How To Break Ties in Sports and Games

How To Break Ties in Sports and Games  (1982) 
by S. Navaraj Chelliah

How To Break Ties


Sports and Games

Compiled by:


M. A., D. P. E., M. P. Ed.,

PHYSICAL FITNESS and HEALTH title image.png

Rajmohan Pathippagam
10, Ranganathan Street,
T. Nagar. : : MADRAS - 17.

How To Break Ties


Sports and Games

Compiled By:


M. A., D. P. E., M. P. Ed.

Price : Rs. 3-00

Rajmohan Pathippagam
10, Ranganathan Street,
T. Nagar, : : MADRAS-17.

First Edition : September 1982

Books by the same author

  1. Quotation on Sports and Games7-00
  2. General Knowledge in Sports and games1-25
  3. விளையாட்டுத் துறையில் ஆங்கிலம் தமிழ் அகராதி12-00
Printed at:

27, Subba Reddy Street,
West Mambalam, Madras - 600 033.

Games and Sports

1. 5
2. 8
3. 11
4. 15
5. 18
6. 25
7. 28
8. 30
9. 32
10. 33
11. 36
12. 46


This booklet is compiled with the good intention to help people and personnels who work for the cause of Physical Education and sports.

Whenever I happen to meet the organisers and administrators of the Tournaments, they used to request me to bring out a book tike this.

I hope this book will help and guide them, to break the ties whenever they meet the difficult situations of the games and sports meet.

I request to acknowledge my sincere thanks for those who have given me their good guidance with their glorious thoughts in the form of their valuable books. Even though I could not thank them individually and immediately, I hope they will accept my heart bound thanks and oblige.

S. Navaraj Chelliah.

1. Basket ball


The game shall consist of Two halves of 20 minutes each, with an interval of 10 minutes between halves


If local conditions warrant it, the organisers may increase the interval to 15 minutes. This decision must be made known to all concerned before the begining of the game.

In tournaments lasting several days, the decision must be taken and made known to all concerned at the latest, One day before the tournament is due to start.


A game shall be decided by the scoring of the greater number of points in the playing time.


Captains shall be notified three minutes before the termination of the interval between halves, If either team is not on the floor ready to play within one minute after the Referee calls play, either at the begining of the second half or after time has been taken out for any reason, the ball shall be put in play in the same manner as if both teams were on the floor ready to play, and the absent team shall forfeit the game.

A team shall forfeit the game if It refuses to play after being instructed to do so by the Referee.

When during a game the number of players of a team on the court shall bs less than two, the game shall end, and that team shall lose the game by forfeit

If the team to which the game is forfeited Is ahead, the score at the time of forfeiture shall stand. If this team is not ahead, the score shall be recorded as 2 to O in its favour.


If the score is a tie at the expiration of the second half, play shall be continued for an Extra period of 5 minutes or as many such periods of 5 minutes as may be necessary to break the tie.

Before the first Extra period, the teams shall tose for baskets at the begining of each additional extra period.

An interval of 2 minutes shall be allowed before each extra period.

At the begining of each extra period, the ball shall be put in play at the centre


The game shall terminate at the sounding of the Timekeeper’s signal indicating the end of playing time.

When a foul Is committed simultaneously with or just previous to the Timekeeper’s signal ending a half or an extra period, time shall be allowed for the free throw or throws, if any are involved in the penalty.

When a shot is taken near the end of playing time the goal, if made, shall count if the ball was in the air before time expired. All provisions contained in art. 29 and 30 shall apply untill the ball touches the ring. If the ball strikes the ring, rebounds and then enters the basket, the goal shall count.

If, after the ball has touched the ring, a player of either team touches the ball, it is a violation.

If a defensive player commits such a violation, two points shall be awarded. If an offensive player commits such a violation, the ball becomes dead and the goal, if scored, shall not count. These provisrons apply until it is apparent the shot will not be succeesful.

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2. Carrom


There shall be a toss by the Referee at the commencement of each game.

The toss shall be a spin of a coin or by means of calling the carromnen

The player winning the toss shall have the choice of side or option to strike first.

