CABAYA, s. This word, though of Asiatic origin, was perhaps introduced into India by the Portuguese, whose writers of the 16th century apply it to the surcoat or long tunic of muslin, which is one of the most common native garments of the better classes in India. The word seems to be one of those which the Portuguese had received in older times from the Arabic (ḳabā, 'a vesture'). From Dozy's remarks this would seem in Barbary to take the form ḳabāya. Whether from Arabic or from Portuguese, the word has been introduced into the Malay countries, and is in common use in Java for the light cotton surcoat worn by Europeans, both ladies and gentlemen, in dishabille. The word is not now used in India Proper, unless by the Portuguese. But it has become familiar in Dutch, from its use in Java. [Mr. Gray, in his notes to Pyrard (i. 372), thinks that the word was introduced before the time of the Portuguese, and remarks that kabaya in Ceylon means a coat or jacket worn by a European or native.]

c. 1540.—"There was in her an Embassador who had brought Hidalcan [Idalcan] a very rich Cabaya ... which he would not accept of, for that thereby he would not acknowledge himself subject to the Turk."—Cogan's Pinto, pp. 10–11.

1552.—"... he ordered him then to bestow a cabaya."—Castanheda, iv. 438. See also Stanley's Correa, 132.

1554.—"And moreover there are given to these Kings (Malabar Rajas) when they come to receive these allowances, to each of them a cabaya of silk, or of scarlet, of 4 cubits, and a cap or two, and two sheath-knives."—S. Botelho, Tombo, 26.


"Luzem da fina purpura as cabayas,
Lustram os pannos da tecida seda."
Camões, ii. 93.

"Cabaya de damasco rico e dino
Da Tyria cor, entre elles estimada."
Ibid. 95.

In these two passages Burton translates caftan.

1585.—"The King is apparelled with a Cabie made like a shirt tied with strings on one side."—R. Fitch, in Hakl., ii. 386.

1598.—"They wear sometimes when they go abroad a thinne cotton linnen gowne called Cabaia...."—Linschoten, 70; [Hak. Soc. i. 247].

c. 1610.—"Cette jaquette ou soutane, qu'ils appellent Libasse (P. libās, 'clothing') ou Cabaye, est de toile de Cotton fort fine et blanche, qui leur va jusqu'aux talons."—Pyrard de Laval, i. 265; [Hak. Soc. i. 372].

[1614.—"The white Cabas which you have with you at Bantam would sell here."—Foster, Letters, ii. 44.]

1645.—"Vne Cabaye qui est vne sorte de vestement comme vne large soutane ouverte par le devant, à manches fort larges."—Cardim, Rel. de la Prov. du Japon, 56.

1689.—"It is a distinction between the Moors and Bannians, the Moors tie their Caba's always on the Right side, and the Bannians on the left...."—Ovington, 314. This distinction is still true.

1860.—"I afterwards understood that the dress they were wearing was a sort of native garment, which there in the country they call sarong or kabaai, but I found it very unbecoming."—Max Havelaar, 43. [There is some mistake here, sarong and Kabaya are quite different.]

1878.—"Over all this is worn (by Malay women) a long loose dressing-gown style of garment called the kabaya. This robe falls to the middle of the leg, and is fastened down the front with circular brooches."—McNair, Perak, &c., 151.

CABOB, s. Ar.-H. kabāb. This word is used in Anglo-Indian households generically for roast meat. [It usually follows the name of the dish, e.g. murghī kabāb, 'roast fowl'.] But specifically it is applied to the dish described in the quotations from Fryer and Ovington.

c. 1580.—"Altero modo ... ipsam (carnem) in parva frustra dissectam, et veruculis ferreis acuum modo infixam, super crates ferreas igne supposito positam torrefaciunt, quam succo limonum aspersam avidè esitant."—Prosper Alpinus, Pt. i. 229.

1673.—"Cabob is Rostmeat on Skewers, cut in little round pieces no bigger than a Sixpence, and Ginger and Garlick put between each."—Fryer, 404.

1689.—"Cabob, that is Beef or Mutton cut in small pieces, sprinkled with salt and pepper, and dipt with Oil and Garlick, which have been mixt together in a dish, and then roasted on a Spit, with sweet Herbs put between and stuff in them, and basted with Oil and Garlick all the while."—Ovington, 397.

1814.—"I often partook with my Arabs of a dish common in Arabia called Kabob or Kab-ab, which is meat cut into small pieces and placed on thin skewers, alternately between slices of onion and green ginger, seasoned with pepper, salt, and Kian, fried in ghee, to be ate with rice and dholl."—Forbes, Or. Mem. ii. 480; [2nd ed. ii. 82; in i. 315 he writes Kebabs].

[1876.—"... kavap (a name which is naturalised with us as Cabobs), small bits of meat roasted on a spit...."—Schuyler, Turkistan, i. 125.]

CABOOK, s. This is the Ceylon term for the substance called in India Laterite (q.v.), and in Madras by the native name Moorum (q.v.). The word is perhaps the Port. cabouco or cavouco, 'a quarry.' It is not in Singh. Dictionaries. [Mr. Ferguson says that it is a corruption of the Port. pedras de cavouco, 'quarry-stones,' the last word being by a misapprehension applied to the stones themselves. The earliest instance of the use of the word he has met with occurs in the Travels of Dr. Aegidius Daalmans (1687–89), who describes kaphok stone as 'like small pebbles lying in a hard clay, so that if a large square stone is allowed to lie for some time in the water, the clay dissolves and the pebbles fall in a heap together; but if this stone is laid in good mortar, so that the water cannot get at it, it does good service' (J. As. Soc. Ceylon, x. 162). The word is not in the ordinary Singhalese Dicts., but A. Mendis Gunasekara in his Singhalese Grammar (1891), among words derived from the Port., gives kabuk-gal (cabouco), cabook (stone), 'laterite.']

1834.—"The soil varies in different situations on the Island. In the country round Colombo it consists of a strong red clay, or marl, called Cabook, mixed with sandy ferruginous particles."—Ceylon Gazetteer, 33.

" "The houses are built with cabook, and neatly whitewashed with chunam."—Ibid. 75.

1860.—"A peculiarity which is one of the first to strike a stranger who lands at Galle or Colombo is the bright red colour of the streets and roads ... and the ubiquity of the fine red dust which penetrates every crevice and imparts its own tint to every neglected article. Natives resident in these localities are easily recognisable elsewhere by the general hue of their dress. This is occasioned by the prevalence ... of laterite, or, as the Singhalese call it, cabook."—Tennent's Ceylon, i. 17.

CABUL, CAUBOOL, &c., n.p. This name (Kābul) of the chief city of N. Afghanistan, now so familiar, is perhaps traceable in Ptolemy, who gives in that same region a people called Καβολῖται, and a city called Κάβουρα. Perhaps, however, one or both may be corroborated by the νάρδος Καβαλίτη of the Periplus. The accent of Kābul is most distinctly on the first and long syllable, but English mouths are very perverse in error here. Moore accents the last syllable:

"... pomegranates full
Of melting sweetness, and the pears
And sunniest apples that Caubul
In all its thousand gardens bears."
Light of the Harem.

Mr. Arnold does likewise in Sohrab and Rustam:

"But as a troop of pedlars from Cabool,
Cross underneath the Indian Caucasus...."

It was told characteristically of the late Lord Ellenborough that, after his arrival in India, though for months he heard the name correctly spoken by his councillors and his staff, he persisted in calling it Căbōol till he met Dost Mahommed Khan. After the interview the Governor-General announced as a new discovery, from the Amir's pronunciation, that Cābŭl was the correct form.

1552.—Barros calls it "a Cidade Cabol, Metropoli dos Mogoles."—IV. vi. 1.

[c. 1590.—"The territory of Kábul comprises twenty Tumáns."—Āīn, tr. Jarrett, ii. 410.]


"Ah Cabul! word of woe and bitter shame;
Where proud old England's flag, dishonoured, sank
Beneath the Crescent; and the butcher knives
Beat down like reeds the bayonets that had flashed
From Plassey on to snow-capt Caucasus,
In triumph through a hundred years of war."
The Banyan Tree, a Poem.

CACOULI, s. This occurs in the App. to the Journal d'Antoine Galland, at Constantinople in 1673: "Dragmes de Cacouli, drogue qu'on use dans le Cahue," i.e. in coffee (ii. 206). This is Pers. Arab. ḳāḳula for Cardamom, as in the quotation from Garcia. We may remark that Ḳāḳula was a place somewhere on the Gulf of Siam, famous for its fine aloes-wood (see Ibn Batuta, iv. 240–44). And a bastard kind of Cardamom appears to be exported from Siam, Amomum xanthoides, Wal.

1563.—"O. Avicena gives a chapter on the cacullá, dividing it into the bigger and the less ... calling one of them cacollá quebir, and the other cacollá ceguer [Ar. kabīr, ṣaghīr], which is as much as to say greater cardamom and smaller cardamom."—Garcia De O., f. 47v.

1759.—"These Vakeels ... stated that the Rani (of Bednore) would pay a yearly sum of 100,000 Hoons or Pagodas, besides a tribute of other valuable articles, such as Foful (betel), Dates, Sandal-wood, Kakul ... black pepper, &c."—Hist. of Hydur Naik, 133.

CADDY, s. i.e. tea-caddy. This is possibly, as Crawfurd suggests, from Catty (q.v.), and may have been originally applied to a small box containing a catty or two of tea. The suggestion is confirmed by this advertisement:

1792.—"By R. Henderson.... A Quantity of Tea in Quarter Chests and Caddies, imported last season...."—Madras Courier, Dec. 2.

CADET, s. (From Prov. capdet, and Low Lat. capitettum, [dim. of caput, 'head'] Skeat). This word is of course by no means exclusively Anglo-Indian, but it was in exceptionally common and familiar use in India, as all young officers appointed to the Indian army went out to that country as cadets, and were only promoted to ensigncies and posted to regiments after their arrival—in olden days sometimes a considerable time after their arrival. In those days there was a building in Fort William known as the 'Cadet Barrack'; and for some time early in last century the cadets after their arrival were sent to a sort of college at Baraset; a system which led to no good, and was speedily abolished.

1763.—"We should very gladly comply with your request for sending you young persons to be brought up as assistants in the Engineering branch, but as we find it extremely difficult to procure such, you will do well to employ any who have a talent that way among the cadets or others."—Court's Letter, in Long, 290.

1769.—"Upon our leaving England, the cadets and writers used the great cabin promiscuously; but finding they were troublesome and quarrelsome, we brought a Bill into the house for their ejectment."—Life of Lord Teignmouth, i. 15.

1781.—"The Cadets of the end of the years 1771 and beginning of 1772 served in the country four years as Cadets and carried the musket all the time."—Letter in Hicky's Bengal Gazette, Sept. 29.

CADJAN, s. Jav. and Malay ḳājāng, [or according to Mr. Skeat, kajang], meaning 'palm-leaves,' especially those of the Nipa (q.v.) palm, dressed for thatching or matting. Favre's Dict. renders the word feuilles entrelacées. It has been introduced by foreigners into S. and W. India, where it is used in two senses:

a. Coco-palm leaves matted, the common substitute for thatch in S. India.

1673.—"... flags especially in their Villages (by them called Cajans, being Cocoe-tree branches) upheld with some few sticks, supplying both Sides and Coverings to their Cottages."—Fryer, 17. In his Explanatory Index Fryer gives 'Cajan, a bough of a Toddy-tree.'

c. 1680.—"Ex iis (foliis) quoque rudiores mattae, Cadjang vocatae, conficiuntur, quibus aedium muri et navium orae, quum frumentum aliquod in iis deponere velimus, obteguntur."—Rumphius, i. 71.

1727.—"We travelled 8 or 10 miles before we came to his (the Cananore Raja's) Palace, which was built with Twigs, and covered with Cadjans or Cocoa-nut Tree Leaves woven together."—A. Hamilton, i. 296.

1809.—"The lower classes (at Bombay) content themselves with small huts, mostly of clay, and roofed with cadjan."—Maria Graham, 4.

1860.—"Houses are timbered with its wood, and roofed with its plaited fronds, which under the name of cadjans, are likewise employed for constructing partitions and fences."—Tennent's Ceylon, ii. 126.

b. A strip of fan-palm leaf, i.e. either of the Talipot (q.v.) or of the Palmyra, prepared for writing on; and so a document written on such a strip. (See OLLAH.)

1707.—"The officer at the Bridge Gate bringing in this morning to the Governor a Cajan letter that he found hung upon a post near the Gate, which when translated seemed to be from a body of the Right Hand Caste."—In Wheeler, ii. 78.

1716.—"The President acquaints the Board that he has intercepted a villainous letter or Cajan."—Ibid. ii. 231.

1839.—"At Rajahmundry ... the people used to sit in our reading room for hours, copying our books on their own little cadjan leaves."—Letters from Madras, 275.

CADJOWA, s. [P. kajāwah]. A kind of frame or pannier, of which a pair are slung across a camel, sometimes made like litters to carry women or sick persons, sometimes to contain sundries of camp equipage.

1645.—"He entered the town with 8 or 10 camels, the two Cajavas or Litters on each side of the Camel being close shut.... But instead of Women, he had put into every Cajava two Souldiers."—Tavernier, E. T. ii. 61; [ed. Ball, i. 144].

1790.—"The camel appropriated to the accommodation of passengers, carries two persons, who are lodged in a kind of pannier, laid loosely on the back of the animal. This pannier, termed in the Persic Kidjahwah, is a wooden frame, with the sides and bottom of netted cords, of about 3 feet long and 2 broad, and 2 in depth ... the journey being usually made in the night-time, it becomes the only place of his rest.... Had I been even much accustomed to this manner of travelling, it must have been irksome; but a total want of practice made it excessively grievous."—Forster's Journey, ed. 1808, ii. 104–5.

CAEL, n.p. Properly Kāyal [Tam. kāyu, 'to be hot'], 'a lagoon' or 'backwater.' Once a famous port near the extreme south of India at the mouth of the Tamraparni R., in the Gulf of Manaar, and on the coast of Tinnevelly, now long abandoned. Two or three miles higher up the river lies the site of Korkai or Kolkai, the Κόλχοι ἐμπόριον of the Greeks, each port in succession having been destroyed by the retirement of the sea. Tutikorin, six miles N., may be considered the modern and humbler representative of those ancient marts; [see Stuart, Man. of Tinnevelly, 38 seqq.].

1298.—"Cail is a great and noble city.... It is at this city that all the ships touch that come from the west."—Marco Polo, Bk. iii. ch. 21.

1442.—"The Coast, which includes Calicut with some neighbouring ports, and which extends as far as Kabel (read Ḳāyel) a place situated opposite the Island of Serendib...."—Abdurrazzāk, in India in the XVth Cent., 19.

1444.—"Ultra eas urbs est Cahila, qui locus margaritas ... producit."—Conti, in Poggius, De Var. Fortunae.

1498.—"Another Kingdom, Caell, which has a Moorish King, whilst the people are Christian. It is ten days from Calecut by sea ... here there be many pearls."—Roteiro de V. da Gama, 108.

1514.—"Passando oltre al Cavo Comedi (C. Comorin), sono gentili; e intra esso e Gael è dove si pesca le perle."—Giov. da Empoli, 79.

1516.—"Further along the coast is a city called Cael, which also belongs to the King of Coulam, peopled by Moors and Gentoos, great traders. It has a good harbour, whither come many ships of Malabar; others of Charamandel and Benguala."—Barbosa, in Lisbon Coll., 357–8.

CAFFER, CAFFRE, COFFREE, &c., n.p. The word is properly the Ar. Kāfir, pl. Kofra, 'an infidel, an unbeliever in Islām.' As the Arabs applied this to Pagan negroes, among others, the Portuguese at an early date took it up in this sense, and our countrymen from them. A further appropriation in one direction has since made the name specifically that of the black tribes of South Africa, whom we now call, or till recently did call, Caffres. It was also applied in the Philippine Islands to the Papuas of N. Guinea, and the Alfuras of the Moluccas, brought into the slave-market.

In another direction the word has become a quasi-proper name of the (more or less) fair, and non-Mahommedan, tribes of Hindu-Kush, sometimes called more specifically the Siāhposh or 'black-robed' Cafirs.

The term is often applied malevolently by Mahommedans to Christians, and this is probably the origin of the mistake pervading some of the early Portuguese narratives, especially the Roteiro of Vasco da Gama, which described many of the Hindu and Indo-Chinese States as being Christian.[1]

[c. 1300.—"Kāfir." See under LACK.]

c. 1404.—Of a people near China: "They were Christians after the manner of those of Cathay."—Clavijo by Markham, 141.

" And of India: "The people of India are Christians, the Lord and most part of the people, after the manner of the Greeks; and among them also are other Christians who mark themselves with fire in the face, and their creed is different from that of the others; for those who thus mark themselves with fire are less esteemed than the others. And among them are Moors and Jews, but they are subject to the Christians."—Clavijo, (orig.) § cxxi.; comp. Markham, 153–4. Here we have (1) the confusion of Caffer and Christian; and (2) the confusion of Abyssinia (India Tertia or Middle India of some medieval writers) with India Proper.

c. 1470.—"The sea is infested with pirates, all of whom are Kofars, neither Christians nor Mussulmans; they pray to stone idols, and know not Christ."—Athan. Nikitin, in India in the XVth Cent., p. 11.

1552.—"... he learned that the whole people of the Island of S. Lourenço ... were black Cafres with curly hair like those of Mozambique."—Barros, II. i. 1.

1563.—"In the year 1484 there came to Portugal the King of Benin, a Caffre by nation, and he became a Christian."—Stanley's Correa, p. 8.


"Verão os Cafres asperos e avaros
Tirar a linda dama seus vestidos."
Camões, v. 47.

By Burton:

"shall see the Caffres, greedy race and fere
"strip the fair Ladye of her raiment torn."

1582.—"These men are called Cafres and are Gentiles."—Castañeda (by N.L.), f. 42b.

c. 1610.—"Il estoit fils d'vn Cafre d'Ethiopie, et d'vne femme de ces isles, ce qu'on appelle Mulastre."—Pyrard de Laval, i. 220; [Hak. Soc. i. 307].

[c. 1610.—"... a Christian whom they call Caparou."—Ibid., Hak. Soc. i. 261.]

1614.—"That knave Simon the Caffro, not what the writer took him for—he is a knave, and better lost than found."—Sainsbury, i. 356.

[1615.—"Odola and Gala are Capharrs which signifieth misbelievers."—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. i. 23.]

1653.—"... toy mesme qui passe pour vn Kiaffer, ou homme sans Dieu, parmi les Mausulmans."—De la Boullaye-le-Gouz, 310 (ed. 1657).

c. 1665.—"It will appear in the sequel of this History, that the pretence used by Aureng-Zebe, his third Brother, to cut off his (Dara's) head, was that he was turned Kafer, that is to say, an Infidel, of no Religion, an Idolater."—Bernier, E. T. p. 3; [ed. Constable, p. 7].

1673.—"They show their Greatness by their number of Sumbreeroes and Cofferies, whereby it is dangerous to walk late."—Fryer, 74.

" "Beggars of the Musslemen Cast, that if they see a Christian in good Clothes ... are presently upon their Punctilios with God Almighty, and interrogate him, Why he suffers him to go afoot and in Rags, and this Coffery (Unbeliever) to vaunt it thus?"—Ibid. 91.

1678.—"The Justices of the Choultry to turn Padry Pasquall, a Popish Priest, out of town, not to return again, and if it proves to be true that he attempted to seduce Mr. Mohun's Coffre Franck from the Protestant religion."—Ft. St. Geo. Cons. in Notes and Exts., Pt. i. p. 72.

1759.—"Blacks, whites, Coffries, and even the natives of the country (Pegu) have not been exempted, but all universally have been subject to intermittent Fevers and Fluxes" (at Negrais).—In Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 124.

" Among expenses of the Council at Calcutta in entertaining the Nabob we find "Purchasing a Coffre boy, Rs. 500."—In Long, 194.

1781.—"To be sold by Private Sale—Two Coffree Boys, who can play remarkably well on the French Horn, about 18 Years of Age: belonging to a Portuguese Paddrie lately deceased. For particulars apply to the Vicar of the Portuguese Church, Calcutta, March 17th, 1781."—The India Gazette or Public Advertiser, No. 19.

1781.—"Run away from his Master, a good-looking Coffree Boy, about 20 years old, and about 6 feet 7 inches in height.... When he went off he had a high toupie."—Ibid. Dec. 29.

1782.—"On Tuesday next will be sold three Coffree Boys, two of whom play the French Horn ... a three-wheel'd Buggy, and a variety of other articles."—India Gazette, June 15.

1799.—"He (Tippoo) had given himself out as a Champion of the Faith, who was to drive the English Caffers out of India."—Letter in Life of Sir T. Munro, i. 221.

1800.—"The Caffre slaves, who had been introduced for the purpose of cultivating the lands, rose upon their masters, and seizing on the boats belonging to the island, effected their escape."—Symes, Embassy to Ava, p. 10.

c. 1866.—

"And if I were forty years younger, and my life before me to choose,
I wouldn't be lectured by Kafirs, or swindled by fat Hindoos."
Sir A. C. Lyall, The Old Pindaree.

CAFILA, s. Arab. ḳāfila; a body or convoy of travellers, a Caravan (q.v.). Also used in some of the following quotations for a sea convoy.

1552.—"Those roads of which we speak are the general routes of the Cafilas, which are sometimes of 3,000 or 4,000 men ... for the country is very perilous because of both hill-people and plain-people, who haunt the roads to rob travellers."—Barros, IV. vi. 1.

1596.—"The ships of Chatins (see CHETTY) of these parts are not to sail along the coast of Malavar or to the north except in a cafilla, that they may come and go more securely, and not be cut off by the Malavars and other corsairs."—Proclamation of Goa Viceroy, in Archiv. Port. Or., fasc. iii. 661.

[1598.—"Two Caffylen, that is companies of people and Camelles."—Linschoten, Hak. Soc. ii. 159.]

[1616.—"A cafilowe consisting of 200 broadcloths," &c.—Foster, Letters, iv. 276.]

[1617.—"By the failing of the Goa Caffila."—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 402.]

1623.—"Non navigammo di notte, perchè la cafila era molto grande, al mio parere di più di ducento vascelli."—P. della Valle, ii. 587; [and comp. Hak. Soc. i. 18].

1630.—"... some of the Raiahs ... making Outroades prey on the Caffaloes passing by the Way...."—Lord, Banian's Religion, 81.

1672.—"Several times yearly numerous cafilas of merchant barques, collected in the Portuguese towns, traverse this channel (the Gulf of Cambay), and these always await the greater security of the full moon. It is also observed that the vessels which go through with this voyage should not be joined and fastened with iron, for so great is the abundance of loadstone in the bottom, that indubitably such vessels go to pieces and break up."—P. Vincenzo, 109. A curious survival of the old legend of the Loadstone Rocks.

1673.—"... Time enough before the Caphalas out of the Country come with their Wares."—Fryer, 86.

1727.—"In Anno 1699, a pretty rich Caffila was robbed by a Band of 4 or 5000 villains ... which struck Terror on all that had commerce at Tatta."—A. Hamilton, i. 116.

1867.—"It was a curious sight to see, as was seen in those days, a carriage enter one of the northern gates of Palermo preceded and followed by a large convoy of armed and mounted travellers, a kind of Kafila, that would have been more in place in the opening chapters of one of James's romances than in the latter half of the 19th century."—Quarterly Review, Jan., 101–2.

CAFIRISTAN, n.p. P. Kāfiristān, the country of Kāfirs, i.e. of the pagan tribes of the Hindu Kush noticed in the article Caffer.

c. 1514.—"In Cheghânserâi there are neither grapes nor vineyards; but they bring the wines down the river from Kaferistân.... So prevalent is the use of wine among them that every Kafer has a khig, or leathern bottle of wine about his neck; they drink wine instead of water."—Autobiog. of Baber, p. 144.

[c. 1590.—The Káfirs in the Túmáns of Alishang and Najrao are mentioned in the Āīn, tr. Jarrett, ii. 406.]

1603.—"... they fell in with a certain pilgrim and devotee, from whom they learned that at a distance of 30 days' journey there was a city called Capperstam, into which no Mahomedan was allowed to enter...."—Journey of Bened. Goës, in Cathay, &c. ii. 554.

CAIMAL, s. A Nair chief; a word often occurring in the old Portuguese historians. It is Malayāl. kaimal.

1504.—"So they consulted with the Zamorin, and the Moors offered their agency to send and poison the wells at Cochin, so as to kill all the Portuguese, and also to send Nairs in disguise to kill any of our people that they found in the palm-woods, and away from the town.... And meanwhile the Mangate Caimal, and the Caimal of Primbalam, and the Caimal of Diamper, seeing that the Zamorin's affairs were going from bad to worse, and that the castles which the Italians were making were all wind and nonsense, that it was already August when ships might be arriving from Portugal ... departed to their own estates with a multitude of their followers, and sent to the King of Cochin their ollas of allegiance."—Correa, i. 482.

1566.—"... certain lords bearing title, whom they call Caimals" (caimães).—Damian de Goës, Chron. del Rei Dom Emmanuel, p. 49.

1606.—"The Malabars give the name of Caimals (Caimães) to certain great lords of vassals, who are with their governments haughty as kings; but most of them have confederation and alliance with some of the great kings, whom they stand bound to aid and defend...."—Gouvea, f. 27v.


"Ficarão seus Caimais prezos e mortos."
Malaca Conquistada, v. 10.

CAIQUE, s. The small skiff used at Constantinople, Turkish ḳāīḳ. Is it by accident, or by a radical connection through Turkish tribes on the Arctic shores of Siberia, that the Greenlander's kayak is so closely identical? [The Stanf. Dict. says that the latter word is Esquimaux, and recognises no connection with the former.]

CAJAN, s. This is a name given by Sprengel (Cajanus indicus), and by Linnæus (Cytisus cajan), to the leguminous shrub which gives dhall (q.v.). A kindred plant has been called Dolichos catjang, Willdenow. We do not know the origin of this name. The Cajan was introduced to America by the slave-traders from Africa. De Candolle finds it impossible to say whether its native region is India or Africa. (See DHALL, CALAVANCE.) [According to Mr. Skeat the word is Malay. poko'kachang, 'the plant which gives beans,' quite a different word from kajang which gives us Cadjan.]

CAJEPUT, s. The name of a fragrant essential oil produced especially in Celebes and the neighbouring island of Bouro. A large quantity is exported from Singapore and Batavia. It is used most frequently as an external application, but also internally, especially (of late) in cases of cholera. The name is taken from the Malay kayu-putih, i.e. 'Lignum album.' Filet (see p. 140) gives six different trees as producing the oil, which is derived from the distillation of the leaves. The chief of these trees is Melaleuca leucadendron, L., a tree diffused from the Malay Peninsula to N.S. Wales. The drug and tree were first described by Rumphius, who died 1693. (See Hanbury and Flückiger, 247 [and Wallace, Malay Arch., ed. 1890, p. 294].)

CAKSEN, s. This is Sea H. for Coxswain (Roebuck).

CALALUZ, s. A kind of swift rowing vessel often mentioned by the Portuguese writers as used in the Indian Archipelago. We do not know the etymology, nor the exact character of the craft. [According to Mr. Skeat, the word is Jav. kelulus, kalulus, spelt keloeles by Klinkert, and explained by him as a kind of vessel. The word seems to be derived from loeloes, 'to go right through anything,' and thus the literal translation would be 'the threader,' the reference being, as in the case of most Malay boat names, to the special figure-head from which the boat was supposed to derive its whole character.]

[1513.—Calauz, according to Mr. Whiteway, is the form of the word in Andrade's Letter to Albuquerque of Feb. 22nd.—India Office MS.]

1525.—"4 great lancharas, and 6 calaluzes and manchuas which row very fast."—Lembrança, 8.

1539.—"The King (of Achin) set forward with the greatest possible despatch, a great armament of 200 rowing vessels, of which the greater part were lancharas, joangas, and calaluzes, besides 15 high-sided junks."—F. M. Pinto, cap. xxxii.

1552.—"The King of Siam ... ordered to be built a fleet of some 200 sail, almost all lancharas and calaluzes, which are rowing-vessels."—Barros, II. vi. 1.

1613.—"And having embarked with some companions in a caleluz or rowing vessel...."—Godinho de Eredia, f. 51.

CALAMANDER WOOD, s. A beautiful kind of rose-wood got from a Ceylon tree (Diospyros quaesita). Tennent regards the name as a Dutch corruption of Coromandel wood (i. 118), and Drury, we see, calls one of the ebony-trees (D. melanoxylon) "Coromandel-ebony." Forbes Watson gives as Singhalese names of the wood Calumidiriya, Kalumederiye, &c., and the term Kalumadīriya is given with this meaning in Clough's Singh. Dict.; still in absence of further information, it may remain doubtful if this be not a borrowed word. It may be worth while to observe that, according to Tavernier, [ed. Ball, ii. 4] the "painted calicoes" or "chites" of Masulipatam were called "Calmendar, that is to say, done with a pencil" (Ḳalam-dār?), and possibly this appellation may have been given by traders to a delicately veined wood. [The N.E.D. suggests that the Singh. terms quoted above may be adaptations from the Dutch.]

1777.—"In the Cingalese language Calaminder is said to signify a black flaming tree. The heart, or woody part of it, is extremely handsome, with whitish or pale yellow and black or brown veins, streaks and waves."—Thunberg, iv. 205–6.

1813.—"Calaminder wood" appears among Ceylon products in Milburn, i. 345.

1825.—"A great deal of the furniture in Ceylon is made of ebony, as well as of the Calamander tree ... which is become scarce from the improvident use formerly made of it."—Heber (1844), ii. 161.

1834.—"The forests in the neighbourhood afford timber of every kind (Calamander excepted)."—Chitty, Ceylon Gazetteer, 198.

CALAMBAC, s. The finest kind of aloes-wood. Crawfurd gives the word as Javanese, kalambak, but it perhaps came with the article from Champa (q.v.).

1510.—"There are three sorts of aloes-wood. The first and most perfect sort is called Calampat."—Varthema, 235.

1516.—"... It must be said that the very fine calembuco and the other eagle-wood is worth at Calicut 1000 maravedis the pound."—Barbosa, 204.

1539.—"This Embassador, that was Brother-in-law to the King of the Batas ... brought him a rich Present of Wood of Aloes, Calambaa, and 5 quintals of Benjamon in flowers."—F. M. Pinto, in Cogan's tr. p. 15 (orig. cap. xiii.).

1551.—(Campar, in Sumatra) "has nothing but forests which yield aloeswood, called in India Calambuco."—Castanheda, bk. iii. cap. 63, p. 218, quoted by Crawfurd, Des. Dic. 7.

1552.—"Past this kingdom of Camboja begins the other Kingdom called Campa (Champa), in the mountains of which grows the genuine aloes-wood, which the Moors of those parts call Calambuc."—Barros, I. ix. 1.

[c. 1590.—"Kalanbak (calembic) is the wood of a tree brought from Zírbád; it is heavy and full of veins. Some believe it to be the raw wood of aloes."—Āīn, ed. Blochmann, i. 81.

[c. 1610.—"From this river (the Ganges) comes that excellent wood Calamba, which is believed to come from the Earthly Paradise."—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 335.]

1613.—"And the Calamba is the most fragrant medulla of the said tree."—Godinho de Eredia, f. 15v.

[1615.—"Lumra (a black gum), gumlack, collomback."—Foster, Letters, iv. 87.]

1618.—"We opened the ij chistes which came from Syam with callamback and silk, and waid it out."—Cocks's Diary, ii. 51.

1774.—"Les Mahometans font de ce Kalambac des chapelets qu'ils portent à la main par amusement. Ce bois quand il est échauffé ou un peu frotté, rend un odeur agréable."—Niebuhr, Desc. de l'Arabie, 127.


CALASH, s. French calèche, said by Littré to be a Slav word, [and so N.E.D.]. In Bayly's Dict. it is calash and caloche. [The N.E.D. does not recognise the latter form; the former is as early as 1679]. This seems to have been the earliest precursor of the buggy in Eastern settlements. Bayly defines it as 'a small open chariot.' The quotation below refers to Batavia, and the President in question was the Prest. of the English Factory at Chusan, who, with his council, had been expelled from China, and was halting at Batavia on his way to India.

1702.—"The Shabander riding home in his Calash this Morning, and seeing the President sitting without the door at his Lodgings, alighted and came and Sat with the President near an hour ... what moved the Shabander to speak so plainly to the President thereof he knew not, But observed that the Shahbander was in his Glasses at his first alighting from his Calash."—Procgs. "Munday, 30th March," MS. Report in India Office.

CALAVANCE, s. A kind of bean; acc. to the quotation from Osbeck, Dolichos sinensis. The word was once common in English use, but seems forgotten, unless still used at sea. Sir Joseph Hooker writes: "When I was in the Navy, haricot beans were in constant use as a substitute for potatoes and in Brazil and elsewhere, were called Calavances. I do not remember whether they were the seed of Phaseolus lunatus or vulgaris, or of Dolichos sinensis, alias Catjang" (see CAJAN). The word comes from the Span. garbanzos, which De Candolle mentions as Castilian for 'pois chiche,' or Cicer arietinum, and as used also in Basque under the form garbantzua, [or garbatzu, from garau, 'seed,' antzu, 'dry,' N.E.D.]

1620.—"... from hence they make their provition in aboundance, viz. beefe and porke ... garvances, or small peaze or beanes...."—Cocks's Diary, ii. 311.

c. 1630.—"... in their Canoos brought us ... green pepper, caravance, Buffols, Hens, Eggs, and other things."—Sir T. Herbert, ed. 1665, p. 350.

1719.—"I was forc'd to give them an extraordinary meal every day, either of Farina or calavances, which at once made a considerable consumption of our water and firing."—Shelvocke's Voyage, 62.

1738.—"But garvanços are prepared in a different manner, neither do they grow soft like other pulse, by boiling...."—Shaw's Travels, ed. 1757, p. 140.

1752.—"... Callvanses (Dolichos sinensis)."—Osbeck, i. 304.

1774.—"When I asked any of the men of Dory why they had no gardens of plantains and Kalavansas ... I learnt ... that the Haraforas supply them."—Forrest, V. to N. Guinea, 109.

1814.—"His Majesty is authorised to permit for a limited time by Order in Council, the Importation from any Port or Place whatever of ... any Beans called Kidney, French Beans, Tares, Lentiles, Callivances, and all other sorts of Pulse."—Act 54 Geo. III. cap. xxxvi.

CALAY, s. Tin; also v., to tin copper vessels—H. ḳala'ī karnā. The word is Ar. ḳala'i, 'tin,' which according to certain Arabic writers was so called from a mine in India called ḳala'. In spite of the different initial and terminal letters, it seems at least possible that the place meant was the same that the old Arab geographers called Kalah, near which they place mines of tin (al-ḳala'i), and which was certainly somewhere about the coast of Malacca, possibly, as has been suggested, at Kadah[2] or as we write it, Quedda. [See Āīn, tr. Jarrett, iii. 48.]

The tin produce of that region is well known. Kalang is indeed also a name of tin in Malay, which may have been the true origin of the word before us. It may be added that the small State of Salangor between Malacca and Perak was formerly known as Nagri-Kalang, or the 'Tin Country,' and that the place on the coast where the British Resident lives is called Klang (see Miss Bird, Golden Chersonese, 210, 215). The Portuguese have the forms calaim and calin, with the nasal termination so frequent in their Eastern borrowings. Bluteau explains calaim as 'Tin of India, finer than ours.' The old writers seem to have hesitated about the identity with tin, and the word is confounded in one quotation below with Tootnague (q.v.). The French use calin. In the P. version of the Book of Numbers (ch. xxxi. v. 22) ḳala'ī is used for 'tin.' See on this word Quatremère in the Journal des Savans, Dec. 1846.

c. 920.—"Kalah is the focus of the trade in aloeswood, in camphor, in sandalwood, in ivory, in the lead which is called al-Kala'i."—Relation des Voyages, &c., i. 94.

c. 1154.—"Thence to the Isles of Lankiāliūs is reckoned two days, and from the latter to the Island of Kalah 5.... There is in this last island an abundant mine of tin (al-Kala'i). The metal is very pure and brilliant."—Edrisi, by Jaubert, i. 80.

1552.—"—Tin, which the people of the country call Calem."—Castanheda, iii. 213. It is mentioned as a staple of Malacca in ii. 186.

1606.—"That all the chalices which were neither of gold, nor silver, nor of tin, nor of calaim, should be broken up and destroyed."—Gouvea, Synodo, f. 29b.

1610.—"They carry (to Hormuz) ... clove, cinnamon, pepper, cardamom, ginger, mace, nutmeg, sugar, calayn, or tin."—Relaciones de P. Teixeira, 382.

c. 1610.—"... money ... not only of gold and silver, but also of another metal, which is called calin, which is white like tin, but harder, purer, and finer, and which is much used in the Indies."—Pyrard de Laval (1679) i. 164; [Hak. Soc. i. 234, with Gray's note].

1613.—"And he also reconnoitred all the sites of mines, of gold, silver, mercury, tin or calem, and iron and other metals...."—Godinho de Eredia, f. 58.

[1644.—"Callaym." See quotation under TOOTNAGUE.]

1646.—"... il y a (i.e. in Siam) plusieurs minieres de calain, qui est vn metal metoyen, entre le plomb et l'estain."—Cardim, Rel. de la Prov. de Japon, 163.

1726.—"The goods exported hither (from Pegu) are ... Kalin (a metal coming very near silver)...."—Valentijn, v. 128.

1770.—"They send only one vessel (viz. the Dutch to Siam) which transports Javanese horses, and is freighted with sugar, spices, and linen; for which they receive in return calin, at 70 livres 100 weight."—Raynal (tr. 1777), i. 208.

1780.—"... the port of Quedah; there is a trade for calin or tutenague ... to export to different parts of the Indies."—In Dunn, N. Directory, 338.

1794–5.—In the Travels to China of the younger Deguignes, Calin is mentioned as a kind of tin imported into China from Batavia and Malacca.—iii. 367.

CALCUTTA, n.p. B. Kalikātā, or Kalikattā, a name of uncertain etymology. The first mention that we are aware of occurs in the Āīn-i-Akbari. It is well to note that in some early charts, such as that in Valentijn, and the oldest in the English Pilot, though Calcutta is not entered, there is a place on the Hoogly Calcula, or Calcuta, which leads to mistake. It is far below, near the modern Fulta. [With reference to the quotations below from Luillier and Sonnerat, Sir H. Yule writes (Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. xcvi.): "In Orme's Historical Fragments, Job Charnock is described as 'Governor of the Factory at Golgot near Hughley.' This name Golgot and the corresponding Golghāt in an extract from Muhabbat Khān indicate the name of the particular locality where the English Factory at Hugli was situated. And some confusion of this name with that of Calcutta may have led to the curious error of the Frenchmen Luiller and Sonnerat, the former of whom calls Calcutta Golgouthe, while the latter says: 'Les Anglais prononcent et ecrivent Golgota.'"]

c. 1590.—"Kalikatā wa Bakoya wa Barbakpūr, 3 Mahal."—Āīn. (orig.) i. 408; [tr. Jarrett, ii. 141].

[1688.—"Soe myself accompanyed with Capt. Haddock and the 120 soldiers we carryed from hence embarked, and about the 20th September arrived at Calcutta."—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. lxxix.]

1698.—"This avaricious disposition the English plied with presents, which in 1698 obtained his permission to purchase from the Zemindar ... the towns of Sootanutty, Calcutta, and Goomopore, with their districts extending about 3 miles along the eastern bank of the river."—Orme, repr. ii. 71.

1702.—"The next Morning we pass'd by the English Factory belonging to the old Company, which they call Golgotha, and is a handsome Building, to which were adding stately Warehouses."—Voyage to the E. Indies, by Le Sieur Luillier, E. T. 1715, p. 259.

1726.—"The ships which sail thither (to Hugli) first pass by the English Lodge in Collecatte, 9 miles (Dutch miles) lower down than ours, and after that the French one called Chandarnagor...."—Valentijn, v. 162.

1727.—"The Company has a pretty good Hospital at Calcutta, where many go in to undergo the Penance of Physic, but few come out to give an Account of its Operation.... One Year I was there, and there were reckoned in August about 1200 English, some Military, some Servants to the Company, some private Merchants residing in the Town, and some Seamen belong to Shipping lying at the Town, and before the beginning of January there were 460 Burials registred in the Clerk's Books of Mortality."—A. Hamilton, ii. 9 and 6.

c. 1742.—"I had occasion to stop at the city of Firáshdánga (Chandernagore) which is inhabited by a tribe of Frenchmen. The city of Calcutta, which is on the other side of the water, and inhabited by a tribe of English who have settled there, is much more extensive and thickly populated...."—'Abdul Karím Khán, in Elliot, viii. 127.

1753.—"Au dessous d'Ugli immédiatement, est l'établissement Hollandois de Shinsura, puis Shandernagor, établissement François, puis la loge Danoise (Serampore), et plus bas, sur la rivage opposé, qui est celui de la gauche en descendant, Banki-bazar, où les Ostendois n'ont pû se maintenir; enfin Colicotta aux Anglois, à quelques lieues de Banki-bazar, et du même côté."—D'Anville, Éclaircissemens, 64. With this compare: "Almost opposite to the Danes Factory is Banke-banksal, a Place where the Ostend Company settled a Factory, but, in Anno 1723, they quarrelled with the Fouzdaar or Governor of Hughly, and he forced the Ostenders to quit...."—A. Hamilton, ii. 18.

1782.—"Les Anglais pourroient retirer aujourd'hui des sommes immenses de l'Inde, s'ils avoient eu l'attention de mieux composer le conseil suprême de Calecuta."[3]Sonnerat, Voyage, i. 14.

CALEEFA, s. Ar. Khalīfa, the Caliph or Vice-gerent, a word which we do not introduce here in its high Mahommedan use, but because of its quaint application in Anglo-Indian households, at least in Upper India, to two classes of domestic servants, the tailor and the cook, and sometimes to the barber and farrier. The first is always so addressed by his fellow-servants (Khalīfa-jī). In South India the cook is called Maistry, i.e. artiste. In Sicily, we may note, he is always called Monsù (!) an indication of what ought to be his nationality. The root of the word Khalīfa, according to Prof. Sayce, means 'to change,' and another derivative, khālif, 'exchange or agio' is the origin of the Greek κολλύβος (Princ. of Philology, 2nd ed., 213).

c. 1253.—"... vindrent marcheant en l'ost qui nous distrent et conterent que li roys des Tartarins avoit prise la citei de Baudas et l'apostole des Sarrazins ... lequel on appeloit le calife de Baudas...."—Joinville, cxiv.

1298.—"Baudas is a great city, which used to be the seat of the Calif of all the Saracens in the world, just as Rome is the seat of the Pope of all the Christians."—Marco Polo, Bk. I. ch. 6.

1552.—"To which the Sheikh replied that he was the vassal of the Soldan of Cairo, and that without his permission who was the sovereign Califa of the Prophet Mahamed, he could hold no communication with people who so persecuted his followers...."—Barros, II. i. 2.

1738.—"Muzeratty, the late Kaleefa, or lieutenant of this province, assured me that he saw a bone belonging to one of them (ancient stone coffins) which was near two of their drass (i.e. 36 inches) in length."—Shaw's Travels in Barbary, ed. 1757, p. 30.

1747.—"As to the house, and the patrimonial lands, together with the appendages of the murdered minister, they were presented by the Qhalif of the age, that is by the Emperor himself, to his own daughter."—Seir Mutaqherin, iii. 37.

c. 1760 (?).—

"I hate all Kings and the thrones they sit on,
From the King of France to the Caliph of Britain."

