry's version of the matter is correct. Mr. Frisbee does not allege that the paper was commenced by Mr. Hull.
  2. Since writing the above I have conversed with John B. Wood, who is one of the "old Jours" of Western New-York, and he asserts, from his own knowledge, that the credit of doing the first printing in Orleans County, is justly due Mr. Cowdery. My own impression is, that the first paper published at Gaines was called "The Newspaper." This was by Mr. Tracy. The establishment afterwards fell into the hands of John Fink, who has been entirely omitted by Mr. Denio, and the paper was called "The Gazette." Mr. Fisk is now, and has been for a number of years past, in the employ of the Tonawanda Rail Road Company.
  3. The advertisement no doubt was written by the printer, as they are usually called upon to perform such little duties, and the reward was no doubt suggested to his mind for the reason that the paper was published in a portion of the Mill, a room being set apart for that purpose.
  4. It is worthy of remark, that the enterprise undertaken by Mr. Blodgett was entirely new to him, he never having seen the inside of a printing office until about the time he entered the "Intelligencer" establishment as part proprietor and editor.
  5. Friend Follett is correct in his opinion relative to the martial spirit of the Craft. Who ever doubted the heroism and bravery of Printers? They are naturally a generous, whole-souled set of fellows, and always first to espouse the cause of their country, liberty, and humanity, and to stand up manfully in defence thereof. The following incident which occurred at the seat of war in Mexico, will show the large number of the members of the profession In our army: "General Scott, on a recent occasion, wanted to have some general orders printed at a given time. He sent directions to the office of the "Tampico Sentinel" to have them done. He was told that in consequence of the scarcity of compositors, the work could not be accomplished. He then, on the morning parade, ordered all printers to step forward three paces from the ranks, when several hundred men—all Printers—obeyed the order!!" In the war between Texas and Mexico, the Craft were equally chivalric, and the ludicrous feat of capturing Santa Anna by treeing him, it is well known, was performed by a Printer. In Paris, too, in July, 1830, when Charles X., King of the French, attempted to stifle the Liberty of the Press, did not the Printers turn out en masse? Such was the terrific character of the revolution which ensued, that it has since been appropriately styled "the great three days in Paris." The liberties of the people were preserved, although at the expense of the lives of thousands, whose blood was made to flow in torrents in the streets of that city!—Eds. American.