In Doubles match, the winners of the toss, should they desire to have choice of side, shall Indicate to losers the side where they must sit; and the losers having done so, the winners shall arrange themselves.

Once the losers have sat down, they cannot interchange. The order of sitting shall continue through out the match.

The losers shall have to strike first.

If the break is chosen, the winners of the toss shall have to sit first after the opponents have chosen their sides


There shall be Two Trial Boards only befoer the start of the match (ie) one for each player or a pair

A player reporting late for the match shall have no right for a trial board; but may be permitted to play a trial board upto expiry of the full grace time.


A game shall be of 29 points, and the player (or players) who reaches 29 points first is the winner of the game

Each game shall be decided on the basis of 8 boards.

In tournaments, however this law shall be applicable to matches to the end of Pre-quarter final rounds

The player (players) leading at the end of the Eighth Board shall be declared the winner of the game.


In case, the score is equal at the end of the eighth board, an extra board after a toss choose break, shall be played to decide the winner.

All matches shall be decided by the best of three games only.

There shall be an interval of 10 minutes, in between the second and third games.


In singles, the change of sides by the player in the oppssite direction shall be made at the conclusion of a game.

In Doubles match, the change of sides by the players in the direction towards the next right side shall be made at the conclusion of a game.

In the deciding game (singles or doubles) for the matches to the end of the quarter final, the change of sides shall be made after the completion of the fourth board or after 15 paints are scored by any player which ever is earlier.

From quarter final and onwards the change will take place only after 15 points are scored, by any player.

The change of sides, if remains unnoticed either by the referee, or by any of the players, it shalt take place as and when noticed, but, after the comptetion of that particular board.

The players shall not take more than, 2 minutes to change their ends.

3. Cricket

Each team has two opportunities to bat.

That is each side has two innings taken alternatively.

The choice of innings shall be decided by tossing on the field of play.

The captains should toss for innings not later than 15 minutes before the time agreed upon for play to start.

The winner of the toss may not alter his decision to bat or field once it has been notified to the opposing Captain.


1. A match is played between two sides of eleven players each, unless otherwise agreed. Each side shall play under a Captain who before the toss for innings shall nominate his pleyers who may not thereafter be changed wihout the consent of the opposing Captain.


1. If a Captain is not available at any time, a deputy must act for him to deal promptly with points arising from this and other Laws.

2. No match in which more than eleven players a side take part can be regarded as First - class, and in any case no side should field with more than eleven players.


2. Substitutes shall be allowed to field or run between the wickets for any player who may during the match be incapacitated from illness or injury, but not for any other reason without the consent of the opposing Captain; no substitute shall be allowed to bat or to bowl. Consent as to the person to act as substitute in the field shall be obtained from the opposing Captain, who may indicate positions in which the Substitute shall not field


1. A player may bat, bowl or field even though a substitute has acted for him previously.

2. An injured batsman may be “Out” should his runner infringe Laws 36, 40 or 41. As striker he remains himsell subject to the Laws; should he be out of his ground for any purpose he may be “Out” under Laws 41 and 42 at the wicket-keeper’s end, irrespective of the position of the other batsman or the substitute when the wicket is put down. When not the Striker the injured batsman is out of the game and stands where he does not interfere with the play.


The score shall be reckoned by runs


A match is won by the side which shall have scored a total of runs in excess of that scored by the opposing side in its two completed innings; one-day matches, unless this played out, shall be deceided by the first innings.

A match may also be determined by being given up as lost by one of the sides, or in the case governed by Law 17

A match not determined in any of these ways shall count as a “Draw”.


1. It is the responsibility of the captains to satisfy themselves on the correctness of the scores on the conclusion of play.

2. Neither side can be compelled to continue after a match is finished; a one-day match shall not be regarded as finished on the result of the first innings if the umpires consider there is a prospect of carrying the game to a further issue in the time remaining.

3. The result of a finished match is stated as a win by runs, except in the case of a win by the side batting last, when it is by the number of wickets still then to fall. In a one-day match which is not played out on the second innings, this rule applies to the position at the time when a result on the first innings was reached.

4. A “Draw” is regarded as a “Tie” when the scores are equal at the conclusion of play, but only if the match has been played out. If the scores of the completed first innings of a one-day match are equal, it is a “Tie” but only if the match has not been played out to a further conclusion.