These lines were found among the papers of Pr. Charles Edward, and supposed to be his. But Lord Stanhope, in the 2nd ed. of his Miscellanies, says he finds that they are slightly altered from a poem by Lord Rochester. This we cannot find. [The original lines of Rochester (Poems on State Affairs, i. 171) run:

"I hate all Monarchs, and the thrones they sit on,
From the Hector of France to the Cully of Britain."]

[1813.—"The most skilful among them (the wrestlers) is appointed khuleefu, or superintendent for the season...."—Broughton, Letters, ed. 1892, p. 164.]

CALEEOON, CALYOON, s. P. kaliyūn, a water-pipe for smoking; the Persian form of the Hubble-Bubble (q.v.).

[1812.—"A Persian visit, when the guest is a distinguished personage, generally consists of three acts: first, the kaleoun, or water pipe...."—Morier, Journey through Persia, &c., p. 13.]

1828.—"The elder of the men met to smoke their calleoons under the shade."—The Kuzzilbash, i. 59.

[1880.—"Kalliúns." See quotation under JULIBDAR.]

CALICO, s. Cotton cloth, ordinarily of tolerably fine texture. The word appears in the 17th century sometimes in the form of Calicut, but possibly this may have been a purism, for calicoe or callico occurs in English earlier, or at least more commonly in early voyages. [Callaca in 1578, Draper's Dict. p. 42.] The word may have come to us through the French calicot, which though retaining the t to the eye, does not do so to the ear. The quotations sufficiently illustrate the use of the word and its origin from Calicut. The fine cotton stuffs of Malabar are already mentioned by Marco Polo (ii. 379). Possibly they may have been all brought from beyond the Ghauts, as the Malabar cotton, ripening during the rains, is not usable, and the cotton stuffs now used in Malabar all come from Madura (see Fryer below; and Terry under CALICUT). The Germans, we may note, call the turkey Calecutische Hahn, though it comes no more from Calicut than it does from Turkey. [See TURKEY.]

1579.—"3 great and large Canowes, in each whereof were certaine of the greatest personages that were about him, attired all of them in white Lawne, or cloth of Calecut."—Drake, World Encompassed, Hak. Soc. 139.

1591.—"The commodities of the shippes that come from Bengala bee ... fine Calicut cloth, Pintados, and Rice."—Barker's Lancaster, in Hakl. ii. 592.

1592.—"The calicos were book-calicos, calico launes, broad white calicos, fine starched calicos, coarse white calicos, browne coarse calicos."—Desc. of the Great Carrack Madre de Dios.

1602.—"And at his departure gaue a robe, and a Tucke of Calico wrought with gold."—Lancaster's Voyage, in Purchas, i. 153.

1604.—"It doth appear by the abbreviate of the Accounts sent home out of the Indies, that there remained in the hands of the Agent, Master Starkey, 482 fardels of Calicos."—In Middleton's Voyage, Hak. Soc. App. iii. 13.

" "I can fit you, gentlemen, with fine callicoes too, for doublets; the only sweet fashion now, most delicate and courtly: a meek gentle callico, cut upon two double affable taffatas; all most neat, feat, and unmatchable."—Dekker, The Honest Whore, Act. II. Sc. v.

1605.—"... about their loynes they (the Javanese) weare a kind of Callico-cloth."—Edm. Scot, ibid. 165.

1608.—"They esteem not so much of money as of Calecut clothes, Pintados, and such like stuffs."—Iohn Davis, ibid. 136.

1612.—"Calico copboord claiths, the piece ... xls."—Rates and Valuatiouns, &c. (Scotland), p. 294.

1616.—"Angarezia ... inhabited by Moores trading with the Maine, and other three Easterne Ilands with their Cattell and fruits, for Callicoes or other linnen to cover them."—Sir T. Roe, in Purchas; [with some verbal differences in Hak. Soc. i. 17].

1627.—"Calicoe, tela delicata Indica. H. Calicúd, dicta à Calecút, Indiae regione ubi conficitur."—Minsheu, 2nd ed., s.v.

1673.—"Staple Commodities are Calicuts, white and painted."—Fryer, 34.

" "Calecut for Spice ... and no Cloath, though it give the name of Calecut to all in India, it being the first Port from whence they are known to be brought into Europe."—Ibid. 86.

1707.—"The Governor lays before the Council the insolent action of Captain Leaton, who on Sunday last marched part of his company ... over the Company's Calicoes that lay a dyeing."—Minute in Wheeler, ii. 48.

1720.—Act 7 Geo. I. cap. vii. "An Act to preserve and encourage the woollen and silk manufacture of this kingdom, and for more effectual employing of the Poor, by prohibiting the Use and Wear of all printed, painted, stained or dyed Callicoes in Apparel, Houshold Stuff, Furniture, or otherwise...."—Stat. at Large, v. 229.


"Like Iris' bow down darts the painted clue,
Starred, striped, and spotted, yellow, red, and blue,
Old calico, torn silk, and muslin new."
Rejected Addresses (Crabbe).

CALICUT, n.p. In the Middle Ages the chief city, and one of the chief ports of Malabar, and the residence of the Zamorin (q.v.). The name Kōl̤ikōḍu is said to mean the 'Cock-Fortress.' [Logan (Man. Malabar, i. 241 note) gives koli, 'fowl,' and kottu, 'corner or empty space,' or kotta, 'a fort.' There was a legend, of the Dido type, that all the space within cock-crow was once granted to the Zamorin.]

c. 1343.—"We proceeded from Fandaraina to Ḳaliḳūt, one of the chief ports of Mulībār. The people of Chīn, of Java, of Sailān, of Mahal (Maldives), of Yemen, and Fārs frequent it, and the traders of different regions meet there. Its port is among the greatest in the world."—Ibn Batuta, iv. 89.

c. 1430.—"Collicuthiam deinceps petiit, urbem maritimam, octo millibus passuum ambitu, nobile totius Indiae emporium, pipere, lacca, gingibere, cinnamomo crassiore,[4] kebulis, zedoaria fertilis."—Conti, in Poggius, De Var. Fortunae.

1442.—"Calicut is a perfectly secure harbour, which like that of Ormuz brings together merchants from every city and from every country."—Abdurrazzāk, in India in XVth Cent., p. 13.

c. 1475.—"Calecut is a port for the whole Indian sea.... The country produces pepper, ginger, colour plants, muscat [nutmeg?], cloves, cinnamon, aromatic roots, adrach [green ginger] ... and everything is cheap, and servants and maids are very good."—Ath. Nikitin., ibid. p. 20.

1498.—"We departed thence, with the pilot whom the king gave us, for a city which is called Qualecut."—Roteiro de V. da Gama, 49.


"Já fóra de tormenta, e dos primeiros
Mares, o temor vão do peito voa;
Disse alegre o Piloto Melindano,
'Terra he de Calecut, se não me engano.'"
Camões, vi. 92.

By Burton:

"now, 'scaped the tempest and the first sea-dread,
fled from each bosom terrors vain, and cried
the Melindanian Pilot in delight,
'Calecut-land, if aught I see aright!'"

1616.—"Of that wool they make divers sorts of Callico, which had that name (as I suppose) from Callicutts, not far from Goa, where that kind of cloth was first bought by the Portuguese."—Terry, in Purchas. [In ed. 1777, p. 105, Callicute.]

CALINGULA, s. A sluice or escape. Tam. kalingal; much used in reports of irrigation works in S. India.

[1883.—"Much has been done in the way of providing sluices for minor channels of supply, and calingulahs, or water weirs for surplus vents."—Venkasami Row, Man. of Tanjore, p. 332.]

CALPUTTEE, s. A caulker; also the process of caulking; H. and Beng. kālāpattī and kalāpāttī, and these no doubt from the Port. calafate. But this again is oriental in origin, from the Arabic ḳālāfat, the 'process of caulking.' It is true that Dozy (see p. 376) and also Jal (see his Index, ii. 589) doubt the last derivation, and are disposed to connect the Portuguese and Spanish words, and the Italian calafattare, &c., with the Latin calefacere, a view which M. Marcel Devic rejects. The latter word would apply well enough to the process of pitching a vessel as practised in the Mediterranean, where we have seen the vessel careened over, and a great fire of thorns kindled under it to keep the pitch fluid. But caulking is not pitching; and when both form and meaning correspond so exactly, and when we know so many other marine terms in the Mediterranean to have been taken from the Arabic, there does not seem to be room for reasonable doubt in this case. The Emperor Michael V. (A.D. 1041) was called καλαφάτης, because he was the son of a caulker (see Ducange, Gloss. Graec., who quotes Zonaras).

1554.—(At Mozambique) ... "To two calafattes ... of the said brigantines, at the rate annually of 20,000 reis each, with 9000 reis each for maintenance and 6 measures of millet to each, of which no count is taken."—Simão Botelho, Tombo, 11.

c. 1620.—"S'il estoit besoin de calfader le Vaisseau ... on y auroit beaucoup de peine dans ce Port, principalement si on est constraint de se seruir des Charpentiers et des Calfadeurs du Pays; parce qu'ils dependent tous du Gouverneur de Bombain."—Routier ... des Indes Orient., par Aleixo da Motta, in Thevenot's Collection.

CALUAT, s. This in some old travels is used for Ar. khilwat, 'privacy, a private interview' (C. P. Brown, MS.).

1404.—"And this Garden they call Talicia, and in their tongue they call it Calbet."—Clavijo, § cix. Comp. Markham, 130.

[1670.—"Still deeper in the square is the third tent, called Caluet-Kane, the retired spot, or the place of the privy Council."—Bernier, ed. Constable, 361.]

1822.—"I must tell you what a good fellow the little Raja of Tallaca is. When I visited him we sat on two musnads without exchanging one single word, in a very respectable durbar; but the moment we retired to a Khilwut the Raja produced his Civil and Criminal Register, and his Minute of demands, collections and balances for the 1st quarter, and began explaining the state of his country as eagerly as a young Collector."—Elphinstone, in Life, ii. 144.

[1824.—"The khelwet or private room in which the doctor was seated."—Hajji Baba, p. 87.]

CALUETE, CALOETE, s. The punishment of impalement; Malayāl. kaluekki (pron. etti). [See IMPALE.]

1510.—"The said wood is fixed in the middle of the back of the malefactor, and passes through his body ... this torture is called 'uncalvet.'"—Varthema, 147.

1582.—"The Capitaine General for to encourage them the more, commanded before them all to pitch a long staffe in the ground, the which was made sharp at ye one end. The same among the Malabars is called Calvete, upon ye which they do execute justice of death, unto the poorest or vilest people of the country."—Castañeda, tr. by N. L., ff. 142v, 143.

1606.—"The Queen marvelled much at the thing, and to content them she ordered the sorcerer to be delivered over for punishment, and to be set on the caloete, which is a very sharp stake fixed firmly in the ground...." &c.—Gouvea, f. 47v; see also f. 163.

CALYAN, n.p. The name of more than one city of fame in W. and S. India; Skt. Kalyāna, 'beautiful, noble, propitious,' One of these is the place still known as Kalyān, on the Ulas river, more usually called by the name of the city, 33 m. N.E. of Bombay. This is a very ancient port, and is probably the one mentioned by Cosmas below. It appears as the residence of a donor in an inscription on the Kanheri caves in Salsette (see Fergusson and Burgess, p. 349). Another Kalyāna was the capital of the Chalukyas of the Deccan in the 9th–12th centuries. This is in the Nizam's district of Naldrūg, about 40 miles E.N.E. of the fortress called by that name. A third Kalyāna was a port of Canara, between Mangalore and Kundapur, in lat. 13° 28′ or thereabouts, on the same river as Bacanore (q.v.). [This is apparently the place which Tavernier (ed. Ball, ii. 206) calls Callian Bondi or Kalyān Bandar.] The quotations refer to the first Calyan.

c. A.D. 80–90.—"The local marts which occur in order after Barygaza are Akabaru, Suppara, Kalliena, a city which was raised to the rank of a regular mart in the time of Saraganes, but, since Sandanes became its master, its trade has been put under restrictions; for if Greek vessels, even by accident, enter its ports, a guard is put on board, and they are taken to Barygaza."—Periplus, § 52.

c. A.D. 545.—"And the most notable places of trade are these: Sindu, Orrhotha, Kalliana, Sibor...."—Cosmas, in Cathay, &c., p. clxxviii.

1673.—On both sides are placed stately Aldeas, and dwellings of the Portugal Fidalgos; till on the Right, within a Mile or more of Gullean, they yield possession to the neighbouring Seva Gi, at which City (the key this way into that Rebel's Country), Wind and Tide favouring us, we landed."—Fryer, p. 123.

1825.—"Near Candaulah is a waterfall ... its stream winds to join the sea, nearly opposite to Tannah, under the name of the Callianee river."—Heber, ii. 137.

Prof. Forchhammer has lately described the great remains of a Pagoda and other buildings with inscriptions, near the city of Pegu, called Kalyāni.

CAMBAY, n.p. Written by Mahommedan writers Kanbāyat, sometimes Kinbāyat. According to Col. Tod, the original Hindu name was Khambavati, 'City of the Pillar'; [the Mad. Admin. Man. Gloss. gives stambha-tīrtha, 'sacred pillar pool']. Long a very famous port of Guzerat, at the head of the Gulf to which it gives its name. Under the Mahommedan Kings of Guzerat it was one of their chief residences, and they are often called Kings of Cambay. Cambay is still a feudatory State under a Nawab. The place is in decay, owing partly to the shoals, and the extraordinary rise and fall of the tides in the Gulf, impeding navigation. [See Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. i. 313 seqq.].

c. 951.—"From Kambáya to the sea about 2 parasangs. From Kambáya to Súrabáya (?) about 4 days."—Istakhri, in Elliot, i. 30.

1298.—"Cambaet is a great kingdom.... There is a great deal of trade.... Merchants come here with many ships and cargoes...."—Marco Polo, Bk. iii. ch. 28.

1320.—"Hoc vero Oceanum mare in illis partibus principaliter habet duos portus: quorum vnus nominatur Mahabar, et alius Cambeth."—Marino Sanudo, near beginning.

c. 1420.—"Cambay is situated near to the sea, and is 12 miles in circuit; it abounds in spikenard, lac, indigo, myrabolans, and silk."—Conti, in India in XVth Cent., 20.

1498.—"In which Gulf, as we were informed, there are many cities of Christians and Moors, and a city which is called Quambaya."—Roteiro, 49.

1506.—"In Combea è terra de Mori, e il suo Re è Moro; el è una gran terra, e li nasce turbiti, e spigonardo, e milo (read nilo—see ANIL), lache, corniole, calcedonie, gotoni...."—Rel. di Leonardo Ca' Masser, in Archivio Stor. Italiano, App.


"The Prince of Cambay's daily food
Is asp and basilisk and toad,
Which makes him have so strong a breath,
Each night he stinks a queen to death."
Hudibras, Pt. ii. Canto i.

Butler had evidently read the stories of Mahmūd Bigara, Sultan of Guzerat, in Varthema or Purchas.

CAMBOJA, n.p. An ancient kingdom in the eastern part of Indo-China, once great and powerful: now fallen, and under the 'protectorate' of France, whose Saigon colony it adjoins. The name, like so many others of Indo-China since the days of Ptolemy, is of Skt. origin, being apparently a transfer of the name of a nation and country on the N.W. frontier of India, Kamboja, supposed to have been about the locality of Chitral or Kafiristan. Ignoring this, fantastic Chinese and other etymologies have been invented for the name. In the older Chinese annals (c. 1200 B.C.) this region had the name of Fu-nan; from the period after our era, when the kingdom of Camboja had become powerful, it was known to the Chinese as Chin-la. Its power seems to have extended at one time westward, perhaps to the shores of the B. of Bengal. Ruins of extraordinary vastness and architectural elaboration are numerous, and have attracted great attention since M. Mouhot's visit in 1859; though they had been mentioned by 16th century missionaries, and some of the buildings when standing in splendour were described by a Chinese visitor at the end of the 13th century. The Cambojans proper call themselves Khmer, a name which seems to have given rise to singular confusions (see COMAR). The gum Gamboge (Cambodiam in the early records [Birdwood, Rep. on Old Rec., 27]) so familiar in use, derives its name from this country, the chief source of supply.

c. 1161.—"... although ... because the belief of the people of Rámánya (Pegu) was the same as that of the Buddha-believing men of Ceylon.... Parakrama the king was living in peace with the king of Rámánya—yet the ruler of Rámánya ... forsook the old custom of providing maintenance for the ambassadors ... saying: 'These messengers are sent to go to Kámboja,' and so plundered all their goods and put them in prison in the Malaya country.... Soon after this he seized some royal virgins sent by the King of Ceylon to the King of Kámboja...."—Ext. from Ceylonese Annals, by T. Rhys Davids, in J.A.S.B. xli. Pt. i. p. 198.

1295.—"Le pays de Tchin-la.... Les gens du pays le nomment Kan-phou-tchi. Sous la dynastie actuelle, les livres sacrés des Tibétains nomment ce pays Kan-phou-tchi...."—Chinese Account of Chinla, in Abel Rémusat, Nouv. Mél. i. 100.

c. 1535.—"Passing from Siam towards China by the coast we find the kingdom of Cambaia (read Camboia) ... the people are great warriors ... and the country of Camboia abounds in all sorts of victuals ... in this land the lords voluntarily burn themselves when the king dies...."—Sommario de' Regni, in Ramusio, i. f. 336.

1552.—"And the next State adjoining Siam is the kingdom of Camboja, through the middle of which flows that splendid river the Mecon, the source of which is in the regions of China...."—Barros, Dec. I. Liv. ix. cap. 1.


"Vês, passa por Camboja Mecom rio,
Que capitão das aguas se interpreta...."
Camões, x. 127.

[1616.—"22 cattes camboja (gamboge)."—Foster, Letters, iv. 188.]

CAMEEZE, s. This word (ḳamīṣ) is used in colloquial H. and Tamil for 'a shirt.' It comes from the Port. camisa. But that word is directly from the Arab ḳamīṣ, 'a tunic.' Was St. Jerome's Latin word an earlier loan from the Arabic, or the source of the Arabic word? probably the latter; [so N.E.D. s.v. Camise]. The Mod. Greek Dict. of Sophocles has καμίσιον. Camesa is, according to the Slang Dictionary, used in the cant of English thieves; and in more ancient slang it was made into 'commission.'

c. 400.—"Solent militantes habere lineas quas Camisias vocant, sic aptas membris et adstrictas corporibus, ut expediti sint vel ad cursum, vel ad praelia ... quocumque necessitas traxerit."—Scti. Hieronymi Epist. (lxiv.) ad Fabiolam, § 11.

1404.—"And to the said Ruy Gonzalez he gave a big horse, an ambler, for they prize a horse that ambles, furnished with saddle and bridle, very well according to their fashion; and besides he gave him a camisa and an umbrella" (see SOMBRERO).—Clavijo, § lxxxix.; Markham, 100.

1464.—"to William and Richard my sons, all my fair camises...."—Will of Richard Strode, of Newnham, Devon.

1498.—"That a very fine camysa, which in Portugal would be worth 300 reis, was given here for 2 fanons, which in that country is the equivalent of 30 reis, though the value of 30 reis is in that country no small matter."—Roteiro de V. da Gama, 77.

1573.—"The richest of all (the shops in Fez) are where they sell camisas...."—Marmol. Desc. General de Affrica, Pt. I. Bk. iii. f. 87v.

CAMP, s. In the Madras Presidency [as well as in N. India] an official not at his headquarters is always addressed as 'in Camp.'

CAMPHOR, s. There are three camphors:—

a. The Bornean and Sumatran camphor from Dryobalanops aromatica.

b. The camphor of China and Japan, from Cinnamomum Camphora. (These are the two chief camphors of commerce; the first immensely exceeding the second in market value: see Marco Polo, Bk. iii. ch. xi. Note 3.)

c. The camphor of Blumea balsamifera, D.C., produced and used in China under the name of ngai camphor.

The relative ratios of value in the Canton market may be roundly given as b, 1; c, 10; a, 80.

The first Western mention of this drug, as was pointed out by Messrs Hanbury and Flückiger, occurs in the Greek medical writer Aëtius (see below), but it probably came through the Arabs, as is indicated by the ph, or f of the Arab kāfūr, representing the Skt. karpūra. It has been suggested that the word was originally Javanese, in which language kāpūr appears to mean both 'lime' and 'camphor.'

Moodeen Sheriff says that kăfūr is used (in Ind. Materia Medica) for 'amber.' Tābashīr (see TABASHEER), is, according to the same writer, called bāns-kāfūr 'bamboo-camphor'; and ras-kāfūr (mercury-camphor) is an impure subchloride of mercury. According to the same authority, the varieties of camphor now met with in the bazars of S. India are—1. kāfūr-i-ḳaiṣūrī, which is in Tamil called pach'ch'ai (i.e. crude karuppuram; 2. Ṣūratī kāfūr; 3. chīnī; 4. batai (from the Batta country?). The first of these names is a curious instance of the perpetuation of a blunder, originating in the misreading of loose Arabic writing. The name is unquestionably fanṣūrī, which carelessness as to points has converted into ḳaiṣūrī (as above, and in Blochmann's Āīn, i. 79). The camphor alfanṣūrī is mentioned as early as by Avicenna, and by Marco Polo, and came from a place called Pansūr in Sumatra, perhaps the same as Barus, which has now long given its name to the costly Sumatran drug.

A curious notion of Ibn Batuta's (iv. 241) that the camphor of Sumatra (and Borneo) was produced in the inside of a cane, filling the joints between knot and knot, may be explained by the statement of Barbosa (p. 204), that the Borneo camphor as exported was packed in tubes of bamboo. This camphor is by Barbosa and some other old writers called 'eatable camphor' (da mangiare), because used in medicine and with betel.

Our form of the word seems to have come from the Sp. alcanfor and canfora, through the French camphre. Dozy points out that one Italian form retains the truer name cafura, and an old German one (Mid. High Germ.) is gaffer (Oosterl. 47).

c. A.D. 540.—"Hygromyri cõfectio, olei salca lib. ij, opobalsami lib. i., spicænardi, folij singu. unc. iiii. carpobalsami, arnabonis, amomi, ligni aloes, sing. unc. ij. mastichae, moschi, sing. scrup. vi. quod si etiã caphura non deerit ex ea unc. ij adjicito...."—Aetii Amideni, Librorum xvi. Tomi Dvo.... Latinitate donati, Basil, MDXXXV., Liv. xvi. cap. cxx.

c. 940.—"These (islands called al-Ramīn) abound in gold mines, and are near the country of Ḳansūr, famous for its camphor...."—Maṣ'ūdī, i. 338. The same work at iii. 49, refers back to this passage as "the country of Manṣūrah." Probably Maṣ'ūdī wrote correctly Fanṣūrah.

1298.—"In this kingdom of Fansur grows the best camphor in the world, called Camfera Fansuri."—Marco Polo, bk. iii. ch. xi.

1506.—"... e de li (Tenasserim) vien pevere, canella ... camfora da manzar e de quella non se manza...." (i.e. both camphor to eat and not to eat, or Sumatra and China camphor).—Leonardo Ca' Masser.

c. 1590.—"The Camphor tree is a large tree growing in the ghauts of Hindostan and in China. A hundred horsemen and upwards may rest in the shade of a single tree.... Of the various kinds of camphor the best is called Ribáhi or Qaiçúri.... In some books camphor in its natural state is called ... Bhimsíni."—Āīn, Blochmann ed. i. 78–9. [Bhimsínī is more properly bhimsenī, and takes its name from the demi-god Bhīmsen, second son of Pandu.]

1623.—"In this shipp we have laden a small parcell of camphire of Barouse, being in all 60 catis."—Batavian Letter, pubd. in Cocks's Diary, ii. 343.

1726.—"The Persians name the Camphor of Baros, and also of Borneo to this day Kafur Canfuri, as it also appears in the printed text of Avicenna ... and Bellunensis notes that in some MSS. of the author is found Kafur Fansuri...."—Valentijn, iv. 67.

1786.—"The Camphor Tree has been recently discovered in this part of the Sircar's country. We have sent two bottles of the essential oil made from it for your use."—Letter of Tippoo, Kirkpatrick, p. 231.


" Camphor, Bhimsaini (barus), valuation 1 lb. 80 rs.
Refined cake 1 cwt. 65 rs."
Table of Customs Duties on Imports into
Br. India up to 1875.

The first of these is the fine Sumatran camphor; the second at 1138 of the price is China camphor.

CAMPOO, s. H. kampū, corr. of the English 'camp,' or more properly of the Port. 'campo.' It is used for 'a camp,' but formerly was specifically applied to the partially disciplined brigades under European commanders in the Mahratta service.

[1525.—Mr. Whiteway notes that Castanheda (bk. vi. ch. ci. p. 217) and Barros (iii. 10, 3) speak of a ward of Malacca as Campu China; and de Eredia (1613) calls it Campon China, which may supply a link between Campoo and Kampung. (See COMPOUND).

1803.—"Begum Sumroo's Campoo has come up the ghauts, and I am afraid ... joined Scindiah yesterday. Two deserters ... declared that Pohlman's Campoo was following it."—Wellington, ii. 264.

1883.—"... its unhappy plains were swept over, this way and that, by the cavalry of rival Mahratta powers, Mogul and Rohilla horsemen, or campos and pultuns (battalions) under European adventurers...."—Quarterly Review, April, p. 294.

CANARA, n.p. Properly Kannaḍa. This name has long been given to that part of the West coast which lies below the Ghauts, from Mt. Dely northward to the Goa territory; and now to the two British districts constituted out of that tract, viz. N. and S. Canara. This appropriation of the name, however, appears to be of European origin. The name, probably meaning 'black country' [Dravid. kar, 'black,' nādu, 'country'], from the black cotton soil prevailing there, was properly synonymous with Karṇātaka (see CARNATIC), and apparently a corruption of that word. Our quotations show that throughout the sixteenth century the term was applied to the country above the Ghauts, sometimes to the whole kingdom of Narsinga or Vijayanagar (see BISNAGAR). Gradually, and probably owing to local application at Goa, where the natives seem to have been from the first known to the Portuguese as Canarijs, a term which in the old Portuguese works means the Konkani people and language of Goa, the name became appropriated to the low country on the coast between Goa and Malabar, which was subject to the kingdom in question, much in the same way that the name Carnatic came at a later date to be misapplied on the other side of the Peninsula.

The Kanara or Canarese language is spoken over a large tract above the Ghauts, and as far north as Bidar (see Caldwell, Introd. p. 33). It is only one of several languages spoken in the British districts of Canara, and that only in a small portion, viz. near Kundāpur. Tuḷu is the chief language in the Southern District. Kanaḍam occurs in the great Tanjore inscription of the 11th century.

1516.—"Beyond this river commences the Kingdom of Narsinga, which contains five very large provinces, each with a language of its own. The first, which stretches along the coast to Malabar, is Tulinate (i.e. Tuḷu-nādu, or the modern district of S. Canara); another lies in the interior ...; another has the name of Telinga, which confines with the Kingdom of Orisa; another is Canari, in which is the great city of Bisnaga; and then the Kingdom of Charamendel, the language of which is Tamul."—Barbosa. This passage is exceedingly corrupt, and the version (necessarily imperfect) is made up from three—viz. Stanley's English, from a Sp. MS., Hak. Soc. p. 79; the Portuguese of the Lisbon Academy, p. 291; and Ramusio's Italian (i. f. 299v).

c. 1535.—"The last Kingdom of the First India is called the Province Canarim; it is bordered on one side by the Kingdom of Goa and by Anjadiva, and on the other side by Middle India or Malabar. In the interior is the King of Narsinga, who is chief of this country. The speech of those of Canarim is different from that of the Kingdom of Decan and of Goa."—Portuguese Summary of Eastern Kingdoms, in Ramusio, i. f. 330.

1552.—"The third province is called Canará, also in the interior...."—Castanheda, ii. 50.

And as applied to the language:—

"The language of the Gentoos is Canará."—Ibid. 78.

1552.—"The whole coast that we speak of back to the Ghaut (Gate) mountain range ... they call Concan, and the people properly Concanese (Conquenijs), though our people call them Canarese (Canarijs).... And as from the Ghauts to the sea on the west of the Decan all that strip is called Concan, so from the Ghauts to the sea on the west of Canará, always excepting that stretch of 46 leagues of which we have spoken [north of Mount Dely] which belongs to the same Canará, the strip which stretches to Cape Comorin is called Malabar."—Barros, Dec. I. liv. ix. cap. 1.

1552.—"... The Kingdom of Canará, which extends from the river called Gate, north of Chaul, to Cape Comorin (so far as concerns the interior region east of the Ghats) ... and which in the east marches with the kingdom of Orisa; and the Gentoo Kings of this great Province of Canará were those from whom sprang the present Kings of Bisnaga."—Ibid. Dec. II. liv. v. cap. 2.


"Aqui se enxerga lá do mar undoso
Hum monte alto, que corre longamente
Servindo ao Malabar de forte muro,
Com que do Canará vive seguro."
Camões, vii. 21.

Englished by Burton:

"Here seen yonside where wavy waters play
a range of mountains skirts the murmuring main
serving the Malabar for mighty mure,
who thus from him of Canará dwells secure."

1598.—"The land itselfe is called Decan, and also Canara."—Linschoten, 49; [Hak. Soc. i. 169].

1614.—"Its proper name is Charnathaca, which from corruption to corruption has come to be called Canara."—Couto, Dec. VI. liv. v. cap. 5.

In the following quotations the term is applied, either inclusively or exclusively, to the territory which we now call Canara:—

1615.—"Canara. Thence to the Kingdome of the Cannarins, which is but a little one, and 5 dayes journey from Damans. They are tall of stature, idle, for the most part, and therefore the greater theeves."—De Monfart, p. 23.

1623.—"Having found a good opportunity, such as I desired, of getting out of Goa, and penetrating further into India, that is more to the south, to Canara...."—P. della Valle, ii. 601; [Hak. Soc. ii. 168].

1672.—"The strip of land Canara, the inhabitants of which are called Canarins, is fruitful in rice and other food-stuffs."—Baldaeus, 98. There is a good map in this work, which shows 'Canara' in the modern acceptation.

1672.—"Description of Canara and Journey to Goa.—This kingdom is one of the finest in India, all plain country near the sea, and even among the mountains all peopled."—P. Vincenzo Maria, 420. Here the title seems used in the modern sense, but the same writer applies Canara to the whole Kingdom of Bisnagar.

1673.—"At Mirja the Protector of Canora came on board."—Fryer (margin), p. 57.

1726.—"The Kingdom Canara (under which Onor, Batticala, and Garcopa are dependent) comprises all the western lands lying between Walkan (Konkan?) and Malabar, two great coast countries."—Valentijn, v. 2.

1727.—"The country of Canara is generally governed by a Lady, who keeps her Court at a Town called Baydour, two Days journey from the Sea."—A. Hamilton, i. 280.

CANARIN, n.p. This name is applied in some of the quotations under Canara to the people of the district now so called by us. But the Portuguese applied it to the (Konkani) people of Goa and their language. Thus a Konkani grammar, originally prepared about 1600 by the Jesuit, Thomas Estevão (Stephens, an Englishman), printed at Goa, 1640, bears the title Arte da Lingoa Canarin. (See A. B(urnell) in Ind. Antiq. ii. 98).

[1823.—"Canareen, an appellation given to the Creole Portuguese of Goa and their other Indian settlements."—Owen, Narrative, i. 191.]

CANAUT, CONAUT, CONNAUGHT, s. H. from Ar. ḳanāt, the side wall of a tent, or canvas enclosure. [See SURRAPURDA.]

[1616.—"High cannattes of a coarse stuff made like arras."—Sir T. Roe, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. 325.]

" "The King's Tents are red, reared on poles very high, and placed in the midst of the Camp, covering a large Compasse, encircled with Canats (made of red calico stiffened with Canes at every breadth) standing upright about nine foot high, guarded round every night with Souldiers."—Terry, in Purchas, ii. 1481.

c. 1660.—"And (what is hard enough to believe in Indostan, where the Grandees especially are so jealous ...) I was so near to the wife of this Prince (Dara), that the cords of the Kanates ... which enclosed them (for they had not so much as a poor tent), were fastened to the wheels of my chariot."—Bernier, E. T. 29; [ed. Constable, 89].

1792.—"They passed close to Tippoo's tents: the canaut (misprinted canaul) was standing, but the green tent had been removed."—T. Munro, in Life, iii. 73.

1793.—"The canaut of canvas ... was painted of a beautiful sea-green colour."—Dirom, 230.

[c. 1798.—"On passing a skreen of Indian connaughts, we proceeded to the front of the Tusbeah Khanah."—Asiatic Res., iv. 444.]

1817.—"A species of silk of which they make tents and kanauts."—Mill, ii. 201.

1825.—Heber writes connaut.—Orig. ed. ii. 257.

[1838.—"The khenauts (the space between the outer covering and the lining of our tents)."—Miss Eden, Up the Country, ii. 63.]

CANDAHAR, n.p. Ḳandahār. The application of this name is now exclusively to (a) the well-known city of Western Afghanistan, which is the object of so much political interest. But by the Ar. geographers of the 9th to 11th centuries the name is applied to (b) the country about Peshāwar, as the equivalent of the ancient Indian Gandhāra, and the Gandaritis of Strabo. Some think the name was transferred to (a) in consequence of a migration of the people of Gandhāra carrying with them the begging-pot of Buddha, believed by Sir H. Rawlinson to be identical with a large sacred vessel of stone preserved in a mosque of Candahar. Others think that Candahar may represent Alexandropolis in Arachosia. We find a third application of the name (c) in Ibn Batuta, as well as in earlier and later writers, to a former port on the east shore of the Gulf of Cambay, Ghandhar in the Broach District.

a.—1552.—"Those who go from Persia, from the kingdom of Horaçam (Khorasan), from Bohára, and all the Western Regions, travel to the city which the natives corruptly call Candar, instead of Scandar, the name by which the Persians call Alexander...."—Barros, IV. vi. 1.

1664.—"All these great preparations give us cause to apprehend that, instead of going to Kachemire, we be not led to besiege that important city of Kandahar, which is the Frontier to Persia, Indostan, and Usbeck, and the Capital of an excellent Country."—Bernier, E. T., p. 113; [ed. Constable, 352].


"From Arachosia, from Candaor east,
And Margiana to the Hyrcanian cliffs
Of Caucasus...."
Paradise Regained, iii. 316 seqq.

b.—c. 1030.—"... thence to the river Chandráha (Chináb) 12 (parasangs); thence to Jailam on the West of the Báyat (or Hydaspes) 18; thence to Waihind, capital of Ḳandahár ... 20; thence to Parsháwar 14...."—Al-Birūni, in Elliot, i. 63 (corrected).

c.—c. 1343.—"From Kinbāya (Cambay) we went to the town of Kāwi (Kānvi, opp. Cambay), on an estuary where the tide rises and falls ... thence to Ḳandahār, a considerable city belonging to the Infidels, and situated on an estuary from the sea."—Ibn Batuta, iv. 57–8.

1516.—"Further on ... there is another place, in the mouth of a small river, which is called Guendari.... And it is a very good town, a seaport."—Barbosa, 64.

1814.—"Candhar, eighteen miles from the wells, is pleasantly situated on the banks of a river; and a place of considerable trade; being a great thoroughfare from the sea coast to the Gaut mountains."—Forbes, Or. Mem. i. 206; [2nd ed. i. 116].

CANDAREEN, s. In Malay, to which language the word apparently belongs, kandūrī. A term formerly applied to the hundredth of the Chinese ounce or weight, commonly called by the Malay name tāhil (see TAEL). Fryer (1673) gives the Chinese weights thus:—

1 Cattee is nearest 16 Taies
1 Teen (Taie?) is 10 Mass
1 Mass in Silver is 10 Quandreens
1 Quandreen is 10 Cash
733 Cash make 1 Royal
1 grain English weight is 2 cash.

1554.—"In Malacca the weight used for gold, musk, &c., the cate, contains 20 taels, each tael 16 mazes, each maz 20 cumduryns; also 1 paual 4 mazes, each maz 4 cupongs; each cupong 5 cumduryns."—A. Nunes, 39.

1615.—"We bought 5 greate square postes of the Kinges master carpenter; cost 2 mas 6 condrins per peece."—Cocks, i. 1.

(1) CANDY, n.p. A town in the hill country of Ceylon, which became the deposit of the sacred tooth of Buddha at the beginning of the 14th century, and was adopted as the native capital about 1592. Chitty says the name is unknown to the natives, who call the place Mahā nuvera, 'great city.' The name seems to have arisen out of some misapprehension by the Portuguese, which may be illustrated by the quotation from Valentijn.

c. 1530.—"And passing into the heart of the Island, there came to the Kingdom of Candia, a certain Friar Pascoal with two companions, who were well received by the King of the country Javira Bandar ... in so much that he gave them a great piece of ground, and everything needful to build a church, and houses for them to dwell in."—Couto, Dec. VI. liv. iv. cap. 7.

1552.—"... and at three or four places, like the passes of the Alps of Italy, one finds entrance within this circuit (of mountains) which forms a Kingdom called Cande."—Barros, Dec. III. Liv. ii. cap. 1.

1645.—"Now then as soon as the Emperor was come to his Castle in Candi he gave order that the 600 captive Hollanders should be distributed throughout his country among the peasants, and in the City."—J. J. Saar's 15-Jährige Kriegs-Dienst, 97.

1681.—"The First is the City of Candy, so generally called by the Christians, probably from Conde, which in the Chingulays Language signifies Hills, for among them it is situated, but by the Inhabitants called Hingodagul-neure, as much as to say 'The City of the Chingulay people,' and Mauneur, signifying the 'Chief or Royal City.'"—R. Knox, p. 5.

1726.—"Candi, otherwise Candia, or named in Cingalees Conde Ouda, i.e. the high mountain country."—Valentijn (Ceylon), 19.

(2) CANDY, s. A weight used in S. India, which may be stated roughly at about 500 lbs., but varying much in different parts. It corresponds broadly with the Arabian Bahar (q.v.), and was generally equivalent to 20 Maunds, varying therefore with the maund. The word is Mahr. and Tel. khaṇḍi, written in Tam. and Mal. kaṇḍi, or Mal. kaṇṭi, [and comes from the Skt. khaṇḍ, 'to divide.' A Candy of land is supposed to be as much as will produce a candy of grain, approximately 75 acres]. The Portuguese write the word candil.

1563.—"A candil which amounts to 522 pounds" (arrateis).—Garcia, f. 55.

1598.—"One candiel (v.l. candiil) is little more or less than 14 bushels, wherewith they measure Rice, Corne, and all graine."—Linschoten, 69; [Hak. Soc. i. 245].

1618.—"The Candee at this place (Batecala) containeth neere 500 pounds."—W. Hore, in Purchas, i. 657.

1710.—"They advised that they have supplied Habib Khan with ten candy of country gunpowder."—In Wheeler, ii. 136.

c. 1760.—Grose gives the Bombay candy as 20 maunds of 28 lbs. each = 560 lbs.; the Surat ditto as 20 maunds of 37⅓ lbs. = 746⅔ lbs.; the Anjengo ditto 560 lbs.; the Carwar ditto 575 lbs.; the Coromandel ditto at 500 lbs. &c.

(3) CANDY (SUGAR-). This name of crystallized sugar, though it came no doubt to Europe from the P.-Ar. ḳand (P. also shakar ḳand; Sp. azucar cande; It. candi and zucchero candito; Fr. sucre candi) is of Indian origin. There is a Skt. root khaṇḍ, 'to break,' whence khaṇḍa, 'broken,' also applied in various compounds to granulated and candied sugar. But there is also Tam. kar-kaṇḍa, kala-kaṇḍa, Mal. kaṇḍi, kalkaṇḍi, and kalkaṇṭu, which may have been the direct source of the P. and Ar. adoption of the word, and perhaps its original, from a Dravidian word = 'lump.' [The Dravidian terms mean 'stone-piece.']

A German writer, long within last century (as we learn from Mahn, quoted in Diez's Lexicon), appears to derive candy from Candia, "because most of the sugar which the Venetians imported was brought from that island"—a fact probably invented for the nonce. But the writer was the same wiseacre who (in the year 1829) characterised the book of Marco Polo as a "clumsily compiled ecclesiastical fiction disguised as a Book of Travels" (see Introduction to Marco Polo, 2nd ed. pp. 112–113).

c. 1343.—"A centinajo si vende giengiovo, cannella, lacca, incenso, indaco ... verzino scorzuto, zucchero ... zucchero candi ... porcellane ... costo...."—Pegolotti, p. 134.

1461.—"... Un ampoletto di balsamo. Teriaca bossoletti 15. Zuccheri Moccari (?) panni 42. Zuccheri canditi, scattole 5...."—List of Presents from Sultan of Egypt to the Doge. (See under BENJAMIN.)

c. 1596.—"White sugar candy (ḳandī safed) ... 5½ dams per ser."—Āīn, i. 63.

1627.—"Sugar Candie, or Stone Sugar."—Minshew, 2nd ed. s.v.

1727.—"The Trade they have to China is divided between them and Surat ... the Gross of their own Cargo, which consists in Sugar, Sugar-candy, Allom, and some Drugs ... are all for the Surat Market."—A. Hamilton, i. 371.

CANGUE, s. A square board, or portable pillory of wood, used in China as a punishment, or rather, as Dr. Wells Williams says, as a kind of censure, carrying no disgrace; strange as that seems to us, with whom the essence of the pillory is disgrace. The frame weighs up to 30 lbs., a weight limited by law. It is made to rest on the shoulders without chafing the neck, but so broad as to prevent the wearer from feeding himself. It is generally taken off at night (Giles, [and see Gray, China, i. 55 seqq.]).

The Cangue was introduced into China by the Tartar dynasty of Wei in the 5th century, and is first mentioned under A.D. 481. In the Kwang-yun (a Chin. Dict. published A.D. 1009) it is called kanggiai (modern mandarin hiang-hiai), i.e. 'Neck-fetter.' From this old form probably the Anamites have derived their word for it, gong, and the Cantonese k'ang-ka, 'to wear the Cangue,' a survival (as frequently happens in Chinese vernaculars) of an ancient term with a new orthography. It is probable that the Portuguese took the word from one of these latter forms, and associated it with their own canga, 'an ox-yoke,' or 'porter's yoke for carrying burdens.' [This view is rejected by the N.E.D. on the authority of Prof. Legge, and the word is regarded as derived from the Port. form given above. In reply to an enquiry, Prof. Giles writes: "I am entirely of opinion that the word is from the Port., and not from any Chinese term."] The thing is alluded to by F. M. Pinto and other early writers on China, who do not give it a name.

Something of this kind was in use in countries of Western Asia, called in P. doshāka (bilignum). And this word is applied to the Chinese cangue in one of our quotations. Doshāka, however, is explained in the lexicon Burhān-i-Ḳāṭi as 'a piece of timber with two branches placed on the neck of a criminal' (Quatremère, in Not. et Extr. xiv. 172, 173).

1420.—"... made the ambassadors come forward side by side with certain prisoners.... Some of these had a doshāka on their necks."—Shah Rukh's Mission to China, in Cathay, p. cciv.

[1525.—Castanheda (Bk. VI. ch. 71, p. 154) speaks of women who had come from Portugal in the ships without leave, being tied up in a caga and whipped.]

c. 1540.—"... Ordered us to be put in a horrid prison with fetters on our feet, manacles on our hands, and collars on our necks...."—F. M. Pinto, (orig.) ch. lxxxiv.

1585.—"Also they doo lay on them a certaine covering of timber, wherein remaineth no more space of hollownesse than their bodies doth make: thus they are vsed that are condemned to death."—Mendoza (tr. by Parke, 1599), Hak. Soc. i. 117–118.

1696.—"He was imprisoned, congoed, tormented, but making friends with his Money ... was cleared, and made Under-Customer...."—Bowyer's Journal at Cochin China, in Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 81.

[1705.—"All the people were under confinement in separate houses and also in congass."—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. cccxl.]