The side which bats first and leads by 200 runs in a match of 5 days or more; or by 150 runs in a Three day of four day match; or

by 75 runs in a one-day match -

shall have the option of requiring the other side to follow their inning


The captain of the batting side may declare an innings closed at any time during a match irrespective of its duration.


A Captain may forfeit his second innings. In this event, the interval between innings shall be 10 minutes and his decision must be notified to the Opposing capta in and umpires in sufficient time to allow seven minutes rolling the pitch.

4. Foot Ball


The duration of the game shall be two equal periods of 45 minutes, unless otherwise mutually agreed upon subject to the following:

a) Allowance shall be made in either period for all time lost through accident or other cause, the amount of which shall be a matter for the discretion of the referee.

b) Time shall be extended to permit a penalty-kick being taken at or after the expiration of the normal period in either half.

c) At half time, the interval shall not exceed 5 minutes except by the consent of the referee.


Normal playing period means 90 minutes, or if a shorter period is mutually agreed upon and is permissible under the rules of competition, the period should be divided in equal halves.


The team scoring the greater number of goals during a game shall be the winner.

If no goals or an equal number of goals scored, the game shall be termed a draw.


Conditions under which penalty-kicks shall be taken to determine which of the two teams in a drawn match, in a KNOCK OUT COMPETITION, shall be declared the winner.

1. The referee shall toss and the team whose captain wins the toss shall take the FIRST KICK.

2. The referee shall choose the goal at which all at the penalty-kicks shall be taken.

3. Each team shell take 5 Penalty-kicKs. The kicks shall be taken alternatively.

4. Only the players who are in the field of play at the end of the match, which shall mean at the end of extra time in so far as a match in which extra time is authorised, is concerned, shall be eligible to take part in the penalty kicking.

5. If, after each team has taken 5 kicks, each has scored the same number of goals or neither has scored, the taking of penalty kicks shell continue in the same order, until such time as each has taken the same number of kicks and one team has scored a goal more than the other.

6. Each kick shall be taken by a different player and not until all eligible players of any team, including the goal keeper, have taken a kick may a player of the same team take a second kick.

7. Any player who was on the field at the end of the match, may change, places with his goal-keeper at any time during the taking of the penalty kicks.

8. All players other than the two goal-keepers and the player taking the kick, shall remain within the centre circle whilst the taking of the penalty - kicks is in progress.

9. The goalkeeper who is colleague of the kicker shall take up position outside the penalty area, behind the line which runs parallel with the goal-line and at least 10 yards from the penalty-mark.

10 unless stated to the contrary herein, the conditions of the law ‘Penalty Kick’ will apply, in the taking of these kicks.

11. The team which scores the greater number of goals shall be declared the winner.

5. Hockey


a) A game stall be played between two teams. Not more than eleven players of each team shall be on the field of play at the same time. At no time shall there be on the field more than one goal keeper in each team.

b) Each team is permitted to substitute up to two players during the game. (This provision is not mandatory at any level.)

c) No player once substituted shall be permitted on the field again and no substitute shall be permitted for a suspended player during his suspension

d) Substitution of players may only take place with the prior permission of an umpire during any stoppage of play other than for the award of a corner, a penalty corner, or a penalty stroke. Time may be added for substitutions.

e) The duration of the game shall be two periods of thirty five minutes each, unless otherwise agreed before the game.

f) At half-time the teams shall change ends, and the duration of the interval shall not exceed five minutes, unless otherwise agreed before the game, but in no case shall it exceed ten minutes

g) The game starts when the umpire blows his whistle for the opening ‘Pass Back’ (See also Rule 10 (a).


a) A goal is scored when the whole ball has passed completely over the goal-line between the goal-posts and under the cross-bar, the ball, within the circle, having been hit by, or having glanced off, the stick of an attacker, except as specially provided for in Rule 15 (g) and Rule 16. It is immaterial if the ball subsequently touch, or be played by one or more defenders. If, during the game, the goal-posts and/or the cross-bar become displaced, and the ball pass completely over the goal-line at a point which, in the umpire’s opinion, be between where the goal-posts and/or under where the cross-bar, respectively, should have been, a goal is scored

b) The team scoring the greater number of goals shall be the winner.

The ball must be inside the circle when hit by an attacker (although he himself may be outside). If it is within the circle and then touches the stick or persons of a defender or defenders before crossing the goal - line between the posts, a goal is scored.

Should the ball be hit from outside the circle by an attacker and be diverted between the posts by a defender who is in or outside the circle within the 25-yard area, a corner should be given.


a) The lines are part of the circle

b) The whole ball must cross the goal-line before a a goal is scored.

After a stoppage of play inside the circle, the ball must again be hit from inside the circle by the stick of an attacker, before a goal can be scored.


a) (i) The penalty stroke shall be either a push, flick or scoop stroke taken from a spot 7 yards in front of the centre of the goal-line by a player of the attacking team. In the event of the goal-keeper being incapacitated or suspended, the captain of the defending team shall immediately nominate another goal-keeper.

This goal-keeper shall be permitted to put on protective equipment if the previous goal-keeper was incapacitated, but not if he has been suspended.

(ii) Whichever stroke is used, the ball may be raised to any height.

(iii) During the taking of a penalty storke, all the other players of both teams shall stand beyond the nearer 25-yards line.

b) When taking the stroke, the attacker shall stand close to the ball and shall be permitted in making the stroke to take one stride forward. The stride shall not be invalidated by reason of the rear foot moving provided that it does not pass the front foot before the ball is moved. Dragging or lifting the rear foot is not a breach of this Rule.

He may touch the ball once only and thereafter shall not approach either the ball or the goal keeper. The attacking player shall not take the penalty stroke until the umpire, having satisfied himself that both defender and attacker are ready, has indicated that he may do so by blowing his whistle.

c) (i) The goal-keeper shall stand on the goal-line. After the player taking the stroke and the goal-keeper are in position, the goal-keeper may not leave the goal-line or move either of his feet until the ball has been played.

ii) He shall not be penalized, if, in stopping a shot at goal, the ball, in the umpire’s opinion, merely rebounds off his body or his hand If the ball be caught and held by the goal-keeper it shall be deemed to be at rest. (See also Clause (e) (iii)). He may not touch the ball with any part of his stick when the ball is above the height of his shoulder. The usual privileges of the goal-keeper shall be allowed to him, but he shall not be allowed any change of dress or equipment between the award and the completion of the penalty stroke. (See Rule 16 (b) (i) above.)

iii) If any action prior by the striker prior to striking, the ball, induce the goal-keeper to move either of his feet or, if the striker feint at striking the ball, the stroke may be taken again.

d) If, as a result of the penalty stroke:

i) the whole ball pass completely over the goal-line between the goal posts and under the cross-bar, a goal is scored.

ii) there be a breach of any rule by the goal-keeper which prevents a goal from being scored, the umpire shall award a goal, unless such breach shall have been induced by the striker as in the last paragraph of (d) (iii) above,

iii) the ball should come to rest inside the circle, be lodged in the goal-keeper’s pads, be caught by the goal keeper or pass outside the circle, in all cases, the penalty stroke is ended. Unless a goal has been scored or awarded, the game shall be re-started by a free hit to be taken by a defender from a spot in front of the centre of the goal-line and 16 yards from the inner edge of that line.

e) All time taken between the award of the penalty stroke and resumption of play shall be added to the time of play.


Ata meeting of the Hockey Rules Board held in London on 7th March 1981, it was agreed that the following rules should be introduced on an experimental basis from the 1st Septemper 1981, unless otherwise indicated.

RULE 2. Captains

a) Toss for choice of start. The winner of the toss shall have (1) the right to choose which end his team will attack in first half. OR

2, The right to have possession of the ball at the start of the game,

The winner of the toss having made his Choice, the opposing side will automatically have the second option.

The team not having started the game will have possession of the bail for restarting after half time.


A) To start the game, restart it at half time and after each goal scored, a ‘Pass-Back’ shall be played at the centre of the field.

The pass-back for the start of the game shall be made by a player of the team which did not make a choice of ends; after half time by a player of the opposing team and after a goal has been scored, by a player of the team Against whom the goal has been awarded.