" "I desir'd several Times to wait upon the Governour; but could not, he was so taken up with over-halling the Goods, that came from Pulo Condore, and weighing the Money, which was found to amount to 21,300 Tale. At last upon the 28th, I was obliged to appear as a Criminal in Congas, before the Governour and his Grand Council, attended with all the Slaves in the Congas."—Letter from Mr. James Conyngham, survivor of the Pulo Condore massacre, in Lockyer, p. 93. Lockyer adds: "I understood the Congas to be Thumbolts" (p. 95).

1727.—"With his neck in the congoes which are a pair of Stocks made of bamboos."—A. Hamilton, ii. 175.

1779.—"Aussitôt on les mit tous trois en prison, des chaines aux pieds, une cangue au cou."—Lettres Edif. xxv. 427.

1797.—"The punishment of the cha, usually called by Europeans the cangue, is generally inflicted for petty crimes."—Staunton, Embassy, &c., ii. 492.

1878.—"... frapper sur les joues a l'aide d'une petite lame de cuir; c'est, je crois, la seule correction infligée aux femmes, car je n'en ai jamais vu aucune porter la cangue."—Léon Rousset, À Travers la Chine, 124.

CANHAMEIRA, CONIMERE, [COONIMODE], n.p. Kanyimeḍu [or Kunimeḍu, Tam. kūni, 'humped,' meḍu, 'mound']; a place on the Coromandel coast, which was formerly the site of European factories (1682–1698) between Pondicherry and Madras, about 13 m. N. of the former.

1501.—In Amerigo Vespucci's letter from C. Verde to Lorenzo de' Medici, giving an account of the Portuguese discoveries in India, he mentions on the coast, before Mailepur, "Conimal."—In Baldelli-Boni, Introd. to Il Milione, p. liii.

1561.—"On this coast there is a place called Canhameira, where there are so many deer and wild cattle that if a man wants to buy 500 deer-skins, within eight days the blacks of the place will give him delivery, catching them in snares, and giving two or three skins for a fanam."—Correa, ii. 772.

1680.—"It is resolved to apply to the Soobidar of Sevagee's Country of Chengy for a Cowle to settle factories at Cooraboor (?) and Coonemerro, and also at Porto Novo, if desired."—Ft. St. Geo. Consns., 7th Jan., in Notes and Exts., No. iii. p. 44.

[1689.—"We therefore conclude it more safe and expedient that the Chief of Conimere ... do go and visit Rama Raja."—In Wheeler, Early Rec., p. 97.]

1727.—"Connymere or Conjemeer is the next Place, where the English had a Factory many Years, but, on their purchasing Fort St. David, it was broken up.... At present its name is hardly seen in the Map of Trade."—A. Hamilton, i. 357.

1753.—"De Pondicheri, à Madras, la côte court en général nord-nord-est quelques degrés est. Le premier endroit de remarque est Congi-medu, vulgairement dit Congimer, à quatre lieues marines plus que moins de Pondicheri."—D'Anville, p. 123.

CANNANORE, n.p. A port on the coast of northern Malabar, famous in the early Portuguese history, and which still is the chief British military station on that coast, with a European regiment. The name is Kaṇṇūr or Kaṇṇanūr, 'Krishna's Town.' [The Madras Gloss. gives Mal. kannu, 'eye,' ur, 'village,' i.e. 'beautiful village.']

c. 1506.—"In Cananor il suo Re si è zentil, e qui nasce zz. (i.e. zenzari, 'ginger'); ma li zz. pochi e non cusi boni come quelli de Colcut."—Leonardo Ca' Masser, in Archivio Storico Ital., Append.

1510.—"Canonor is a fine and large city, in which the King of Portugal has a very strong castle.... This Canonor is a port at which horses which come from Persia disembark."—Varthema, 123.


"Chamará o Samorim mais gente nova
*          *          *          *          *         
Fará que todo o Nayre em fim se mova
Que entre Calecut jaz, e Cananor."
Camões, x. 14.

By Burton:

"The Samorin shall summon fresh allies;
*          *          *          *          *         
lo! at his bidding every Nayr-man hies,
that dwells 'twixt Calecut and Cananor."

[1611.—"The old Nahuda Mahomet of Cainnor goeth aboard in this boat."—Danvers, Letters, i. 95.]

CANONGO, s. P. ḳānūn-go, i.e. 'Law-utterer' (the first part being Arab. from Gr. κανών). In upper India, and formerly in Bengal, the registrar of a taḥṣīl, or other revenue subdivision, who receives the reports of the patwārīs, or village registrars.

1758.—"Add to this that the King's Connegoes were maintained at our expense, as well as the Gomastahs and other servants belonging to the Zemindars, whose accounts we sent for."—Letter to Court, Dec. 31, in Long, 157.

1765.—"I have to struggle with every difficulty that can be thrown in my way by ministers, mutseddies, congoes (!), &c., and their dependents."—Letter from F. Sykes, in Carraccioli's Life of Clive, i. 542.

CANTEROY, s. A gold coin formerly used in the S.E. part of Madras territory. It was worth 3 rs. Properly Kanṭhiravi hun (or pagoda) from Kanṭhiravā Rāyā, 'the lion-voiced,' [Skt. kaṇṭha, 'throat,' rava, 'noise'], who ruled in Mysore from 1638 to 1659 (C. P. Brown, MS.; [Rice, Mysore, i. 803]. See Dirom's Narrative, p. 279, where the revenues of the territory taken from Tippoo in 1792 are stated in Canteray pagodas.

1790.—"The full collections amounted to five Crores and ninety-two lacks of Canteroy pagodas of 3 Rupees each."—Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 237.

1800.—"Accounts are commonly kept in Canter'raia Palams, and in an imaginary money containing 10 of these, by the Musulmans called chucrams [see CHUCKRUM], and by the English Canteroy Pagodas...."—Buchanan's Mysore, i. 129.

CANTON, n.p. The great seaport of Southern China, the chief city of the Province of Kwang-tung, whence we take the name, through the Portuguese, whose older writers call it Cantão. The proper name of the city is Kwang-chau-fu. The Chin. name Kwang-tung (= 'Broad East') is an ellipsis for "capital of the E. Division of the Province Liang-Kwang (or 'Two Broad Realms')."—(Bp. Moule).

1516.—"So as this went on Fernão Peres arrived from Pacem with his cargo (of pepper), and having furnished himself with necessaries set off on his voyage in June 1516 ... they were 7 sail altogether, and they made their voyage with the aid of good pilots whom they had taken, and went without harming anybody touching at certain ports, most of which were subject to the King of China, who called himself the Son of God and Lord of the World. Fernão Peres arrived at the islands of China, and when he was seen there came an armed squadron of 12 junks, which in the season of navigation always cruized about, guarding the sea, to prevent the numerous pirates from attacking the ships. Fernão Peres knew about this from the pilots, and as it was late, and he could not double a certain island there, he anchored, sending word to his captains to have their guns ready for defence if the Chins desired to fight. Next day he made sail towards the island of Veniaga, which is 18 leagues from the city of Cantão. It is on that island that all the traders buy and sell, without licence from the rulers of the city.... And 3 leagues from that island of Veniaga is another island, where is posted the Admiral or Captain-Major of the Sea, who immediately on the arrival of strangers at the island of Veniaga reports to the rulers of Cantão, who they are, and what goods they bring or wish to buy; that the rulers may send orders what course to take."—Correa, ii. 524.

c. 1535.—"... queste cose ... vanno alla China con li lor giunchi, e a Camton, che è Città grande...."—Sommario de' Regni, Ramusio, i. f. 337.

1585.—"The Chinos do vse in their pronunciation to terme their cities with this sylable, Fu, that is as much as to say, citie, as Taybin fu, Canton fu, and their townes with this syllable, Cheu."—Mendoza, Parke's old E. T. (1588) Hak. Soc. i. 24.

1727.—"Canton or Quantung (as the Chinese express it) is the next maritime Province."—A. Hamilton, ii. 217.

CANTONMENT, s. (Pron. Cantoonment, with accent on penult.). This English word has become almost appropriated as Anglo-Indian, being so constantly used in India, and so little used elsewhere. It is applied to military stations in India, built usually on a plan which is originally that of a standing camp or 'cantonment.'

1783.—"I know not the full meaning of the word cantonment, and a camp this singular place cannot well be termed; it more resembles a large town, very many miles in circumference. The officers' bungalos on the banks of the Tappee are large and convenient," &c.—Forbes, Letter in Or. Mem. describing the "Bengal Cantonments near Surat," iv. 239.

1825.—"The fact, however, is certain ... the cantonments at Lucknow, nay Calcutta itself, are abominably situated. I have heard the same of Madras; and now the lately-settled cantonment of Nusseerabad appears to be as objectionable as any of them."—Heber, ed. 1844, ii. 7.

1848.—"Her ladyship, our old acquaintance, is as much at home at Madras as at Brussels—in the cantonment as under the tents."—Vanity Fair, ii. ch. 8.

CAPASS, s. The cotton plant and cotton-wool. H. kapās, from Skt. karpasa, which seems as if it must be the origin of κάρπασος, though the latter is applied to flax.

1753.—"... They cannot any way conceive the musters of 1738 to be a fit standard for judging by them of the cloth sent us this year, as the copass or country cotton has not been for these two years past under nine or ten rupees...."—Ft. Wm. Cons., in Long, 40.

[1813.—"Guzerat cows are very fond of the capaussia, or cotton-seed."—Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. ii. 35.]

CAPEL, s. Malayāl. kappal, 'a ship.' This word has been imported into Malay, kāpal, and Javanese. [It appears to be still in use on the W. Coast; see Bombay Gazetteer, xiii. (2) 470.]

1498.—In the vocabulary of the language of Calicut given in the Roteiro de V. de Gama we have—

"Naoo; capell."—p. 118.

1510.—"Some others which are made like ours, that is in the bottom, they call capel."—Varthema, 154.

CAPELAN, n.p. This is a name which was given by several 16th-century travellers to the mountains in Burma from which the rubies purchased at Pegu were said to come; the idea of their distance, &c., being very vague. It is not in our power to say what name was intended. [It was perhaps Kyat-pyen.] The real position of the 'ruby-mines' is 60 or 70 m. N.E. of Mandalay. [See Ball's Tavernier, ii. 99, 465 seqq.]

1506.—"... e qui è uno porto appresso uno loco che si chiama Acaplen, dove li se trova molti rubini, e spinade, e zoie d'ogni sorte."—Leonardo di Ca' Masser, p. 28.

1510.—"The sole merchandise of these people is jewels, that is, rubies, which come from another city called Capellan, which is distant from this (Pegu) 30 days' journey."—Varthema, 218.

1516.—"Further inland than the said Kingdom of Ava, at five days journey to the south-east, is another city of Gentiles ... called Capelan, and all round are likewise found many and excellent rubies, which they bring to sell at the city and fair of Ava, and which are better than those of Ava."—Barbosa, 187.

c. 1535.—"This region of Arquam borders on the interior with the great mountain called Capelangam, where are many places inhabited by a not very civilised people. These carry musk and rubies to the great city of Ava, which is the capital of the Kingdom of Arquam...."—Sommario de Regni, in Ramusio, i. 334v.

c. 1660.—"... A mountain 12 days journey or thereabouts, from Siren towards the North-east; the name whereof is Capelan. In this mine are found great quantities of Rubies."—Tavernier (E. T.) ii. 143; [ed. Ball, ii. 99].

Phillip's Mineralogy (according to Col. Burney) mentions the locality of the ruby as "the Capelan mountains, sixty miles from Pegue, a city in Ceylon!"—(J. As. Soc. Bengal, ii. 75). This writer is certainly very loose in his geography, and Dana (ed. 1850) is not much better: "The best ruby sapphires occur in the Capelan mountains, near Syrian, a city of Pegu."—Mineralogy, p. 222.

CAPUCAT, n.p. The name of a place on the sea near Calicut, mentioned by several old authors, but which has now disappeared from the maps, and probably no longer exists. The proper name is uncertain. [It is the little port of Kāppatt or Kappaṭ-ṭangadi (Mal. kāval, 'guard,' pātu, 'place,') in the Cooroombranaud Taluka of the Malabar District. (Logan, Man. of Malabar, i. 73). The Madras Gloss. calls it Caupaud. Also see Gray, Pyrard, i. 360.]

1498.—In the Roteiro it is called Capua.

1500.—"This being done the Captain-Major (Pedralvares Cabral) made sail with the foresail and mizen, and went to the port of Capocate which was attached to the same city of Calecut, and was a haven where there was a great loading of vessels, and where many ships were moored that were all engaged in the trade of Calicut...."—Correa, i. 207.

1510.—"... another place called Capogatto, which is also subject to the King of Calecut. This place has a very beautiful palace, built in the ancient style."—Varthema, 133–134.

1516.—"Further on ... is another town, at which there is a small river, which is called Capucad, where there are many country-born Moors, and much shipping."—Barbosa, 152.

1562.—"And they seized a great number of grabs and vessels belonging to the people of Kabkad, and the new port, and Calicut, and Funan [i.e. Ponany], these all being subject to the Zamorin."—Tohfat-ul-Mujahideen, tr. by Rowlandson, p. 157. The want of editing in this last book is deplorable.

CARACOA, CARACOLLE, KARKOLLEN, &c., s. Malay kōra-kōra or kūra-kūra, which is [either a transferred use of the Malay kūra-kūra, or ku-kūra, 'a tortoise,' alluding, one would suppose, either to the shape or pace of the boat, but perhaps the tortoise was named from the boat, or the two words are independent; or from the Ar. ḳurḳūr, pl. ḳarāḳīr, 'a large merchant vessel.' Scott (s.v. Coracora), says: "In the absence of proof to the contrary, we may assume kora-kora to be native Malayan."] Dozy (s.v. Carraca) says that the Ar. ḳura-ḳūra was, among the Arabs, a merchant vessel, sometimes of very great size. Crawfurd describes the Malay ḳura-ḳura, as 'a large kind of sailing vessel'; but the quotation from Jarric shows it to have been the Malay galley. Marre (Kata-Kata Malayou, 87) says: "The Malay kora-kora is a great row-boat; still in use in the Moluccas. Many measure 100 feet long and 10 wide. Some have as many as 90 rowers."

c. 1330.—"We embarked on the sea at Lādhikiya in a big ḳurḳūra belonging to Genoese people, the master of which was called Martalamin."—Ibn Batuta, ii. 254.

1349.—"I took the sea on a small ḳurḳūra belonging to a Tunisian."—Ibid. iv. 327.

1606.—"The foremost of these galleys or Caracolles recovered our Shippe, wherein was the King of Tarnata."—Middleton's Voyage, E. 2.

" "... Nave conscensâ, quam linguâ patriâ caracora noncupant. Navigii genus est oblõgum, et angustum, triremis instar, velis simul et remis impellitur."—Jarric, Thesaurus, i. 192.

[1613.—"Curra-curra." See quotation under ORANKAY.]

1627.—"They have Gallies after their manner, formed like Dragons, which they row very swiftly, they call them karkollen."—Purchas, Pilgrimage, 606.

1659.—"They (natives of Ceram, &c.) hawked these dry heads backwards and forwards in their korrekorres as a special rarity."—Walter Schultzen's Ost-Indische Reise, &c., p. 41.

1711.—"Les Philippines nomment ces batimens caracoas. C'est vne espèce de petite galère à rames et à voiles."—Lettres Edif. iv. 27.

1774.—"A corocoro is a vessel generally fitted with outriggers, having a high arched stem and stern, like the points of a half moon.... The Dutch have fleets of them at Amboyna, which they employ as guarda-costos."—Forrest, Voyage to N. Guinea, 23. Forrest has a plate of a corocoro, p. 64.

[1869.—"The boat was one of the kind called kora-kora, quite open, very low, and about four tons burden. It had out-riggers of bamboo, about five off each side, which supported a bamboo platform extending the whole length of the vessel. On the extreme outside of this sat the twenty rowers, while within was a convenient passage fore and aft. The middle of the boat was covered with a thatch-house, in which baggage and passengers are stowed; the gunwale was not more than a foot above water, and from the great side and top weight, and general clumsiness, these boats are dangerous in heavy weather, and are not infrequently lost."—Wallace, Malay Arch., ed. 1890, p. 266.]

CARAFFE, s. Dozy shows that this word, which in English we use for a water-bottle, is of Arabic origin, and comes from the root gharaf, 'to draw' (water), through the Sp. garráfa. But the precise Arabic word is not in the dictionaries. (See under CARBOY.)

CARAMBOLA, s. The name given by various old writers on Western India to the beautiful acid fruit of the tree (N.O. Oxalideae) called by Linn. from this word, Averrhoa carambola. This name was that used by the Portuguese. De Orta tells us that it was the Malabar name. The word karanbal is also given by Molesworth as the Mahratti name; [another form is karambela, which comes from the Skt. karmara given below in the sense of 'food-appetizer']. In Upper India the fruit is called kamranga, kamrakh, or khamrak (Skt. karmara, karmāra, karmaraka, karmaranga).[5] (See also BLIMBEE.) Why a cannon at billiards should be called by the French carambolage we do not know. [If Mr. Ball be right, the fruit has a name, Cape-Gooseberry, in China which in India is used for the Tiparry.—Things Chinese, 3rd ed. 253.]

c. 1530.—"Another fruit is the Kermerik. It is fluted with five sides," &c.—Erskine's Baber, 325.

1563.—"O. Antonia, pluck me from that tree a Carambola or two (for so they call them in Malavar, and we have adopted the Malavar name, because that was the first region where we got acquainted with them).

"A. Here they are.

"R. They are beautiful; a sort of sour-sweet, not very acid.

"O. They are called in Canarin and Decan camariz, and in Malay balimba ... they make with sugar a very pleasant conserve of these.... Antonia! bring hither a preserved carambola."—Garcia, ff. 46v, 47.

1598.—"There is another fruite called Carambolas, which hath 8 (5 really) corners, as bigge as a smal aple, sower in eating, like vnripe plums, and most vsed to make Conserues. (Note by Paludanus). The fruite which the Malabars and Portingales call Carambolas, is in Decan called Camarix, in Canar, Camarix and Carabeli; in Malaio, Bolumba, and by the Persians Chamaroch."—Linschoten, 96; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33].

1672.—"The Carambola ... as large as a pear, all sculptured (as it were) and divided into ribs, the ridges of which are not round but sharp, resembling the heads of those iron maces that were anciently in use."—P. Vincenzo Maria, 352.

1878.—"... the oxalic Kamrak."—In my Indian Garden, 50.

[1900.—"... that most curious of fruits, the carambola, called by the Chinese the yong-t'o, or foreign peach, though why this name should have been selected is a mystery, for when cut through, it looks like a star with five rays. By Europeans it is also known as the Cape gooseberry."—Ball, Things Chinese, 3rd ed. p. 253.]

CARAT, s. Arab ḳirrāt, which is taken from the Gr. κεράτιον, a bean of the κερατεία or carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua, L.). This bean, like the Indian rati (see RUTTEE) was used as a weight, and thence also it gave name to a coin of account, if not actual. To discuss the carat fully would be a task of extreme complexity, and would occupy several pages.

Under the name of siliqua it was the 24th part of the golden solidus of Constantine, which was again = 16 of an ounce. Hence this carat was = 1144 of an ounce. In the passage from St. Isidore quoted below, the cerates is distinct from the siliqua, and = 1½ siliquae. This we cannot explain, but the siliqua Graeca was the κεράτιον; and the siliqua as 124 of a solidus is the parent of the carat in all its uses. [See Prof. Gardner, in Smith, Dict. Ant. 3rd ed. ii. 675.] Thus we find the carat at Constantinople in the 14th century = 124 of the hyperpera or Greek bezant, which was a debased representative of the solidus; and at Alexandria 124 of the Arabic dīnār, which was a purer representative of the solidus. And so, as the Roman uncia signified 112 of any unit (compare ounce, inch), so to a certain extent carat came to signify 124. Dictionaries give Arab. ḳirrāṭ as "124 of an ounce." Of this we do not know the evidence. The English Cyclopaedia (s.v.) again states that "the carat was originally the 24th part of the marc, or half-pound, among the French, from whom the word came." This sentence perhaps contains more than one error; but still both of these allegations exhibit the carat as 124th part. Among our goldsmiths the term is still used to measure the proportionate quality of gold; pure gold being put at 24 carats, gold with 112 alloy at 22 carats, with ¼ alloy at 18 carats, &c. And the word seems also (like Anna, q.v.) sometimes to have been used to express a proportionate scale in other matters, as is illustrated by a curious passage in Marco Polo, quoted below.

The carat is also used as a weight for diamonds. As 1144 of an ounce troy this ought to make it 3⅓ grains. But these carats really run 151½ to the ounce troy, so that the diamond carat is 316 grs. nearly. This we presume was adopted direct from some foreign system in which the carat was 1144 of the local ounce. [See Ball, Tavernier, ii. 447.]

c. A.D. 636.—"Siliqua vigesima quarta pars solidi est, ab arboris semine vocabulum tenens. Cerates oboli pars media est siliquã habens unam semis. Hanc latinitas semiobulũ vocat; Cerates autem Graece, Latine siliqua cornuũ interpretatur. Obulus siliquis tribus appenditur, habens cerates duos, calcos quatuor."—Isidori Hispalensis Opera (ed. Paris, 1601), p. 224.

1298.—"The Great Kaan sends his commissioners to the Province to select four or five hundred ... of the most beautiful young women, according to the scale of beauty enjoined upon them. The commissioners ... assemble all the girls of the province, in presence of appraisers appointed for the purpose. These carefully survey the points of each girl.... They will then set down some as estimated at 16 carats, some at 17, 18, 20, or more or less, according to the sum of the beauties or defects of each. And whatever standard the Great Kaan may have fixed for those that are to be brought to him, whether it be 20 carats or 21, the commissioners select the required number from those who have attained to that standard."—Marco Polo, 2nd ed. i. 350–351.

1673.—"A stone of one Carrack is worth 10l."—Fryer, 214.

CARAVAN, s. P. karwān; a convoy of travellers. The Ar. ḳāfila is more generally used in India. The word is found in French as early as the 13th century (Littré). A quotation below shows that the English transfer of the word to a wheeled conveyance for travellers (now for goods also) dates from the 17th century. The abbreviation van in this sense seems to have acquired rights as an English word, though the altogether analogous bus is still looked on as slang.

c. 1270.—"Meanwhile the convoy (la caravana) from Tortosa ... armed seven vessels in such wise that any one of them could take a galley if it ran alongside."—Chronicle of James of Aragon, tr. by Foster, i. 379.

1330.—"De hac civitate recedens cum caravanis et cum quadam societate, ivi versus Indiam Superiorem."—Friar Odoric, in Cathay, &c., ii. App. iii.

1384.—"Rimonda che l'avemo, vedemo venire una grandissima carovana di cammelli e di Saracini, che recavano spezierie delle parti d'India."—Frescobaldi, 64.

c. 1420.—"Is adolescens ab Damasco Syriae, ubi mercaturae gratiâ erat, perceptâ prius Arabum linguâ, in coetu mercatorum—hi sexcenti erant—quam vulgo caroanam dicunt...."—N. Conti, in Poggius de Varietate Fortunae.

1627.—"A Caravan is a convoy of souldiers for the safety of merchants that trauell in the East Countreys."—Minshew, 2nd ed. s.v.

1674.—"Caravan or Karavan (Fr. caravane) a Convoy of Souldiers for the safety of Merchants that travel by Land. Also of late corruptly used with us for a kind of Waggon to carry passengers to and from London."—Glossographia, &c., by J. E.

CARAVANSERAY, s. P. karwānsarāī; a Serai (q.v.) for the reception of Caravans (q.v.).

1404.—"And the next day being Tuesday, they departed thence and going about 2 leagues arrived at a great house like an Inn, which they call Carabansaca (read -sara), and here were Chacatays looking after the Emperor's horses."—Clavijo, § xcviii. Comp. Markham, p. 114.

[1528.—"In the Persian language they call these houses carvancaras, which means resting-place for caravans and strangers."—Tenreiro, ii. p. 11.]

1554.—"I'ay à parler souuent de ce nom de Carbachara: ... Ie ne peux le nommer autrement en François, sinon vn Carbachara: et pour le sçauoir donner à entendre, il fault supposer qu'il n'y a point d'hostelleries es pays ou domaine le Turc, ne de lieux pour se loger, sinon dedens celles maisons publiques appellée Carbachara...."—Observations par P. Belon, f. 59.

1564.—"Hic diverti in diversorium publicum, Caravasarai Turcae vocant ... vastum est aedificium ... in cujus medio patet area ponendis sarcinis et camelis."—Busbequii, Epist. i. (p. 35).

1619.—"... a great bazar, enclosed and roofed in, where they sell stuffs, cloths, &c. with the House of the Mint, and the great caravanserai, which bears the name of Lala Beig (because Lala Beig the Treasurer gives audiences, and does his business there) and another little caravanserai, called that of the Ghilac or people of Ghilan."—P. della Valle (from Ispahan), ii. 8; [comp. Hak. Soc. i. 95].

1627.—"At Band Ally we found a neat Carravansraw or Inne ... built by mens charity, to give all civill passengers a resting place gratis; to keepe them from the injury of theeves, beasts, weather, &c."—Herbert, p. 124.

CARAVEL, s. This often occurs in the old Portuguese narratives. The word is alleged to be not Oriental, but Celtic, and connected in its origin with the old British coracle; see the quotation from Isidore of Seville, the indication of which we owe to Bluteau, s.v. The Portuguese caravel is described by the latter as a 'round vessel' (i.e. not long and sharp like a galley), with lateen sails, ordinarily of 200 tons burthen. The character of swiftness attributed to the caravel (see both Damian and Bacon below) has suggested to us whether the word has not come rather from the Persian Gulf—Turki ḳarāwul, 'a scout, an outpost, a vanguard.' Doubtless there are difficulties. [The N.E.D. says that it is probably the dim. of Sp. caraba.] The word is found in the following passage, quoted from the Life of St. Nilus, who died c. 1000, a date hardly consistent with Turkish origin. But the Latin translation is by Cardinal Sirlet, c. 1550, and the word may have been changed or modified:—

"Cogitavit enim in unaquaque Calabriae regione perficere navigia.... Id autem non ferentes Russani cives ... simul irruentes ac tumultuantes navigia combusserunt et eas quae Caravellae appellantur secuerunt."—In the Collection of Martene and Durand, vi. col. 930.

c. 638.—"Carabus, parua scafa ex vimine facta, quae contexta crudo corio genus navigii praebet."—Isidori Hispal. Opera. (Paris, 1601), p. 255.

1492.—"So being one day importuned by the said Christopher, the Catholic King was persuaded by him that nothing should keep him from making this experiment; and so effectual was this persuasion that they fitted out for him a ship and two caravels, with which at the beginning of August 1492, with 120 men, sail was made from Gades."—Summary of the H. of the Western Indies, by Pietro Martire in Ramusio, iii. f. 1.

1506.—"Item traze della Mina d'oro de Ginea ogn anno ducati 120 mila che vien ogni mise do' caravelle con ducati 10 mila."—Leonardo di Ca' Masser, p. 30.

1549.—"Viginti et quinque agiles naues, quas et caravellas dicimus, quo genere nauium soli Lusitani utuntur."—Damiani a Goës, Diensis Oppugnatio, ed. 1602, p. 289.

1552.—"Ils lâchèrent les bordées de leurs Karawelles; ornèrent leurs vaisseaux de pavillons, et s'avancèrent sur nous."—Sidi Ali, p. 70.

c. 1615.—"She may spare me her mizen and her bonnets; I am a carvel to her."—Beaum. & Flet., Wit without Money, i. 1.

1624.—"Sunt etiam naves quaedam nunciae quae ad officium celeritatis apposite exstructae sunt (quas caruellas vocant)."—Bacon, Hist. Ventorum.

1883.—"The deep-sea fishing boats called Machoās ... are carvel built, and now generally iron fastened...."—Short Account of Bombay Fisheries, by D. G. Macdonald, M.D.

CARBOY, s. A large glass bottle holding several gallons, and generally covered with wicker-work, well known in England, where it is chiefly used to convey acids and corrosive liquids in bulk. Though it is not an Anglo-Indian word, it comes (in the form ḳarāba) from Persia, as Wedgwood has pointed out. Kaempfer, whom we quote from his description of the wine trade at Shiraz, gives an exact etching of a carboy. Littré mentions that the late M. Mohl referred caraffe to the same original; but see that word. Ḳarāba is no doubt connected with Ar. ḳirba, 'a large leathern milk-bottle.'

1712.—"Vasa vitrea, alia sunt majora, ampullacea et circumducto scirpo tunicata, quae vocant Karabà.... Venit Karaba una apud vitriarios duobus mamudi, raro carius."—Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot. 379.

1754.—"I delivered a present to the Governor, consisting of oranges and lemons, with several sorts of dried fruits, and six karboys of Isfahan wine."—Hanway, i. 102.

1800.—"Six corabahs of rose-water."—Symes, Emb. to Ava, p. 488.

1813.—"Carboy of Rosewater...."—Milburn, ii. 330.

1875.—"People who make it (Shiraz Wine) generally bottle it themselves, or else sell it in huge bottles called 'Kuraba' holding about a dozen quarts."—Macgregor, Journey through Khorassan, &c., 1879, i. 37.

CARCANA, CARCONNA, s. H. from P. kārkhāna, 'a place where business is done'; a workshop; a departmental establishment such as that of the commissariat, or the artillery park, in the field.

1663.—"There are also found many raised Walks and Tents in sundry Places, that are the offices of several Officers. Besides these there are many great Halls that are called Kar-Kanays, or places where Handy-craftsmen do work."—Bernier, E. T. 83; [ed. Constable, 258].

c. 1756.—"In reply, Hydur pleaded his poverty ... but he promised that as soon as he should have established his power, and had time to regulate his departments (Kārkhānajāt), the amount should be paid."—Hussein Ali Khan, History of Hydur Naik, p. 87.

1800.—"The elephant belongs to the Karkana, but you may as well keep him till we meet."—Wellington, i. 144.

1804.—"If the (bullock) establishment should be formed, it should be in regular Karkanas."—Ibid. iii. 512.

CARCOON, s. Mahr. kārkūn, 'a clerk,' H.—P. kār-kun, (faciendorum factor) or 'manager.'

[c. 1590.—"In the same way as the karkun sets down the transactions of the assessments, the muḳaddam and the patwāri shall keep their respective accounts."—Āīn, tr. Jarrett, ii. 45.

[1615.—"Made means to the Corcone or Scrivano to help us to the copia of the King's licence."—Foster, Letters, iii. 122.

[1616.—"Addick Raia Pongolo, Corcon of this place."—Ibid. iv. 167.]

1826.—"My benefactor's chief carcoon or clerk allowed me to sort out and direct despatches to officers at a distance who belonged to the command of the great Sawant Rao."—Pandurang Hari, 21; [ed. 1873, i. 28.]

CARÉNS, n.p. Burm. Ka-reng, [a word of which the meaning is very uncertain. It is said to mean 'dirty-feeders,' or 'low-caste people,' and it has been connected with the Kirāta tribe (see the question discussed by McMahon, The Karens of the Golden Chersonese, 43 seqq.)]. A name applied to a group of non-Burmese tribes, settled in the forest and hill tracts of Pegu and the adjoining parts of Burma, from Mergui in the south, to beyond Toungoo in the north, and from Arakan to the Salwen, and beyond that river far into Siamese territory. They do not know the name Kareng, nor have they one name for their own race; distinguishing, among these whom we call Karens, three tribes, Sgaw, Pwo, and Bghai, which differ somewhat in customs and traditions, and especially in language. "The results of the labours among them of the American Baptist Mission have the appearance of being almost miraculous, and it is not going too far to state that the cessation of blood feuds, and the peaceable way in which the various tribes are living ... and have lived together since they came under British rule, is far more due to the influence exercised over them by the missionaries than to the measures adopted by the English Government, beneficial as these doubtless have been" (Br. Burma Gazetteer, [ii. 226]). The author of this excellent work should not, however, have admitted the quotation of Dr. Mason's fanciful notion about the identity of Marco Polo's Carajan with Karen, which is totally groundless.

1759.—"There is another people in this country called Carianners, whiter than either (Burmans or Peguans), distinguished into Buraghmah and Pegu Carianners; they live in the woods, in small Societies, of ten or twelve houses; are not wanting in industry, though it goes no further than to procure them an annual subsistence."—In Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 100.

1799—"From this reverend father (V. Sangermano) I received much useful information. He told me of a singular description of people called Carayners or Carianers, that inhabit different parts of the country, particularly the western provinces of Dalla and Bassein, several societies of whom also dwell in the district adjacent to Rangoon. He represented them as a simple, innocent race, speaking a language distinct from that of the Birmans, and entertaining rude notions of religion.... They are timorous, honest, mild in their manners, and exceedingly hospitable to strangers."—Symes, 207.

c. 1819.—"We must not omit here the Carian, a good and peaceable people, who live dispersed through the forests of Pegù, in small villages consisting of 4 or 5 houses ... they are totally dependent upon the despotic government of the Burmese."—Sangermano, p. 34.

CARICAL, n.p. Etymology doubtful; Tam. Karaikkāl, [which is either kārai, 'masonry' or 'the plant, thorny webera': kāl, 'channel' (Madras Adm. Man. ii. 212, Gloss. s.v.)]. A French settlement within the limits of Tanjore district.

CARNATIC, n.p. Karṇāṭaka and Kārṇāṭaka, Skt. adjective forms from Karṇāṭa or Kārṇāṭa, [Tam. kar, 'black,' nādu, 'country']. This word in native use, according to Bp. Caldwell, denoted the Telegu and Canarese people and their language, but in process of time became specially the appellation of the people speaking Canarese and their language (Drav. Gram. 2nd ed. Introd. p. 34). The Mahommedans on their arrival in S. India found a region which embraces Mysore and part of Telingāna (in fact the kingdom of Vijayanagara), called the Karṇāṭaka country, and this was identical in application (and probably in etymology) with the Canara country (q.v.) of the older Portuguese writers. The Karṇāṭaka became extended, especially in connection with the rule of the Nabobs of Arcot, who partially occupied the Vijayanagara territory, and were known as Nawābs of the Karṇāṭaka, to the country below the Ghauts, on the eastern side of the Peninsula, just as the other form Canara had become extended to the country below the Western Ghauts; and eventually among the English the term Carnatic came to be understood in a sense more or less restricted to the eastern low country, though never quite so absolutely as Canara has become restricted to the western low country. The term Carnatic is now obsolete.

c. A.D. 550.—In the Bṛihat-Saṅhitā of Varāhamihira, in the enumeration of peoples and regions of the south, we have in Kern's translation (J. R. As. Soc. N.S. v. 83) Karnatic; the original form, which is not given by Kern, is Karnāta.

c. A.D. 1100.—In the later Sanskrit literature this name often occurs, e.g. in the Kathasaritsāgara, or 'Ocean of Rivers of Stories,' a collection of tales (in verse) of the beginning of the 12th century, by Somadeva, of Kashmir; but it is not possible to attach any very precise meaning to the word as there used. [See refs. in Tawney, tr. ii. 651.]

A.D. 1400.—The word also occurs in the inscriptions of the Vijayanagara dynasty, e.g. in one of A.D. 1400.—(Elem. of S. Indian Palaeography, 2nd ed. pl. xxx.)

1608.—"In the land of Karṇāṭa and Vidyānagara was the King Mahendra."—Taranatha's H. of Buddhism, by Schiefner, p. 267.

c. 1610.—"The Zamindars of Singaldip (Ceylon) and Karnátak came up with their forces and expelled Sheo Rai, the ruler of the Dakhin."—Firishta, in Elliot, vi. 549.

1614.—See quotation from Couto under CANARA.

[1623.—"His Tributaries, one of whom was the Queen of Curnat."—P. della Valle, Hak. Soc. ii. 314.]

c. 1652.—"Gandicot is one of the strongest Cities in the Kingdom of Carnatica."—Tavernier, E. T. ii. 98; [ed. Ball, i. 284].

c. 1660.—"The Ráís of the Karnátik, Mahratta (country), and Telingana, were subject to the Ráí of Bidar."—'Amal-i-Sálih, in Elliot vii. 126.

1673.—"I received this information from the natives, that the Canatick country reaches from Gongola to the Zamerhin's Country of the Malabars along the Sea, and inland up to the Pepper Mountains of Sunda.... Bedmure, four Days Journey hence, is the Capital City."—Fryer, 162, in Letter IV., A Relation of the Canatick Country.—Here he identifies the "Canatick" with Canara below the Ghauts.

So also the coast of Canara seems meant in the following:—

c. 1760.—"Though the navigation from the Carnatic coast to Bombay is of a very short run, of not above six or seven degrees...."—Grose, i. 232.

" "The Carnatic or province of Arcot ... its limits now are greatly inferior to those which bounded the ancient Carnatic; for the Nabobs of Arcot have never extended their authority beyond the river Gondegama to the north; the great chain of mountains to the west; and the branches of the Kingdom of Trichinopoli, Tanjore, and Maissore to the south; the sea bounds it on the east."—Ibid. II. vii.

1762.—"Siwaee Madhoo Rao ... with this immense force ... made an incursion into the Karnatic Balaghaut."—Hussein Ali Khan, History of Hydur Naik, 148.

1792.—"I hope that our acquisitions by this peace will give so much additional strength and compactness to the frontier of our possessions, both in the Carnatic, and on the coast of Malabar, as to render it difficult for any power above the Ghauts to invade us."—Lord Cornwallis's Despatch from Seringapatam, in Seton-Karr, ii. 96.

1826.—"Camp near Chillumbrum (Carnatic), March 21st." This date of a letter of Bp. Heber's is probably one of the latest instances of the use of the term in a natural way.


(1). CARRACK, n.p. An island in the upper part of the Persian Gulf, which has been more than once in British occupation. Properly Khārak. It is so written in Jaubert's Edrisi (i. 364, 372). But Dr. Badger gives the modern Arabic as el-Khārij, which would represent old P. Khārig.

c. 830.—"Kharek ... cette isle qui a un farsakh en long et en large, produit du blé, des palmiers, et des vignes."—Ibn Khurdādba, in J. As. ser. vi. tom. v. 283.

c. 1563.—"Partendosi da Basora si passa 200 miglia di Golfo co'l mare a banda destra sino che si giunge nell' isola di Carichi...."—C. Federici, in Ramusio, iii. 386v.

1727.—"The Islands of Carrick ly, about West North West, 12 Leagues from Bowchier."—A. Hamilton, i. 90.

1758.—"The Baron ... immediately sailed for the little island of Karec, where he safely landed; having attentively surveyed the spot he at that time laid the plan, which he afterwards executed with so much success."—Ives, 212.

(2). CARRACK, s. A kind of vessel of burden from the Middle Ages down to the end of the 17th century. The character of the earlier carrack cannot be precisely defined. But the larger cargo-ships of the Portuguese in the trade of the 16th century were generally so styled, and these were sometimes of enormous tonnage, with 3 or 4 decks. Charnock (Marine Architecture, ii. p. 9) has a plate of a Genoese carrack of 1542. He also quotes the description of a Portuguese carrack taken by Sir John Barrough in 1592. It was of 1,600 tons burden, whereof 900 merchandize; carried 32 brass pieces and between 600 and 700 passengers (?); was built with 7 decks. The word (L. Lat.) carraca is regarded by Skeat as properly carrica, from carricare, It. caricare, 'to lade, to charge.' This is possible; but it would be well to examine if it be not from the Ar. ḥarāḳah, a word which the dictionaries explain as 'fire-ship'; though this is certainly not always the meaning. Dozy is inclined to derive carraca (which is old in Sp. he says) from ḳarāḳir, the pl. of ḳurḳūr or ḳurḳūra (see CARACOA). And ḳurḳūra itself he thinks may have come from carricare, which already occurs in St. Jerome. So that Mr. Skeat's origin is possibly correct. [The N.E.D. refers to carraca, of which the origin is said to be uncertain.] Ibn Batuta uses the word twice at least for a state barge or something of that kind (see Cathay p. 499, and Ibn Bat. ii. 116; iv. 289). The like use occurs several times in Makrizi (e.g. I. i. 143; I. ii. 66; and II. i. 24). Quatremère at the place first quoted observes that the ḥarāḳah was not a fire ship in our sense, but a vessel with a high deck from which fire could be thrown; but that it could also be used as a transport vessel, and was so used on sea and land.

1338.—"... after that we embarked at Venice on board a certain carrack, and sailed down the Adriatic Sea."—Friar Pasqual, in Cathay, &c., 231.

1383.—"Eodem tempore venit in magnâ tempestate ad Sandevici portum navis quam dicunt carika (mirae) magnitudinis, plena divitiis, quae facile inopiam totius terrae relevare potuisset, si incolarum invidia permisisset."—T. Walsingham, Hist. Anglic., by H. T. Riley, 1864, ii. 83–84.

1403.—"The prayer being concluded, and the storm still going on, a light like a candle appeared in the cage at the mast-head of the carraca, and another light on the spar that they call bowsprit (bauprés) which is fixed in the forecastle; and another light like a candle in una vara de espinelo (?) over the poop, and these lights were seen by as many as were in the carrack, and were called up to see them, and they lasted awhile and then disappeared, and all this while the storm did not cease, and by-and-by all went to sleep except the steersman and certain sailors of the watch."—Clavijo, § xiii. Comp. Markham, p. 13.

1548.—"De Thesauro nostro munitionum artillariorum, Tentorum, Pavilionum, pro Equis navibus caracatis, Galeis et aliis navibus quibuscumque...."—Act of Edw. VI. in Rymer, xv. 175.

1552.—"Ils avaient 4 barques, grandes comme des ḳarrāḳa...."—Sidi 'Ali, p. 67.

1566–68.—"... about the middle of the month of Ramazan, in the year 974, the inhabitants of Funan and Fandreeah [i.e. Ponany and Pandarāni, q.v.], having sailed out of the former of these ports in a fleet of 12 grabs, captured a caracca belonging to the Franks, which had arrived from Bengal, and which was laden with rice and sugar ... in the year 976 another party ... in a fleet of 17 grabs ... made capture off Shaleeat (see CHALIA) of a large caracca, which had sailed from Cochin, having on board nearly 1,000 Franks...."—Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen, p. 159.

1596.—"It comes as farre short as ... a cocke-boate of a Carrick."—T. Nash, Have with you to Saffron Walden, repr. by J. P. Collier, p. 72.

1613.—"They are made like carracks, only strength and storage."—Beaum. & Flet., The Coxcomb, i. 3.

1615.—"After we had given her chase for about 5 hours, her colours and bulk discovered her to be a very great Portugal carrack bound for Goa."—Terry, in Purchas; [ed. 1777, p. 34].

1620.—"The harbor at Nangasaque is the best in all Japon, wheare there may be 1000 seale of shipps ride landlockt, and the greatest shipps or carickes in the world ... ride before the towne within a cable's length of the shore in 7 or 8 fathom water at least."—Cocks, Letter to Batavia, ii. 313.

c. 1620.—"Il faut attendre là des Pilotes du lieu, que les Gouverneurs de Bombaim et de Marsagão ont soin d'envoyer tout à l'heure, pour conduire le Vaisseau à Turumba [i.e. Trombay] où les Caraques ont coustume d'hyverner."—Routier ... des Indes Or., by Aleixo da Motta, in Thevenot.

c. 1635.—

"The bigger Whale, like some huge carrack lay
Which wanted Sea room for her foes to play...."
Waller, Battle of the Summer Islands.

1653.—"... pour moy il me vouloit loger en son Palais, et que si i'auois la volonté de retourner a Lisbone par mer, il me feroit embarquer sur les premieres Karaques...."—De la Boullaye-le-Gouz, ed. 1657, p. 213.