The pass back may not be directed over the centre line. All players of both teams other than the player making the pass-back, must be in their own half of the field at a distance of at least 5 yards from the ball.

Time wasting shall not be permitted.

B) (1) To restart the game accordance with rule 12, III, Penalties 4 (a) or Rule 18 (b)

A bully shall be played on the spot where the incident occurred.


To bully, a player of each team shall stand squarely facing the side - lines, each with his own goal - line on his right.

The ball shall be placed on the ground between the two players.

Each player shall tap with his stick, First the ground between the ball and his own goal-line, and then, with the flat face of his stick, his opponent’s stick, over the ball, three times alternately after which one of these players shall play the ball with his stick to put it into general play.

Until the ball is in general play, all other players shall be nearer to their own goal - line then is the ball and shall not stand within 5 yards of the ball.

A bully in the circle shall not be played within 5 yards of the goal - line.

Authors’ Note

In international matches 10 penalty strokes for each team are given in a tie breaker.

Each player can take one chance, if he wishes, can have two chances.

6. Kabaddi


Each side shall consist of 12 players. 7 players shall take the ground at a time


A side can start a match with one or two players less in their team. But

a) When all the players of their side are out, absentees shall be counted as out and a lona scored against the side.

b) when the absentees come, they shall enter the play with the permission of the referee,

c) Substitutes can be taken in the place of absent players at any time, but when they are thus taken, no change of players shall be allowed afterwards until the end of that match.

d) If a match is replayed, the players need not be the same.

e) If the player is seriously injured and in the opinion of the Referee, is unable to play, he may be replaced by one extra.

f) Minimum two players can be substituted in the end of the First Game (i.e.) in the interval and with the permission of the referee.


The duration of time for a representative match shall be of Two halves of 20 minutes for men, and of 15 minutes for women and Juniors with 5 minutes rest in the middle.

The side that wins the toss shall have the choice of the Court or Raid.

In the second half, the court shall be changed and the other side shall send their raider first.

The game in to the second half shall continue with the same number of players as it was at the end of the First Half.

The courts shall be changed after intervals.


Each side shall score 1 point for each opponent who is out. The side which scores a lona shall score 2 points. extra for the Lona.

When a team manages to put out the entire opposing team, they shall score a LONA and Two Points shall be awarded in addition to the points scored by putting out individual players.

The play continues and all the players of both sides enter their own half.

Thus the game continues till the end of the time of the play.

The side which scores the highest number of points, at the end of all the play, shall be declared winner.


If there is a tie, 2 extra periods of 5 minutes each shall be played.

The game in the extra periods will continue with the same number of players as it was at the end of the second half.

The team which scores the FIRST POINT shall be declared the winner if the tie occurs at the end of the complete game of 50 minutes.

If owing to any reason a match is not completed, the match will be replayed.


a) The scorer shall announce the score at interval and may announce the time of each minute of the last 5 minutes.

b) The Referee, shall have his watch synchronised with the scorer’s watch before the commencement of the match. Referee’s watch will be the official time.

7. Kho-Kho


Each match will consist of 2 innings. An inning will consist of a chasing and running turns which shall be of 7 minutes.

An interval of 5 minutes after an inning and of 2 minutes in between the turns is given.


The side that chases out more opponents scores a win.

Teams do not leave the ground till the result is announced


If the points are equal


Points are shared in a league match.


One more inning. One turn for each side as chasers and runners shall be played

If again the points are equal, the tie is to be broken, by noting the time to put out the first defender (runner) in the fourth inning or further innnings if need be.

The minimum time needed to put out a defender entitles a team to a win.


Incomplete for any reason is continued further with finished turns and same players in the same session.

If it is in other session, the match shall be replayed complete and the players need not be the same.

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8. Soft Ball


A regulation game shall consist of 5 innings.


The winner of the game shall be the team that scores more runs in a regulation game.


1. A full time innings need not be played if the team second at bat scores more runs in FOUR innings or before the third out in the last of the 5th inning.


A game that is tied at the end of 5 innings shall be continued by playing additional innings until one side has scored more runs than the other at the end of a complete inning.

or until the team scored at bat has scored more runs in their half of the inning before the third out is made.

A regulation tie game shall be declared if the score is equal when the game is called at the end of three or more complete innings or if the team second at bat has equalled the score of the first team at bat in the incomplete inning.

The umpire is empowered to call a game at any time due to darkness, rain, fire, Panic or other cause which put the patrons or players in peril.

The score of a regulation tie game shall be the tie score when the game was terminated.

A regulation tie game shall be replayed from the begining.

The score of a forefeited game shall be 5-0 in favour of the team not a fault or 7-0,

9. Throw Ball


A game consists of 15 points.

one point is scored by the serving side each time their opponent fail to throw the ball back over the net


In tournament play, the best of Three games decides the match.


If both team have the score 14-14, it is called Deuce.

To win the game, the serving side must then win Two consequctive points.


The server calls Deuce-play.

If her side wins the point, she calls Advantage-in-play.

If her side wins the next point, the game is won

But, if she calls Deuce-play and her side loses the point, the ball goes to the opposing side,

The server of that team calls again Deuce-play, and so the game continues until one team succeeds in winning Two consequetive points,

10. Table Tennis


A game shall be won by the player or pair first scoring 21 points.

If both players or pairs have scored 20 points, the winner of the game shall be the player or pair first scoring 2 points more than the opposing player or pair.

A match shall consist of one game, the best of Three or the best of Five games.


Play shall be continuous throughout, except that either player or pairs is entitled to claim a rest period of not more than 5 minutes duration between the Third and fourth games.

The duration between any other successive games of a match is not more than one minute.


1. The player or pair who started at one end in a game shall start at the other in the immediately subsequent game and so on, until the end of the match.

2. The players or pairs shall change ends when first either player or pair reaches the score 10.


After 5 points, the receiver shall become the server and the server the receiver and so on until the end of the game except as provided below.


The first 5 services shall be delivered by the selected partner of the pair who have the right to do so and shall be received by the appropriate partner of the opposing pair.

The second 5 services shall be delivered by the receiver of the First 5 services and received by the partner of the First Server,

The Third 5 services shall be delivered by the partner of the First Server and received by the partner of First Receiver.

The Fourth 5 services shall be delivered by the partner of the First Receiver and received by the First Server.

We can learn like this.

A Team Nos. 1 and 2
B Team Nos. 3 and 4
1 Serves to 3
3 Serves to 2
2 Serves to 4
4 Serves to 1

that is 1-3; 3-2; 2-4; 4-1;


If the game is being played under the Expedite System, the sequence of serving and receiving shall be by the Same but each player shall deliver only one service in turn until the end of the game.

The player or pair who served first in a game shall receive first in the immediately subsequent game.

In the last possible game of a doubles match; The receiving pair shall after its order of receiving when first either pair reaches the score 10.

In each game of a doubles match, the initial order of receiving shall be opposite to that in the preceding game

If the players have not changed ends when ends should have been changed, they shall change ends as soon as the mistake is discovered

If a game has been completed since the error, the error shall be ignored.

In any circumstances, all points scored before the discovery shall be recokoned.

If by mistake a player serve or receive out of his, her turn, play shall be interrepted as soon as the mistake is discovered and shall continue with that player serving or receiving who according to the sequence established at the begining of the match or at the score 10.

In any circumstances, all Points scored before the discovery shall be recokoned,

11. Track and Field


100 M, 200 M, 400 M, 800 M, 1500 M, 3600 M, steeple chase, Marathan Rece, Hurdles, races Relays.


A competitor after voluntarily leaving the track or course, shall not be allowed to continue the race

If a competitor is entered in both a track event and field event or in more than one field event taking place simultaneously, the Judges may allow the competitor to take his/her trials in an order different from the decided upon prior to the start of the competition.

The following minimum times must be allowed when practicable between the last heat or any round and the first heat of a subsequent round or final.

upto 200 metres 45 minutes
over 200 metres to 1600 metres 90 minutes.
over 1000 metres 180 minutes.

The competitors shall be placed in the order in which any part of their bodies (ieTorso as distinguished from the Head, Neck, Arms, legs, Hands or Feet) reaches the near edge of the Finish line as defined above.