1660.—"And further, That every Merchant Denizen who shall hereafter ship any Goods or Merchandize in any Carrack or Galley shall pay to your Majesty all manner of Customs, and all the Subsidies aforesaid, as any Alien born out of the Realm."—Act 12 Car. II. cap. iv. s. iv. (Tonnage and Poundage).

c. 1680.—"To this City of the floating ... which foreigners, with a little variation from carroços, call carracas."—Vieira, quoted by Bluteau.

1684.—"... there was a Carack of Portugal cast away upon the Reef having on board at that Time 4,000,000 of Guilders in Gold ... a present from the King of Siam to the King of Portugal."—Cowley, 32, in Dampier's Voyages, iv.

CARRAWAY, s. This word for the seed of Carum carui, L., is (probably through Sp. alcaravea) from the Arabic karawiyā. It is curious that the English form is thus closer to the Arabic than either the Spanish, or the French and Italian carvi, which last has passed into Scotch as carvy. But the Arabic itself is a corruption [not immediately, N.E.D.] of Lat. careum, or Gr. κάρον (Dozy).

CARTMEEL, s. This is, at least in the Punjab, the ordinary form that 'mail-cart' takes among the natives. Such inversions are not uncommon. Thus Sir David Ochterlony was always called by the Sepoys Loni-okhtar. In our memory an officer named Holroyd was always called by the Sepoys Roydāl, [and Brownlow, Lobrūn. By another curious corruption Mackintosh becomes Makkhanī-tosh, 'buttered toast'!]

CARTOOCE, s. A cartridge; kārtūs, Sepoy H.; [comp. TOSTDAUN].

CARYOTA, s. This is the botanical name (Caryota urens, L.) of a magnificent palm growing in the moister forest regions, as in the Western Ghauts and in Eastern Bengal, in Ceylon, and in Burma. A conspicuous character is presented by its enormous bipinnate leaves, somewhat resembling colossal bracken-fronds, 15 to 25 feet long, 10 to 12 in width; also by the huge pendent clusters of its inflorescence and seeds, the latter like masses of rosaries 10 feet long and upwards. It affords much Toddy (q.v.) made into spirit and sugar, and is the tree chiefly affording these products in Ceylon, where it is called Kitul. It also affords a kind of sago, and a woolly substance found at the foot of the leaf-stalks is sometimes used for caulking, and forms a good tinder. The sp. name urens is derived from the acrid, burning taste of the fruit. It is called, according to Brandis, the Mhār-palm in Western India. We know of no Hindustani or familiar Anglo-Indian name. [Watt, (Econ. Dict. ii. 206) says that it is known in Bombay as the Hill or Sago palm. It has penetrated in Upper India as far as Chunār.] The name Caryota seems taken from Pliny, but his application is to a kind of date-palm; his statement that it afforded the best wine of the East probably suggested the transfer.

c. A.D. 70.—"Ab his caryotae maxume celebrantur, et cibo quidem et suco uberrimae, ex quibus praecipua vina orienti, iniqua capiti, unde pomo nomen."—Pliny, xiii. § 9.

1681.—"The next tree is the Kettule. It groweth straight, but not so tall or big as a Coker-Nut-Tree; the inside nothing but a white pith, as the former. It yieldeth a sort of Liquor ... very sweet and pleasing to the Pallate.... The which Liquor they boyl and make a kind of brown sugar called Jaggory [see JAGGERY], &c."—Knox, p. 15.

1777.—"The Caryota urens, called the Saguer tree, grew between Salatiga and Kopping, and was said to be the real tree from which sago is made."—Thunberg, E. T. iv. 149. A mistake, however.

1861.—See quotation under PEEPUL.

CASH, s. A name applied by Europeans to sundry coins of low value in various parts of the Indies. The word in its original form is of extreme antiquity, "Skt. karsha ... a weight of silver or gold equal to 1400 of a Tulā" (Williams, Skt. Dict.; and see also a Note on the Kārsha, or rather kārshāpaṇa, as a copper coin of great antiquity, in E. Thomas's Pathân Kings of Delhi, 361–362). From the Tam. form kāsu, or perhaps from some Konkani form which we have not traced, the Portuguese seem to have made caixa, whence the English cash. In Singalese also kāsi is used for 'coin' in general. The English term was appropriated in the monetary system which prevailed in S. India up to 1818; thus there was a copper coin for use in Madras struck in England in 1803, which bears on the reverse, "XX Cash." A figure of this coin is given in Ruding. Under this system 80 cash = 1 fanam, 42 fanams = 1 star pagoda. But from an early date the Portuguese had applied caixa to the small money of foreign systems, such as those of the Malay Islands, and especially to that of the Chinese. In China the word cash is used, by Europeans and their hangers-on, as the synonym of the Chinese le and tsien, which are those coins made of an alloy of copper and lead with a square hole in the middle, which in former days ran 1000 to the liang or tael (q.v.), and which are strung in certain numbers on cords. [This type of money, as was recently pointed out by Lord Avebury, is a survival of the primitive currency, which was in the shape of an axe.] Rouleaux of coin thus strung are represented on the surviving bank-notes of the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1368 onwards), and probably were also on the notes of their Mongol predecessors.

The existence of the distinct English word cash may probably have affected the form of the corruption before us. This word had a European origin from It. cassa, French caisse, 'the money-chest': this word in book-keeping having given name to the heading of account under which actual disbursements of coin were entered (see Wedgwood and N.E.D. s.v.). In Minsheu (2nd ed. 1627) the present sense of the word is not attained. He only gives "a tradesman's Cash, or Counter to keepe money in."

1510.—"They have also another coin called cas, 16 of which go to a tare of silver."—Varthema, 130.

" "In this country (Calicut) a great number of apes are produced, one of which is worth 4 casse, and one casse is worth a quattrino."—Ibid. 172. (Why a monkey should be worth 4 casse is obscure.)

1598.—"You must understand that in Sunda there is also no other kind of money than certaine copper mynt called Caixa, of the bignes of a Hollãdes doite, but not half so thicke, in the middle whereof is a hole to hang it on a string, for that commonlie they put two hundreth or a thousand vpon one string."—Linschoten, 34; [Hak. Soc. i. 113].

1600.—"Those (coins) of Lead are called caxas, whereof 1600 make one mas."—John Davis, in Purchas, i. 117.

1609.—"Ils (les Chinois) apportent la monnoye qui a le cours en toute l'isle de Iava, et Isles circonvoisines, laquelle en lãgue Malaique est appellee Cas.... Cette monnoye est jettée en moule en Chine, a la Ville de Chincheu."—Houtman, in Nav. des Hollandois, i. 30b.

[1621.—"In many places they threw abroad Cashes (or brasse money) in great quantety."—Cocks, Diary, ii. 202.]

1711.—"Doodoos and Cash are Copper Coins, eight of the former make one Fanham, and ten of the latter one Doodoo."—Lockyer, 8. [Doodoo is the Tel. duddu, Skt. dvi, 'two'; a more modern scale is: 2 dooggaunies = 1 doody: 3 doodies = 1 anna.—Mad. Gloss. s.v.]

1718.—"Cass (a very small coin, eighty whereof make one Fano)."—Propagation of the Gospel in the East, ii. 52.

1727.—"At Atcheen they have a small coin of leaden Money called Cash, from 12 to 1600 of them goes to one Mace, or Masscie."—A. Hamilton, ii. 109.

c. 1750–60.—"At Madras and other parts of the coast of Coromandel, 80 casches make a fanam, or 3d. sterling; and 36 fanams a silver pagoda, or 7s. 8d. sterling."—Grose, i. 282.

1790.—"So far am I from giving credit to the late Government (of Madras) for œconomy, in not making the necessary preparations for war, according to the positive orders of the Supreme Government, after having received the most gross insult that could be offered to any nation! I think it very possible that every Cash of that ill-judged saving may cost the company a crore of rupees."—Letter of Lord Cornwallis to E. J. Hollond, Esq., see the Madras Courier, 22nd Sept. 1791.

[1792.—"Whereas the sum of Raheties 1223, 6 fanams and 30 khas has been deducted."—Agreement in Logan, Malabar, iii. 226.]

1813.—At Madras, according to Milburn, the coinage ran:

"10 Cash = 1 doodee; 2 doodees = 1 pice; 8 doodees = 1 single fanam," &c.

The following shows a singular corruption, probably of the Chinese tsien, and illustrates how the striving after meaning shapes such corruptions:—

1876.—"All money transactions (at Manwyne on the Burman-Chinese frontier) are effected in the copper coin of China called 'change,' of which about 400 or 500 go to the rupee. These coins are generally strung on cord," &c.—Report on the Country through which the Force passed to meet the Governor, by W. J. Charlton, M.D.

An intermediate step in this transformation is found in Cocks's Japan Journal, passim, e.g., ii. 89:

"But that which I tooke most note of was of the liberalitee and devotion of these heathen people, who thronged into the Pagod in multetudes one after another to cast money into a littel chapell before the idalles, most parte ... being gins or brass money, whereof 100 of them may vallie som 10d. str., and are about the bignes of a 3d. English money."

CASHEW, s. The tree, fruit, or nut of the Anacardium occidentale, an American tree which must have been introduced early into India by the Portuguese, for it was widely diffused apparently as a wild tree long before the end of the 17th century, and it is described as an Indian tree by Acosta, who wrote in 1578. Crawfurd also speaks of it as abundant, and in full bearing, in the jungly islets of Hastings Archipelago, off the coast of Camboja (Emb. to Siam, &c., i. 103) [see Teele's note on Linschoten, Hak. Soc. ii. 27]. The name appears to be S. American, acajou, of which an Indian form, kājū, [and Malay gajus], have been made. The so-called fruit is the fleshy top of the peduncle which bears the nut. The oil in the shell of the nut is acrid to an extraordinary degree, whilst the kernels, which are roasted and eaten, are quite bland. The tree yields a gum imported under the name of Cadju gum.

1578.—"This tree gives a fruit called commonly Caiu; which being a good stomachic, and of good flavour, is much esteemed by all who know it.... This fruit does not grow everywhere, but is found in gardens at the city of Santa Cruz in the Kingdom of Cochin."—C. Acosta, Tractado, 324 seqq.

1598.—"Cajus groweth on trees like apple-trees, and are of the bignes of a Peare."—Linschoten, p. 94; [Hak. Soc. ii. 28].

[1623.—P. della Valle, Hak. Soc. i. 135, calls it cagiu.]

1658.—In Piso, De Indiae utriusque Re Naturali et Medicâ, Amst., we have a good cut of the tree as one of Brasil, called Acaibaa "et fructus ejus Acaju."

1672.—"... il Cagiu.... Questo è l'Amandola ordinaria dell'India, per il che se ne raccoglie grandissima quantità, essendo la pianta fertilissima e molto frequente, ancora nelli luoghi più deserti et inculti."—Vincenzo Maria, 354.

1673.—Fryer describes the tree under the name Cheruse (apparently some mistake), p. 182.


"... Yet if
The Acajou haply in the garden bloom...."
Grainger, iv.

[1813.—Forbes calls it "the chashew-apple," and the "cajew-apple."—Or. Mem. 2nd ed. i. 232, 238.]

c. 1830.—"The cashew, with its apple like that of the cities of the Plain, fair to look at, but acrid to the taste, to which the far-famed nut is appended like a bud."—Tom Cringle, ed. 1863, p. 140.

1875.—"Cajoo kernels."—Table of Customs Duties imposed in Br. India up to 1875.

CASHMERE, n.p. The famous valley province of the Western Himālaya, H. and P. Kashmīr, from Skt. Kaśmīra, and sometimes Kāśmīra, alleged by Burnouf to be a contraction of Kaśyapamīra. [The name is more probably connected with the Khasa tribe.] Whether or not it be the Kaspatyrus or Kaspapyrus of Herodotus, we believe it undoubtedly to be the Kaspeiria (kingdom) of Ptolemy. Several of the old Arabian geographers write the name with the guttural , but this is not so used in modern times.

c. 630.—"The Kingdom of Kia-shi-mi-lo (Kaśmīra) has about 7000 li of circuit. On all sides its frontiers are surrounded by mountains; these are of prodigious height; and although there are paths affording access to it, these are extremely narrow."—Hwen T'sang (Pèl. Bouddh.) ii. 167.

c. 940.—"Ḳashmīr ... is a mountainous country, forming a large kingdom, containing not less than 60,000 or 70,000 towns or villages. It is inaccessible except on one side, and can only be entered by one gate."—Mas'ūdi, i. 373.

1275.—"Ḳashmīr, a province of India, adjoining the Turks; and its people of mixt Turk and Indian blood excel all others in beauty."—Zakarīya Kazvīni, in Gildemeister, 210.

1298.—"Keshimur also is a province inhabited by a people who are idolaters and have a language of their own ... this country is the very source from which idolatry has spread abroad."—Marco Polo, i. 175.

1552.—"The Mogols hold especially towards the N.E. the region Sogdiana, which they now call Queximir, and also Mount Caucasus which divides India from the other Provinces."—Barros, IV. vi. 1.

1615.—"Chishmeere, the chiefe Citie is called Sirinakar."—Terry, in Purchas, ii. 1467; [so in Roe's Map, vol. ii. Hak. Soc. ed.; Chismer in Foster, Letters, iii. 283].

1664.—"From all that hath been said, one may easily conjecture, that I am somewhat charmed with Kachemire, and that I pretend there is nothing in the world like it for so small a kingdom."—Bernier, E. T. 128; [ed. Constable, 400].


"A trial of your kindness I must make;
Though not for mine, so much as virtue's sake,
The Queen of Cassimere...."
Dryden's Aurungzebe, iii. 1.

1814.—"The shawls of Cassimer and the silks of Iran."—Forbes, Or. Mem. iii. 177; [2nd ed. ii. 232]. (See KERSEYMERE.)

CASIS, CAXIS, CACIZ, &c., s. This Spanish and Portuguese word, though Dozy gives it only as prêtre chrétien, is frequently employed by old travellers, and writers on Eastern subjects, to denote Mahommedan divines (mullas and the like). It may be suspected to have arisen from a confusion of two Arabic terms—kāḍi (see CAZEE) and ḳashīsh or ḳasīs, 'a Christian Presbyter' (from a Syriac root signifying senuit). Indeed we sometimes find the precise word ḳashīsh (Caxix) used by Christian writers as if it were the special title of a Mahommedan theologian, instead of being, as it really is, the special and technical title of a Christian priest (a fact which gives Mount Athos its common Turkish name of Ḳashīsh Dāgh). In the first of the following quotations the word appears to be applied by the Mussulman historian to pagan priests, and the word for churches to pagan temples. In the others, except that from Major Millingen, it is applied by Christian writers to Mahommedan divines, which is indeed its recognised signification in Spanish and Portuguese. In Jarric's Thesaurus (Jesuit Missions, 1606) the word Cacizius is constantly used in this sense.

c. 1310.—"There are 700 churches (kalīsīa) resembling fortresses, and every one of them overflowing with presbyters (ḳashīshān) without faith, and monks without religion."—Description of the Chinese City of Khanzai (Hangchau) in Wasāf's History (see also Marco Polo, ii. 196).

1404.—"The town was inhabited by Moorish hermits called Caxixes; and many people came to them on pilgrimage, and they healed many diseases."—Markham's Clavijo, 79.

1514.—"And so, from one to another, the message passed through four or five hands, till it came to a Gazizi, whom we should call a bishop or prelate, who stood at the King's feet...."—Letter of Giov. de Empoli, in Archiv. Stor. Ital. Append. p. 56.

1538.—"Just as the Cryer was offering to deliver me unto whomsoever would buy me, in comes that very Cacis Moulana, whom they held for a Saint, with 10 or 11 other Cacis his Inferiors, all Priests like himself of their wicked sect."—F. M. Pinto (tr. by H. C.), p. 8.

1552.—Caciz in the same sense used by Barros, II. ii. 1.

[1553.—See quotation from Barros under LAR.

[1554.—"Who was a Caciz of the Moors, which means in Portuguese an ecclesiastic."—Castañeda, Bk. I. ch. 7.]

1561.—"The King sent off the Moor, and with him his Casis, an old man of much authority, who was the principal priest of his Mosque."—Correa, by Ld. Stanley, 113.

1567.—"... The Holy Synod declares it necessary to remove from the territories of His Highness all the infidels whose office it is to maintain their false religion, such as are the cācizes of the Moors, and the preachers of the Gentoos, jogues, sorcerers, (feiticeiros), jousis, grous (i.e. joshis or astrologers, and gurūs), and whatsoever others make a business of religion among the infidels, and so also the bramans and paibus (? prabhūs, see PURVOE)."—Decree 6 of the Sacred Council of Goa, in Arch. Port. Or. fasc. 4.

1580.—"... e foi sepultado no campo per Cacises."—Primor e Honra, &c., f. 13v.

1582.—"And for pledge of the same, he would give him his sonne, and one of his chief chaplaines, the which they call Cacis."—Castañeda, by N. L.

1603.—"And now those initiated priests of theirs called Cashishes (Casciscis) were endeavouring to lay violent hands upon his property."—Benedict Goës, in Cathay, &c., ii. 568.

1648.—"Here is to be seen an admirably wrought tomb in which a certain Casis lies buried, who was the Pedagogue or Tutor of a King of Guzuratte."—Van Twist, 15.

1672.—"They call the common priests Casis, or by another name Schierifi (see SHEREEF), who like their bishops are in no way distinguished in dress from simple laymen, except by a bigger turban ... and a longer mantle...."—P. Vincenzo Maria, 55.

1688.—"While they were thus disputing, a Caciz, or doctor of the law, joined company with them."—Dryden, L. of Xavier, Works, ed. 1821, xvi. 68.

1870.—"A hierarchical body of priests, known to the people (Nestorians) under the names of Kieshishes and Abunas, is at the head of the tribes and villages, entrusted with both spiritual and temporal powers."—Millingen, Wild Life among the Koords, 270.

CASSANAR, CATTANAR, s. A priest of the Syrian Church of Malabar; Malayāl. kattanār, meaning originally 'a chief,' and formed eventually from the Skt. kartṛi.

1606.—"The Christians of St. Thomas call their priests Caçanares."—Gouvea, f. 28b. This author gives Catatiara and Caçaneira as feminine forms, 'a Cassanar's wife.' The former is Malayāl. kàttatti, the latter a Port. formation.

1612.—"A few years ago there arose a dispute between a Brahman and a certain Cassanar on a matter of jurisdiction."—P. Vincenzo Maria, 152.

[1887.—"Mgr. Joseph ... consecrated as a bishop ... a Catenar."—Logan, Man. of Malabar, i. 211.]

CASSAY, n.p. A name often given in former days to the people of Munneepore (Manipur), on the eastern frontier of Bengal. It is the Burmese name of this people, Kasé, or as the Burmese pronounce it, Kathé. It must not be confounded with Cathay (q.v.) with which it has nothing to do. [See SHAN.]

1759.—In Dalrymple's Orient. Repert. we find Cassay (i. 116).

1795.—"All the troopers in the King's service are natives of Cassay, who are much better horsemen than the Burmans."—Symes, p. 318.

CASSOWARY, s. The name of this great bird, of which the first species known (Casuarius galeatus) is found only in Ceram Island (Moluccas), is Malay kasavārī or kasuārī; [according to Scott, the proper reading is kasuwārī, and he remarks that no Malay Dict. records the word before 1863]. Other species have been observed in N. Guinea, N. Britain, and N. Australia.

[1611.—"St. James his Ginny Hens, the Cassawarway moreover."—(Note by Coryat.) "An East Indian bird at St. James in the keeping of Mr. Walker, that will carry no coales, but eat them as whot you will."—Peacham, in Paneg. verses on Coryat's Crudities, sig. 1. 3r. (1776); quoted by Scott.]

1631.—"De Emeu, vulgo Casoaris. In insula Ceram, aliisque Moluccensibus vicinis insulis, celebris haec avis reperitur."—Jac. Bontii, lib. v. c. 18.

1659.—"This aforesaid bird Cossebàres also will swallow iron and lead, as we once learned by experience. For when our Connestabel once had been casting bullets on the Admiral's Bastion, and then went to dinner, there came one of these Cossebàres on the bastion, and swallowed 50 of the bullets. And ... next day I found that the bird after keeping them a while in his maw had regularly cast up again all the 50."—J. J. Saar, 86.

1682.—"On the islands Sumatra (?) Banda, and the other adjoining islands of the Moluccas there is a certain bird, which by the natives is called Emeu or Eme, but otherwise is commonly named by us Kasuaris."—Nieuhof, ii. 281.

1705.—"The Cassawaris is about the bigness of a large Virginia Turkey. His head is the same as a Turkey's; and he has a long stiff hairy Beard upon his Breast before, like a Turkey...."—Funnel, in Dampier, iv. 266.

CASTE, s. "The artificial divisions of society in India, first made known to us by the Portuguese, and described by them under their term caste, signifying 'breed, race, kind,' which has been retained in English under the supposition that it was the native name" (Wedgwood, s.v.). [See the extraordinary derivation of Hamilton below.] Mr. Elphinstone prefers to write "Cast."

We do not find that the early Portuguese writer Barbosa (1516) applies the word casta to the divisions of Hindu society. He calls these divisions in Narsinga and Malabar so many leis de gentios, i.e. 'laws' of the heathen, in the sense of sectarian rules of life. But he uses the word casta in a less technical way, which shows how it should easily have passed into the technical sense. Thus, speaking of the King of Calicut: "This King keeps 1000 women, to whom he gives regular maintenance, and they always go to his court to act as the sweepers of his palaces ... these are ladies, and of good family" (estas saom fidalgas e de boa casta.—In Coll. of Lisbon Academy, ii. 316). So also Castanheda: "There fled a knight who was called Fernão Lopez, homem de boa casta" (iii. 239). In the quotations from Barros, Correa, and Garcia de Orta, we have the word in what we may call the technical sense.

c. 1444.—"Whence I conclude that this race (casta) of men is the most agile and dexterous that there is in the world."—Cadamosto, Navegação, i. 14.

1552.—"The Admiral ... received these Naires with honour and joy, showing great contentment with the King for sending his message by such persons, saying that he expected this coming of theirs to prosper, as there did not enter into the business any man of the caste of the Moors."—Barros, I. vi. 5.

1561.—"Some of them asserted that they were of the caste (casta) of the Christians."—Correa, Lendas, i. 2, 685.

1563.—"One thing is to be noted ... that no one changes from his father's trade, and all those of the same caste (casta) of shoemakers are the same."—Garcia, f. 213b.

1567.—"In some parts of this Province (of Goa) the Gentoos divide themselves into distinct races or castes (castas) of greater or less dignity, holding the Christians as of lower degree, and keep these so superstitiously that no one of a higher caste can eat or drink with those of a lower...."—Decree 2nd of the Sacred Council of Goa, in Archiv. Port. Orient., fasc. 4.


"Dous modos ha de gente; porque a nobre
Nairos chamados são, e a menos dina
Poleas tem por nome, a quem obriga
A lei não misturar a castà antiga."—
Camões, vii. 37.

By Burton:

"Two modes of men are known; the nobles know
the name of Nayrs, who call the lower Caste
Poléas, whom their haughty laws contain
from intermingling with the higher strain."

1612.—"As regards the castes (castas) the great impediment to the conversion of the Gentoos is the superstition which they maintain in relation to their castes, and which prevents them from touching, communicating, or mingling with others, whether superior or inferior; these of one observance with those of another."—Couto, Dec. V. vi. 4. See also as regards the Portuguese use of the word, Gouvea, ff. 103, 104, 105, 106b, 129b; Synodo, 18b, &c.

1613.—"The Banians kill nothing; there are thirtie and odd severall Casts of these that differ something in Religion, and may not eat with each other."—N. Withington, in Purchas, i. 485; see also Pilgrimage, pp. 997, 1003.

1630.—"The common Bramane hath eighty two Casts or Tribes, assuming to themselves the name of that tribe...."—Lord's Display of the Banians, p. 72.

1673.—"The mixture of Casts or Tribes of all India are distinguished by the different modes of binding their Turbats."—Fryer, 115.

c. 1760.—"The distinction of the Gentoos into their tribes or Casts, forms another considerable object of their religion."—Grose, i. 201.

1763.—"The Casts or tribes into which the Indians are divided, are reckoned by travellers to be eighty-four."—Orme (ed. 1803), i. 4.

[1820.—"The Kayasthas (pronounced Kaists, hence the word caste) follow next."—W. Hamilton, Descr. of Hindostan, i. 109.]

1878.—"There are thousands and thousands of these so-called Castes; no man knows their number, no man can know it; for the conception is a very flexible one, and moreover new castes continually spring up and pass away."—F. Jagor, Ost-Indische Handwerk und Gewerbe, 13.

Castes are, according to Indian social views, either high or low.

1876.—"Low-caste Hindoos in their own land are, to all ordinary apprehension, slovenly, dirty, ungraceful, generally unacceptable in person and surroundings.... Yet offensive as is the low-caste Indian, were I estate-owner, or colonial governor, I had rather see the lowest Pariahs of the low, than a single trim, smooth-faced, smooth-wayed, clever high-caste Hindoo, on my lands or in my colony."—W. G. Palgrave, in Fortnightly Rev., cx. 226.

In the Madras Pres. castes are also 'Right-hand' and 'Left-hand.' This distinction represents the agricultural classes on the one hand, and the artizans, &c., on the other, as was pointed out by F. W. Ellis. In the old days of Ft. St. George, faction-fights between the two were very common, and the terms right-hand and left-hand castes occur early in the old records of that settlement, and frequently in Mr. Talboys Wheeler's extracts from them. They are mentioned by Couto. [See Nelson, Madura, Pt. ii. p. 4; Oppert, Orig. Inhab. p. 57.]

Sir Walter Elliot considers this feud to be "nothing else than the occasional outbreak of the smouldering antagonism between Brahmanism and Buddhism, although in the lapse of ages both parties have lost sight of the fact. The points on which they split now are mere trifles, such as parading on horse-back or in a palankeen in procession, erecting a pandal or marriage-shed on a given number of pillars, and claiming to carry certain flags, &c. The right-hand party is headed by the Brahmans, and includes the Parias, who assume the van, beating their tom-toms when they come to blows. The chief of the left-hand are the Panchalars [i.e. the Five Classes, workers in metal and stone, &c.], followed by the Pallars and workers in leather, who sound their long trumpets and engage the Parias." (In Journ. Ethnol. Soc. N.S. 1869, p. 112.)

1612.—"From these four castes are derived 196; and those again are divided into two parties, which they call Valanga and Elange [Tam. valangai, idangai], which is as much as to say 'the right hand' and 'the left hand'...."—Couto, u. s.

The word is current in French:

1842.—"Il est clair que les castes n'ont jamais pu exister solidement sans une veritable conservation religieuse."—Comte, Cours de Phil. Positive, vi. 505.

1877.—"Nous avons aboli les castes et les privilèges, nous avons inscrit partout le principe de l'égalité devant la loi, nous avons donné le suffrage à tous, mais voilà qu'on réclame maintenant l'égalité des conditions."—E. de Laveleye, De la Propriété, p. iv.

Caste is also applied to breeds of animals, as 'a high-caste Arab.' In such cases the usage may possibly have come directly from the Port. alta casta, casta baixa, in the sense of breed or strain.

CASTEES, s. Obsolete. The Indo-Portuguese formed from casta the word castiço, which they used to denote children born in India of Portuguese parents; much as creole was used in the W. Indies.

1599.—"Liberi vero nati in Indiâ, utroque parente Lusitano, castisos vocantur, in omnibus fere Lusitanis similes, colore tamen modicum differunt, ut qui ad gilvum non nihil deflectant. Ex castisis deinde nati magis magisque gilvi fiunt, a parentibus et mesticis magis deflectentes; porro et mesticis nati per omnia indigenis respondent, ita ut in tertiâ generatione Lusitani reliquis Indis sunt simillimi."—De Bry, ii. 76; (Linschoten [Hak. Soc. i. 184]).

1638.—"Les habitans sont ou Castizes, c'est à dire Portugais naturels, et nez de pere et de mere Portugais, ou Mestizes, c'est à dire, nez d'vn pere Portugais et d'vne mere Indienne."—Mandelslo.

1653.—"Les Castissos sont ceux qui sont nays de pere et mere reinols (Reinol); ce mot vient de Casta, qui signifie Race, ils sont mesprizez des Reynols...."—Le Gouz, Voyages, 26 (ed. 1657).

1661.—"Die Stadt (Negapatam) ist zimlich volksreich, doch mehrentheils von Mastycen Castycen, und Portugesichen Christen."—Walter Schulze, 108.

1699.—"Castees wives at Fort St. George."—Census of English on the Coast, in Wheeler, i. 356.

1701–2.—In the MS. Returns of Persons in the Service of the Rt. Honble. the E. I. Company, in the India Office, for this year, we find, "4th (in Council) Matt. Empson, Sea Customer, marry'd Castees," and under 1702, "13. Charles Bugden ... marry'd Casteez."

1726.—"... or the offspring of the same by native women, to wit Mistices and Castices, or blacks ... and Moors."—Valentijn, v. 3.

CASUARINA, s. A tree (Casuarina muricata, Roxb.—N. O. Casuarineae) indigenous on the coast of Chittagong and the Burmese provinces, and southward as far as Queensland. It was introduced into Bengal by Dr. F. Buchanan, and has been largely adopted as an ornamental tree both in Bengal and in Southern India. The tree has a considerable superficial resemblance to a larch or other finely-feathered conifer, making a very acceptable variety in the hot plains, where real pines will not grow. [The name, according to Mr. Scott, appears to be based on a Malayan name associating the tree with the Cassowary, as Mr. Skeat suggests from the resemblance of its needles to the quills of the bird.]

1861.—See quotation under PEEPUL.

1867.—"Our road lay chiefly by the sea-coast, along the white sands, which were fringed for miles by one grand continuous line or border of casuarina trees."—Lt.-Col. Lewin, A Fly on the Wheel, 362.

1879.—"It was lovely in the white moonlight, with the curving shadows of palms on the dewy grass, the grace of the drooping casuarinas, the shining water, and the long drift of surf...."—Miss Bird, Golden Chersonese, 275.

CATAMARÁN, s. Also CUTMURRAM, CUTMURÁL. Tam. kaṭṭu, 'binding,' maram, 'wood.' A raft formed of three or four logs of wood lashed together. The Anglo-Indian accentuation of the last syllable is not correct.

1583.—"Seven round timbers lashed together for each of the said boats, and of the said seven timbers five form the bottom; one in the middle longer than the rest makes a cutwater, and another makes a poop which is under water, and on which a man sits.... These boats are called Gatameroni."—Balbi, Viaggio, f. 82.

1673.—"Coasting along some Cattamarans (Logs lashed to that advantage that they waft off all their Goods, only having a Sail in the midst and Paddles to guide them) made after us...."—Fryer, 24.

1698.—"Some time after the Cattamaran brought a letter...."—In Wheeler, i. 334.

1700.—"Un pecheur assis sur un catimaron, c'est à dire sur quelques grosses pièces de bois liées ensemble en manière de radeau."—Lett. Edif. x. 58.

c. 1780.—"The wind was high, and the ship had but two anchors, and in the next forenoon parted from that by which she was riding, before that one who was coming from the shore on a Catamaran could reach her."—Orme, iii. 300.

1810.—Williamson (V. M. i. 65) applies the term to the rafts of the Brazilian fishermen.

1836.—"None can compare to the Catamarans and the wonderful people that manage them ... each catamaran has one, two, or three men ... they sit crouched upon their heels, throwing their paddles about very dexterously, but very unlike rowing."—Letters from Madras, 34.

1860.—"The Cattamaran is common to Ceylon and Coromandel."—Tennent, Ceylon, i. 442.

[During the war with Napoleon, the word came to be applied to a sort of fire-ship. "Great hopes have been formed at the Admiralty (in 1804) of certain vessels which were filled with combustibles and called catamarans."—(Ld. Stanhope, Life of Pitt, iv. 218.) This may have introduced the word in English and led to its use as 'old cat' for a shrewish hag.]

CATECHU, also CUTCH and CAUT, s. An astringent extract from the wood of several species of Acacia (Acacia catechu, Willd.), the khair, and Acacia suma, Kurz, Ac. sundra, D. C. and probably more. The extract is called in H. kaṭh, [Skt. kvath, 'to decoct'], but the two first commercial names which we have given are doubtless taken from the southern forms of the word, e.g. Can. kāchu, Tam. kāsu, Malay kachu. De Orta, whose judgments are always worthy of respect, considered it to be the lycium of the ancients, and always applied that name to it; but Dr. Royle has shown that lycium was an extract from certain species of berberis, known in the bazars as rasōt. Cutch is first mentioned by Barbosa, among the drugs imported into Malacca. But it remained unknown in Europe till brought from Japan about the middle of the 17th century. In the 4th ed. of Schröder's Pharmacop. Medico-chymica, Lyons, 1654, it is briefly described as Catechu or Terra Japonica, "genus terrae exoticae" (Hanbury and Flückiger, 214). This misnomer has long survived.

1516.—"... drugs from Cambay; amongst which there is a drug which we do not possess, and which they call puchô (see PUTCHOCK) and another called cachô."—Barbosa, 191.

1554.—"The bahar of Cate, which here (at Ormuz) they call cacho, is the same as that of rice."—A. Nunes, 22.

1563.—"Colloquio XXXI. Concerning the wood vulgarly called Cate; and containing profitable matter on that subject."—Garcia, f. 125.

1578.—"The Indians use this Cate mixt with Areca, and with Betel, and by itself without other mixture."—Acosta, Tract. 150.

1585.—Sassetti mentions catu as derived from the Khadira tree, i.e. in modern Hindi the Khair (Skt. khadira).

[1616.—"010 bags Catcha."—Foster, Letters, iv. 127.]

1617.—"And there was rec. out of the Adviz, viz. ... 7 hhds. drugs cacha; 5 hampers pochok" (see PUTCHOCK).—Cocks's Diary, i. 294.

1759.—"Hortal [see HURTAUL] and Cotch, Earth-oil, and Wood-oil."—List of Burma Products in Dalrymple, Oriental Repert. i. 109.

c. 1760.—"To these three articles (betel, areca, and chunam) is often added for luxury what they call cachoonda, a Japan-earth, which from perfumes and other mixtures, chiefly manufactured at Goa, receives such improvement as to be sold to advantage when re-imported to Japan.... Another addition too they use of what they call Catchoo, being a blackish granulated perfumed composition...."—Grose, i. 238.

1813.—"... The peasants manufacture catechu, or terra Japonica, from the Keiri [khair] tree (Mimosa catechu) which grows wild on the hills of Kankana, but in no other part of the Indian Peninsula" [erroneous].—Forbes, Or. Mem. i. 303; [2nd ed. i. 193].

CATHAY, n.p. China; originally Northern China. The origin of the name is given in the quotation below from the Introduction to Marco Polo. In the 16th century, and even later, from a misunderstanding of the medieval travellers, Cathay was supposed to be a country north of China, and is so represented in many maps. Its identity with China was fully recognised by P. Martin Martini in his Atlas Sinensis; also by Valentijn, iv. China, 2.

1247.—"Kitai autem ... homines sunt pagani, qui habent literam specialem ... homines benigni et humani satis esse videantur. Barbam non habent, et in dispositione faciei satis concordant cum Mongalis, non tamen sunt in facie ita lati ... meliores artifices non inveniuntur in toto mundo ... terra eorum est opulenta valde."—J. de Plano Carpini, Hist. Mongalorum, 653–4.

1253.—"Ultra est magna Cataya, qui antiquitus, ut credo, dicebantur Seres.... Isti Catai sunt parvi homines, loquendo multum aspirantes per nares et ... habent parvam aperturam oculorum," &c.—Itin. Wilhelmi de Rubruk, 291–2.

c. 1330.—"Cathay is a very great Empire, which extendeth over more than c. days' journey, and it hath only one lord...."—Friar Jordanus, p. 54.

1404.—"E lo mas alxofar [see ALJOFAR] que en el mundo se ha, se pesia e falla en aq̃l mar del Catay."—Clavijo, f. 32.

1555.—"The Yndians called Catheies have eche man many wiues."—Watreman, Fardle of Faciouns, M. ii.

1598.—"In the lande lying westward from China, they say there are white people, and the land called Cathaia, where (as it is thought) are many Christians, and that it should confine and border upon Persia."—Linschoten, 57; [Hak. Soc. i. 126].

[1602.—"... and arriued at any porte within the dominions of the kingdomes of Cataya, China, or Japan."—Birdwood, First Letter Book, 24. Here China and Cataya are spoken of as different countries. Comp. Birdwood, Rep. on Old Rec., 168 note.]

Before 1633.—

"I'll wish you in the Indies or Cataia...."
Beaum. & Fletch., The Woman's Prize, iv. 5.


"Domadores das terras e dos mares
Não so im Malaca, Indo e Perseu streito
Mas na China, Catai, Japão estranho
Lei nova introduzindo em sacro banho."
Malaca Conquistada.

1664.—"'Tis not yet twenty years, that there went caravans every year from Kachemire, which crossed all those mountains of the great Tibet, entred into Tartary, and arrived in about three months at Cataja...."—Bernier, E. T., 136; [ed. Constable, 425].


"Better fifty years of Europe
than a cycle of Cathay."
Tennyson, Locksley Hall.

1871.—"For about three centuries the Northern Provinces of China had been detached from native rule, and subject to foreign dynasties; first to the Khitan ... whose rule subsisted for 200 years, and originated the name of Khitai, Khata, or Cathay, by which for nearly 1000 years China has been known to the nations of Inner Asia, and to those whose acquaintance with it was got by that channel."—Marco Polo, Introd. ch. ii.

CAT'S-EYE, s. A stone of value found in Ceylon. It is described by Dana as a form of chalcedony of a greenish grey, with glowing internal reflections, whence the Portuguese call it Olho de gato, which our word translates. It appears from the quotation below from Dr. Royle that the Beli oculus of Pliny has been identified with the cat's-eye, which may well be the case, though the odd circumstance noticed by Royle may be only a curious coincidence. [The phrase billī kī ānkh does not appear in Platt's Dict. The usual name is lahsaniyā, 'like garlic.' The Burmese are said to call it kyoung, 'a cat.']

c. A.D. 70.—"The stone called Belus eye is white, and hath within it a black apple, the mids whereof a man shall see to glitter like gold...."—Holland's Plinie, ii. 625.

c. 1340.—"Quaedam regiones monetam non habent, sed pro ea utuntur lapidibus quos dicimus Cati Oculos."—Conti, in Poggius, De Var. Fortunae, lib. iv.

1516.—"And there are found likewise other stones, such as Olho de gato, Chrysolites, and amethysts, of which I do not treat because they are of little value."—Barbosa, in Lisbon Acad., ii. 390.

1599.—"Lapis insuper alius ibi vulgaris est, quem Lusitani olhos de gatto, id est, oculum felinum vocant, propterea quod cum eo et colore et facie conveniat. Nihil autem aliud quam achates est."—De Bry, iv. 84 (after Linschoten); [Hak. Soc. i. 61, ii. 141].

1672.—"The Cat's-eyes, by the Portuguese called Olhos de Gatos, occur in Zeylon, Cambaya, and Pegu; they are more esteemed by the Indians than by the Portuguese; for some Indians believe that if a man wears this stone his power and riches will never diminish, but always increase."—Baldaeus, Germ. ed. 160.

1837.—"Beli oculus, mentioned by Pliny, xxxvii. c. 55, is considered by Hardouin to be equivalent to œil de chat—named in India billi ke ankh."—Royle's Hindu Medicine, p. 103.


a. A weight used in China, and by the Chinese introduced into the Archipelago. The Chinese name is kin or chin. The word kātī or katī is Malayo-Javanese. It is equal to 16 taels, i.e. 1⅓ lb. avoird. or 625 grammes. This is the weight fixed by treaty; but in Chinese trade it varies from 4 oz. to 28 oz.; the lowest value being used by tea-vendors at Peking, the highest by coal-merchants in Honan.

[1554.—"Cate." See quotation under PECUL.]

1598.—"Everie Catte is as much as 20 Portingall ounces."—Linschoten, 34; [Hak. Soc. i. 113].

1604.—"Their pound they call a Cate, which is one and twentie of our ounces."—Capt. John Davis, in Purchas, i. 123.

1609.—"Offering to enact among them the penaltie of death to such as would sel one cattie of spice to the Hollanders."—Keeling, ibid. i. 199.

1610.—"And (I prayse God) I have aboord one hundred thirtie nine Tunnes, six Cathayes, one quarterne two pound of nutmegs and sixe hundred two and twenty suckettes of Mace, which maketh thirtie sixe Tunnes, fifteene Cathayes one quarterne, one and twentie pound."—David Midleton, ibid. i. 247. In this passage, however, Cathayes seems to be a strange blunder of Purchas or his copyist for Cwt. Suckette is probably Malay sukat, "a measure, a stated quantity." [The word appears as suckell in a letter of 1615 (Foster, iii. 175). Mr. Skeat suggests that it is a misreading for Pecul. Sukat, he says, means 'to measure anything' (indefinitely), but is never used for a definite measure.]

b. The word catty occurs in another sense in the following passage. A note says that "Catty or more literally Kuttoo is a Tamil word signifying batta" (q.v.). But may it not rather be a clerical error for batty?

1659.—"If we should detain them longer we are to give them catty."—Letter in Wheeler, i. 162.

CATUR, s. A light rowing vessel used on the coast of Malabar in the early days of the Portuguese. We have not been able to trace the name to any Indian source, [unless possibly Skt. chatura, 'swift']. Is it not probably the origin of our 'cutter'? We see that Sir R. Burton in his Commentary on Camoens (vol. iv. 391) says: "Catur is the Arab. katīreh, a small craft, our 'cutter.'" [This view is rejected by the N.E.D., which regards it as an English word from 'to cut.'] We cannot say when cutter was introduced in marine use. We cannot find it in Dampier, nor in Robinson Crusoe; the first instance we have found is that quoted below from Anson's Voyage. [The N.E.D. has nothing earlier than 1745.]

Bluteau gives catur as an Indian term indicating a small war vessel, which in a calm can be aided by oars. Jal (Archéologie Navale, ii. 259) quotes Witsen as saying that the Caturi or Almadias were Calicut vessels, having a length of 12 to 13 paces (60 to 65 feet), sharp at both ends, and curving back, using both sails and oars. But there was a larger kind, 80 feet long, with only 7 or 8 feet beam.

1510.—"There is also another kind of vessel.... These are all made of one piece ... sharp at both ends. These ships are called Chaturi, and go either with a sail or oars more swiftly than any galley, fusta, or brigantine."—Varthema, 154.

1544.—"... navigium majus quod vocant caturem."—Scti. Franc. Xav. Epistolae, 121.

1549.—"Naves item duas (quas Indi catures vocant) summâ celeritate armari jussit, vt oram maritimam legentes, hostes commeatu prohiberent."—Goës, de Bello Cambaico, 1331.

1552.—"And this winter the Governor sent to have built in Cochin thirty Catures, which are vessels with oars, but smaller than brigantines."—Castanheda, iii. 271.

1588.—"Cambaicam oram Jacobus Lacteus duobos caturibus tueri jussus...."—Maffei, lib. xiii. ed. 1752, p. 283.

1601.—"Biremes, seu Cathuris quam plurimae conduntur in Lassaon, Javae civitate...."—De Bry, iii. 109 (where there is a plate, iii. No. xxxvii.).

1688.—"No man was so bold to contradict the man of God; and they all went to the Arsenal. There they found a good and sufficient bark of those they call Catur, besides seven old foysts."—Dryden, Life of Xavier, in Works, 1821, xvi. 200.

1742.—"... to prevent even the possibility of the galeons escaping us in the night, the two Cutters belonging to the Centurion and the Gloucester were both manned and sent in shore...."—Anson's Voyage, 9th ed. 1756, p. 251. Cutter also occurs pp. 111, 129, 150, and other places.