1. In the event of a Tie in any heat which affects the qualification of competitors to compete in the next round or final where practicable, the Tying competitors shall both Qualify, failing which they shall compete again.


In case of a tie for First place, in any final, the Referee is empowered to decide whether it is practiceble to arrange for the competitors so tying to compete again.

If he decides it is not, the result will stand,

Ties in other placings shall remain.



The competitors shall compete in the order drawn by lot and where possible, their names shall be placed in the programme, in the order drawn.


A Competitor in a field event who unreasonably delays making a trial renders himself, liable to have that trial disallowed and recorded as a fault.

It is a matter for the Referee to decide, having regard to all the circumstances, what is an unreasonable delay.

The official responsible shall indicate to the competitor that all is ready for the period allowed for this trial shall commence from that moment.

The time now allowed for each trial (from the moment when the official indicates to the competitors that all is Ready) to be reduced to 1½ minutes for all events. For the pole vault where it will be 2 minutes.

The time shall begin when the uprights have been adjusted to the satisfaction of the Competitor.


A Competitor in a field event who unreasonably DELAYS making a trial renders himself liable to have that trial disallowed and recorded as a fault.

For a second delay at any time during the competition, he/she shall be debarred from taking any further trials, but any performance accomplished up to that time shall stand.


Ties shall be decided as follows :

1. The Competitor with the LOWEST NUMBER OF JUMPS at the height at which the tie occurs shall be awarded the Higher Place,

2. If the tie still remains, the Competitor with the LOWEST TOTAL OF FAILURES throughout the Competitions up to and including the heighf last cleared shall be awarded the higher place.

3. If the tie still remalns, the Competitor with the LOWEST TOTAL NUMBER OF JUMPS (whether successful or not) throughout the Competition up to and including the height last cleared shall be awarded the higher place



Comp 1-70 1-75 1-80 1-85 1-90 1-95


P — Not attempted
O — Cleared
X — Failed


All four having failed at 1-95 M. we have to look into the first formula “The Competitor with the lowest number of Jumps at the height at which the tie occurs shall be awarded the higher place.”

The tie occures at 1.90 metres

A had Two Jumps. While.

B and D had three each.

C did not try and therefore is not to be considered.

So, A is therefore declared First.

For B and D, we now refer to the second formula.

“If the tie still remains the Competitor with the lowest total of failures through out the competition up to and including the height last cleared shall be awarded a Higher place.”

The total failures to both B and D are 5 each.

Therefore, the tie still remains.

We are in a position to see the third formula.

“If the tie still remains, the Competitor with the lowest total number of Jumps (whethet successful or not) including the last height cleared shall be awarded the higher piece.”

B had 10 attempts.

D had 9 only.

So, D is declared second and B third.

C naturally takes fourth place


Comp. 3-00 3-10 3-20 3-25 3-50

A O O O XXX 2nd
B P P XXX 4th
C P O XXX 3rd
D P O O P XXX 1st

P — Not attempted
O — Cleared
X — Failed


Competitor D after passing the height of 3-25 M. failed to clear 3-30 M

Competitor ‘A’ failed at 3-25 M,

Thus the formula 2-c says.

“If the tie still remains, the competitor with the lowest total number of jumps (whether successful or not) throughout the competition upto and including the height last cleared shall be awarded the higher place”

‘A’ has taken Three jumps while ‘D’ has only Two.

Thus ‘D’ is decided the winner. while

A is given second place,

B and C both have failed at 3-20 M.

In their previous attempts, ‘C’ has cleared 3.10 M. While ‘B’ has not made any attempt and has not recorded any jump at all.

Therefore he gets 4th place.

C is awarded Third place.






1. The order in which the competitors take their trials shall be drawn by lot.

2. Where there are more than 8 competitors, each competitor shall be allowed 3 trials, and the 8 competitors with the best performances shall be allowed 3 additional trials.

3. Where there are 8 competitors or fewer, each competitor shall be allowed 6 trials.

4. Each competitor shalt be credited with the best of all his throws, subject to conditions relating to ties,

5. A competitor may not spray or spread any substance in the circle

6. A competitor is allowed to touch the inside edge of the circle.


7. A competitior may not cross either of the parallel lines.

8. It is a foul throw if the competitor touches with any part of his body or limbs, the arc or the lines drawn from the extremities there of at right angles to the parallel lines, or the ground beyond the arc or those lines.