CAUVERY, n.p. The great river of S. India. Properly Tam. Kāviri, or rather Kāveri, and Sanscritized Kāvērī. The earliest mention is that of Ptolemy, who writes the name (after the Skt. form) Χάβηρος (sc. ποταμός). The Καμάρα of the Periplus (c. A.D. 80–90) probably, however, represents the same name, the Χαβηρὶς ἐμποριόν of Ptolemy. The meaning of the name has been much debated, and several plausible but unsatisfactory explanations have been given. Thus the Skt. form Kāvērī has been explained from that language by kāvēra 'saffron.' A river in the Tamil country is, however, hardly likely to have a non-mythological Skt. name. The Cauvery in flood, like other S. Indian rivers, assumes a reddish hue. And the form Kāvēri has been explained by Bp. Caldwell as possibly from the Dravidian kāvi, 'red ochre' or (kā-va), 'a grove,' and ēr-u, Tel. 'a river,' ēr-i, Tam. 'a sheet of water'; thus either 'red river' or 'grove river.' [The Madras Admin. Gloss. takes it from , Tam. 'grove,' and ēri, Tam. 'tank,' from its original source in a garden tank.] Kā-viri, however, the form found in inscriptions, affords a more satisfactory Tamil interpretation, viz. Kā-viri, 'grove-extender,' or developer. Any one who has travelled along the river will have noticed the thick groves all along the banks, which form a remarkable feature of the stream.

c. 150 A.D.

"Χαβήρου ποταμοῦ ἐκβολάι
Χαβηρὶς ἐμποριόν."—Ptolemy, lib. vii. 1.

The last was probably represented by Kaveripatan.

c. 545.—"Then there is Sieledēba, i.e. Taprobane ... and then again on the Continent, and further back, is Marallo, which exports conch-shells; Kaber, which exports alabandinum."—Cosmas, Topog. Christ. in Cathay, &c. clxxviii.

1310–11.—"After traversing the passes, they arrived at night on the banks of the river Kānobarī, and bivouacked on the sands."—Amīr Khusrū, in Elliot, ii. 90.

The Cauvery appears to be ignored in the older European account and maps.

CAVALLY, s. This is mentioned as a fish of Ceylon by Ives, 1775 (p. 57). It is no doubt the same that is described in the quotation from Pyrard [see Gray's note, Hak. Soc. i. 388]. It may represent the genus Equula, of which 12 spp. are described by Day (Fishes of India, pp. 237–242), two being named by different zoologists E. caballa. But Dr. Day hesitates to identify the fish now in question. The fish mentioned in the fourth and fifth quotations may be the same species; but that in the fifth seems doubtful. Many of the spp. are extensively sun-dried, and eaten by the poor.

c. 1610.—"Ces Moucois pescheurs prennent entr'autres grande quantité d'vne sorte de petit poisson, qui n'est pas plus grande que la main et large comme vn petit bremeau. Les Portugais l'appellent Pesche cauallo. Il est le plus commun de toute ceste coste, et c'est de quoy ils font le plus grand trafic; car ils le fendent par la moitié, ils le salent, et le font secher au soleil."—Pyrard de Laval, i. 278; see also 309; [Hak. Soc. i. 427; ii. 127, 294, 299].

1626.—"The Ile inricht us with many good things; Buffols, ... oysters, Breams, Cavalloes, and store of other fish."—Sir T. Herbert, 28.

1652.—"There is another very small fish vulgarly called Cavalle, which is good enough to eat, but not very wholesome."—Philippus a Sanct. Trinitate, in Fr. Tr. 383.

1796.—"The ayla, called in Portuguese cavala, has a good taste when fresh, but when salted becomes like the herring."—Fra Paolini, E. T., p. 240.

1875.—"Caranx denter (Bl. Schn.). This fish of wide range from the Mediterranean to the coast of Brazil, at St. Helena is known as the Cavalley, and is one of the best table fish, being indeed the salmon of St. Helena. It is taken in considerable numbers, chiefly during the summer months, around the coast, in not very deep water: it varies in length from nine inches up to two or three feet."—St. Helena, by J. C. Melliss, p. 106.

CAWNEY, CAWNY, s. Tam. kāni, 'property,' hence 'land,' [from Tam. kan, 'to see,' what is known and recognised,] and so a measure of land used in the Madras Presidency. It varies, of course, but the standard Cawny is considered to be = 24 manai or Grounds (q.v.), of 2,400 sq. f. each, hence 57,600 sq. f. or ac. 1.322. This is the only sense in which the word is used in the Madras dialect of the Anglo-Indian tongue. The 'Indian Vocabulary' of 1788 has the word in the form Connys, but with an unintelligible explanation.

1807.—"The land measure of the Jaghire is as follows: 24 Adies square = 1 Culy; 100 Culies = 1 Canay. Out of what is called charity however the Culy is in fact a Bamboo 26 Adies or 22 feet 8 inches in length ... the Ady or Malabar foot is therefore 1046100 inches nearly; and the customary canay contains 51,375 sq. feet, or 118100 acres nearly; while the proper canay would only contain 43,778 feet."—F. Buchanan, Mysore, &c. i. 6.

CAWNPORE, n.p. The correct name is Kānhpur, 'the town of Kānh, Kanhaiya or Krishna.' The city of the Doab so called, having in 1891 a population of 188,712, has grown up entirely under British rule, at first as the bazar and dependence of the cantonment established here under a treaty made with the Nabob of Oudh in 1766, and afterwards as a great mart of trade.

CAYMAN, s. This is not used in India. It is an American name for an alligator; from the Carib acayuman (Littré). But it appears formerly to have been in general use among the Dutch in the East. [It is one of those words "which the Portuguese or Spaniards very early caught up in one part of the world, and naturalised in another." (N.E.D.)].

1530.—"The country is extravagantly hot; and the rivers are full of Caimans, which are certain water-lizards (lagarti)."—Nunno de Guzman, in Ramusio, iii. 339.

1598.—"In this river (Zaire or Congo) there are living divers kinds of creatures, and in particular, mighty great crocodiles, which the country people there call Caiman."—Pigafetta, in Harleian Coll. of Voyages, ii. 533.

This is an instance of the way in which we so often see a word belonging to a different quarter of the world undoubtingly ascribed to Africa or Asia, as the case may be. In the next quotation we find it ascribed to India.

1631.—"Lib. v. cap. iii. De Crocodilo qui per totam Indiam cayman audit."—Bontius, Hist. Nat. et Med.

1672.—"The figures so represented in Adam's footsteps were ... 41. The King of the Caimans or Crocodiles."—Baldaeus (Germ. ed.), 148.

1692.—"Anno 1692 there were 3 newly arrived soldiers ... near a certain gibbet that stood by the river outside the boom, so sharply pursued by a Kaieman that they were obliged to climb the gibbet for safety whilst the creature standing up on his hind feet reached with his snout to the very top of the gibbet."—Valentijn, iv. 231.

CAYOLAQUE, s. Kayu = 'wood,' in Malay. Laka is given in Crawfurd's Malay Dict. as "name of a red wood used as incense, Myristica iners." In his Descr. Dict. he calls it the "Tanarius major; a tree with a red-coloured wood, a native of Sumatra, used in dyeing and in pharmacy. It is an article of considerable native trade, and is chiefly exported to China" (p. 204). [The word, according to Mr. Skeat, is probably kayu, 'wood,' lakh, 'red dye' (see LAC), but the combined form is not in Klinkert, nor are these trees in Ridley's plant list. He gives Laka-laka or Malaka as the name of the phyllanthus emblica.]

1510.—"There also grows here a very great quantity of lacca for making red colour, and the tree of this is formed like our trees which produce walnuts."—Varthema, p. 238.

c. 1560.—"I being in Cantan there was a rich (bed) made wrought with Iuorie, and of a sweet wood which they call Cayolaque, and of Sandalum, that was prized at 1500 Crownes."—Gaspar Da Cruz, in Purchas, iii. 177.

1585.—"Euerie morning and euening they do offer vnto their idolles frankensence, benjamin, wood of aguila, and cayolaque, the which is maruelous sweete...."—Mendoza's China, i. 58.

CAZEE, KAJEE, &c., s. Arab. ḳāḍi, 'a judge,' the letter ẓwād with which it is spelt being always pronounced in India like a z. The form Cadi, familiar from its use in the old version of the Arabian Nights, comes to us from the Levant. The word with the article, al-ḳāḍi, becomes in Spanish alcalde;[6] not alcaide, which is from ḳā'īd, 'a chief'; nor alguacil, which is from wazīr. So Dozy and Engelmann, no doubt correctly. But in Pinto, cap. 8, we find "ao guazil da justica q̃ em elles he como corregedor entre nos"; where guazil seems to stand for ḳāẓī.

It is not easy to give an accurate account of the position of the Ḳāẓī in British India, which has gone through variations of which a distinct record cannot be found. But the following outline is believed to be substantially correct.

Under Adawlut I have given a brief sketch of the history of the judiciary under the Company in the Bengal Presidency. Down to 1790 the greater part of the administration of criminal justice was still in the hands of native judges, and other native officials of various kinds, though under European supervision in varying forms. But the native judiciary, except in positions of a quite subordinate character, then ceased. It was, however, still in substance Mahommedan law that was administered in criminal cases, and also in civil cases between Mahommedans as affecting succession, &c. And a Ḳāẓī and a Muftī were retained in the Provincial Courts of Appeal and Circuit as the exponents of Mahommedan law, and the deliverers of a formal Futwa. There was also a Ḳāẓī-al-Ḳoẓāt, or chief Ḳāẓī of Bengal, Behar and Orissa, attached to the Sudder Courts of Dewanny and Nizamut, assisted by two Muftis, and these also gave written futwas on references from the District Courts.

The style of Ḳāẓī and Muftī presumably continued in formal existence in connection with the Sudder Courts till the abolition of these in 1862; but with the earlier abolition of the Provincial Courts in 1829–31 it had quite ceased, in this sense, to be familiar. In the District Courts the corresponding exponents were in English officially designated Law-officers, and, I believe, in official vernacular, as well as commonly among Anglo-Indians, Moolvees (q.v.).

Under the article LAW-OFFICER, it will be seen that certain trivial cases were, at the discretion of the magistrate, referred for disposal by the Law-officer of the district. And the latter, from this fact, as well as, perhaps, from the tradition of the elders, was in some parts of Bengal popularly known as 'the Ḳāẓī.' "In the Magistrate's office," writes my friend Mr. Seton-Karr, "it was quite common to speak of this case as referred to the joint magistrate, and that to the Chhoṭā Ṣāḥib (the Assistant), and that again to the Ḳāẓī."

But the duties of the Ḳāẓī popularly so styled and officially recognised, had, almost from the beginning of the century, become limited to certain notarial functions, to the performance and registration of Mahommedan marriages, and some other matters connected with the social life of their co-religionists. To these functions must also be added as regards the 18th century and the earlier years of the 19th, duties in connection with distraint for rent on behalf of Zemindars. There were such Ḳāẓīs nominated by Government in towns and pergunnas, with great variation in the area of the localities over which they officiated. The Act XI. of 1864, which repealed the laws relating to law-officers, put an end also to the appointment by Government of Kāẓīs. But this seems to have led to inconveniences which were complained of by Mahommedans in some parts of India, and it was enacted in 1880 (Act XII., styled "The Ḳāẓīs Act") that with reference to any particular locality, and after consultation with the chief Musulman residents therein, the Local Government might select and nominate a Ḳāẓī or Ḳāẓīs for that local area (see FUTWA, LAW-OFFICER, MUFTY).

1338.—"They treated me civilly and set me in front of their mosque during their Easter; at which mosque, on account of its being their Easter, there were assembled from divers quarters a number of their Cadini, i.e. of their bishops."—Letter of Friar Pascal, in Cathay, &c., 235.

c. 1461.—

"Au tems que Alexandre regna
Ung hom, nommé Diomedès
Devant luy, on luy amena
Engrilloné poulces et detz
Comme ung larron; car il fut des
Escumeurs que voyons courir
Si fut mys devant le cadès,
Pour estre jugé à mourir."
Gd. Testament de Fr. Villon.

[c. 1610.—"The Pandiare is called Cady in the Arabic tongue."—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 199.]

1648.—"The Government of the city (Ahmedabad) and surrounding villages rests with the Governor Coutewael, and the Judge (whom they call Casgy)."—Van Twist, 15.

[1670.—"The Shawbunder, Cozzy."—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. ccxxix.]

1673.—"Their Law-Disputes, they are soon ended; the Governor hearing; and the Cadi or Judge determining every Morning."—Fryer, 32.

" "The Cazy or Judge ... marries them."—Ibid. 94.

1683.—"... more than that 3000 poor men gathered together, complaining with full mouths of his exaction and injustice towards them: some demanding Rupees 10, others Rupees 20 per man, which Bulchund very generously paid them in the Cazee's presence...."—Hedges, Nov. 5; [Hak. Soc. i. 134; Cazze in i. 85].

1684.—"January 12.—From Cassumbazar 'tis advised ye Merchants and Picars appeal again to ye Cazee for Justice against Mr. Charnock. Ye Cazee cites Mr. Charnock to appear...."—Ibid. i. 147.

1689.—"A Cogee ... who is a Person skilled in their Law."—Ovington, 206.

Here there is perhaps a confusion with Coja.

1727.—"When the Man sees his Spouse, and likes her, they agree on the Price and Term of Weeks, Months, or Years, and then appear before the Cadjee or Judge."—A. Hamilton, i. 52.

1763.—"The Cadi holds court in which are tried all disputes of property."—Orme, i. 26 (ed. 1803).

1773.—"That they should be mean, weak, ignorant, and corrupt, is not surprising, when the salary of the principal judge, the Cazi, does not exceed Rs. 100 per month."—From Impey's Judgment in the Patna Cause, quoted by Stephen, ii. 176.

1790.—"Regulations for the Court of Circuit.

"24. That each of the Courts of Circuit be superintended by two covenanted civil servants of the Company, to be denominated Judges of the Courts of Circuit ... assisted by a Kazi and a Mufti."—Regns. for the Adm. of Justice in the Foujdarry or Criminal Courts in Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa. Passed by the G.-G. in C., Dec. 3, 1790.

"32. ... The charge against the prisoner, his confession, which is always to be received with circumspection and tenderness ... &c. ... being all heard and gone through in his presence and that of the Kazi and Mufti of the Court, the Kazi and Mufti are then to write at the bottom of the record of the proceedings held in the trial, the futwa or law as applicable to the circumstances of the case.... The Judges of the Court shall attentively consider such futwa, &c."—Ibid.

1791.—"The Judges of the Courts of Circuit shall refer to the Kazi and Mufti of their respective Courts all questions on points of law ... regarding which they may not have been furnished with specific instructions from the G.-G. in C. or the Nizamut Adawlut...."—Regn. No. XXXV.

1792.—Revenue Regulation of July 20, No. lxxv., empowers Landholders and Farmers of Land to distrain for Arrears of Rent or Revenue. The "Kazi of the Pegunnah" is the official under the Collector, repeatedly referred to as regulating and carrying out the distraint. So, again, in Regn. XVII. of 1793.

1793.—"lxvi. The Nizamut Adaulat shall continue to be held at Calcutta.

"lxvii. The Court shall consist of the Governor-General, and the members of the Supreme Council, assisted by the head Cauzy of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, and two Muftis." (This was already in the Regulations of 1791.)—Regn. IX. of 1793. See also quotation under MUFTY.

1793.—"I. Cauzies are stationed at the Cities of Patna, Dacca, and Moorshedabad, and the principal towns, and in the pergunnahs, for the purpose of preparing and attesting deeds of transfer, and other law papers, celebrating marriages, and performing such religious duties or ceremonies prescribed by the Mahommedan law, as have been hitherto discharged by them under the British Government."—Reg. XXXIX. of 1793.

1803.—Regulation XLVI. regulates the appointment of Cauzy in towns and pergunnahs, "for the purpose of preparing and attesting deeds of transfer, and other law papers, celebrating marriages," &c., but makes no allusion to judicial duties.

1824.—"Have you not learned this common saying—'Every one's teeth are blunted by acids except the cadi's, which are by sweets.'"—Hajji Baba, ed. 1835, p. 316.

1864.—"Whereas it is unnecessary to continue the offices of Hindoo and Mahomedan Law-Officers, and is inexpedient that the appointment of Cazee-ool-Cozaat, or of City, Town, or Pergunnah Cazees should be made by Government, it is enacted as follows:—

*          *          *          *          *         

"II. Nothing contained in this Act shall be construed so as to prevent a Cazee-ool-Cozaat or other Cazee from performing, when required to do so, any duties or ceremonies prescribed by the Mahomedan Law."—Act No. XI. of 1864.

1880.—"... whereas by the usage of the Muhammadan community in some parts of India the presence of Kázís appointed by the Government is required at the celebration of marriages...."—Bill introduced into the Council of Gov.-Gen., January 30, 1880.

" "An Act for the appointment of persons to the office of Kází.

"Whereas by the preamble to Act No. XI. of 1864 ... it was (among other things declared inexpedient, &c.) ... and whereas by the usage of the Muhammadan community in some parts of India the presence of Kázís appointed by the Government is required at the celebration of marriages and the performance of certain other rites and ceremonies, and it is therefore expedient that the Government should again be empowered to appoint such persons to the office of Kází; It is hereby enacted...."—Act No. XII. of 1880.

1885.—"To come to something more specific. 'There were instances in which men of the most venerable dignity, persecuted without a cause by extortioners, died of rage and shame in the gripe of the vile alguazils of Impey'" [Macaulay's Essay on Hastings].

"Here we see one Cazi turned into an indefinite number of 'men of the most venerable dignity'; a man found guilty by legal process of corruptly oppressing a helpless widow into 'men of the most venerable dignity' persecuted by extortioners without a cause; and a guard of sepoys, with which the Supreme Court had nothing to do, into 'vile alguazils of Impey.'"—Stephen, Story of Nuncomar, ii. 250–251.

Cazee also is a title used in Nepal for Ministers of State.

1848.—"Kajees, Counsellors, and mitred Lamas were there, to the number of twenty, all planted with their backs to the wall, mute and motionless as statues."—Hooker's Himalayan Journals, ed. 1855, i. 286.

1868.—"The Durbar (of Nepal) have written to the four Kajees of Thibet enquiring the reason."—Letter from Col. R. Lawrence, dated 1st April, regarding persecution of R. C. Missions in Tibet.


"Ho, lamas, get ye ready,
Ho, Kazis, clear the way;
The chief will ride in all his pride
To the Rungeet Stream to-day."
Wilfrid Heeley, A Lay of Modern Darjeeling.

CEDED DISTRICTS, n.p. A name applied familiarly at the beginning of the last century to the territory south of the Tungabhadra river, which was ceded to the Company by the Nizam in 1800, after the defeat and death of Tippoo Sultan. This territory embraced the present districts of Bellary, Cuddapah, and Karnúl, with the Palnād, which is now a subdivision of the Kistna District. The name perhaps became best known in England from Gleig's Life of Sir Thomas Munro, that great man having administered these provinces for 7 years.

1873.—"We regret to announce the death of Lieut.-General Sir Hector Jones, G.C.B., at the advanced age of 86. The gallant officer now deceased belonged to the Madras Establishment of the E. I. Co.'s forces, and bore a distinguished part in many of the great achievements of that army, including the celebrated march into the Ceded Districts under the Collector of Canara, and the campaign against the Zemindar of Madura."—The True Reformer, p. 7 ("wrot serkestick").

CELÉBES, n.p. According to Crawfurd this name is unknown to the natives, not only of the great island itself, but of the Archipelago generally, and must have arisen from some Portuguese misunderstanding or corruption. There appears to be no general name for the island in the Malay language, unless Tanah Bugis, 'the Land of the Bugis people' [see BUGIS]. It seems sometimes to have been called the Isle of Macassar. In form Celebes is apparently a Portuguese plural, and several of their early writers speak of Celebes as a group of islands. Crawfurd makes a suggestion, but not very confidently, that Pulo sālabih, 'the islands over and above,' might have been vaguely spoken of by the Malays, and understood by the Portuguese as a name. [Mr. Skeat doubts the correctness of this explanation: "The standard Malay form would be Pulau Sălĕbih, which in some dialects might be Să-lĕbis, and this may have been a variant of Si-Lĕbih, a man's name, the si corresponding to the def. art. in the Germ. phrase 'der Hans.' Numerous Malay place-names are derived from those of people."]

1516.—"Having passed these islands of Maluco ... at a distance of 130 leagues, there are other islands to the west, from which sometimes there come white people, naked from the waist upwards.... These people eat human flesh, and if the King of Maluco has any person to execute, they beg for him to eat him, just as one would ask for a pig, and the islands from which they come are called Celebe."—Barbosa, 202–3.

c. 1544.—"In this street (of Pegu) there were six and thirty thousand strangers of two and forty different Nations, namely ... Papuaas, Selebres, Mindanaos ... and many others whose names I know not."—F. M. Pinto, in Cogan's tr., p. 200.

1552.—"In the previous November (1529) arrived at Ternate D. Jorge de Castro who came from Malaca by way of Borneo in a junk ... and going astray passed along the Isle of Macaçar...."—Barros, Dec. IV. i. 18.

" "The first thing that the Samarao did in this was to make Tristão de Taide believe that in the Isles of the Celebes, and of the Macaçares and in that of Mindinão there was much gold."—Ibid. vi. 25.

1579.—"The 16 Day (December) wee had sight of the Iland Celebes or Silebis."—Drake, World Encompassed (Hak. Soc.), p. 150.

1610.—"At the same time there were at Ternate certain ambassadors from the Isles of the Macaçás (which are to the west of those of Maluco—the nearest of them about 60 leagues).... These islands are many, and joined together, and appear in the sea-charts thrown into one very big island, extending, as the sailors say, North and South, and having near 100 leagues of compass. And this island imitates the shape of a big locust, the head of which (stretching to the south to 5½ degrees) is formed by the Cellebes (são os Cellebes), which have a King over them.... These islands are ruled by many Kings, differing in language, in laws, and customs...."—Couto, Dec. V. vii. 2.

CENTIPEDE, s. This word was perhaps borrowed directly from the Portuguese in India (centopèa). [The N.E.D. refers it to Sp.]

1662.—"There is a kind of worm which the Portuguese call un centopè, and the Dutch also 'thousand-legs' (tausend-bein)."—T. Saal, 68.

CERAM, n.p. A large island in the Molucca Sea, the Serang of the Malays. [Klinkert gives the name Seran, which Mr. Skeat thinks more likely to be correct.]

CERAME, CARAME, &c., s. The Malayālim śrāmbi, a gatehouse with a room over the gate, and generally fortified. This is a feature of temples, &c., as well as of private houses, in Malabar [see Logan, i. 82]. The word is also applied to a chamber raised on four posts. [The word, as Mr. Skeat notes, has come into Malay as sarambi or serambi, 'a house veranda.']

[1500.—"He was taken to a cerame, which is a one-storied house of wood, which the King had erected for their meeting-place."—Castañeda, Bk. I. cap. 33, p. 103.]

1551.—"... where stood the çarame of the King, which is his temple...."—Ibid. iii. 2.

1552.—"Pedralvares ... was carried ashore on men's shoulders in an andor till he was set among the Gentoo Princes whom the Çamorin had sent to receive him at the beach, whilst the said Çamorin himself was standing within sight in the cerame awaiting his arrival."—Barros, I. v. 5.

1557.—The word occurs also in D'Alboquerque's Commentaries (Hak. Soc. tr. i. 115), but it is there erroneously rendered "jetty."

1566.—"Antes de entrar no Cerame vierão receber alguns senhores dos que ficarão com el Rei."—Dam. de Goes, Chron. 76 (ch. lviii.).

CEYLON, n.p. This name, as applied to the great island which hangs from India like a dependent jewel, becomes usual about the 13th century. But it can be traced much earlier. For it appears undoubtedly to be formed from Sinhala or Sihala, 'lions' abode,' the name adopted in the island itself at an early date. This, with the addition of 'Island,' Sihala-dvīpa, comes down to us in Cosmas as Σιελεδίβα. There was a Pali form Sihalan, which, at an early date, must have been colloquially shortened to Silan, as appears from the old Tamil name Ilam (the Tamil having no proper sibilant), and probably from this was formed the Sarandīp and Sarandīb which was long the name in use by mariners of the Persian Gulf.

It has been suggested by Mr. Van der Tuuk, that the name Sailan or Silan was really of Javanese origin, as sela (from Skt. śilā, 'a rock, a stone') in Javanese (and in Malay) means 'a precious stone,' hence Pulo Selan would be 'Isle of Gems.' ["This," writes Mr. Skeat, "is possible, but it remains to be proved that the gem was not named after the island (i.e. 'Ceylon stone'). The full phrase in standard Malay is batu Sēlan, where batu means 'stone.' Klinkert merely marks Sailan (Ceylon) as Persian."] The island was really called anciently Ratnadvīpa, 'Isle of Gems,' and is termed by an Arab historian of the 9th century Jazīrat-al yaḳūt, 'Isle of Rubies.' So that there is considerable plausibility in Van der Tuuk's suggestion. But the genealogy of the name from Sihala is so legitimate that the utmost that can be conceded is the possibility that the Malay form Selan may have been shaped by the consideration suggested, and may have influenced the general adoption of the form Sailān, through the predominance of Malay navigation in the Middle Ages.

c. 362.—"Unde nationibus Indicis certatim cum donis optimates mittentibus ante tempus, ab usque Divis et Serendivis."—Ammianus Marcellinus, XXI. vii.

c. 430.—"The island of Lanka was called Sihala after the Lion; listen ye to the narration of the island which I (am going to) tell: 'The daughter of the Vanga King cohabited in the forest with a lion.'"—Dipavanso, IX. i. 2.

c. 545.—"This is the great island in the ocean, lying in the Indian Sea. By the Indians it is called Sielediba, but by the Greeks Taprobane."—Cosmas, Bk. xi.

851.—"Near Sarandīb is the pearl-fishery. Sarandīb is entirely surrounded by the sea."—Relation des Voyages, i. p. 5.

c. 940.—"Mas'ūdi proceeds: In the Island Sarandīb, I myself witnessed that when the King was dead, he was placed on a chariot with low wheels so that his hair dragged upon the ground."—In Gildemeister, 154.

c. 1020.—"There you enter the country of Lárán, where is Jaimúr, then Malia, then Kánji, then Darúd, where there is a great gulf in which is Sinkaldíp (Sinhala dvīpa), or the island of Sarandíp."—Al Birūnī, as given by Rashíduddín, in Elliot, i. 66.

1275.—"The island Sailan is a vast island between China and India, 80 parasangs in circuit.... It produces wonderful things, sandal-wood, spikenard, cinnamon, cloves, brazil, and various spices...."—Kazvīnī, in Gildemeister, 203.

1298.—"You come to the island of Seilan, which is in good sooth the best island of its size in the world."—Marco Polo, Bk. iii. ch. 14.

c. 1300.—"There are two courses ... from this place (Ma'bar); one leads by sea to Chín and Máchín, passing by the island of Sílán."—Rashíduddín, in Elliot, i. 70.

1330.—"There is another island called Sillan.... In this ... there is an exceeding great mountain, of which the folk relate that it was upon it that Adam mourned for his son one hundred years."—Fr. Odoric, in Cathay, i. 98.

c. 1337.—"I met in this city (Brussa) the pious sheikh 'Abd-Allah-al-Miṣrī, the Traveller. He was a worthy man. He made the circuit of the earth, except he never entered China, nor the island of Sarandīb, nor Andalusia, nor the Sūdān. I have excelled him, for I have visited those regions."—Ibn Batuta, ii. 321.

c. 1350.—"... I proceeded to sea by Seyllan, a glorious mountain opposite to Paradise.... 'Tis said the sound of the waters falling from the fountain of Paradise is heard there."—Marignolli, in Cathay, ii. 346.

c. 1420.—"In the middle of the Gulf there is a very noble island called Zeilam, which is 3000 miles in circumference, and on which they find by digging, rubies, saffires, garnets, and those stones which are called cats'-eyes."—N. Conti, in India in the XVth Century, 7.

1498.—"... much ginger, and pepper, and cinnamon, but this is not so fine as that which comes from an island which is called Cillam, and which is 8 days distant from Calicut."—Roteiro de V. da Gama, 88.

1514.—"Passando avanti intra la terra e il mare si truova l'isola di Zolan dove nasce la cannella...."—Giov. da Empoli, in Archiv. Stor. Ital., Append. 79.

1516.—"Leaving these islands of Mahaldiva ... there is a very large and beautiful island which the Moors, Arabs, and Persians call Ceylam, and the Indians call it Ylinarim."—Barbosa, 166.

1586.—"This Ceylon is a brave Iland, very fruitful and fair."—Hakl. ii. 397.

[1605.—"Heare you shall buie theis Comodities followinge of the Inhabitants of Selland."—Birdwood, First Letter Book, 84.

[1615.—"40 tons of cinnamon of Celand."—Foster, Letters, iii. 277.

[" "Here is arrived a ship out of Holland ... at present turning under Silon."—Ibid. iv. 34.]

1682.—"... having run 35 miles North without seeing Zeilon."—Hedges, Diary, July 7; [Hak. Soc. i. 28].

1727.—A. Hamilton writes Zeloan (i. 340, &c.), and as late as 1780, in Dunn's Naval Directory, we find Zeloan throughout.

1781.—"We explored the whole coast of Zelone, from Pt. Pedro to the Little Basses, looked into every port and spoke to every vessel we saw, without hearing of French vessels."—Price's Letter to Ph. Francis, in Tracts, i. 9.


"For dearer to him are the shells that sleep
By his own sweet native stream,
Than all the pearls of Serendeep,
Or the Ava ruby's gleam!
Home! Home! Friends—health—repose,
What are Golconda's gems to those?"
Bengal Annual.

CHABEE, s. H. chābī, chābhī, 'a key,' from Port. chave. In Bengali it becomes sābī, and in Tam. sāvī. In Sea-H. 'a fid.'

CHABOOTRA, s. H. chabūtrā and chābūtara, a paved or plastered platform, often attached to a house, or in a garden.

c. 1810.—"It was a burning evening in June, when, after sunset, I accompanied Mr. Sherwood to Mr. Martin's bungalow.... We were conducted to the Cherbuter ... this Cherbuter was many feet square, and chairs were set for the guests."—Autobiog. of Mrs. Sherwood, 345.

1811.—"... the Chabootah or Terrace."—Williamson, V. M. ii. 114.

1827.—"The splendid procession, having entered the royal gardens, approached through a long avenue of lofty trees, a chabootra or platform of white marble canopied by arches of the same material."—Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter, ch. xiv.

1834.—"We rode up to the Chabootra, which has a large enclosed court before it, and the Darogha received us with the respect which my showy escort claimed."—Mem. of Col. Mountain, 133.

CHACKUR, s. P.—H. chākar, 'a servant.' The word is hardly ever now used in Anglo-Indian households except as a sort of rhyming amplification to Naukar (see NOKUR): "Naukar-chākar," the whole following. But in a past generation there was a distinction made between naukar, the superior servant, such as a munshī, a gomāshta, a chobdār, a khānsama, &c., and chākar, a menial servant. Williamson gives a curious list of both classes, showing what a large Calcutta household embraced at the beginning of last century (V. M. i. 185–187).

1810.—"Such is the superiority claimed by the nokers, that to ask one of them 'whose chauker he is?' would be considered a gross insult."—Williamson, i. 187.

CHALIA, CHALÉ, n.p. Chālyam, Chāliyam, or Chālayam; an old port of Malabar, on the south side of the Beypur [see BEYPOOR] R., and opposite Beypur. The terminal station of the Madras Railway is in fact where Chālyam was. A plate is given in the Lendas of Correa, which makes this plain. The place is incorrectly alluded to as Kalyān in Imp. Gazetteer, ii. 49; more correctly on next page as Chalium. [See Logan, Malabar, i. 75.]

c. 1330.—See in Abulfeda, "Shāliyāt, a city of Malabar."—Gildemeister, 185.

c. 1344.—"I went then to Shālyāt, a very pretty town, where they make the stuffs that bear its name [see SHALEE].... Thence I returned to Kalikut."—Ibn Batuta, iv. 109.

1516.—"Beyond this city (Calicut) towards the south there is another city called Chalyani, where there are numerous Moors, natives of the country, and much shipping."—Barbosa, 153.

c. 1570.—"And it was during the reign of this prince that the Franks erected their fort at Shaleeat ... it thus commanded the trade between Arabia and Calicut, since between the last city and Shaleeat the distance was scarcely 2 parasangs."—Tohfut-ul-Mujahideen, p. 129.


"A Sampaio feroz succederá
Cunha, que longo tempe tem o leme:
De Chale as torres altas erguerá
Em quanto Dio illustre delle treme."
Camões, x. 61.

By Burton:

"Then shall succeed to fierce Sampaio's powers
Cunha, and hold the helm for many a year,
building of Chale-town the lofty towers,
while quakes illustrious Diu his name to hear."

[c. 1610.—"... crossed the river which separates the Calecut kingdom from that of a king named Chaly."—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 368.]

1672.—"Passammo Cinacotta situata alla bocca del fiume Ciali, doue li Portughesi hebbero altre volte Fortezza."—P. Vincenzo Maria, 129.

CHAMPA, n.p. The name of a kingdom at one time of great power and importance in Indo-China, occupying the extreme S.E. of that region. A limited portion of its soil is still known by that name, but otherwise as the Binh-Thuān province of Cochin China. The race inhabiting this portion, Chams or Tsiams, are traditionally said to have occupied the whole breadth of that peninsula to the Gulf of Siam, before the arrival of the Khmer or Kambojan people. It is not clear whether the people in question took their name from Champa, or Champa from the people; but in any case the form of Champa is Sanskrit, and probably it was adopted from India like Kamboja itself and so many other Indo-Chinese names. The original Champā was a city and kingdom on the Ganges, near the modern Bhāgalpur. And we find the Indo-Chinese Champa in the 7th century called Mahā-champā, as if to distinguish it. It is probable that the Ζάβα or Ζάβαι of Ptolemy represents the name of this ancient kingdom; and it is certainly the Ṣanf or Chanf of the Arab navigators 600 years later; this form representing Champ as nearly as is possible to the Arabic alphabet.

c. A.D. 640.—"... plus loin à l'est, le royaume de Mo-ho-tchen-po" (Mahāchampā).—Hiouen Thsang, in Pèlerins Bouddh. iii. 83.

851.—"Ships then proceed to the place called Ṣanf (or Chanf) ... there fresh water is procured; from this place is exported the aloes-wood called Chanfi. This is a kingdom."—Relation des Voyages, &c., i. 18.

1298.—"You come to a country called Chamba, a very rich region, having a King of its own. The people are idolaters, and pay a yearly tribute to the Great Kaan ... there are a very great number of Elephants in this Kingdom, and they have lign-aloes in great abundance."—Marco Polo, Bk. iii. ch. 5.

c. 1300.—"Passing on from this, you come to a continent called Jampa, also subject to the Kaan...."—Rashīduddīn, in Elliot, i. 71.

c. 1328.—"There is also a certain part of India called Champa. There, in place of horses, mules, asses, and camels, they make use of elephants for all their work."—Friar Jordanus, 37.

1516.—"Having passed this island (Borney) ... towards the country of Ansiam and China, there is another great island of Gentiles called Champa; which has a King and language of its own, and many elephants.... There also grows in it aloes-wood."—Barbosa, 204.

1552.—"Concorriam todolos navegantes dos mares Occidentaes da India, e dos Orientaes a ella, que são as regiões di Sião, China, Choampa, Cambòja...."—Barros, ii. vi. 1.


"Ves, corre a costa, que Champa se chama
Cuja mata he do pao cheiroso ornada."
Camões, x. 129.

By Burton:

"Here courseth, see, the callèd Champa shore,
with woods of odorous wood 'tis deckt and dight."

1608.—"... thence (from Assam) eastward on the side of the northern mountains are the Nangata [i.e. Nāga] lands, the Land of Pukham lying on the ocean, Balgu [Baigu? i.e. Pegu], the land Rakhang, Hamsavati, and the rest of the realm of Munyang; beyond these Champa, Kamboja, etc. All these are in general named Koki."—Taranatha (Tibetan) Hist. of Buddhism, by Schiefner, p. 262. The preceding passage is of great interest as showing a fair general knowledge of the kingdoms of Indo-China on the part of a Tibetan priest, and also as showing that Indo-China was recognised under a general name, viz. Koki.

1696.—"Mr. Bowyear says the Prince of Champa whom he met at the Cochin Chinese Court was very polite to him, and strenuously exhorted him to introduce the English to the dominions of Champa."—In Dalrymple's Or. Repert. i. 67.

CHAMPANA, s. A kind of small vessel. (See SAMPAN.)

CHANDAUL, s. H. Chaṇḍāl, an outcaste, 'used generally for a man of the lowest and most despised of the mixt tribes' (Williams); 'properly one sprung from a Sudra father and Brahman mother' (Wilson). [The last is the definition of the Āīn (ed. Jarrett, iii. 116). Dr. Wilson identifies them with the Kandali or Gondali of Ptolemy (Ind. Caste, i. 57).]

712.—"You have joined those Chandáls and coweaters, and have become one of them."—Chach-Nāmah, in Elliot, i. 193.

[1810.—"Chandela," see quotation under HALALCORE.]

CHANDERNAGORE, n.p. The name of the French settlement on the Hoogly, 24 miles by river above Calcutta, originally occupied in 1673. The name is alleged by Hunter to be properly Chandan(a)-nagara, 'Sandalwood City,' but the usual form points rather to Chandra-nagara, 'Moon City.' [Natives prefer to call it Farash-danga, or 'The gathering together of Frenchmen.']

1727.—"He forced the Ostenders to quit their Factory, and seek protection from the French at Charnagur.... They have a few private Families dwelling near the Factory, and a pretty little Church to hear Mass in, which is the chief Business of the French in Bengal."—A. Hamilton, ii. 18.

[1753.—"Shandernagor." See quotation under CALCUTTA.]

CHANK, CHUNK, s. H. sankh, Skt. sankha, a large kind of shell (Turbinella rapa) prized by the Hindus, and used by them for offering libations, as a horn to blow at the temples, and for cutting into armlets and other ornaments. It is found especially in the Gulf of Manaar, and the Chank fishery was formerly, like that of the pearl-oysters, a Government monopoly (see Tennent's Ceylon, ii. 556, and the references). The abnormal chank, with its spiral opening to the right, is of exceptional value, and has been sometimes priced, it is said, at a lakh of rupees!

c. 545.—"Then there is Sielediba, i.e. Taprobane ... and then again on the continent, and further back is Marallo, which exports conch-shells (κοχλίους)."—Cosmas, in Cathay, I. clxxviii.

851.—"They find on its shores (of Ceylon) the pearl, and the shank, a name by which they designate the great shell which serves for a trumpet, and which is much sought after."—Reinaud, Relations, i. 6.

1563.—"... And this chanco is a ware for the Bengal trade, and formerly it produced more profit than now.... And there was formerly a custom in Bengal that no virgin in honour and esteem could be corrupted unless it were by placing bracelets of chanco on her arms; but since the Patans came in this usage has more or less ceased; and so the chanco is rated lower now...."—Garcia, f. 141.

1644.—"What they chiefly bring (from Tuticorin) are cloths called cachas[7] ... a large quantity of Chanquo; these are large shells which they fish in that sea, and which supply Bengal, where the blacks make of them bracelets for the arm; also the biggest and best fowls in all these Eastern parts."—Bocarro, MS. 316.

1672.—"Garroude flew in all haste to Brahma, and brought to Kisna the chianko, or kinkhorn, twisted to the right."—Baldaeus, Germ. ed. 521.

1673.—"There are others they call chanquo; the shells of which are the Mother of Pearl."—Fryer, 322.

1727.—"It admits of some Trade, and produces Cotton, Corn, coars Cloth, and Chonk, a Shell-fish in shape of a Periwinkle, but as large as a Man's Arm above the Elbow. In Bengal they are saw'd into Rings for Ornaments to Women's Arms."—A. Hamilton, i. 131.

1734.—"Expended towards digging a foundation, where chanks were buried with accustomed ceremonies."—In Wheeler, iii. 147.

1770.—"Upon the same coast is found a shell-fish called xanxus, of which the Indians at Bengal make bracelets."—Raynal (tr. 1777) i. 216.

1813.—"A chank opening to the right hand is highly valued ... always sells for its weight in gold."—Milburn, i. 357.

[1871.—"The conch or chunk shell."—Mateer, Land of Charity, 92.]


"Chanks. Large for Cameos. per 100 10 Rs.
White, live " " 6 "
Wh"te, dead " " 3 "
Table of Customs Duties on Imports
into British India up to 1875.

CHARPOY, s. H. chārpāī, from P. chihār-pāī (i.e. four-feet), the common Indian bedstead, sometimes of very rude materials, but in other cases handsomely wrought and painted. It is correctly described in the quotation from Ibn Batuta.

c. 1350.—"The beds in India are very light. A single man can carry one, and every traveller should have his own bed, which his slave carries about on his head. The bed consists of four conical legs, on which four staves are laid; between they plait a sort of ribbon of silk or cotton. When you lie on it you need nothing else to render the bed sufficiently elastic."—iii. 380.

c. 1540.—"Husain Khan Tashtdár was sent on some business from Bengal. He went on travelling night and day. Whenever sleep came over him he placed himself on a bed (chahār-pāī) and the villagers carried him along on their shoulders."—MS. quoted in Elliot, iv. 418.

1662.—"Turbans, long coats, trowsers, shoes, and sleeping on chárpáis, are quite unusual."—H. of Mir Jumla's Invasion of Assam, transl. by Blochmann, J.A.S.B. xli. pt. i. 80.

1876.—"A syce at Mozuffernuggar, lying asleep on a charpoy ... was killed by a tame buck goring him in the side ... it was supposed in play."—Baldwin, Large and Small Game of Bengal, 195.

1883.—"After a gallop across country, he would rest on a charpoy, or country bed, and hold an impromptu levee of all the village folk."—C. Raikes, in L. of L. Lawrence, i. 57.

CHATTA, s. An umbrella; H. chhātā, chhatr; Skt. chhatra.

c. 900.—"He is clothed in a waist-cloth, and holds in his hand a thing called a Jatra; this is an umbrella made of peacock's feathers."—Reinaud, Relations, &c. 154.

c. 1340.—"They hoist upon these elephants as many chatrās, or umbrellas of silk, mounted with many precious stones, and with handles of pure gold."—Ibn Batuta, iii. 228.

c. 1354.—"But as all the Indians commonly go naked, they are in the habit of carrying a thing like a little tent-roof on a cane handle, which they open out at will as a protection against sun and rain. This they call a chatyr. I brought one home to Florence with me...."—John Marignolli, in Cathay, &c. p. 381.

1673.—"Thus the chief Naik with his loud Musick ... an Ensign of Red, Swallow-tailed, several Chitories, little but rich Kitsolls (which are the Names of several Countries for Umbrelloes)...."—Fryer, 160.

[1694.—"3 chatters."—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. ii. cclxv.

[1826.—"Another as my chitree-burdar or umbrella-carrier."—Pandurang Hari, ed. 1873, i. 28.]

CHATTY, s. An earthen pot, spheroidal in shape. It is a S. Indian word, but is tolerably familiar in the Anglo-Indian parlance of N. India also, though the H. Ghurra (ghaṛā) is more commonly used there. The word is Tam. shāṭi, shaṭṭi, Tel. chatti, which appears in Pali as chāḍi.

1781.—"In honour of His Majesty's birthday we had for dinner fowl cutlets and a flour pudding, and drank his health in a chatty of sherbet."—Narr. of an Officer of Baillie's Detachment, quoted in Lives of the Lindsays, iii. 285.

1829.—"The chatties in which the women carry water are globular earthen vessels, with a bell-mouth at top."—Mem. of Col. Mountain, 97.

CHAW, s. For chā, i.e. Tea (q.v.).

1616.—"I sent ... a silver chaw pot and a fan to Capt. China wife."—Cock's Diary, i. 215.