In those field events,

Where the result is determined by the distance.

a) The Second Best performance of the competitors tying shall decide the tie.

b) If the tie still remains, the third best and so on.

Note: It is recommended that in International matches, Two or more competitors tie the rules for deciding ties should not apply. The points for the places concerned being shared.

In the event of a tie for the Sth place. Any competitor so tying shall be allowed three additional trials.

(The rule 146 is not to be applied while selecting the finalists for all events for distance.)


1. Pentathlon: Consists of 5 events which shall be held in the following order.

1. Long jump

2. Throwing the Javelin

3. 200 Metres

4. Throwing the Discus

5. 1500 Metres

2. Decathlon: Consists of 10 events which shall be held on 2 consequetive days in the following order

First Day — 100 Metres, Long Jump, Putting the shot, High Jump and 400 Metres.
Second Day — 110 m Hurdles, Throwing the Discus, Pole vault, Throwing the Javelin, and 1500 metres.


The pentathlon for women consists of 5 events which shall be held either on one day or two consecutive days in the following order.

First Day — 100 Metres Hurdles, Putting the shoft, High Jump

Second Day — Long Jump, 800 meters.


At the discretion of the referee, there shall be whenever possible an interval of atleast 30 minutes between the time one event ends and the next event begins, for any individual athlete.


In the event of a tie :—

a) The winner shall be the competitor who in the greater number of events, has received more points than the other competitors tying.

b) If this does not resolve the tie, the winner shall be the competitor who has the highest number of points in any such events

This shall apply to ties for any place in the competition

Note: Any athlete falling to start or make a trial in one of the 5 events of the Pentathlon, or in one of the 10 events of the Decathlon, shall not be allowed to take part in the following event, but shall be considered to have abandoned the competition.

He/she shall not therefore figuers in the final classification

12. Volley Ball


1. A team shall consist of 6 players regardless of circumstances. The composition of a complete team including substitutes may not exceed 12 players.

SUBSTITUTIONS : Substitution of players is made when the ball is dead, on request of either the CAPTAIN or COACH of a team to the Referee or umpire.

A team is allowed a maximum of 6 substitutions per game.


All International matches are to be played to the best of Five sets

Local matches are played to the best of Three sets.

A set is won when a team has scored 15 points, and has at least Two point lead over their opponents

If the score is tied at 14/14, the set continues until one team has a lead of two points, (Eg: 16-14; 17-15; 18-16 etc.)



The Captains toss a coin to decide ends and service The winner may choose either the end he prefers or the right to serve first.


Before the start of the deciding set, the referee makes a new toss of the coin to decide the choice of ends to service.


Teams must change ends after each set, except when the following set is the decider.

Ends of the court in the deciding set are chosen after the second toss.


When the teams have won the same number of sets and one team hae 8 points in the decider, the teams will change ends automatically, and the serving will continue by a player who served prior to the change of ends.

If the change of ends was not made at the correct time, it will take place as soon as the referee or one of the Captains notices it.

The score remeins unchanged.


A maximum interval of 2 minutes is allowed between each set.

This interval shall be 5 minutes between the fourth and the fifth set of the match.

The interval includes time spent changing ends and recording rotational orders on the score sheet.


Changing ends during the final set must be done without any interruption.

No instructions can be given to the players as they change over

The players must adopt the same positions on the court at they were in before the change.

As soon as the change has been made, the scorer must make sure that the players are in the correct position.


If any circumstances (such as bad weather, failure of equipment etc) prevent the completion of an international match, the following shall apply.

1. If the game is resumed on the same court after one or more periods not exceeding 4 hours, the score in the interrupted set will remain the same and the game resumes where it left off.

2. If the match is resumed on another court, the score of the interrupted set is annulled. However, the results of Completed sets remain.

The cancelled set will be re-played under the same conditions as before the interruption.

3. If the delay exceeds four hours, the match shalt be replayed completely, whatever court is chosen.

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