CHAWBUCK, s. and v. A whip; to whip. An obsolete vulgarism from P. chābuk, 'alert'; in H. 'a horse-whip.' It seems to be the same as the sjambok in use at the Cape, and apparently carried from India (see the quotation from Van Twist). [Mr. Skeat points out that Klinkert gives chambok or sambok, as Javanese forms, the standard Malay being chabok or chabuk; and this perhaps suggests that the word may have been introduced by Malay grooms once largely employed at the Cape.]

1648.—"... Poor and little thieves are flogged with a great whip (called Siamback) several days in succession."—Van Twist, 29.

1673.—"Upon any suspicion of default he has a Black Guard that by a Chawbuck, a great Whip, extorts Confession."—Fryer, 98.

1673.—"The one was of an Armenian, Chawbucked through the City for selling of Wine."—Ibid. 97.

1682.—"... Ramgivan, our Vekeel there (at Hugly) was sent for by Permesuradass, Bulchund's servant, who immediately clapt him in prison. Ye same day was brought forth and slippered; the next day he was beat on ye soles of his feet, ye third day Chawbuckt, and ye 4th drub'd till he could not speak, and all to force a writing in our names to pay Rupees 50,000 for custome of ye Silver brought out this year."—Hedges, Diary, Nov. 2; [Hak. Soc. i. 45].

[1684–5.—"Notwithstanding his being a great person was soon stripped and chawbuckt."—Pringle, Madras Consns. iv. 4.]

1688.—"Small offenders are only whipt on the Back, which sort of Punishment they call Chawbuck."—Dampier, ii. 138.

1699.—"The Governor of Surrat ordered the cloth Broker to be tyed up and chawbucked."—Letter from General and Council at Bombay to E. I. C. (in Record Office), 23rd March, 1698–9.

1726.—"Another Pariah he chawbucked 25 blows, put him in the Stocks, and kept him there an hour."—Wheeler, ii. 410.

1756.—"... a letter from Mr. Hastings ... says that the Nabob to engage the Dutch and French to purchase also, had put peons upon their Factories and threatened their Vaquills with the Chaubac."—In Long, 79.

1760.—"Mr. Barton, laying in wait, seized Benautrom Chattogee opposite to the door of the Council, and with the assistance of his bearer and his peons tied his hands and his feet, swung him upon a bamboo like a hog, carried him to his own house, there with his own hand chawbooked him in the most cruel manner, almost to the deprivation of life; endeavoured to force beef into his mouth, to the irreparable loss of his Bramin's caste, and all this without giving ear to, or suffering the man to speak in his own defence...."—Fort Wm. Consn., in Long, 214–215.


"The sentinels placed at the door
Are for our security bail;
With Muskets and Chaubucks secure,
They guard us in Bangalore Jail."
Song, by a Gentleman of the Navy
(prisoner with Hyder) in Seton-Karr, i. 18.

1817.—"... ready to prescribe his favourite regimen of the Chabuk for every man, woman, or child who dared to think otherwise."—Lalla Rookh.

CHAWBUCKSWAR, s. H. from P. chābuk-suwār, a rough-rider.

[1820.—"As I turned him short, he threw up his head, which came in contact with mine and made my chabookswar exclaim, Ali mudat, 'the help of Ali.'"—Tod, Personal Narr. Calcutta rep. ii. 723.

[1892.—"A sort of high-stepping caper is taught, the chabuksowar (whip-rider), or breaker, holding, in addition to the bridle, cords tied to the fore fetlocks."—Kipling, Beast and Man in India, 171.]

CHEBULI. The denomination of one of the kinds of Myrobolans (q.v.) exported from India. The true etymology is probably Kābulī, as stated by Thevenot, i.e. 'from Cabul.'

c. 1343.—"Chebuli mirabolani."—List of Spices, &c., in Pegolotti (Della Decima, iii. 303).

c. 1665.—"De la Province de Caboul ... les Mirabolans croissent dans les Montagnes et c'est la cause pourquoi les Orientaux les appelent Cabuly."—Thevenot, v. 172.

CHEECHEE, adj. A disparaging term applied to half-castes or Eurasians (q.v.) (corresponding to the Lip-lap of the Dutch in Java) and also to their manner of speech. The word is said to be taken from chī (Fie!), a common native (S. Indian) interjection of remonstrance or reproof, supposed to be much used by the class in question. The term is, however, perhaps also a kind of onomatopœia, indicating the mincing pronunciation which often characterises them (see below). It should, however, be added that there are many well-educated East Indians who are quite free from this mincing accent.


"Pretty little Looking-Glasses,
Good and cheap for Chee-chee Misses."
Hicky's Bengal Gazette, March 17.

1873.—"He is no favourite with the pure native, whose language he speaks as his own in addition to the hybrid minced English (known as chee-chee), which he also employs."—Fraser's Magazine, Oct., 437.

1880.—"The Eurasian girl is often pretty and graceful.... 'What though upon her lips there hung The accents of her tchi-tchi tongue.'"—Sir Ali Baba, 122.

1881.—"There is no doubt that the 'Chee Chee twang,' which becomes so objectionable to every Englishman before he has been long in the East, was originally learned in the convent and the Brothers' school, and will be clung to as firmly as the queer turns of speech learned in the same place."—St. James's Gazette, Aug. 26.

CHEENAR, s. P. chīnār, the Oriental Plane (Platanus orientalis) and platanus of the ancients; native from Greece to Persia. It is often by English travellers in Persia miscalled sycamore from confusion with the common British tree (Acer pseudoplatanus), which English people also habitually miscall sycamore, and Scotch people miscall plane-tree! Our quotations show how old the confusion is. The tree is not a native of India, though there are fine chīnārs in Kashmere, and a few in old native gardens in the Punjab, introduced in the days of the Moghul emperors. The tree is the Arbre Sec of Marco Polo (see 2nd ed. vol. i. 131, 132). Chīnārs of especial vastness and beauty are described by Herodotus and Pliny, by Chardin and others. At Buyukdereh near Constantinople, is still shown the Plane under which Godfrey of Boulogne is said to have encamped. At Tejrīsh, N. of Teheran, Sir H. Rawlinson tells us that he measured a great chīnār which has a girth of 108 feet at 5 feet from the ground.

c. 1628.—"The gardens here are many ... abounding in lofty pyramidall cypresses, broad-spreading Chenawrs...."—Sir T. Herbert, 136.

1677.—"We had a fair Prospect of the City (Ispahan) filling the one half of an ample Plain, few Buildings ... shewing themselves by reason of the high Chinors, or Sicamores shading the choicest of them...."—Fryer, 259.

" "We in our Return cannot but take notice of the famous Walk between the two Cities of Jelfa and Ispahaun; it is planted with two rows of Sycamores (which is the tall Maple, not the Sycamore of Alkair)."—Ibid. 286.

1682.—"At the elegant villa and garden at Mr. Bohun's at Lee. He shewed me the Zinnar tree or platanus, and told me that since they had planted this kind of tree about the Citty of Ispahan ... the plague ... had exceedingly abated of its mortal effects."—Evelyn's Diary, Sept. 16.

1726.—"... the finest road that you can imagine ... planted in the middle with 135 Sennaar trees on one side and 132 on the other."—Valentijn, v. 208.

1783.—"This tree, which in most parts of Asia is called the Chinaur, grows to the size of an oak, and has a taper straight trunk, with a silver-coloured bark, and its leaf, not unlike an expanded hand, is of a pale green."—G. Forster's Journey, ii. 17.


"... they seem
Like the Chenar-tree grove, where winter throws
O'er all its tufted heads its feathery snows."

[1835.—"... the island Char chúnar ... a skilful monument of the Moghul Emperor, who named it from the four plane trees he planted on the spot."—Hügel, Travels in Kashmir, 112.

[1872.—"I ... encamped under some enormous chunar or oriental plane trees."—Wilson, Abode of Snow, 370.]

Chīnār is alleged to be in Badakhshān applied to a species of poplar.

CHEENY, s. See under SUGAR.

1810.—"The superior kind (of raw sugar) which may often be had nearly white ... and sharp-grained, under the name of cheeny."—Williamson, V. M. ii. 134.

CHEESE, s. This word is well known to be used in modern English slang for "anything good, first-rate in quality, genuine, pleasant, or advantageous" (Slang Dict.). And the most probable source of the term is P. and H. chīz, 'thing.' For the expression used to be common among Anglo-Indians, e.g., "My new Arab is the real chīz"; "These cheroots are the real chīz," i.e. the real thing. The word may have been an Anglo-Indian importation, and it is difficult otherwise to account for it. [This view is accepted by the N.E.D.; for other explanations see 1 ser. N. & Q. viii. 89; 3 ser. vii. 465, 505.]

CHEETA, s. H. chītā, the Felis jubata, Schreber, [Cynaelurus jubatus, Blanford], or 'Hunting Leopard,' so called from its being commonly trained to use in the chase. From Skt. chitraka, or chitrakāya, lit. 'having a speckled body.'

1563.—"... and when they wish to pay him much honour they call him Ráo; as for example Chita-Ráo, whom I am acquainted with; and this is a proud name, for Chita signifies 'Ounce' (or panther) and this Chita-Rao means 'King as strong as a Panther.'"—Garcia, f. 36.

c. 1596.—"Once a leopard (chīta) had been caught, and without previous training, on a mere hint by His Majesty, it brought in the prey, like trained leopards."—Āīn-i-Akbarī, ed. Blochmann, i. 286.

1610.—Hawkins calls the Cheetas at Akbar's Court 'ounces for game.'—In Purchas, i. 218.

[1785.—"The Cheetah-connah, the place where the Nabob's panthers and other animals for hunting are kept."—Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. ii. 450.]

1862.—"The true Cheetah, the Hunting Leopard of India, does not exist in Ceylon."—Tennent, i. 140.

1879.—"Two young cheetahs had just come in from Bombay; one of these was as tame as a house-cat, and like the puma, purred beautifully when stroked."—"Jamrach's," in Sat. Review, May 17, p. 612.

It has been ingeniously suggested by Mr. Aldis Wright that the word cheater, as used by Shakspere, in the following passage, refers to this animal:—

Falstaff: "He's no swaggerer, Hostess; a tame cheater i' faith; you may stroke him gently as a puppy greyhound; he'll not swagger."—2nd Part King Henry IV. ii. 4.

Compare this with the passage just quoted from the Saturday Review! And the interpretation would rather derive confirmation from a parallel passage from Beaumont & Fletcher:

"... if you give any credit to the juggling rascal, you are worse than simple widgeons, and will be drawn into the net by this decoy-duck, this tame cheater."—The Fair Maid of the Inn, iv. 2.

But we have not been able to trace any possible source from which Shakspere could have derived the name of the animal at all, to say nothing of the familiar use of it. [The N.E.D. gives no support to the suggestion.]

CHELING, CHELI, s. The word is applied by some Portuguese writers to the traders of Indian origin who were settled at Malacca. It is not found in the Malay dictionaries, and it is just possible that it originated in some confusion of Quelin (see KLING) and Chuli (see CHOOLIA), or rather of Quelin and Chetin (see CHETTY).

1567.—"From the cohabitation of the Chelins of Malaqua with the Christians in the same street (even although in divers houses) spring great offences against God our Lord."—Decrees of the Sacred Council of Goa, in Archiv. Port. Orient., Dec. 23.

1613.—"E depois daquelle porto aberto e franqueado aportarão mercadores de Choromandel; mormente aquelles chelis com roupas...."—Godinho de Eredia, 4v.

" "This settlement is divided into two parishes, S. Thome and S. Estevão, and that part of S. Thome called Campon Chelim extends from the shore of the Jaos Bazar to the N.W. and terminates at the Stone Bastion; in this part dwell the Chelis of Choromandel."—Godinho de Eredia, 5v. See also f. 22, [and under CAMPOO].

CHELINGO, s. Arab. shalandī, [whence Malayāl. chalanti, Tam. shalangu;] "djalanga, qui va sur l'eau; chalangue, barque, bateau dont les planches sont clouées" (Dict. Tam. Franc., Pondichéry, 1855). This seems an unusual word, and is perhaps connected through the Arabic with the medieval vessel chelandia, chelandria, chelindras, chelande, &c., used in carrying troops and horses. [But in its present form the word is S. Indian.]

1726.—"... as already a Chialeng (a sort of small native row-boat, which is used for discharging and loading cargo)...."—Valentijn, V. Chor. 20.


"Chillinga hire . . . . . . . 0 22  0"
Account charges at Fort St. David,
Decr. 31, MS. in India Office.

1761.—"It appears there is no more than one frigate that has escaped; therefore don't lose an instant to send us chelingoes upon chelingoes loaded with rice...."—Lally to Raymond at Pulicat. In Comp. H. of the War in India (Tract), 1761, p. 85.

" "No more than one frigate has escaped; lose not an instant in sending chelingoes upon chelingoes loaded with rice."—Carraccioli's Life of Clive, i. 58.

CHEROOT, s. A cigar; but the term has been appropriated specially to cigars truncated at both ends, as the Indian and Manilla cigars always were in former days. The word is Tam. shuruṭṭu, [Mal. churuṭṭu,] 'a roll (of tobacco).' In the South cheroots are chiefly made at Trichinopoly and in the Godavery Delta, the produce being known respectively as Trichies and Lunkas. The earliest occurrence of the word that we know is in Father Beschi's Tamil story of Parmartta Guru (c. 1725). On p. 1 one of the characters is described as carrying a firebrand to light his pugaiyailai shshuruṭṭu, 'roll (cheroot) of tobacco.' [The N.E.D. quotes cheroota in 1669.] Grose (1750–60), speaking of Bombay, whilst describing the cheroot does not use that word, but another which is, as far as we know, entirely obsolete in British India, viz. Buncus (q.v.).

1759.—In the expenses of the Nabob's entertainment at Calcutta in this year we find:

"60 lbs. of Masulipatam cheroots, Rs. 500."—In Long, 194.

1781.—"... am tormented every day by a parcel of gentlemen coming to the end of my berth to talk politics and smoke cheroots—advise them rather to think of mending the holes in their old shirts, like me."—Hon. J. Lindsay (in Lives of the Lindsays), iii. 297.

" "Our evening amusements instead of your stupid Harmonics, was playing Cards and Backgammon, chewing Beetle and smoking Cherutes."—Old Country Captain, in India Gazette, Feby. 24.

1782.—"Le tabac y réussit très bien; les chiroutes de Manille sont renommées dans toute l'Inde par leur goût agréable; aussi les Dames dans ce pays fument-elles toute la journée."—Sonnerat, Voyage, iii. 43.

1792.—"At that time (c. 1757) I have seen the officers mount guard many's the time and oft ... neither did they at that time carry your fusees, but had a long Pole with an iron head to it.... With this in one Hand and a Chiroot in the other you saw them saluting away at the Main Guard."—Madras Courier, April 3.

1810.—"The lowest classes of Europeans, as also of the natives ... frequently smoke cheroots, exactly corresponding with the Spanish segar, though usually made rather more bulky."—Williamson, V. M. i. 499.

1811.—"Dire que le T'cherout est la cigarre, c'est me dispenser d'en faire la description."—Solvyns, iii.

[1823.—"He amused himself by smoking several carrotes."—Owen, Narr. ii. 50.]

1875.—"The meal despatched, all who were not on duty lay down ... almost too tired to smoke their cheroots before falling asleep."—The Dilemma, ch. xxxvii.

CHERRY FOUJ, s. H. charī-fauj? This curious phrase occurs in the quotations, the second of which explains its meaning. I am not certain what the first part is, but it is most probably charī, in the sense of 'movable,' 'locomotive,' so that the phrase was equivalent to 'flying brigade.' [It may possibly be chaṛhī, for chaṛhnī, in the sense of 'preparation for battle.'] It was evidently a technicality of the Mahratta armies.

1803.—"The object of a cherry fouj, without guns, with two armies after it, must be to fly about and plunder the richest country it can find, not to march through exhausted countries, to make revolutions in cities."—Elphinstone, in Life, i. 59.

1809.—"Two detachments under ... Mahratta chiefs of some consequence, are now employed in levying contributions in different parts of the Jypoor country. Such detachments are called churee fuoj; they are generally equipped very lightly, with but little artillery; and are equally formidable in their progress to friend and foe."—Broughton, Letters from a Mahratta Camp, 128; [ed. 1892, p. 96].

CHETTY, s. A member of any of the trading castes in S. India, answering in every way to the Banyans of W. and N. India. Malayāl. cheṭṭi, Tam. sheṭṭi, [Tel. seṭṭi, in Ceylon seḍḍi]. These have all been supposed to be forms from the Skt. śreshṭi; but C. P. Brown (MS.) denies this, and says "Shetti, a shop-keeper, is plain Telegu," and quite distinct from śreshṭi. [The same view is taken in the Madras Gloss.] Whence then the H. Seṭh (see SETT)? [The word was also used for a 'merchantman': see the quotations from Pyrard on which Gray notes: "I do not know any other authority for the use of the word for merchantships, though it is analogous to our merchantmen.'"]

c. 1349.—The word occurs in Ibn Batuta (iv. 259) in the form ṣăti, which he says was given to very rich merchants in China; and this is one of his questionable statements about that country.

1511.—"The great Afonso Dalboquerque ... determined to appoint Ninachatu, because he was a Hindoo, Governor of the Quilins (Cheling) and Chetins."—Comment. of Af. Dalboq., Hak. Soc. iii. 128; [and see quotation from ibid. iii. 146, under KLING].

1516.—"Some of these are called Chettis, who are Gentiles, natives of the province of Cholmender."—Barbosa, 144.

1552.—"... whom our people commonly call Chatis. These are men with such a genius for merchandise, and so acute in every mode of trade, that among our people when they desire either to blame or praise any man for his subtlety and skill in merchant's traffic they say of him, 'he is a Chatim'; and they use the word chatinar for 'to trade,'—which are words now very commonly received among us."—Barros, I. ix. 3.

c. 1566.—"Ui sono uomini periti che si chiamano Chitini, li quali metteno il prezzo alle perle."—Cesare Federici, in Ramusio, iii. 390.

1596.—"The vessels of the Chatins of these parts never sail along the coast of Malavar nor towards the north, except in a cafilla, in order to go and come more securely, and to avoid being cut off by the Malavars and other corsairs, who are continually roving in those seas."—Viceroy's Proclamation at Goa, in Archiv. Port. Or., fasc. 3, 661.

1598.—"The Souldiers in these dayes give themselves more to be Chettijns [var. lect. Chatiins] and to deale in Marchandise, than to serve the King in his Armado."—Linschoten, 58; [Hak. Soc. i. 202].

[" "Most of these vessels were Chetils, that is to say, merchantmen."—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 345.

[c. 1610.—"Each is composed of fifty or sixty war galiots, without counting those of chetie, or merchantmen."—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. ii. 117.]

1651.—"The Sitty are merchant folk."—Rogerius, 8.

1686.—"... And that if the Chetty Bazaar people do not immediately open their shops, and sell their grain, etc., as usually, that the goods and commodities in their several ships be confiscated."—In Wheeler, i. 152.

1726.—"The Sittis are merchant folk and also porters...."—Valentijn, Choro. 88.

" "The strength of a Bramin is Knowledge; the strength of a King is Courage; the strength of a Bellale (or Cultivator) is Revenue; the strength of a Chetti is Money."—Apophthegms of Ceylon, tr. in Valentijn, v. 390.

c. 1754.—"Chitties are a particular kind of merchants in Madras, and are generally very rich, but rank with the left-hand cast."—Ives, 25.

1796.—"Cetti, mercanti astuti, diligenti, laboriosi, sobrii, frugali, ricchi."—Fra Paolino, 79.

[CHEYLA, s. "Originally a H. word (chelā, Skt. cheṭaka, cheḍaka) meaning 'a servant,' many changes have been rung upon it in Hindu life, so that it has meant a slave, a household slave, a family retainer, an adopted member of a great family, a dependant relative and a soldier in its secular senses; a follower, a pupil, a disciple and a convert in its ecclesiastical senses. It has passed out of Hindu usage into Muhammadan usage with much the same meanings and ideas attached to it, and has even meant a convert from Hinduism to Islam." (Col. Temple, in Ind. Ant., July, 1896, pp. 200 seqq.). In Anglo-Indian usage it came to mean a special battalion made up of prisoners and converts.

[c. 1596.—"The Chelahs or Slaves. His Majesty from religious motives dislikes the name bandah or slave.... He therefore calls this class of men Chelahs, which Hindi term signifies a faithful disciple."—Āīn, Blochmann, i. 253 seqq.

[1791.—"(The Europeans) all were bound on the parade and rings (boly) the badge of slavery were put into their ears. They were then incorporated into a battalion of Cheylas."—In Seton-Karr, ii. 311.

[1795.—"... a Havildar ... compelled to serve in one of his Chela Corps."—Ibid. ii. 407.]

CHIAMAY, n.p. The name of an imaginary lake, which in the maps of the 16th century, followed by most of those of the 17th, is made the source of most of the great rivers of Further India, including the Brahmaputra, the Irawadi, the Salwen, and the Menam. Lake Chiamay was the counterpart of the African lake of the same period which is made the source of all the great rivers of Africa, but it is less easy to suggest what gave rise to this idea of it. The actual name seems taken from the State of Zimmé (see JANGOMAY) or Chiang-mai.

c. 1544.—"So proceeding onward, he arrived at the Lake of Singipamor, which ordinarily is called Chiammay...."—F. M. Pinto, Cogan's tr., p. 271.

1552.—"The Lake of Chiamai, which stands to the northward, 200 leagues in the interior, and from which issue six notable streams, three of which combining with others form the great river which passes through the midst of Siam, whilst the other three discharge into the Gulf of Bengala."—Barros, I. ix. 1.


"Olha o rio Menão, que se derrama
Do grande lago, que Chiamai se chama."
Camões, x. 125.

1652.—"The Countrey of these Brames ... extendeth Northwards from the neerest Peguan Kingdomes ... watered with many great and remarkable Rivers, issuing from the Lake Chiamay, which though 600 miles from the Sea, and emptying itself continually into so many Channels, contains 400 miles in compass, and is nevertheless full of waters for the one or the other."—P. Heylin's Cosmographie, ii. 238.

CHICANE, CHICANERY, ss. These English words, signifying pettifogging, captious contention, taking every possible advantage in a contest, have been referred to Spanish chico, 'little,' and to Fr. chic, chicquet, 'a little bit,' as by Mr. Wedgwood in his Dict. of Eng. Etymology. See also quotation from Saturday Review below. But there can be little doubt that the words are really traceable to the game of chaugān, or horse-golf. This game is now well known in England under the name of Polo (q.v.). But the recent introduction under that name is its second importation into Western Europe. For in the Middle Ages it came from Persia to Byzantium, where it was popular under a modification of its Persian name (verb τζυκανίζειν, playing ground τζυκανιστήριον), and from Byzantium it passed, as a pedestrian game, to Languedoc, where it was called, by a further modification, chicane (see Ducange, Dissertations sur l'Histoire de St. Louis, viii., and his Glossarium Graecitatis, s.v. τζυκανίζειν; also Ouseley's Travels, i. 345). The analogy of certain periods of the game of golf suggests how the figurative meaning of chicaner might arise in taking advantage of the petty accidents of the surface. And this is the strict meaning of chicaner, as used by military writers.

Ducange's idea was that the Greeks had borrowed both the game and the name from France, but this is evidently erroneous. He was not aware of the Persian chaugān. But he explains well how the tactics of the game would have led to the application of its name to "those tortuous proceedings of pleaders which we old practitioners call barres." The indication of the Persian origin of both the Greek and French words is due to W. Ouseley and to Quatremère. The latter has an interesting note, full of his usual wealth of Oriental reading, in his translation of Makrizi's Mameluke Sultans, tom. i. pt. i. pp. 121 seqq.

The preceding etymology was put forward again in Notes upon Mr. Wedgwood's Dictionary published by one of the present writers in Ocean Highways, Sept. 1872, p. 186. The same etymology has since been given by Littré (s.v.), who says: "Dès lors, la série des sens est: jeu de mail, puis action de disputer la partie, et enfin manœuvres processives"; [and is accepted by the N.E.D. with the reservation that "evidence actually connecting the French with the Greek word appears not to be known"].

The P. forms of the name are chaugān and chauigān; but according to the Bahāri 'Ajam (a great Persian dictionary compiled in India, 1768) the primitive form of the word is chulgān from chūl, 'bent,' which (as to the form) is corroborated by the Arabic sawljān. On the other hand, a probable origin of chaugān would be an Indian (Prakrit) word, meaning 'four corners' [Platts gives chaugāna, 'four-fold'], viz. as a name for the polo-ground. The chulgān is possibly a 'striving after meaning.' The meanings are according to Vüllers (1) any stick with a crook; (2) such a stick used as a drumstick; (3) a crook from which a steel ball is suspended, which was one of the royal insignia, otherwise called kaukaba [see Blochmann, Āīn, vol. i. plate ix. No. 2.]; (4) (The golf-stick, and) the game of horse-golf.

The game is now quite extinct in Persia and Western Asia, surviving only in certain regions adjoining India, as is specified under Polo. But for many centuries it was the game of kings and courts over all Mahommedan Asia. The earliest Mahommedan historians represent the game of chaugān as familiar to the Sassanian kings; Ferdusi puts the chaugān-stick into the hands of Siāwūsh, the father of Kai Khusrū or Cyrus; many famous kings were devoted to the game, among whom may be mentioned Nūruddīn the Just, Atābek of Syria and the great enemy of the Crusaders. He was so fond of the game that he used (like Akbar in after days) to play it by lamp-light, and was severely rebuked by a devout Mussulman for being so devoted to a mere amusement. Other zealous chaugān-players were the great Saladin, Jalāluddīn Mankbarni of Khwārizm, and Malik Bībars, Marco Polo's "Bendocquedar Soldan of Babylon," who was said more than once to have played chaugān at Damascus and at Cairo within the same week. Many illustrious persons also are mentioned in Asiatic history as having met their death by accidents in the maidān, as the chaugān-field was especially called; e.g. Ḳutbuddīn Ībak of Delhi, who was killed by such a fall at Lahore in (or about) 1207. In Makrizi (I. i. 121) we read of an Amīr at the Mameluke Court called Husāmuddīn Lajīn 'Azīzī the Jukāndār (or Lord High Polo-stick).

It is not known when the game was conveyed to Constantinople, but it must have been not later than the beginning of the 8th century.[8] The fullest description of the game as played there is given by Johannes Cinnamus (c. 1190), who does not however give the barbarian name:

"The winter now being over and the gloom cleared away, he (the Emperor Manuel Comnenus) devoted himself to a certain sober exercise which from the first had been the custom of the Emperors and their sons to practise. This is the manner thereof. A party of young men divide into two equal bands, and in a flat space which has been measured out purposely they cast a leather ball in size somewhat like an apple; and setting this in the middle as if it were a prize to be contended for they rush into the contest at full speed, each grasping in his right hand a stick of moderate length which comes suddenly to a broad rounded end, the middle of which is closed by a network of dried catgut. Then each party strives who shall first send the ball beyond the goal planted conspicuously on the opposite side, for whenever the ball is struck by the netted sticks through the goal at either side, that gives the victory to the other side. This is the kind of game, evidently a slippery and dangerous one. For a player must be continually throwing himself right back, or bending to one side or the other, as he turns his horse short, or suddenly dashes off at speed, with such strokes and twists as are needed to follow up the ball.... And thus as the Emperor was rushing round in furious fashion in this game, it so happened that the horse which he rode came violently to the ground. He was prostrate below the horse, and as he struggled vainly to extricate himself from its incumbent weight his thigh and hand were crushed beneath the saddle and much injured...."—In Bonn ed. pp. 263–264.

We see from this passage that at Byzantium the game was played with a kind of racket, and not with a polo-stick.

We have not been able to find an instance of the medieval French chicane in this sense, nor does Littré's Dictionary give any. But Ducange states positively that in his time the word in this sense survived in Languedoc, and there could be no better evidence. From Henschel's Ducange also we borrow a quotation which shows chuca, used for some game of ball, in French-Latin, surely a form of chaugān or chicane.

The game of chaugān, the ball ( or gavī) and the playing-ground (maidān) afford constant metaphors in Persian literature.

c. 820.—"If a man dream that he is on horseback along with the King himself, or some great personage, and that he strikes the ball home, or wins the chukān (ἤτοι τζυκανίζει) he shall find grace and favour thereupon, conformable to the success of his ball and the dexterity of his horse." Again: "If the King dream that he has won in the chukān (ὅτι ἐτζυκανίζεν) he shall find things prosper with him."—The Dream Judgments of Achmet Ibn Seirim, from a MS. Greek version quoted by Ducange in Gloss. Graecitatis.

c. 940.—Constantine Porphyrogenitus, speaking of the rapids of the Danapris or Dnieper, says: "ὁ δὲ τούτο φραγμὸς τοσοῦτον ἐστι στενὸς ὅσον τὸ πλάτος τοῦ τζυκανιστηρίου ("The defile in this case is as narrow as the width of the chukan-ground.")—De Adm. Imp., cap. ix. (Bonn ed. iii. 75).

969.—"Cumque inquisitionis sedicio non modica petit pro Constantino ... ex ea parte qua Zucanistri magnitudo portenditur, Constantinus crines solutus per cancellos caput exposuit, suaque ostensione populi mox tumultum sedavit."—Liudprandus, in Pertz, Mon. Germ., iii. 333.

"... he selected certain of his medicines and drugs, and made a goff-stick (jaukan?) [Burton, 'a bat'] with a hollow handle, into which he introduced them; after which ... he went again to the King ... and directed him to repair to the horse-course, and to play with the ball and goff-stick...."—Lane's Arabian Nights, i. 85–86; [Burton, i. 43].

c. 1030–40.—"Whenever you march ... you must take these people with you, and you must ... not allow them to drink wine or to play at chaughān."—Baihaki, in Elliot, ii. 120.

1416.—"Bernardus de Castro novo et nonnulli alii in studio Tholosano studentes, ad ludum lignobolini sive Chucarum luderunt pro vino et volema, qui ludus est quasi ludus billardi," &c.—MS. quoted in Henschel's Ducange.

c. 1420.—"The Τζυκανιστήριον was founded by Theodosius the Less ... Basilius the Macedonian extended and levelled the Τζυκανιστήριον."—Georgius Codinus de Antiq. Constant., Bonn ed. 81–82.

1516.—Barbosa, speaking of the Mahommedans of Cambay, says: "Saom tam ligeiros e manhosos na sela que a cavalo jogaom ha choqua, ho qual joguo eles tem antre sy na conta em que nos temos ho das canas"—(Lisbon ed. 271); i.e. "They are so swift and dexterous in the saddle that they play choca on horseback, a game which they hold in as high esteem as we do that of the canes" (i.e. the jereed).

1560.—"They (the Arabs) are such great riders that they play tennis on horseback" (que jogão a choca a cavallo).—Tenreiro, Itinerario, ed. 1762, p. 359.

c. 1590.—"His Majesty also plays at chaugán in dark nights ... the balls which are used at night are set on fire.... For the sake of adding splendour to the games ... His Majesty has knobs of gold and silver fixed to the tops of the chaugán sticks. If one of them breaks, any player that gets hold of the pieces may keep them."—Āīn-i-Akbarī, i. 298; [ii. 303].

1837.—"The game of choughan mentioned by Baber is still played everywhere in Tibet; it is nothing but 'hockey on horseback,' and is excellent fun."—Vigne, in J. A. S. Bengal, vi. 774.

In the following I would say, in justice to the great man whose words are quoted, that chicane is used in the quasi-military sense of taking every possible advantage of the ground in a contest:

1761.—"I do suspect that some of the great Ones have had hopes given to them that the Dutch may be induced to join us in this war against the Spaniards,—if such an Event should take place I fear some sacrifices will be made in the East Indies—I pray God my suspicions may be without foundation. I think Delays and Chicanery is allowable against those who take Advantage of the times, our Distresses, and situation."—Unpublished Holograph Letter from Lord Clive, in India Office Records. Dated Berkeley Square, and indorsed 27th Decr. 1761.

1881.—"One would at first sight be inclined to derive the French chic from the English 'cheek'; but it appears that the English is itself the derived word, chic being an old Romance word signifying finesse, or subtlety, and forming the root of our own word chicanery."—Sat. Rev., Sept. 10, p. 326 (Essay on French Slang).


a. H.—P. chik; a kind of screen-blind made of finely-split bamboo, laced with twine, and often painted on the outer side. It is hung or framed in doorways or windows, both in houses and in tents. The thing [which is described by Roe,] may possibly have come in with the Mongols, for we find in Kovalefski's Mongol Dict. (2174) "Tchik = Natte." The Āīn (i. 226) has chigh. Chicks are now made in London, as well as imported from China and Japan. Chicks are described by Clavijo in the tents of Timour's chief wife:

1404.—"And this tent had two doors, one in front of the other, and the first doors were of certain thin coloured wands, joined one to another like in a hurdle, and covered on the outside with a texture of rose-coloured silk, and finely woven; and these doors were made in this fashion, in order that when shut the air might yet enter, whilst those within could see those outside, but those outside could not see those who were within."—§ cxxvi.

[1616.—His wives "whose Curiositye made them breake little holes in a grate of reede that hung before it to gaze on mee."—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 321.]

1673.—"Glass is dear, and scarcely purchaseable ... therefore their Windows are usually folding doors, screened with Cheeks or latises."—Fryer, 92.

The pron. cheek is still not uncommon among English people:—"The Coach where the Women were was covered with cheeks, a sort of hanging Curtain, made with Bents variously coloured with Lacker, and Checquered with Packthred so artificially that you see all without, and yourself within unperceived."—Fryer, 83.

1810.—"Cheeks or Screens to keep out the glare."—Williamson, V. M. ii. 43.

1825.—"The check of the tent prevents effectually any person from seeing what passes within...."—Heber (ed. 1844), i. 192.

b. Short for chickeen, a sum of four rupees. This is the Venetian zecchino, cecchino, or sequin, a gold coin long current on the shores of India, and which still frequently turns up in treasure-trove, and in hoards. In the early part of the 15th century Nicolo Conti mentions that in some parts of India, Venetian ducats, i.e. sequins, were current (p. 30). And recently, in fact in our own day, chick was a term in frequent Anglo-Indian use, e.g. "I'll bet you a chick."

The word zecchino is from the Zecca, or Mint at Venice, and that name is of Arabic origin, from sikka, 'a coining die.' The double history of this word is curious. We have just seen how in one form, and by what circuitous secular journey, through Egypt, Venice, India, it has gained a place in the Anglo-Indian Vocabulary. By a directer route it has also found a distinct place in the same repository under the form Sicca (q.v.), and in this shape it still retains a ghostly kind of existence at the India Office. It is remarkable how first the spread of Saracenic power and civilisation, then the spread of Venetian commerce and coinage, and lastly the spread of English commerce and power, should thus have brought together two words identical in origin, after so widely divergent a career.

The sequin is sometimes called in the South shānārcash, because the Doge with his sceptre is taken for the Shānār, or toddy-drawer climbing the palm-tree! [See Burnell, Linschoten, i. 243.] (See also VENETIAN.)

We apprehend that the gambling phrases 'chicken-stakes' and 'chicken-hazard' originate in the same word.

1583.—"Chickinos which be pieces of Golde woorth seuen shillings a piece sterling."—Caesar Frederici, in Hakl. ii. 343.

1608.—"When I was there (at Venice) a chiquiney was worth eleven livers and twelve sols."—Coryat's Crudities, ii. 68.

1609.—"Three or four thousand chequins were as pretty a proportion to live quietly on, and so give over."—Pericles, P. of Tyre, iv. 2.

1612.—"The Grand Signiors Custome of this Port Moha is worth yearly unto him 1500 chicquenes."—Saris, in Purchas, i. 348.

[1616.—"Shee tooke chickenes and royalls for her goods."—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. i. 228.]

1623.—"Shall not be worth a chequin, if it were knock'd at an outcry."—Beaum. & Flet., The Maid in the Mill, v. 2.

1689.—"Four Thousand Checkins he privately tied to the flooks of an Anchor under Water."—Ovington, 418.

1711.—"He (the Broker) will charge 32 Shahees per Chequeen when they are not worth 31½ in the Bazar."—Lockyer, 227.

1727.—"When my Barge landed him, he gave the Cockswain five Zequeens, and loaded her back with Poultry and Fruit."—A. Hamilton, i. 301; ed. 1744, i. 303.


*          *          *          *          *         
"Chequins 5 at 5.Arcot Rs. 25 0 0"
*          *          *          *          *         
Lord Clive's Account of his Voyage to India,
in Long, 497.


"Whenever master spends a chick,
I keep back two rupees, Sir."
Trevelyan, The Dawk Bungalow.

1875.—"'Can't do much harm by losing twenty chicks,' observed the Colonel in Anglo-Indian argot."—The Dilemma, ch. x.

CHICKEN, s. Embroidery; Chickenwalla, an itinerant dealer in embroidered handkerchiefs, petticoats, and such like. P. chikin or chikīn, 'art needlework.' [At Lucknow, the chief centre of the manufacture, this embroidery was formerly done in silk; the term is now applied to hand-worked flowered muslin. (See Hoey, Monograph, 88, Yusuf Ali, 69.)]

CHICKORE, s. The red-legged partridge, or its close congener Caccabis chukor, Gray. It is common in the Western Himālaya, in the N. Punjab, and in Afghanistan. The francolin of Moorcroft's Travels is really the chickore. The name appears to be Skt. chakora, and this disposes of the derivation formerly suggested by one of the present writers, as from the Mongol tsokhor, 'dappled or pied' (a word, moreover, which the late Prof. Schiefner informed us is only applied to horses). The name is sometimes applied to other birds. Thus, according to Cunningham, it is applied in Ladak to the Snow-cock (Tetraogallus Himalayensis, Gray), and he appears to give chá-kor as meaning 'white-bird' in Tibetan. Jerdon gives 'snow chukor' and 'strath-chukor' as sportsmen's names for this fine bird. And in Bengal Proper the name is applied, by local English sportsmen, to the large handsome partridge (Ortygornis gularis, Tem.) of Eastern Bengal, called in H. kaiyah or ban-tītar ('forest partridge'). See Jerdon, ed. 1877, ii. 575. Also the birds described in the extract from Mr. Abbott below do not appear to have been caccabis (which he speaks of in the same journal as 'red-legged partridge'). And the use of the word by Persians (apparently) is notable; it does not appear in Persian dictionaries. There is probably some mistake. The birds spoken of may have been the Large Sand-grouse (Pterocles arenarius, Pal.), which in both Persia and Afghanistan is called by names meaning 'Black-breast.'

The belief that the chickore eats fire, mentioned in the quotation below, is probably from some verbal misconception (quasi ātish-khōr?). [This is hardly probable as the idea that the partridge drinks the moonbeams is as old as the Brahma Vaivarta Purāna: "O Lord, I drink in with the partridges of my eyes thy face full of nectar, which resembles the full moon of autumn." Also see Katha Sarit Sāgara, tr. by Mr. Tawney (ii. 243), who has kindly given the above references.] Jerdon states that the Afghans call the bird the 'Fire-eater.'

c. 1190.—"... plantains and fruits, Koils, Chakors, peacocks, Sarases, beautiful to behold."—The Prithirája Rásan of Chand Bardáī, in Ind. Ant. i. 273.

In the following passage the word cator is supposed by the editor to be a clerical error for çacor or chacor.

1298.—"The Emperor has had several little houses erected in which he keeps in mew a huge number of cators, which are what we call the Great Partridge."—Marco Polo (2nd ed.), i. 287.

1520.—"Haidar Alemdâr had been sent by me to the Kafers. He met me below the Pass of Bâdîj, accompanied by some of their chiefs, who brought with them a few skins of wine. While coming down the Pass, he saw prodigious numbers of Chikûrs."—Baber, 282.

1814.—"... partridges, quails, and a bird which is called Cupk by the Persians and Afghauns, and the hill Chikore by the Indians, and which I understand is known in Europe by the name of the Greek Partridge."—Elphinstone's Caubool, ed. 1839, i. 192; ["the same bird which is called Chicore by the natives and fire-eater by the English in Bengal."—Ibid. ii. 95].

c. 1815.—"One day in the fort he found a hill-partridge enclosed in a wicker basket.... This bird is called the chuckoor, and is said to eat fire."—Mrs. Sherwood, Autobiog., 440.

1850.—"A flight of birds attracted my attention; I imagine them to be a species of bustard or grouse—black beneath and with much white about the wings—they were beyond our reach; the people called them Chukore."—K. Abbott, Notes during a Journey in Persia, in J. R. Geog. Soc. xxv. 41.

CHILAW, n.p. A place on the west coast of Ceylon, an old seat of the pearl-fishery. The name is a corruption of the Tam. salābham, 'the diving'; in Singhalese it is Halavatta. The name was commonly applied by the Portuguese to the whole aggregation of shoals (Baixos de Chilao) in the Gulf of Manaar, between Ceylon and the coast of Madura and Tinnevelly.

1543.—"Shoals of Chilao." See quotation under BEADALA.

1610.—"La pesqueria de Chilao ... por hazerse antiguamente in un puerto del mismo nombre en la isla de Seylan ... llamado asi por ista causa; por que chilao, en lengua Chengala, ... quiere dezir pesqueria."—Teixeira, Pt. ii. 29.

CHILLUM, s. H. chilam; "the part of the huḳḳa (see HOOKA) which contains the tobacco and charcoal balls, whence it is sometimes loosely used for the pipe itself, or the act of smoking it" (Wilson). It is also applied to the replenishment of the bowl, in the same way as a man asks for "another glass." The tobacco, as used by the masses in the hubble-bubble, is cut small and kneaded into a pulp with goor, i.e. molasses, and a little water. Hence actual contact with glowing charcoal is needed to keep it alight.

1781.—"Dressing a hubble-bubble, per week at 3 chillums a day.fan 0, dubs 3, cash 0."

Prison Experiences in Captivity of Hon. J. Lindsay, in Lives of Lindsays, iii.

1811.—"They have not the same scruples for the Chillum as for the rest of the Hooka, and it is often lent ... whereas the very proposition for the Hooka gives rise frequently to the most ridiculous quarrels."—Solvyns, iii.

1828.—"Every sound was hushed but the noise of that wind ... and the occasional bubbling of my hookah, which had just been furnished with another chillum."—The Kuzzilbash, i. 2.

1829.—"Tugging away at your hookah, find no smoke; a thief having purloined your silver chelam and surpoose."—John Shipp, ii. 159.

1848.—"Jos however ... could not think of moving till his baggage was cleared, or of travelling until he could do so with his chillum."—Vanity Fair, ii. ch. xxiii.

CHILLUMBRUM, n.p. A town in S. Arcot, which is the site of a famous temple of Siva, properly Shidamburam. Etym. obscure. [Garstin (Man. S. Arcot, 400) gives the name as Chedambram, or more correctly Chittambalam, 'the atmosphere of wisdom.']

1755.—"Scheringham (Seringam), Schalembron, et Gengy m'offroient également la retraite après laquelle je soupirois."—Anquetil du Perron, Zendav. Disc. Prelim. xxviii.

CHILLUMCHEE, s. H. chilamchī, also silfchī, and silpchī, of which chilamchī is probably a corruption. A basin of brass (as in Bengal), or tinned copper (as usually in the West and South) for washing hands. The form of the word seems Turkish, but we cannot trace it.

1715.—"We prepared for our first present, viz., 1000 gold mohurs ... the unicorn's horn ... the astoa (?) and chelumgie of Manilla work...."—In Wheeler, ii. 246.

1833.—"Our supper was a peelaw ... when it was removed a chillumchee and goblet of warm water was handed round, and each washed his hands and mouth."—P. Gordon, Fragment of the Journal of a Tour, &c.

1851.—"When a chillumchee of water sans soap was provided, 'Have you no soap?' Sir C. Napier asked——"—Mawson, Indian Command of Sir C. Napier.

1857.—"I went alone to the Fort Adjutant, to report my arrival, and inquire to what regiment of the Bengal army I was likely to be posted.

"'Army!—regiment!' was the reply. 'There is no Bengal Army; it is all in revolt.... Provide yourself with a camp-bedstead, and a chillumchee, and wait for orders.'

"I saluted and left the presence of my superior officer, deeply pondering as to the possible nature and qualities of a chillumchee, but not venturing to enquire further."—Lt.-Col. Lewin, A Fly on the Wheel, p. 3.

There is an Anglo-Indian tradition, which we would not vouch for, that one of the orators on the great Hastings trial depicted the oppressor on some occasion, as "grasping his chillum in one hand and his chillumchee in the other."

The latter word is used chiefly by Anglo-Indians of the Bengal Presidency and their servants. In Bombay the article has another name. And it is told of a gallant veteran of the old Bengal Artillery, who was full of "Presidential" prejudices, that on hearing the Bombay army commended by a brother officer, he broke out in just wrath: "The Bombay Army! Don't talk to me of the Bombay Army! They call a chillumchee a gindy!——the Beasts!"

CHILLY, s. The popular Anglo-Indian name of the pod of red pepper (Capsicum fruticosum and C. annuum, Nat. Ord. Solanaceae). There can be little doubt that the name, as stated by Bontius in the quotation, was taken from Chili in S. America, whence the plant was carried to the Indian Archipelago, and thence to India.

[1604.—"Indian pepper.... In the language of Cusco, it is called Vchu, and in that of Mexico, chili."—Grimston, tr. D'Acosta, H. W. Indies, I. Bk. iv. 239 (Stanf. Dict.)]

1631.—"... eos addere fructum Ricini Americani, quod lada Chili Malaii vocant, quasi dicas Piper e Chile, Brasiliae contermina regione.'—Jac. Bontii, Dial. V. p. 10.

Again (lib. vi. cap. 40, p. 131) Bontius calls it 'piper Chilensis,' and also 'Ricinus Braziliensis.' But his commentator, Piso, observes that Ricinus is quite improper; "vera Piperis sive Capsici Braziliensis species apparet." Bontius says it was a common custom of natives, and even of certain Dutchmen, to keep a piece of chilly continually chewed, but he found it intolerable.

1848.—"'Try a chili with it, Miss Sharp,' said Joseph, really interested. 'A chili?' said Rebecca, gasping. 'Oh yes!'.... 'How fresh and green they look,' she said, and put one into her mouth. It was hotter than the curry; flesh and blood could bear it no longer."—Vanity Fair, ch. iii.

CHIMNEY-GLASS, s. Gardener's name, on the Bombay side of India, for the flower and plant Allamanda cathartica (Sir G. Birdwood).

CHINA, n.p. The European knowledge of this name in the forms Thinae and Sinae goes back nearly to the Christian era. The famous mention of the Sinim by the prophet Isaiah would carry us much further back, but we fear the possibility of that referring to the Chinese must be abandoned, as must be likewise, perhaps, the similar application of the name Chinas in ancient Sanskrit works. The most probable origin of the name—which is essentially a name applied by foreigners to the country—as yet suggested, is that put forward by Baron F. von Richthofen, that it comes from Jih-nan, an old name of Tongking, seeing that in Jih-nan lay the only port which was open for foreign trade with China at the beginning of our era, and that that province was then included administratively within the limits of China Proper (see Richthofen, China, i. 504–510; the same author's papers in the Trans. of the Berlin Geog. Soc. for 1876; and a paper by one of the present writers in Proc. R. Geog. Soc., November 1882.)

Another theory has been suggested by our friend M. Terrien de la Couperie in an elaborate note, of which we can but state the general gist. Whilst he quite accepts the suggestion that Kiao-chi or Tongking, anciently called Kiao-ti, was the Kattigara of Ptolemy's authority, he denies that Jih-nan can have been the origin of Sinae. This he does on two chief grounds: (l) That Jih-nan was not Kiao-chi, but a province a good deal further south, corresponding to the modern province of An (Nghé Ane, in the map of M. Dutreuil de Rhins, the capital of which is about 2° 17′ in lat. S. of Hanoi). This is distinctly stated in the Official Geography of Annam. An was one of the twelve provinces of Cochin China proper till 1820–41, when, with two others, it was transferred to Tongking. Also, in the Chinese Historical Atlas, Jih-nan lies in Chen-Ching, i.e. Cochin-China. (2) That the ancient pronunciation of Jih-nan, as indicated by the Chinese authorities of the Han period, was Nit-nam. It is still pronounced in Sinico-Annamite (the most archaic of the Chinese dialects) Nhut-nam, and in Cantonese Yat-nam. M. Terrien further points out that the export of Chinese goods, and the traffic with the south and west, was for several centuries B.C. monopolised by the State of Tsen (now pronounced in Sinico-Annamite Chen, and in Mandarin Tien), which corresponded to the centre and west of modern Yun-nan. The She-ki of Sze-ma Tsien (B.C. 91), and the Annals of the Han Dynasty afford interesting information on this subject. When the Emperor Wu-ti, in consequence of Chang-Kien's information brought back from Bactria, sent envoys to find the route followed by the traders of Shuh (i.e. Sze-chuen) to India, these envoys were detained by Tang-Kiang, King of Tsen, who objected to their exploring trade-routes through his territory, saying haughtily: "Has the Han a greater dominion than ours?"

M. Terrien conceives that as the only communication of this Tsen State with the Sea would be by the Song-Koi R., the emporium of sea-trade with that State would be at its mouth, viz. at Kiao-ti or Kattigara. Thus, he considers, the name of Tsen, this powerful and arrogant State, the monopoliser of trade-routes, is in all probability that which spread far and wide the name of Chīn, Sīn, Sinae, Thinae, and preserved its predominance in the mouths of foreigners, even when, as in the 2nd century of our era, the great Empire of the Han has extended over the Delta of the Song-Koi.

This theory needs more consideration than we can now give it. But it will doubtless have discussion elsewhere, and it does not disturb Richthofen's identification of Kattigara.

[Prof. Giles regards the suggestions of Richthofen and T. de la Couperie as mere guesses. From a recent reconsideration of the subject he has come to the conclusion that the name may possibly be derived from the name of a dynasty, Ch'in or Ts'in, which flourished B.C. 255–207, and became widely known in India, Persia, and other Asiatic countries, the final a being added by the Portuguese.]

c. A.D. 80–89.—"Behind this country (Chrysē) the sea comes to a termination somewhere in Thin, and in the interior of that country, quite to the north, there is a very great city called Thinae, from which raw silk and silk thread and silk stuffs are brought overland through Bactria to Barygaza, as they are on the other hand by the Ganges River to Limyricē. It is not easy, however, to get to this Thin, and few and far between are those who come from it...."—Periplus Maris Erythraei; see Müller, Geog. Gr. Min. i. 303.

c. 150—"The inhabited part of our earth is bounded on the east by the Unknown Land which lies along the region occupied by the easternmost races of Asia Minor, the Sinae and the natives of Sericē...."—Claudius Ptolemy, Bk. vii. ch. 5.

c. 545.—"The country of silk, I may mention, is the remotest of all the Indies, lying towards the left when you enter the Indian Sea, but a vast distance further off than the Persian Gulf or that island which the Indians call Selediba, and the Greeks Taprobane. Tzinitza (elsewhere Tzinista) is the name of the Country, and the Ocean compasses it round to the left, just as the same Ocean compasses Barbari (i.e. the Somāli Country) round to the right. And the Indian philosophers called Brachmans tell you that if you were to stretch a straight cord from Tzinitza through Persia to the Roman territory, you would just divide the world in halves."—Cosmas, Topog. Christ., Bk. II.

c. 641.—"In 641 the King of Magadha (Behar, &c.) sent an ambassador with a letter to the Chinese Court. The emperor ... in return directed one of his officers to go to the King ... and to invite his submission. The King Shiloyto (Siladitya) was all astonishment. 'Since time immemorial,' he asked his officer, 'did ever an ambassador come from Mohochintan?'.... The Chinese author remarks that in the tongue of the barbarians the Middle Kingdom is called Mohochintan (Mahā-Chīna-sthāna)."—From Cathay, &c., lxviii.

781.—"Adam Priest and Bishop and Pope of Tzinesthan.... The preachings of our Fathers to the King of Tzinia."—Syriac Part of the Inscription of Singanfu.

11th Century.—The "King of China" (Shinattarashan) appears in the list of provinces and monarchies in the great Inscription of the Tanjore Pagoda.

1128.—"Chīna and Mahāchīna appear in a list of places producing silk and other cloths, in the Abhilashitārthachintāmani of the Chālukya King."—Somesvaradiva (MS.)[9] Bk. III. ch. 6.

1298.—"You must know the Sea in which lie the Islands of those parts is called the Sea of Chin.... For, in the language in those Isles, when they say Chin, 'tis Manzi they mean."—Marco Polo, Bk. III. ch. iv.

c. 1300.—"Large ships, called in the language of Chin 'junks,' bring various sorts of choice merchandize and cloths...."—Rashíduddín, in Elliot, i. 69.

1516.—"... there is the Kingdom of China, which they say is a very extensive dominion, both along the coast of the sea, and in the interior...."—Barbosa, 204.

1563.—"R. Then Ruelius and Mathiolus of Siena say that the best camphor is from China, and that the best of all Camphors is that purified by a certain barbarian King whom they call King (of) China.

"O. Then you may tell Ruelius and Mathiolus of Siena that though they are so well acquainted with Greek and Latin, there's no need to make such a show of it as to call every body 'barbarians' who is not of their own race, and that besides this they are quite wrong in the fact ... that the King of China does not occupy himself with making camphor, and is in fact one of the greatest Kings known in the world."—Garcia De Orta, f. 45b.

c. 1590.—"Near to this is Pegu, which former writers called Cheen, accounting this to be the capital city."—Ayeen, ed. 1800, ii. 4; [tr. Jarrett, ii. 119]. (See MACHEEN.)

CHINA, s. In the sense of porcelain this word (Chīnī, &c.) is used in Asiatic languages as well as in English. In English it does not occur in Minshew (2nd ed. 1627), though it does in some earlier publications. [The earliest quotation in N.E.D. is from Cogan's Pinto, 1653.] The phrase China-dishes as occurring in Drake and in Shakspere, shows how the word took the sense of porcelain in our own and other languages. The phrase China-dishes as first used was analogous to Turkey-carpets. But in the latter we have never lost the geographical sense of the adjective. In the word turquoises, again, the phrase was no doubt originally pierres turquoises, or the like, and here, as in china dishes, the specific has superseded the generic sense. The use of arab in India for an Arab horse is analogous to china. The word is used in the sense of a china dish in Lane's Arabian Nights, iii. 492; [Burton, I. 375].

851.—"There is in China a very fine clay with which they make vases transparent like bottles; water can be seen inside of them. These vases are made of clay."—Reinaud, Relations, i. 34.

c. 1350.—"China-ware (al-fakhkhār al-Sīnīy) is not made except in the cities of Zaītūn and of Sīn Kalān...."—Ibn Batuta, iv. 256.

c. 1530.—"I was passing one day along a street in Damascus, when I saw a slave-boy let fall from his hands a great China dish (ṣaḥfat min al-bakhkhār al-Sīnīy) which they call in that country sahn. It broke, and a crowd gathered round the little Mameluke."—Ibn Batuta, i. 238.

c. 1567.—"Le mercantie ch'andauano ogn'anno da Goa a Bezeneger erano molti caualli Arabi ... e anche pezze di China, zafaran, e scarlatti."—Cesare de' Federici, in Ramusio, iii. 389.

1579.—"... we met with one ship more loaden with linnen, China silke, and China dishes...."—Drake, World Encompassed, in Hak. Soc. 112.

c. 1580.—"Usum vasorum aureorum et argenteorum Aegyptii rejecerunt, ubi murrhina vasa adinvenere; quae ex India afferuntur, et ex ea regione quam Sini vocant, ubi conficiuntur ex variis lapidibus, praecipueque ex jaspide."—Prosp. Alpinus, Pt. I. p. 55.

c. 1590.—"The gold and silver dishes are tied up in red cloths, and those in Copper and China (chīnī) in white ones."—Āīn, i. 58.

c. 1603.—"... as it were in a fruit-dish, a dish of some threepence, your honours have seen such dishes; they are not China dishes, but very good dishes."—Measure for Measure, ii. 1.

1608–9.—"A faire China dish (which cost ninetie Rupias, or forty-five Reals of eight) was broken."—Hawkins, in Purchas, i. 220.

1609.—"He has a lodging in the Strand for the purpose, or to watch when ladies are gone to the China-house, or the Exchange, that he may meet them by chance and give them presents...."

"Ay, sir: his wife was the rich China-woman, that the courtiers visited so often."—Ben Jonson, Silent Woman, i. 1.


"... Oh had I now my Wishes,
Sure you should learn to make their China Dishes."
Doggrel prefixed to Coryat's Crudities.

c. 1690.—Kaempfer in his account of the Persian Court mentions that the department where porcelain and plate dishes, &c., were kept and cleaned was called Chīn-khāna, 'the China-closet'; and those servants who carried in the dishes were called Chīnīkash.Amoen. Exot., p. 125.

1711.—"Purselaine, or China-ware is so tender a Commodity that good Instructions are as necessary for Package as Purchase."—Lockyer, 126.

1747.—"The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy; which far Exceeds any Thing of the Kind yet Published. By a Lady. London. Printed for the Author, and Sold by Mrs. Asburn a China Shop Woman, Corner of Fleet Ditch, MDCCXLVII." This the title of the original edition of Mrs. Glass's Cookery, as given by G. A. Sala, in Illd. News, May 12, 1883.

1876.—"Schuyler mentions that the best native earthenware in Turkistan is called Chīnī, and bears a clumsy imitation of a Chinese mark."—(see Turkistan, i. 187.)

For the following interesting note on the Arabic use we are indebted to Professor Robertson Smith:—

Ṣīnīya is spoken of thus in the Latāifo'l-ma'ārif of al-Th'ālibī, ed. De Jong, Leyden, 1867, a book written in A.D. 990. "The Arabs were wont to call all elegant vessels and the like Sīnīya (i.e. Chinese), whatever they really were, because of the specialty of the Chinese in objects of vertu; and this usage remains in the common word ṣawānā (pl. of ṣīnīya) to the present day."

So in the Tajāribo'l-Omam of Ibn Maskowaih (Fr. Hist. Ar. ii. 457), it is said that at the wedding of Mamūn with Būrān "her grandmother strewed over her 1000 pearls from a sīnīya of gold." In Egypt the familiar round brass trays used to dine off, are now called ṣīnīya (vulgo ṣanīya), [the ṣīnī, ṣenī of N. India] and so is a European saucer.

The expression ṣīnīyat al ṣīn, "A Chinese ṣīnīya," is quoted again by De Goeje from a poem of Abul-shibl Agānī, xiii. 27. [See SNEAKER.]

[CHINA-BEER, s. Some kind of liquor used in China, perhaps a variety of saké.

[1615.—"I carid a jarr of China Beare."—Cocks's Diary, i. 34.]

CHINA-BUCKEER, n.p. One of the chief Delta-mouths of the Irawadi is so called in marine charts. We have not been able to ascertain the origin of the name, further than that Prof. Forchhammer, in his Notes on the Early Hist. and Geog. of Br. Burma (p. 16), states that the country between Rangoon and Bassein, i.e. on the west of the Rangoon River, bore the name of Pokhara, of which Buckeer is a corruption. This does not explain the China.

CHINA-ROOT, s. A once famous drug, known as Radix Chinae and Tuber Chinae, being the tuber of various species of Smilax (N. O. Smilaceae, the same to which sarsaparilla belongs). It was said to have been used with good effect on Charles V. when suffering from gout, and acquired a great repute. It was also much used in the same way as sarsaparilla. It is now quite obsolete in England, but is still held in esteem in the native pharmacopœias of China and India.

1563.—"R. I wish to take to Portugal some of the Root or Wood of China, since it is not a contraband drug....

"O. This wood or root grows in China, an immense country, presumed to be on the confines of Muscovy ... and because in all these regions, both in China and in Japan, there exists the morbo napolitano, the merciful God hath willed to give them this root for remedy, and with it the good physicians there know well the treatment."—Garcia, f. 177.

c. 1590.—"Sircar Silhet is very mountainous.... China-Root (chob-chīnī) is produced here in great plenty, which was but lately discovered by some Turks."—Ayeen Akb., by Gladwin, ii. 10; [ed. Jarrett, ii. 124].

1598.—"The roote of China is commonlie vsed among the Egyptians ... specially for a consumption, for the which they seeth the roote China in broth of a henne or cocke, whereby they become whole and faire of face."—Dr. Paludanus, in Linschoten, 124, [Hak. Soc. ii. 112].

c. 1610.—"Quant à la verole.... Ils la guerissent sans suer avec du bois d'Eschine...."—Pyrard de Laval, ii. 9 (ed. 1679); [Hak. Soc. ii. 13; also see i. 182].

[c. 1690.—"The caravans returned with musk, China-wood (bois de Chine)."—Bernier, ed. Constable, p. 425.]

CHINAPATAM, n.p. A name sometimes given by the natives to Madras. The name is now written Shennai-Shenna-ppatanam, Tam., in Tel. Chennapattanamu, and the following is the origin of that name according to the statement given in W. Hamilton's Hindostan.

On "this part of the Coast of Coromandel ... the English ... possessed no fixed establishment until A.D. 1639, in which year, on the 1st of March, a grant was received from the descendants of the Hindoo dynasty of Bijanagur, then reigning at Chandergherry, for the erection of a fort. This document from Sree Rung Rayeel expressly enjoins, that the town and fort to be erected at Madras shall be called after his own name, Sree Runga Rayapatam; but the local governor or Naik, Damerla Vencatadri, who first invited Mr. Francis Day, the chief of Armagon, to remove to Madras, had previously intimated to him that he would have the new English establishment founded in the name of his father Chennappa, and the name of Chenappapatam continues to be universally applied to the town of Madras by the natives of that division of the south of India named Dravida."—(Vol. ii. p. 413).

Dr. Burnell doubted this origin of the name, and considered that the actual name could hardly have been formed from that of Chenappa. It is possible that some name similar to Chinapatan was borne by the place previously. It will be seen under MADRAS that Barros curiously connects the Chinese with St. Thomé. To this may be added this passage from the English translation of Mendoza's China, the original of which was published in 1585, the translation by R. Parke in 1588:—

"... it is plainely seene that they did come with the shipping vnto the Indies ... so that at this day there is great memory of them in the Ilands Philippinas and on the cost of Coromande, which is the cost against the Kingdome of Norsinga towards the sea of Bengala (misprinted Cengala); whereas is a town called vnto this day the Soile of the Chinos for that they did reedifie and make the same."—(i. 94).

I strongly suspect that this was Chinapatam, or Madras. [On the other hand, the popular derivation is accepted in the Madras Gloss., p. 163. The gold plate containing the grant of Sri Ranga Rāja is said to have been kept by the English for more than a century, till its loss in 1746 at the capture of Madras by the French.—(Wheeler, Early Rec., 49).]

1780.—"The Nawaub sent him to Cheena Pattun (Madras) under the escort of a small party of light Cavalry."—H. of Hydur Naik, 395.

CHINCHEW, CHINCHEO, n.p. A port of Fuhkien in China. Some ambiguity exists as to the application of the name. In English charts the name is now attached to the ancient and famous port of Chwan-chau-fu (Thsiouan-chéou-fou of French writers), the Zayton of Marco Polo and other medieval travellers. But the Chincheo of the Spaniards and Portuguese to this day, and the Chinchew of older English books, is, as Mr. G. Phillips pointed out some years ago, not Chwan-chau-fu, but Chang-chau-fu, distant from the former some 80 m. in a direct line, and about 140 by navigation. The province of Fuhkien is often called Chincheo by the early Jesuit writers. Changchau and its dependencies seem to have constituted the ports of Fuhkien with which Macao and Manilla communicated, and hence apparently they applied the same name to the port and the province, though Chang-chau was never the official capital of Fukhien (see Encyc. Britann., 9th ed. s.v. and references there). Chincheos is used for "people of Fuhkien" in a quotation under COMPOUND.

1517.—"... in another place called Chincheo, where the people were much richer than in Canton (Cantão). From that city used every year, before our people came to Malaca, to come to Malaca 4 junks loaded with gold, silver, and silk, returning laden with wares from India."—Correa, ii. 529.

CHIN-CHIN. In the "pigeon English" of Chinese ports this signifies 'salutation, compliments,' or 'to salute,' and is much used by Englishmen as slang in such senses. It is a corruption of the Chinese phrase ts'ing-ts'ing, Pekingese ch'ing-ch'ing, a term of salutation answering to 'thank-you,' 'adieu.' In the same vulgar dialect chin-chin joss means religious worship of any kind (see JOSS). It is curious that the phrase occurs in a quaint story told to William of Rubruck by a Chinese priest whom he met at the Court of the Great Kaan (see below). And it is equally remarkable to find the same story related with singular closeness of correspondence out of "the Chinese books of Geography" by Francesco Carletti, 350 years later (in 1600). He calls the creatures Zinzin (Ragionamenti di F. C., pp. 138–9).

1253.—"One day there sate by me a certain priest of Cathay, dressed in a red cloth of exquisite colour, and when I asked him whence they got such a dye, he told me how in the eastern parts of Cathay there were lofty cliffs on which dwelt certain creatures in all things partaking of human form, except that their knees did not bend.... The huntsmen go thither, taking very strong beer with them, and make holes in the rocks which they fill with this beer.... Then they hide themselves and these creatures come out of their holes and taste the liquor, and call out 'Chin Chin.'"—Itinerarium, in Rec. de Voyages, &c., iv. 328.

Probably some form of this phrase is intended in the word used by Pinto in the following passage, which Cogan leaves untranslated:—

c. 1540.—"So after we had saluted one another after the manner of the Country, they went and anchored by the shore" (in orig. "despois de se fazerem as suas e as nossas salvas a Charachina como entre este gente se custuma.")—In Cogan, p. 56; in orig. ch. xlvii.

1795.—"The two junior members of the Chinese deputation came at the appointed hour.... On entering the door of the marquee they both made an abrupt stop, and resisted all solicitation to advance to chairs that had been prepared for them, until I should first be seated; in this dilemma, Dr. Buchanan, who had visited China, advised me what was to be done; I immediately seized on the foremost, whilst the Doctor himself grappled with the second; thus we soon fixed them in their seats, both parties during the struggle, repeating Chin Chin, Chin Chin, the Chinese term of salutation."—Symes, Embassy to Ava, 295.

1829.—"One of the Chinese servants came to me and said, 'Mr. Talbot chin-chin you come down.'"—The Fankwae at Canton, p. 20.

1880.—"But far from thinking it any shame to deface our beautiful language, the English seem to glory in its distortion, and will often ask one another to come to 'chow-chow' instead of dinner; and send their 'chin-chin,' even in letters, rather than their compliments; most of them ignorant of the fact that 'chow-chow' is no more Chinese than it is Hebrew; that 'chin-chin,' though an expression used by the Chinese, does not in its true meaning come near to the 'good-bye, old fellow,' for which it is often used, or the compliments for which it is frequently substituted."—W. Gill, River of Golden Sand, i. 156; [ed. 1883, p. 41].

CHINSURA, n.p. A town on the Hoogly River, 26 miles above Calcutta, on the west bank, which was the seat of a Dutch settlement and factory down to 1824, when it was ceded to us by the Treaty of London, under which the Dutch gave up Malacca and their settlements in continental India, whilst we withdrew from Sumatra. [The place gave its name to a kind of cloth, Chinechuras (see PIECE-GOODS).]

1684.—"This day between 3 and 6 o'clock in the Afternoon, Capt. Richardson and his Sergeant, came to my house in ye Chinchera, and brought me this following message from ye President...."—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. i. 166.

1705.—"La Loge appellée Chamdernagor est une très-belle Maison située sur le bord d'un des bras du fleuve de Gange.... À une lieue de la Loge il y a une grande Ville appellée Chinchurat...."—Luillier, 64–65.

1726.—"The place where our Lodge (or Factory) is is properly called Sinternu [i.e. Chinsura] and not Hoogli (which is the name of the village)."—Valentijn, v. 162.

1727.—"Chinchura, where the Dutch Emporium stands ... the Factors have a great many good Houses standing pleasantly on the River-Side; and all of them have pretty Gardens."—A. Hamilton, ii. 20; ed. 1744, ii. 18.

[1753.—"Shinshura." See quotation under CALCUTTA.]

CHINTS, CHINCH, s. A bug. This word is now quite obsolete both in India and in England. It is a corruption of the Portuguese chinche, which again is from cimex. Mrs. Trollope, in her once famous book on the Domestic Manners of the Americans, made much of a supposed instance of affected squeamishness in American ladies, who used the word chintses instead of bugs. But she was ignorant of the fact that chints was an old and proper name for the objectionable exotic insect, 'bug' being originally but a figurative (and perhaps a polite) term, 'an object of disgust and horror' (Wedgwood). Thus the case was exactly the opposite of what she chose to imagine; chints was the real name, bug the more or less affected euphonism.

1616.—"In the night we were likewise very much disquieted with another sort, called Musqueetoes, like our Gnats, but some-what less; and in that season we were very much troubled with Chinches, another sort of little troublesome and offensive creatures, like little Tikes: and these annoyed us two wayes; as first by their biting and stinging, and then by their stink."—Terry, ed. 1665, p. 372; [ed. 1777, p. 117].

1645.—"... for the most part the bedsteads in Italy are of forged iron gilded, since it is impossible to keepe the wooden ones from the chimices."—Evelyn's Diary, Sept. 29.

1673.—"... Our Bodies broke out into small fiery Pimples ... augmented by Muskeetoe-Bites, and Chinces raising Blisters on us."—Fryer, 35.

" "Chints are venomous, and if squeezed leave a most Poysonous Stench."—Ibid. 189.

CHINTZ, s. A printed or spotted cotton cloth; Port. chita; Mahr. chīt, and H. chīṇt. The word in this last form occurs (c. 1590) in the Āīn-i-Akbarī (i. 95). It comes apparently from the Skt. chitra, 'variegated, speckled.' The best chintzes were bought on the Madras coast, at Masulipatam and Sadras. The French form of the word is chite, which has suggested the possibility of our sheet being of the same origin. But chite is apparently of Indian origin, through the Portuguese, whilst sheet is much older than the Portuguese communication with India. Thus (1450) in Sir T. Cumberworth's will he directs his "wreched body to be beryd in a chitte with owte any kyste" (Academy, Sept. 27, 1879, p. 230). The resemblance to the Indian forms in this is very curious.

1614.—"... chintz and chadors...."—Peyton, in Purchas, i. 530.

[1616.—"3 per Chint bramport."—Cocks's Diary, i. 171.

[1623.—"Linnen stamp'd with works of sundry colours (which they call cit)."—P. della Valle, Hak. Soc. i. 45.]

1653.—"Chites en Indou signifie des toilles imprimeés."—De la Boullaye-le-Gouz, ed. 1647, p. 536.

c. 1666.—"Le principal trafic des Hollandois à Amedabad, est de chites, qui sont de toiles peintes."—Thevenot, v. 35. In the English version (1687) this is written schites (iv. ch. v.).

1676.—"Chites or Painted Calicuts, which they call Calmendar, that is done with a pencil, are made in the Kingdom of Golconda, and particularly about Masulipatam."—Tavernier, E.T., p. 126; [ed. Ball, ii. 4].

1725.—"The returns that are injurious to our manufactures, or growth of our own country, are printed calicoes, chintz, wrought silks, stuffs, of herba, and barks."—Defoe, New Voyage round the World. Works, Oxford, 1840, p. 161.

1726.—"The Warehouse Keeper reported to the Board, that the chintzes, being brought from painting, had been examined at the sorting godown, and that it was the general opinion that both the cloth and the paintings were worse than the musters."—In Wheeler, ii. 407.

c. 1733.—

"No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace
Wrap my cold limbs, and shade my lifeless face."
Pope, Moral Essays, i. 248.

"And, when she sees her friend in deep despair,
Observes how much a Chintz exceeds Mohair...."
Ibid. ii. 170.

1817.—"Blue cloths, and chintzes in particular, have always formed an extensive article of import from Western India."—Raffles, H. of Java, i. 86; [2nd ed. i. 95, and comp. i. 190].

In the earlier books about India some kind of chintz is often termed pintado (q.v.). See the phraseology in the quotation from Wheeler above.

This export from India to Europe has long ceased. When one of the present writers was Sub-Collector of the Madras District (1866–67), chintzes were still figured by an old man at Sadras, who had been taught by the Dutch, the cambric being furnished to him by a Madras Chetty (q.v.). He is now dead, and the business has ceased; in fact the colours for the process are no longer to be had.[10] The former chintz manufactures of Pulicat are mentioned by Correa, Lendas, ii. 2, p. 567. Havart (1693) mentions the manufacture at Sadras (i. 92), and gives a good description of the process of painting these cloths, which he calls chitsen (iii. 13). There is also a very complete account in the Lettres Édifiantes, xiv. 116 seqq.

In Java and Sumatra chintzes of a very peculiar kind of marbled pattern are still manufactured by women, under the name of bātik.

CHIPE, s. In Portuguese use, from Tamil shippi, 'an oyster.' The pearl-oysters taken in the pearl-fisheries of Tuticorin and Manār.

[1602.—"And the fishers on that coast gave him as tribute one day's oysters (hum dia de chipo), that is the result of one day's pearl fishing."—Couto, Dec. 7, Bk. VIII. ch. ii.]

1685.—"The chipe, for so they call those oysters which their boats are wont to fish."—Ribeiro, f. 63.

1710.—"Some of these oysters or chepîs, as the natives call them, produce pearls, but such are rare, the greater part producing only seed pearls (aljofres) [see ALJOFAR]."—Sousa, Oriente Conquist. ii. 243.

CHIRETTA, s. H. chirāītā, Mahr. kirāītā. A Himalayan herbaceous plant of the order Gentianaceae (Swertia Chirata, Ham.; Ophelia Chirata, Griesbach; Gentiana Chirayita, Roxb.; Agathetes chirayta, Don.), the dried twigs of which, infused, afford a pure bitter tonic and febrifuge. Its Skt. name kirāta-tikta, 'the bitter plant of the Kirātas,' refers its discovery to that people, an extensively-diffused forest tribe, east and north-east of Bengal, the Κιῤῥάδαι of the Periplus, and the people of the Κιῤῥάδια of Ptolemy. There is no indication of its having been known to G. de Orta.

[1773.—"Kol Meg in Bengal; Creat in Bombay.... It is excessively bitter, and given as a stomachic and vermifuge."—Ives, 471.]

1820.—"They also give a bitter decoction of the neem (Melia azadirachta) and chereeta."—Acc. of the Township of Luny, in Trans. Lit. Soc. of Bombay, ii. 232.

1874.—"Chiretta has long been held in esteem by the Hindus.... In England it began to attract some attention about 1829; and in 1839 was introduced into the Edinburgh Pharmacopœia. The plant was first described by Roxburgh in 1814."—Hanbury and Flückiger, 392.

CHIT, CHITTY, s. A letter or note; also a certificate given to a servant, or the like; a pass. H. chiṭṭhī; Mahr. chiṭṭī. [Skt. chitra, 'marked.'] The Indian Portuguese also use chito for escrito (Bluteau, Supplement). The Tamil people use shīt for a ticket, or for a playing-card.

1673.—"I sent one of our Guides, with his Master's Chitty, or Pass, to the Governor, who received it kindly."—Fryer, 126.

[1757.—"If Mr. Ives is not too busie to honour this chitt which nothing but the greatest uneasiness could draw from me."—Ives, 134.]

1785.—".... Those Ladies and Gentlemen who wish to be taught that polite Art (drawing) by Mr. Hone, may know his terms by sending a Chit...."—In Seton-Karr, i. 114.

1786.—"You are to sell rice, &c., to every merchant from Muscat who brings you a chitty from Meer Kâzim."—Tippoo's Letters, 284.

1787.—"Mrs. Arend ... will wait upon any Lady at her own house on the shortest notice, by addressing a chit to her in Chattawala Gully, opposite Mr. Motte's old house, Tiretta's bazar."—Advt. in Seton-Karr, i. 226.

1794.—"The petty but constant and universal manufacture of chits which prevails here."—Hugh Boyd, 147.

1829.—"He wanted a chithee or note, for this is the most note-writing country under heaven; the very Drum-major writes me a note to tell me about the mails."—Mem. of Col. Mountain, 2nd ed., 80.

1839.—"A thorough Madras lady ... receives a number of morning visitors, takes up a little worsted work; goes to tiffin with Mrs. C., unless Mrs. D. comes to tiffin with her, and writes some dozens of chits.... These incessant chits are an immense trouble and interruption, but the ladies seem to like them."—Letters from Madras, 284.

CHITCHKY, s. A curried vegetable mixture, often served and eaten with meat curry. Properly Beng. chhechkī.

1875.—"... Chhenchki, usually called tarkāri in the Vardhamāna District, a sort of hodge-podge consisting of potatoes, brinjals, and tender stalks...."—Govinda Samanta, i. 59.

CHITTAGONG, n.p. A town, port, and district of Eastern Bengal, properly written Chatgānw (see PORTO PIQUENO). Chittagong appears to be the City of Bengala of Varthema and some of the early Portuguese. (See BANDEL, BENGAL).

c. 1346.—"The first city of Bengal that we entered was Sudkāwān, a great place situated on the shore of the great Sea."—Ibn Batuta, iv. 212.

1552.—"In the mouths of the two arms of the Ganges enter two notable rivers, one on the east, and one on the west side, both bounding this kingdom (of Bengal); the one of these our people call the River of Chatigam, because it enters the Eastern estuary of the Ganges at a city of that name, which is the most famous and wealthy of that Kingdom, by reason of its Port, at which meets the traffic of all that Eastern region."—De Barros, Dec. IV. liv. ix. cap. i.

[1586.—"Satagam." See quotation under HING.]

1591.—"So also they inform me that Antonio de Sousa Goudinho has served me well in Bemgualla, and that he has made tributary to this state the Isle of Sundiva, and has taken the fortress of Chataguão by force of arms."—King's Letter, in Archivio Port. Orient., fasc. iii. 257.

1598.—"From this River Eastward 50 miles lyeth the towne of Chatigan, which is the chief towne of Bengala."—Linschoten, ch. xvi.; [Hak. Soc. i. 94].[11]

c. 1610.—Pyrard de la Val has Chartican, i. 234; [Hak. Soc. i. 326].

1727.—"Chittagoung, or, as the Portuguese call it, Xatigam, about 50 Leagues below Dacca."—A. Hamilton, ii. 24; ed. 1744, ii. 22.

17—.—"Chittigan" in Orme (reprint), ii. 14.

1786.—"The province of Chatigan (vulgarly Chittagong) is a noble field for a naturalist. It is so called, I believe, from the chatag,[12] which is the most beautiful little bird I ever saw."—Sir W. Jones, ii. 101.

Elsewhere (p. 81) he calls it a "Montpelier." The derivation given by this illustrious scholar is more than questionable. The name seems to be really a form of the Sanskrit Chaturgrāma (= Tetrapolis), [or according to others of Saptagrāma, 'seven villages'], and it is curious that near this position Ptolemy has a Pentapolis, very probably the same place. Chaturgrāma is still the name of a town in Ceylon, lat. 6°, long. 81°.

CHITTLEDROOG, n.p. A fort S.W. of Bellary; properly Chitra Durgam, Red Hill (or Hill-Fort, or 'picturesque fort']) called by the Mahommedans Chītaldurg (C. P. B.).

CHITTORE, n.p. Chītor, or Chītorgaṛh, a very ancient and famous rock fortress in the Rajput State of Mewār. It is almost certainly the Τιάτουρα of Ptolemy (vii. 1).

1533.—"Badour (i.e. Bahādur Shāh) ... in Champanel ... sent to carry off a quantity of powder and shot and stores for the attack on Chitor, which occasioned some delay because the distance was so great."—Correa, iii. 506.

1615.—"The two and twentieth (Dec.), Master Edwards met me, accompanied with Thomas Coryat, who had passed into India on foote, fiue course to Cytor, an ancient Citie ruined on a hill, but so that it appeares a Tombe (Towne?) of wonderfull magnificence...."—Sir Thomas Roe, in Purchas, i. 540; [Hak. Soc. i. 102; "Cetor" in i. 111, "Chytor" in ii. 540].

[1813.—"... a tribute ... imposed by Muhadajee Seendhiya for the restitution of Chuetohrgurh, which he had conquered from the Rana."—Broughton, Letters, ed. 1892, p. 175.]

CHOBDAR, s. H. from P. chobdār, 'a stick-bearer.' A frequent attendant of Indian nobles, and in former days of Anglo-Indian officials of rank. They are still a part of the state of the Viceroy, Governors, and Judges of the High Courts. The chobdārs carry a staff overlaid with silver.

1442.—"At the end of the hall stand tchobdars ... drawn up in line."—Abdur-Razzāk, in India in the XV. Cent. 25.

1673.—"If he (the President) move out of his Chamber, the Silver Staves wait on him."—Fryer, 68.

1701.—"... Yesterday, of his own accord, he told our Linguists that he had sent four Chobdars and 25 men, as a safeguard."—In Wheeler, i. 371.

1788.—"Chubdár.... Among the Nabobs he proclaims their praises aloud, as he runs before their palankeens."—Indian Vocabulary (Stockdale's).

1793.—"They said a Chubdar, with a silverstick, one of the Sultan's messengers of justice, had taken them from the place, where they were confined, to the public Bazar, where their hands were cut off."—Dirom, Narrative, 235.

1798.—"The chief's Chobedar ... also endeavoured to impress me with an ill opinion of these messengers."—G. Forster's Travels, i. 222.

1810.—"While we were seated at breakfast, we were surprised by the entrance of a Choabdar, that is, a servant who attends on persons of consequence, runs before them with a silver stick, and keeps silence at the doors of their apartments, from which last office he derives his name."—Maria Graham, 57.

This usually accurate lady has been here misled, as if the word were chup-dār, 'silence-keeper,' a hardly possible hybrid.

CHOBWA, s. Burmese Tsaubwa, Siamese Chao, 'prince, king,' also Chaohpa (compounded with hpa, 'heaven'), and in Cushing's Shan Dicty. and cacography, sow, 'lord, master,' sowhpa, a 'hereditary prince.' The word chu-hu, for 'chief,' is found applied among tribes of Kwang-si, akin to the Shans, in A.D. 1150 (Prof. T. de la Couperie). The designation of the princes of the Shan States on the east of Burma, many of whom are (or were till lately) tributary to Ava.

1795.—"After them came the Chobwaas, or petty tributary princes: these are personages who, before the Birmans had extended their conquests over the vast territories which they now possess, had held small independent sovereignties which they were able to maintain so long as the balance of power continued doubtful between the Birmans, Peguers, and Siamese."—Symes, 366.

1819.—"All that tract of land ... is inhabited by a numerous nation called Sciam, who are the same as the Laos. Their kingdom is divided into small districts under different chiefs called Zaboà, or petty princes."—Sangermano, 34.

1855.—"The Tsaubwas of all these principalities, even where most absolutely under Ava, retain all the forms and appurtenances of royalty."—Yule, Mission to Ava, 303.

[1890.—"The succession to the throne primarily depends upon the person chosen by the court and people being of princely descent—all such are called chow or prince."—Hallet, A Thousand Miles on an Elephant, p. 32.]

CHOGA, s. Turki choghā. A long sleeved garment, like a dressing-gown (a purpose for which Europeans often make use of it). It is properly an Afghan form of dress, and is generally made of some soft woollen material, and embroidered on the sleeves and shoulders. In Bokhara the word is used for a furred robe. ["In Tibetan ch'uba; in Turki juba. It is variously pronounced chuba, juba or chogha in Asia, and shuba or shubka in Russia" (J.R.A.S., N.S. XXIII. 122)].

1883.—"We do not hear of 'shirt-sleeves' in connection with Henry (Lawrence), so often as in John's case; we believe his favourite dishabille was an Afghan choga, which like charity covered a multitude of sins."—Qu. Review, No. 310, on Life of Lord Lawrence, p. 303.

CHOKIDAR, s. A watchman. Derivative in Persian form from Choky. The word is usually applied to a private watchman; in some parts of India he is generally of a thieving tribe, and his employment may be regarded as a sort of blackmail to ensure one's property. [In N. India the village Chaukīdār is the rural policeman, and he is also employed for watch and ward in the smaller towns.]

1689.—"And the Day following the Chocadars, or Souldiers were remov'd from before our Gates."—Ovington, 416.

1810.—"The chokey-dar attends during the day, often performing many little offices, ... at night parading about with his spear, shield, and sword, and assuming a most terrific aspect, until all the family are asleep; when HE GOES TO SLEEP TOO."—Williamson, V. M. i. 295.

c. 1817.—"The birds were scarcely beginning to move in the branches of the trees, and there was not a servant excepting the chockedaurs, stirring about any house in the neighbourhood, it was so early."—Mrs. Sherwood's Stories, &c. (ed. 1873), 243.

1837.—"Every village is under a potail, and there is a pursau or priest, and choukeednop (sic!) or watchman."—Phillips, Million of Facts, 320.

1864.—The church book at Peshawar records the death there of "The Revd. I—— L——l, who on the night of the —th ——, 1864, when walking in his veranda was shot by his own chokidar"—to which record the hand of an injudicious friend has added: "Well done, thou good and faithful servant!" (The exact words will now be found in the late Mr. E. B. Eastwick's Panjáb Handbook, p. 279).

CHOKRA, s. Hind. chhokrā, 'a boy, a youngster'; and hence, more specifically, a boy employed about a household, or a regiment. Its chief use in S. India is with the latter. (See CHUCKAROO.)

[1875.—"He was dubbed 'the chokra,' or simply 'boy.'"—Wilson, Abode of Snow, 136.]

CHOKY, s. H. chaukī, which in all its senses is probably connected with Skt. chatur, 'four'; whence chatushka, 'of four,' 'four-sided,' &c.

a. (Perhaps first a shed resting on four posts); a station of police; a lock-up; also a station of palankin bearers, horses, &c., when a post is laid; a customs or toll-station, and hence, as in the first quotation, the dues levied at such a place; the act of watching or guarding.

[1535.—"They only pay the choqueis coming in ships from the Moluccas to Malacca, which amounts to 3 parts in 10 for the owner of the ship for choque, which is freight; that which belongs to His Highness pays nothing when it comes in ships. This choque is as far as Malacca, from thence to India is another freight as arranged between the parties. Thus when cloves are brought in His Highness's ships, paying the third and the choquies, there goes from every 30 bahars 16 to the King, our Lord."—Arrangement made by Nuno da Cunha, quoted in Botelho, Tombo, p. 113. On this Mr. Whiteway remarks: "By this arrangement the King of Portugal did not ship any cloves of his own at the Moluccas, but he took one-third of every shipment free, and on the balance he took one-third as Choky, which is, I imagine, in lieu of customs."]

c. 1590.—"Mounting guard is called in Hindi Chauki."—Āīn, i. 257.

1608.—"The Kings Custome called Chukey, is eight bagges upon the hundred bagges."—Saris, in Purchas, i. 391.

1664.—"Near this Tent there is another great one, which is called Tchaukykane, because it is the place where the Omrahs keep guard, every one in his turn, once a week twenty-four hours together."—Bernier, E.T., 117; [ed. Constable, 363].

1673.—"We went out of the Walls by Broach Gate ... where, as at every gate, stands a Chocky, or Watch to receive Toll for the Emperor...."—Fryer, 100.

" "And when they must rest, if they have no Tents, they must shelter themselves under Trees ... unless they happen on a Chowkie, i.e., a Shed where the Customer keeps a Watch to take Custom."—Ibid. 410.

1682.—"About 12 o'clock Noon we got to ye Chowkee, where after we had shown our Dustick and given our present, we were dismissed immediately."—Hedges, Diary, Dec. 17; [Hak. Soc. i. 58].

1774.—"Il più difficile per viaggiare nell' Indostan sono certi posti di guardie chiamate Cioki ... questi Cioki sono insolentissimi."—Della Tomba, 33.

1810.—"... Chokies, or patrol stations."—Williamson, V. M., i. 297.

This word has passed into the English slang vocabulary in the sense of 'prison.'

b. A chair. This use is almost peculiar to the Bengal Presidency. Dr. John Muir [Orig. Skt. Texts, ii. 5] cites it in this sense, as a Hindi word which has no resemblance to any Skt. vocable. Mr. Growse, however, connects it with chatur, 'four' (Ind. Antiq., i. 105). See also beginning of this article. Chau is the common form of 'four' in composition, e.g. chaubandi, (i.e. 'four fastening') the complete shoeing of a horse; chaupahra ('four watches') all night long; chaupār, 'a quadruped'; chaukaṭ and chaukhaṭ ('four timber'), a frame (of a door, &c.). So chaukī seems to have been used for a square-framed stool, and thence a chair.

1772.—"Don't throw yourself back in your burra chokey, and tell me it won't do...."—W. Hastings to G. Vansittart, in Gleig, i. 238.

c. 1782.—"As soon as morning appeared he (Haidar) sat down on his chair (chaukī) and washed his face."—H. of Hydur Naik, 505.

CHOLERA, and CHOLERA MORBUS, s. The Disease. The term 'cholera,' though employed by the old medical writers, no doubt came, as regards its familiar use, from India. Littré alleges that it is a mistake to suppose that the word cholera (χολέρα) is a derivative from χολή 'bile,' and that it really means 'a gutter,' the disease being so called from the symptoms. This should, however, rather be ἀπὸ τῶν χολάδων, the latter word being anciently used for the intestines (the etym. given by the medical writer, Alex. Trallianus). But there is a discussion on the subject in the modern ed. of Stephani Thesaurus, which indicates a conclusion that the derivation from χολὴ is probably right; it is that of Celsus (see below). [The N.E.D. takes the same view, but admits that there is some doubt.] For quotations and some particulars in reference to the history of this terrible disease, see under MORT-DE-CHIEN.

c. A.D. 20.—"Primoque facienda mentio est cholerae; quia commune id stomachi atque intestinorum vitium videri potest ... intestina torquentur, bilis supra infraque erumpit, primum aquae similis: deinde ut in eâ recens caro tota esse videatur, interdum alba, nonnunquam nigra vel varia. Ergo eo nomine morbum hunc χολέραν Graeci nominârunt...." &c.—A. C. Celsi Med. Libri VIII. iv. xi.

c. A.D. 100.—"ΠΕΡῚ ΧΟΛΈΡΗΣ ... θάνατος ἐπῶδυνος καὶ οἴκτιστος σπασμῷ καὶ πνιγὶ καὶ ἐμέσῳ κενῷ."—Aretaeus, De Causis et signis acutorum morborum, ii. 5.

Also Θεραπεία Χολερῆς, in De Curatione Morb. Ac. ii. 4.

1563.—"R. Is this disease the one which kills so quickly, and from which so few recover? Tell me how it is called among us, and among them, and its symptoms, and the treatment of it in use?

"O. Among us it is called Collerica passio...."—Garcia, f. 74v.

[1611.—"As those ill of Colera."—Couto, Dialogo de Soldado Pratico, p. 5.]

1673.—"The Diseases reign according to the Seasons.... In the extreme Heats, Cholera Morbus."—Fryer, 113–114.

1832.—"Le Choléra Morbus, dont vous me parlez, n'est pas inconnu à Cachemire."—Jacquemont, Corresp. ii. 109.


CHOOLA, s. H. chūlhā, chūlhī, chūlā, fr. Skt. chulli. The extemporized cooking-place of clay which a native of India makes on the ground to prepare his own food; or to cook that of his master.

1814.—"A marble corridor filled up with choolas, or cooking-places, composed of mud, cowdung, and unburnt bricks."—Forbes, Or. Mem. iii. 120; [2nd ed. ii. 193].

CHOOLIA, s. Chūliā is a name given in Ceylon and in Malabar to a particular class of Mahommedans, and sometimes to Mahommedans generally. There is much obscurity about the origin and proper application of the term. [The word is by some derived from Skt. chūḍa, the top-knot which every Hindu must wear, and which is cut off on conversion to Islam. In the same way in the Punjab, choṭīkaṭ, 'he that has had his top-knot cut off,' is a common form of abuse used by Hindus to Musulman converts; see Ibbetson, Panjab Ethnog. p. 240.] According to Sonnerat (i. 109), the Chulias are of Arab descent and of Shīa profession. [The Madras Gloss. takes the word to be from the kingdom of Chola and to mean a person of S. India.]

c. 1345.—"... the city of Kaulam, which is one of the finest of Malibār. Its bazars are splendid, and its merchants are known by the name of Ṣūlia (i.e. Chūlia)."—Ibn Batuta, iv. 99.

1754.—"Chowlies are esteemed learned men, and in general are merchants."—Ives, 25.

1782.—"We had found ... less of that foolish timidity, and much more disposition to intercourse in the Choliars of the country, who are Mahommedans and quite distinct in their manners...."—Hugh Boyd, Journal of a Journey of an Embassy to Candy, in Misc. Works (1800), i. 155.

1783.—"During Mr. Saunders's government I have known Chulia (Moors) vessels carry coco-nuts from the Nicobar Islands to Madras."—Forrest, Voyage to Mergui, p. v.

" "Chulias and Malabars (the appellations are I believe synonymous)."—Ibid. 24.

1836.—"Mr. Boyd ... describes the Moors under the name of Cholias, and Sir Alexander Johnston designates them by the appellation Lubbies (see LUBBYE). These epithets are, however, not admissible, for the former is only confined to a particular sect among them, who are rather of an inferior grade; and the latter to the priests who officiate."—Casie Chitty, in J. R. A. Soc. iii. 338.

1879.—"There are over 15,000 Klings, Chuliahs, and other natives of India."—Miss Bird, Golden Chersonese, 254.

CHOP, s. Properly a seal-impression, stamp, or brand; H. chhāp; the verb (chhāpnā) being that which is now used in Hindustani to express the art of printing (books).

The word chhāp seems not to have been traced back with any accuracy beyond the modern vernaculars. It has been thought possible (at least till the history should be more accurately traced) that it might be of Portuguese origin. For there is a Port. word chapa, 'a thin plate of metal,' which is no doubt the original of the Old English chape for the metal plate on the sheath of a sword or dagger.[13] The word in this sense is not in the Portuguese Dictionaries; but we find 'homem chapado,' explained as 'a man of notable worth or excellence,' and Bluteau considers this a metaphor 'taken from the chapas or plates of metal on which the kings of India caused their letters patent to be engraven.' Thus he would seem to have regarded, though perhaps erroneously, the chhāpā and the Portuguese chapa as identical. On the other hand, Mr. Beames entertains no doubt that the word is genuine Hindi, and connects it with a variety of other words signifying striking, or pressing. And Thompson in his Hindi Dictionary says that chhāppā is a technical term used by the Vaishnavas to denote the sectarial marks (lotus, trident, &c.), which they delineate on their bodies. Fallon gives the same meaning, and quotes a Hindi verse, using it in this sense. We may add that while chhāpā is used all over the N.W.P. and Punjab for printed cloths, Drummond (1808) gives chhāpānīya, chhapārā, as words for 'Stampers or Printers of Cloth' in Guzerati, and that the passage quoted below from a Treaty made with an ambassador from Guzerat by the Portuguese in 1537, uses the word chapada for struck or coined, exactly as the modern Hindi verb chhāpnā might be used.[14] Chop, in writers prior to the last century, is often used for the seal itself. "Owen Cambridge says the Mohr was the great seal, but the small or privy seal was called a 'chop' or 'stamp.'" (C. P. Brown).

The word chop is hardly used now among Anglo-Indians in the sense of seal or stamp. But it got a permanent footing in the 'Pigeon English' of the Chinese ports, and thence has come back to England and India, in the phrase "first-chop," i.e. of the first brand or quality.

The word chop (chāp) is adopted in Malay [with the meanings of seal-impression, stamp, to seal or stamp, though there is, as Mr. Skeat points out, a pure native word tera or tra, which is used in all these senses;] and chop has acquired the specific sense of a passport or licence. The word has also obtained a variety of applications, including that just mentioned, in the lingua franca of foreigners in the China seas. Van Braam applies it to a tablet bearing the Emperor's name, to which he and his fellow envoys made kotow on their first landing in China (Voyage, &c., Paris, An vi., 1798, i. 20–21). Again, in the same jargon, a chop of tea means a certain number of chests of tea, all bearing the same brand. Chop-houses are customs stations on the Canton River, so called from the chops, or seals, used there (Giles, Glossary). Chop-dollar is a dollar chopped, or stamped with a private mark, as a guarantee of its genuineness (ibid.). (Dollars similarly marked had currency in England in the first quarter of last century, and one of the present writers can recollect their occasional occurrence in Scotland in his childhood). The grand chop is the port clearance granted by the Chinese customs when all dues have been paid (ibid.). All these have obviously the same origin; but there are other uses of the word in China not so easily explained, e.g. chop, for 'a hulk'; chop-boat for a lighter or cargo-boat.

In Captain Forrest's work, quoted below, a golden badge or decoration, conferred on him by the King of Achin, is called a chapp (p. 55). The portrait of Forrest, engraved by Sharp, shows this badge, and gives the inscription, translated: "Capt. Thomas Forrest, Orancayo [see ORANKAY] of the Golden Sword. This chapp was conferred as a mark of honour in the city of Atcheen, belonging to the Faithful, by the hands of the Shabander [see SHAHBUNDER] of Atcheen, on Capt. Thomas Forrest."

[1534.—"The Governor said that he would receive nothing save under his chapa." "Until he returned from Badur with his reply and the chapa required."—Correa, iii. 585.]

1537.—"And the said Nizamamede Zamom was present and then before me signed, and swore on his Koran (moçafo) to keep and maintain and fulfil this agreement entirely ... and he sealed it with his seal" (e o chapo de sua chapa).—Treaty above quoted, in S. Botelho, Tombo, 228.

1552.—"... ordered ... that they should allow no person to enter or to leave the island without taking away his chapa.... And this chapa was, as it were, a seal."—Castanheda, iii. 32.

1614.—"The King (of Achen) sent us his Chop."—Milward, in Purchas, i. 526.

1615.—"Sailed to Acheen; the King sent his Chope for them to go ashore, without which it was unlawful for any one to do so."—Sainsbury, i. 445.

[" "2 chistes plate ... with the rendadors chape upon it."—Cocks's Diary, i. 219.]

1618.—"Signed with my chop, the 14th day of May (sic), in the Yeare of our Prophet Mahomet 1027."—Letter from Gov. of Mocha, in Purchas, i. 625.

1673.—"The Custom-house has a good Front, where the chief Customer appears certain Hours to chop, that is to mark Goods outward-bound."—Fryer, 98.

1678.—"... sending of our Vuckeel this day to Compare the Coppys with those sent, in order to ye Chaup, he refused it, alledging that they came without ye Visiers Chaup to him...."—Letter (in India Office) from Dacca Factory to Mr. Matthias Vincent (Ft. St. George?).

1682.—"To Rajemaul I sent ye old Duan ...'s Perwanna, Chopt both by the Nabob and new Duan, for its confirmation."—Hedges, Diary, Hak. Soc. i. 37.

1689.—"Upon their Chops as they call them in India, or Seals engraven, are only Characters, generally those of their Name."—Ovington, 251.

1711.—"This (Oath at Acheen) is administered by the Shabander ... lifting, very respectfully, a short Dagger in a Gold Case, like a Scepter, three times to their Heads; and it is called receiving the Chop for Trade."—Lockyer, 35.

1715.—"It would be very proper also to put our chop on the said Books."—In Wheeler, ii. 224.

c. 1720.—"Here they demanded tax and toll; felt us all over, not excepting our mouths, and when they found nothing, stamped a chop upon our arms in red paint; which was to serve for a pass."—Zesteen Jaarige Reize ... door Jacob de Bucquoy, Haarlem, 1757.

1727.—"On my Arrival (at Acheen) I took the Chap at the great River's Mouth, according to Custom. This Chap is a Piece of Silver about 8 ounces Weight, made in Form of a Cross, but the cross Part is very short, that we ... put to our Fore-head, and declare to the Officer that brings the Chap, that we come on an honest Design to trade."—A. Hamilton, ii. 103.

1771.—"... with Tiapp or passports."—Osbeck, i. 181.

1782.—"... le Pilote ... apporte avec lui leur chappe, ensuite il adore et consulte son Poussa, puis il fait lever l'ancre."—Sonnerat, ii. 233.

1783.—"The bales (at Acheen) are immediately opened; 12 in the hundred are taken for the king's duty, and the remainder being marked with a certain mark (chapp) may be carried where the owner pleases."—Forrest, V. to Mergui, 41.

1785.—"The only pretended original produced was a manifest forgery, for it had not the chop or smaller seal, on which is engraved the name of the Mogul."—Carraccioli's Clive, i. 214.

1817.—"... and so great reluctance did he (the Nabob) show to the ratification of the Treaty, that Mr. Pigot is said to have seized his chop, or seal, and applied it to the paper."—Mill's Hist. iii. 340.

1876.—"'First chop! tremendously pretty too,' said the elegant Grecian, who had been paying her assiduous attention."—Daniel Deronda, Bk. I. ch. x.

1882.—"On the edge of the river facing the 'Pow-shan' and the Creek Hongs, were Chop houses, or branches of the Hoppo's department, whose duty it was to prevent smuggling, but whose interest it was to aid and facilitate the shipping of silks ... at a considerable reduction on the Imperial tariff."—The Fankwae at Canton, p. 25.

The writer last quoted, and others before him, have imagined a Chinese origin for chop, e.g., as "from chah, 'an official note from a superior,' or chah, 'a contract, a diploma, &c.,' both having at Canton the sound chăp, and between them covering most of the 'pigeon' uses of chop" (Note by Bishop Moule). But few of the words used by Europeans in Chinese trade are really Chinese, and we think it has been made clear that chop comes from India.

CHOP-CHOP. Pigeon-English (or -Chinese) for 'Make haste! look sharp!' This is supposed to be from the Cantonese, pron. kăp-kăp, of what is in the Mandarin dialect kip-kip. In the Northern dialects kwai-kwai, 'quick-quick' is more usual (Bishop Moule). [Mr. Skeat compares the Malay chepat-chepat, 'quick-quick.']


a. H. chhappar, 'a thatched roof.'

[1773.—"... from their not being provided with a sufficient number of boats, there was a necessity for crouding a large party of Sepoys into one, by which the chuppar, or upper slight deck broke down."—Ives, 174.]

1780.—"About 20 Days ago a Villian was detected here setting fire to Houses by throwing the Tickeea[15] of his Hooka on the Choppers, and was immediately committed to the Phouzdar's Prison.... On his tryal ... it appering that he had more than once before committed the same Nefarieus and abominable Crime, he was sentenced to have his left Hand, and right Foot cut off.... It is needless to expatiate on the Efficacy such exemplary Punishments would be of to the Publick in general, if adopted on all similar occasions...."—Letter from Moorshedabad, in Hicky's Bengal Gazette, May 6.

1782.—"With Mr. Francis came the Judges of the Supreme Court, the Laws of England, partial oppression, and licentious liberty. The common felons were cast loose, ... the merchants of the place told that they need not pay duties ... and the natives were made to know that they might erect their chappor huts in what part of the town they pleased."—Price, Some Observations, 61.

1810.—"Chuppers, or grass thatches."—Williamson, V. M. i. 510.

c. 1817.—"These cottages had neat choppers, and some of them wanted not small gardens, fitly fenced about."—Mrs. Sherwood's Stories, ed. 1873, 258.

[1832.—"The religious devotee sets up a chupha-hut without expence."—Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali, ii. 211.]

[b. In Persia, a corr. of P. chār-pā, 'on four feet, a quadruped' and thence a mounted post and posting.

1812.—"Eight of the horses belong to the East India Company, and are principally employed in carrying choppers or couriers to Shiraz."—Morier, Journey through Persia, &c., p. 64.

1883.—"By this time I had begun to pique myself on the rate I could get over the ground 'en chuppar.'"—Wills, In the Land of the Lion and the Sun, ed. 1891, p. 259.]

CHOPPER-COT, a. Much as this looks like a European concoction, it is a genuine H. term, chhappar khāṭ, 'a bedstead with curtains.'

1778.—"Leito com armação. Châpâr cátt."—Grammatica Indostana, 128.

c. 1809.—"Bedsteads are much more common than in Puraniya. The best are called Palang, or Chhapar Khat ... they have curtains, mattrasses, pillows, and a sheet...."—Buchanan, Eastern India, ii. 92.

c. 1817.—"My husband chanced to light upon a very pretty chopper-cot, with curtains and everything complete."—Mrs. Sherwood's Stories, ed. 1873, 161. (See COT.)

CHOPSTICKS, s. The sticks used in pairs by the Chinese in feeding themselves. The Chinese name of the article is 'kwai-tsz,' 'speedy-ones.' "Possibly the inventor of the present word, hearing that the Chinese name had this meaning, and accustomed to the phrase chop-chop for 'speedily,' used chop as a translation" (Bishop Moule). [Prof. Giles writes: "The N.E.D. gives incorrectly kwai-tze, i.e. 'nimble boys,' 'nimble ones.' Even Sir H. Yule is not without blemish. He leaves the aspirate out of kwai, of which the official orthography is now k'uai-k'uai-tzŭ, 'hasteners,' the termination -ers bringing out the value of tzŭ, an enclitic particle, better than 'ones.' Bishop Moule's suggestion is on the right track. I think, however, that chopstick came from a Chinaman, who of course knew the meaning of k'uai and applied it accordingly, using the 'pidgin' word chop as the, to him, natural equivalent."]

c. 1540.—"... his young daughters, with their brother, did nothing but laugh to see us feed ourselves with our hands, for that is contrary to the custome which is observed throughout the whole empire of China, where the Inhabitants at their meat carry it to their mouthes with two little sticks made like a pair of Cizers" (this is the translator's folly; it is really com duos paos feitos como fusos—"like spindles")."—Pinto, orig. cap. lxxxiii., in Cogan, p. 103.

[1598.—"Two little peeces of blacke woode made round ... these they use instead of forkes."—Linschoten, Hak. Soc. i. 144.]

c. 1610.—"... ont comme deux petites spatules de bois fort bien faites, qu'ils tiennent entre leurs doigts, et prennent avec cela ce qu'ils veulent manger, si dextrement, que rien plus."—Mocquet, 346.

1711.—"They take it very dexterously with a couple of small Chopsticks, which serve them instead of Forks."—Lockyer, 174.

1876.—"Before each there will be found a pair of chopsticks, a wine-cup, a small saucer for soy ... and a pile of small pieces of paper for cleaning these articles as required."—Giles, Chinese Sketches, 153–4.

CHOTA-HAZRY, s. H. chhoṭī hāẓirī, vulg. hāẓrī, 'little breakfast'; refreshment taken in the early morning, before or after the morning exercise. The term (see HAZREE) was originally peculiar to the Bengal Presidency. In Madras the meal is called 'early tea.' Among the Dutch in Java, this meal consists (or did consist in 1860) of a large cup of tea, and a large piece of cheese, presented by the servant who calls one in the morning.

1853.—"After a bath, and hasty ante-breakfast (which is called in India 'a little breakfast') at the Euston Hotel, he proceeded to the private residence of a man of law."—Oakfield, ii. 179.

1866.—"There is one small meal ... it is that commonly known in India by the Hindustani name of chota-hāziri, and in our English colonies as 'Early Tea.'..."—Waring, Tropical Resident, 172.

1875.—"We took early tea with him this morning."—The Dilemma, ch. iii.

CHOUL, CHAUL, n.p. A seaport of the Concan, famous for many centuries under various forms of this name, Cheṅwal properly, and pronounced in Konkani Tseṁwal (Sinclair, Ind. Ant. iv. 283). It may be regarded as almost certain that this was the Σίμυλλα of Ptolemy's Tables, called by the natives, as he says, Τίμουλα. It may be fairly conjectured that the true reading of this was Τιίμουλα, or Τιέμουλα. We find the sound ch of Indian names apparently represented in Ptolemy by τι (as it is in Dutch by tj). Thus Τιάτουρα = Chitor, Τιάστανης = Chashṭaṇa; here Τίμουλα = Cheṅwal; while Τιάγουρα and Τιαύσπα probably stand for names like Chagara and Chauspa. Still more confidently Cheṅwal may be identified with the Ṣaimur (Chaimur) or Jaimur of the old Arab. Geographers, a port at the extreme end of Lār or Guzerat. At Choul itself there is a tradition that its antiquity goes back beyond that of Suali (see SWALLY), Bassein, or Bombay. There were memorable sieges of Choul in 1570–71, and again in 1594, in which the Portuguese successfully resisted Mahommedan attempts to capture the place. Dr. Burgess identifies the ancient Σήμυλλα rather with a place called Chembur, on the island of Trombay, which lies immediately east of the island of Bombay; but till more evidence is adduced we see no reason to adopt this.[16] Choul seems now to be known as Revadaṇḍa. Even the name is not to be found in the Imperial Gazetteer. Rewadaṇḍa has a place in that work, but without a word to indicate its connection with this ancient and famous port. Mr. Gerson d'Acunha has published in the J. Bo. Br. As. Soc., vol. xii., Notes on the H. and Ant. of Chaul.

A.D. c. 80–90.—"Μετὰ δὲ Καλλιέναν ἄλλα ἐμπόρια τοπικὰ, Σήμυλλα, καὶ Μανδαγόρα...."—Periplus.

A.D. c. 150.—"Σίμυλλα ἐμπόριον (καλούμενον ὑπὸ τῶν ἐγχωρίων Τίμουλα)."—Ptol. i. cap. 17.

A.D. 916. "The year 304 I found myself in the territory of Ṣaimūr (or Chaimūr), belonging to Hind and forming part of the province of Lār.... There were in the place about 10,000 Mussulmans, both of those called baiāsirah (half-breeds), and of natives of Sirāf, Omān, Basrah, Bagdad, &c."—Maṣ'ūdi, ii. 86.

[1020.—"Jaimúr." See quotation under LAR.]

c. 1150.—"Saimūr, 5 days from Sindān, is a large, well-built town."—Edrisi, in Elliot, i. [85].

c. 1470.—"We sailed six weeks in the taca till we reached Chivil, and left Chivil on the seventh week after the great day. This is an Indian country."—Ath. Nikitin, 9, in India in XVth. Cent.

1510.—"Departing from the said city of Combeia, I travelled on until I arrived at another city named Cevul (Chevul) which is distant from the above-mentioned city 12 days' journey, and the country between the one and the other of these cities is called Guzerati."—Varthema, 113.

1546.—Under this year D'Acunha quotes from Freire d'Andrada a story that when the Viceroy required 20,000 pardaos (q.v.) to send for the defence of Diu, offering in pledge a wisp of his mustachio, the women of Choul sent all their earrings and other jewellery, to be applied to this particular service.

1554.—"The ports of Mahaim and Sheúl belong to the Deccan."—The Mohit, in J.A.S.B., v. 461.

1584.—"The 10th of November we arrived at Chaul which standeth in the firme land. There be two townes, the one belonging to the Portugales, and the other to the Moores."—R. Fitch, in Hakl. ii. 384.

c. 1630.—"After long toil ... we got to Choul; then we came to Daman."—Sir T. Herbert, ed. 1665, p. 42.

1635.—"Chíval, a seaport of Deccan."—Sádik Isfaháni, 88.

1727.—"Chaul, in former Times, was a noted Place for Trade, particularly for fine embroidered Quilts; but now it is miserably poor."—A. Hamilton, i. 243.

1782.—"That St. Lubin had some of the Mahratta officers on board of his ship, at the port of Choul ... he will remember as long as he lives, for they got so far the ascendancy over the political Frenchman, as to induce him to come into the harbour, and to land his cargo of military stores ... not one piece of which he ever got back again, or was paid sixpence for."—Price's Observations on a Late Publication, &c., 14. In Price's Tracts, vol. i.

CHOULTRY, s. Peculiar to S. India, and of doubtful etymology; Malayāl. chāwaṭī, Tel. chāwaḍi, [tsāvaḍi, chau, Skt. chatur, 'four,' vāṭa, 'road,' a place where four roads meet]. In W. India the form used is chowry or chowree (Dakh. chāoṛī). A hall, a shed, or a simple loggia, used by travellers as a resting-place, and also intended for the transaction of public business. In the old Madras Archives there is frequent mention of the "Justices of the Choultry." A building of this kind seems to have formed the early Court-house.

1673.—"Here (at Swally near Surat) we were welcomed by the Deputy President ... who took care for my Entertainment, which here was rude, the place admitting of little better Tenements than Booths stiled by the name of Choultries."—Fryer, 82.

" "Maderas ... enjoys some Choultries for Places of Justice."—Ibid. 39.

1683.—"... he shall pay for every slave so shipped ... 50 pagodas to be recovered of him in the Choultry of Madraspattanam."—Order of Madras Council, in Wheeler, i. 136.

1689.—"Within less than half a Mile, from the Sea (near Surat) are three Choultries or Convenient Lodgings made of Timber."—Ovington, 164.

1711.—"Besides these, five Justices of the Choultry, who are of the Council, or chief Citizens, are to decide Controversies, and punish offending Indians."—Lockyer, 7.

1714.—In the MS. List of Persons in the Service, &c. (India Office Records), we have:—

"Josiah Cooke ffactor Register of the Choultry, £15."

1727.—"There are two or three little Choulteries or Shades built for Patients to rest in."—A. Hamilton, ch. ix.; [i. 95].

[1773.—"A Choltre is not much unlike a large summer-house, and in general is little more than a bare covering from the inclemency of the weather. Some few indeed are more spacious, and are also endowed with a salary to support a servant or two, whose business is to furnish all passengers with a certain quantity of rice and fresh water."—Ives, 67.]

1782.—"Les fortunes sont employées à bâtir des Chauderies sur les chemins."—Sonnerat, i. 42.

1790.—"On ne rencontre dans ces voyages aucune auberge ou hôtellerie sur la route; mais elles sont remplacées par des lieux de repos appelées schultris (chauderies), qui sont des bâtimens ouverts et inhabités, où les voyageurs ne trouvent, en général, qu'un toit...."—Haafner, ii. 11.

1809.—"He resides at present in an old Choultry which has been fitted up for his use by the Resident."—Ld. Valentia, i. 356.

1817.—"Another fact of much importance is, that a Mahomedan Sovereign was the first who established Choultries."—Mill's Hist. ii. 181.

1820.—"The Chowree or town-hall where the public business of the township is transacted, is a building 30 feet square, with square gable-ends, and a roof of tile supported on a treble row of square wooden posts."—Acc. of Township of Loony, in Tr. Lit. Soc. Bombay, ii. 181.

1833.—"Junar, 6th Jan. 1833.... We at first took up our abode in the Chawadī, but Mr. Escombe of the C. S. kindly invited us to his house."—Smith's Life of Dr. John Wilson, 156.

1836.—"The roads are good, and well supplied with choultries or taverns"(!)—Phillips, Million of Facts, 319.

1879.—"Let an organised watch ... be established in each village ... armed with good tulwars. They should be stationed each night in the village chouri."—Overland Times of India, May 12, Suppl. 7b.

See also CHUTTRUM.

CHOULTRY PLAIN, n.p. This was the name given to the open country formerly existing to the S.W. of Madras. Choultry Plain was also the old designation of the Hd. Quarters of the Madras Army; equivalent to "Horse Guards" in Westminster (C. P. B. MS.).

1780.—"Every gentleman now possessing a house in the fort, was happy in accommodating the family of his friend, who before had resided in Choultry Plain. Note. The country near Madras is a perfect flat, on which is built, at a small distance from the fort, a small choultry."—Hodges, Travels, 7.

CHOUSE, s. and v. This word is originally Turk. chāush, in former days a sergeant-at-arms, herald, or the like. [Vambéry (Sketches, 17) speaks of the Tchaush as the leader of a party of pilgrims.] Its meaning as 'a cheat,' or 'to swindle' is, apparently beyond doubt, derived from the anecdote thus related in a note of W. Gifford's upon the passage in Ben Jonson's Alchemist, which is quoted below. "In 1609 Sir Robert Shirley sent a messenger or chiaus (as our old writers call him) to this country, as his agent, from the Grand Signor and the Sophy, to transact some preparatory business. Sir Robert followed him, at his leisure, as ambassador from both these princes; but before he reached England, his agent had chiaused the Turkish and Persian merchants here of 4000l., and taken his flight, unconscious perhaps that he had enriched the language with a word of which the etymology would mislead Upton and puzzle Dr. Johnson."—Ed. of Ben Jonson, iv. 27. "In Kattywar, where the native chiefs employ Arab mercenaries, the Chaus still flourishes as an officer of a company. When I joined the Political Agency in that Province, there was a company of Arabs attached to the Residency under a Chaus." (M.-Gen. Keatinge). [The N.E.D. thinks that "Gifford's note must be taken with reserve." The Stanf. Dict. adds that Gifford's note asserts that two other Chiauses arrived in 1618–1625. One of the above quotations proves his accuracy as to 1618. Perhaps, however, the particular fraud had little to do with the modern use of the word. As Jonson suggests, chiaus may have been used for 'Turk' in the sense of 'cheat'; just as Cataian stood for 'thief' or 'rogue.' For a further discussion of the word see N. & Q., 7 ser. vi. 387; 8 ser. iv. 129.]

1560.—"Cum vero me taederet inclusionis in eodem diversorio, ago cum meo Chiauso (genus id est, ut tibi scripsi alias, multiplicis apud Turcas officii, quod etiam ad oratorum custodiam extenditur) ut mihi liceat aere meo domum conducere...."—Busbeq. Epist. iii. p. 149.

1610.—"Dapper.... What do you think of me, that I am a chiaus?

Face. What's that?

Dapper. The Turk was here.
As one would say, do you think I am a Turk?


Face. Come, noble doctor, pray thee let's prevail;
This is the gentleman, and he's no chiaus."
Ben. Jonson, The Alchemist, Act I. sc. i.


"Fulgoso. Gulls or Moguls,
Tag, rag, or other, hogen-mogen, vanden,
Ship-jack or chouses. Whoo! the brace are flinched.
The pair of shavers are sneak'd from us, Don...."
Ford, The Lady's Trial, Act II. sc. i.

1619.—"Con gli ambasciatori stranieri che seco conduceva, cioè l'Indiano, di Sciah Selim, un ciausc Turco ed i Moscoviti...."—P. della Valle, ii. 6.

1653.—"Chiaoux en Turq est vn Sergent du Diuan, et dans la campagne la garde d'vne Karauane, qui fait le guet, se nomme aussi Chiaoux, et cet employ n'est pas autrement honeste."—Le Gouz, ed. 1657, p. 536.


"Conquest. We are
In a fair way to be ridiculous.
What think you? Chiaus'd by a scholar."
Shirley, Honoria & Mammon, Act II. sc. iii.

1663.—"The Portugals have choused us, it seems, in the Island of Bombay in the East Indys; for after a great charge of our fleets being sent thither with full commission from the King of Portugal to receive it, the Governour by some pretence or other will not deliver it to Sir Abraham Shipman."—Pepys, Diary, May 15; [ed. Wheatley iii. 125].


"When geese and pullen are seduc'd
And sows of sucking pigs are chows'd."
Hudibras, Pt. II. canto 3.


"Transform'd to a Frenchman by my art;
He stole your cloak, and pick'd your pocket,
Chows'd and caldes'd ye like a blockhead."

1754.—"900 chiaux: they carried in their hand a baton with a double silver crook on the end of it; ... these frequently chanted moral sentences and encomiums on the Shah, occasionally proclaiming also his victories as he passed along."—Hanway, i. 170.

1762.—"Le 27e d'Août 1762 nous entendîmes un coup de canon du chateau de Kâhira, c'étoit signe qu'un Tsjaus (courier) étoit arrivé de la grande caravane."—Niebuhr, Voyage, i. 171.

1826.—"We started at break of day from the northern suburb of Ispahan, led by the chaoushes of the pilgrimage...."—Hajji Baba, ed. 1835, p. 6.

CHOW-CHOW, s. A common application of the Pigeon-English term in China is to mixed preserves; but, as the quotation shows, it has many uses; the idea of mixture seems to prevail. It is the name given to a book by Viscountess Falkland, whose husband was Governor of Bombay. There it seems to mean 'a medley of trifles.' Chow is in 'pigeon' applied to food of any kind. ["From the erroneous impression that dogs form one of the principal items of a Chinaman's diet, the common variety has been dubbed the 'chow dog'" (Ball, Things Chinese, p. 179).] We find the word chow-chow in Blumentritt's Vocabular of Manilla terms: "Chau-chau, a Tagal dish so called."

1858.—"The word chow-chow is suggestive, especially to the Indian reader, of a mixture of things, 'good, bad, and indifferent,' of sweet little oranges and bits of bamboo stick, slices of sugar-cane and rinds of unripe fruit, all concocted together, and made upon the whole into a very tolerable confection....

"Lady Falkland, by her happy selection of a name, to a certain extent deprecates and disarms criticism. We cannot complain that her work is without plan, unconnected, and sometimes trashy, for these are exactly the conditions implied in the word chow-chow."—Bombay Quarterly Review, January, p. 100.

1882.—"The variety of uses to which the compound word 'chow-chow' is put is almost endless.... A 'No. 1 chow-chow' thing signifies utterly worthless, but when applied to a breakfast or dinner it means 'unexceptionably good.' A 'chow-chow' cargo is an assorted cargo; a 'general shop' is a 'chow-chow' shop ... one (factory) was called the 'chow-chow,' from its being inhabited by divers Parsees, Moormen, or other natives of India."—The Fankwae, p. 63.

CHOWDRY, s. H. chaudharī, lit. 'a holder of four'; the explanation of which is obscure: [rather Skt. chakra-dharin, 'the bearer of the discus as an ensign of authority']. The usual application of the term is to the headman of a craft in a town, and more particularly to the person who is selected by Government as the agent through whom supplies, workmen, &c., are supplied for public purposes. [Thus the Chaudharī of carters provides carriage, the Chaudharī of Kahārs bearers, and so on.] Formerly, in places, to the headman of a village; to certain holders of lands; and in Cuttack it was, under native rule, applied to a district Revenue officer. In a paper of 'Explanations of Terms' furnished to the Council at Fort William by Warren Hastings, then Resident at Moradbagh (1759), chowdrees are defined as "Landholders in the next rank to Zemindars." (In Long, p. 176.) [Comp. VENDU-MASTER.] It is also an honorific title given by servants to one of their number, usually, we believe, to the mālī [see MOLLY], or gardener—as khalīfa to the cook and tailor, jama'dār to the bhishtī, mehtar to the sweeper, sirdār to the bearer.

c. 1300.—"... The people were brought to such a state of obedience that one revenue officer would string twenty ... chaudharis together by the neck, and enforce payment by blows."—Ziā-ud-dīn Barnī, in Elliot, iii. 183.

c. 1343.—"The territories dependent on the capital (Delhi) are divided into hundreds, each of which has a Jautharī, who is the Sheikh or chief man of the Hindus."—Ibn Batuta, iii. 388.

[1772.—"Chowdrahs, land-holders, in the next rank to Zemeendars."—Verelst, View of Bengal, Gloss. s.v.]

1788.—"Chowdry.—A Landholder or Farmer. Properly he is above the Zemindar in rank; but, according to the present custom of Bengal, he is deemed the next to the Zemindar. Most commonly used as the principal purveyor of the markets in towns or camps."—Indian Vocabulary (Stockdale's).

CHOWK, s. H. chauk. An open place or wide street in the middle of a city where the market is held, [as, for example, the Chāndnī Chauk of Delhi]. It seems to be adopted in Persian, and there is an Arabic form Sūḳ, which, it is just possible, may have been borrowed and Arabized from the present word. The radical idea of chauk seems to be "four ways" [Skt. chatushka], the crossing of streets at the centre of business. Compare Carfax, and the Quattro Cantoni of Palermo. In the latter city there is a market place called Piazza Ballarò, which in the 16th century a chronicler calls Seggeballarath, or as Amari interprets, Sūḳ-Balharā.

[1833.—"The Chandy Choke, in Delhi ... is perhaps the broadest street in any city in the East."—Skinner, Excursions in India, i. 49.]

CHOWNEE, s. The usual native name, at least in the Bengal Presidency, for an Anglo-Indian cantonment (q.v.). It is H. chhāonī, 'a thatched roof,' chhāonā, chhānā, v. 'to thatch.'

[1829.—"The Regent was at the chaoni, his standing camp at Gagrown, when this event occurred."—Tod, Annals (Calcutta reprint), ii. 611.]

CHOWRINGHEE, n.p. The name of a road and quarter of Calcutta, in which most of the best European houses stand; Chaurangī.

1789.—"The houses ... at Chowringee also will be much more healthy."—Seton-Karr, ii. 205.

1790.—"To dig a large tank opposite to the Cheringhee Buildings."—Ibid. 13.

1791.—"Whereas a robbery was committed on Tuesday night, the first instant, on the Chowringhy Road."—Ibid. 54.

1792.—"For Private Sale. A neat, compact and new built garden house, pleasantly situated at Chouringy, and from its contiguity to Fort William, peculiarly well calculated for an officer; it would likewise be a handsome provision for a native lady, or a child. The price is 1500 sicca rupees."—Ibid. ii. 541.

1803.—"Chouringhee, an entire village of palaces, runs for a considerable length at right angles with it, and altogether forms the finest view I ever beheld in any city."—Ld. Valentia, i. 236.

1810.—"As I enjoyed Calcutta much less this time ... I left it with less regret. Still, when passing the Chowringhee road the last day, I—

'Looked on stream and sea and plain
As what I ne'er might see again.'"
Elphinstone, in Life, i. 231.

1848.—"He wished all Cheltenham, all Chowringhee, all Calcutta, could see him in that position, waving his hand to such a beauty, and in company with such a famous buck as Rawdon Crawley, of the Guards."—Vanity Fair, ed. 1867, i. 237.


(a.) See CHOULTRY.

(b.) H. chaṅwar, chauṅrī; from Skt. chamara, chāmara. The bushy tail of the Tibetan Yak (q.v.), often set in a costly decorated handle to use as a fly-flapper, in which form it was one of the insignia of ancient Asiatic royalty. The tail was also often attached to the horse-trappings of native warriors; whilst it formed from remote times the standard of nations and nomad tribes of Central Asia. The Yak-tails and their uses are mentioned by Aelian, and by Cosmas (see under YAK). Allusions to the chāmara, as a sign of royalty, are frequent in Skt. books and inscriptions, e.g. in the Poet Kalidāsa (see transl. by Dr. Mill in J. As. Soc. Beng. i. 342; the Amarakosha, ii. 7, 31, &c.). The common Anglo-Indian expression in the 18th century appears to have been "Cow-tails" (q.v.). And hence Bogle in his Journal, as published by Mr. Markham, calls Yaks by the absurd name of "cow-tailed cows" though "horse-tailed cows" would have been more germane!

c. A.D. 250.—"Βοῶν δε γένη δύο, δρομικούς τε καὶ ἄλλους ἀγρίους δεινῶς· ἐκ τουτῶν γε τῶν βοῶν καὶ τὰς μυιοσόβας ποιοῦνται, καὶ τὸ μὲν σῶμα παμμέλανες εῖσιν οἵδε· τὰς δὲ οὐρὰς ἔχουσι λευκὰς ἰσχυρῶς."—Aelian. de Nat. An. xv. 14.

A.D. 634–5.—"... with his armies which were darkened by the spotless chāmaras that were waved over them."—Aihole Inscription.

c. 940.—"They export from this country the hair named al-zamar (or al-chamar) of which those fly-flaps are made, with handles of silver or ivory, which attendants held over the heads of kings when giving audience."—Maṣ'ūdī, i. 385. The expressions of Maṣ'ūdī are aptly illustrated by the Assyrian and Persepolitan sculptures. (See also Marco Polo, bk. iii. ch. 18; Nic. Conti, p. 14, in India in the XVth Century).

1623.—"For adornment of their horses they carried, hung to the cantles of their saddles, great tufts of a certain white hair, long and fine, which they told me were the tails of certain wild oxen found in India."—P. della Valle, ii. 662; [Hak. Soc. ii. 260].

1809.—"He also presented me in trays, which were as usual laid at my feet, two beautiful chowries."—Lord Valentia, i. 428.

1810.—"Near Brahma are Indra and Indranee on their elephant, and below is a female figure holding a chamara or chowree."—Maria Graham, 56.

1827.—"A black female slave, richly dressed, stood behind him with a chowry, or cow's tail, having a silver handle, which she used to keep off the flies."—Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter, ch. x.

CHOWRYBURDAR, s. The servant who carries the Chowry. H. P. chauṅrī-bardār.

1774.—"The Deb-Rajah on horseback ... a chowra-burdar on each side of him."—Bogle, in Markham's Tibet, 24.

[1838.—"... the old king was sitting in the garden with a chowrybadar waving the flies from him."—Miss Eden, Up the Country, i. 138.]

CHOWT, CHOUT, s. Mahr. chauth, 'one fourth part.' The blackmail levied by the Mahrattas from the provincial governors as compensation for leaving their districts in immunity from plunder. The term is also applied to some other exactions of like ratio (see Wilson).

[1559.—Mr. Whiteway refers to Couto (Dec. VII. bk. 6, ch. 6), where this word is used in reference to payments made in 1559 in the time of D. Constantine de Bragança, and in papers of the early part of the 17th century the King of the Chouteas is frequently mentioned.]

1644.—"This King holds in our lands of Daman a certain payment which they call Chouto, which was paid him long before they belonged to the Portuguese, and so after they came under our power the payment continued to be made, and about these exactions and payments there have risen great disputes and contentions on one side and another."—Bocarro (MS.).

1674.—"Messengers were sent to Bassein demanding the chout of all the Portuguese territory in these parts. The chout means the fourth part of the revenue, and this is the earliest mention we find of the claim."—Orme's Fragments, p. 45.

1763–78.—"They (the English) were ... not a little surprised to find in the letters now received from Balajerow and his agent to themselves, and in stronger terms to the Nabob, a peremptory demand of the Chout or tribute due to the King of the Morattoes from the Nabobship of Arcot."—Orme, ii. 228–9.

1803.—"The Peshwah ... cannot have a right to two choutes, any more than to two revenues from any village in the same year."—Wellington Desp. (ed. 1837), ii. 175.

1858.—"... They (the Mahrattas) were accustomed to demand of the provinces they threatened with devastation a certain portion of the public revenue, generally the fourth part; and this, under the name of the chout, became the recognized Mahratta tribute, the price of the absence of their plundering hordes."—Whitney, Oriental and Ling. Studies, ii. 20–21.

CHOYA, CHAYA, CHEY, s. A root, [generally known as chayroot,] (Hedyotis umbellata, Lam., Oldenlandia umb., L.) of the Nat. Ord. Cinchonaceae, affording a red dye, sometimes called 'India Madder,' ['Dye Root,' 'Rameshwaram Root']; from Tam. shāyaver, Malayāl. chāyaver (chāya, 'colour,' ver, 'root'). It is exported from S. India, and was so also at one time from Ceylon. There is a figure of the plant in Lettres Edif. xiv. 164.

c. 1566.—"Also from S. Tome they layd great store of red yarne, of bombast died with a roote which they call saia, as aforesayd, which colour will never out."—Caesar Frederike, in Hakl. [ii. 354].