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Illustrations of Indian Botany, Vol. 1/Magnoliaceae

MAGNOLIACEAE.

In this order a ternary, quaternary or quinary arrangement of the parts of the flower prevails, and both sepals and petals are coloured or petaloid, so as to be almost indistinguishable, and all are equally deciduous, varying in number from 6 to about 30, or more, in several rows, all hypogynous. Stamens numerous, distinct, hypogynous, anthers adnate, long, ovaries numerous, simple, 1 -celled, arranged on all sides of an elongated torus, above the stamens, ovules few, or numerous, suspended or erect, styles short, stigmas simple. Fruit consisting of numerous carpels, but varying in their character, being either dry or succulent, dehiscent or indehiscent, distinct or partially conate, arranged on an elongated axis, and sometimes terminated by an elongated point or membranous wing. Seeds solitary, or several attached to the inner edge of the carpel, from which, when ripe, they are often suspended by a long slender umbilical cord, embryo minute, at the base of a fleshy albumen. Trees or shrubs, many of the former of great size, leaves alternate, not dotted, coriacious, entire, distinctly articulated with the stem, with deciduous stipules, which, when young, are rolled together enclosing the leaves like those of Ficus. Flowers large, solitary, many of them strongly odoriferous. Scales of the leaf-bud formed of stipules, either placed face to face or rolled up.

Affinities. This order is nearly allied to Dilleniacece, from which it is principally distinguished by the petaloid, deciduous sepals, and the predominance of the ternary, not quinary arrangement of the parts of the flower when few, and hy their number when the quinary occurs, also by their spicate, not verticelled ovaries : from anonaceee, to which they perhaps even more nearly approach, by their stipules, and solid, not ruminated, albumen.

Essential Character. Polypetalous ; polyandrous ; ovary wholly superior ; carpels more or less distinct, leaves furnished with stipules: without transparent dots.*[1]

Geographical Distribution. The species of this order are nearly confined to America and Asia, two or three only having as yet been found in Australia ; and none in Africa or Europe. In North America they are most abundant, the woods, swamps, and sides of hills of that country, abounding in species. In India they have a very wide range ; extending from the southern provinces of Ceylon and the Peninsula, up to the Himalayas, some of the largest species of the order being natives of the valley of Nepal and neighbouring mountains, while others extending eastward towards China and Japan, ascend as high as the 40° of N. latitude. The species and genera however met with at the extremities of this range differ, Michelia being almost the only genus found to the southward, while Sphenocarpus and Manglietia are conspicuous in the north. There however, several fine species of Michelia are also found, four of which have been figured by Dr. Wallich in his Tentanum Flor. Nepalensis, and one in his Plant, Asiat. rariores. Of the known species of the order 14 are enumerated in Wallich's list of Indian plants. Blume has given characters of 11 in his Bijdragen, to these may now be added one from Malabar, one from the Neelgherries, figured by Zenker, the accompanying from the Pulney range of mountains, and three others, of which I possess specimens from the more elevated regions of Ceylon, making up the total number of Asiatic species yet known to about 30, four of which are either indigenous or naturalized in the Peninsula : two of these, are only met with on the highest hills ; the third, M. Rheedii equally on hills, and on the plains of Malabar : while Michelia Champaca, a doubtful native, is cultivated on the plains on account of its fragrant flowers. This predilection of the species for the hills is equally observed in most of the other Indian ones ; nearly the whole of those mentioned by Wallich being from Nepal and Silhet. This order therefore in its geographical characteristics though nearly confined to the tropics, or, with one or two exceptions, extending but slightly beyond them, can scarcely be viewed as a tropical order, certainly not to the extent that the Dilleniaceae are, since the finest and largest of them are natives of hills enjoying a very moderate range of temperature, so moderate indeed, as undoubtedly to bring them within the temperate range, and such as to induce Mr. Royle (Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayas) to suggest the expediency of introducing several of them into Europe, on account of their great size and value as timber trees — a suggestion, well deserving of attention, and which, it is hoped, will be tried both in Britain and on the continent, as it is one easily made, and considering the unrivalled skill and facilities possessed in Europe for conducting such experiments, very likely to succeed.

Properties and Uses. Bitter and aromatic properties are common to the order, and have led Blume to remark, that by these properties they are known from Dilleniaceae : their flowers are usually fragrant. The fragrance, according to DeCandolle, is such as to produce a decided action on the nerves, that from Magnolia tripetala inducing sickness and head-ache ; while Barton states, that that from Magnolia glauca is so stimulating as to produce paroxysms of fever. The bark of some, though intensely bitter, is devoid of tannin and gallic acid ; that of the root of M. glauca according to Barton is an important tonic. In this country they seem too little known, to have found their way into the Materia medica of India, at least none of the order are mentioned by either Roxburgh or Ainsley as being employed in medicine, though Rheede (Hort. Mai.) in his account of Michelia Champaca, (I tab. 69) does mention the bark of the root as possessing deobstruent and emenagogue properties. As a perfume and ornament, the flowers are held in general estimation among the Natives. I have not heard of any of the southern species of Michelia being esteemed on account of their timber, though several of the Nepal ones afford large and valuable timber. Some of these might, I think, with every prospect of success be transferred to our mountain tracts, and would probably prove both useful and ornamental: in Mysore they might be expected to succeed well, though not equal to what analogy gives us reason to anticipate in the cooler regions of the Neelgherries and Pulneys.

Remarks on the genera and species. In this, as in most other very natural orders, the dis- crimination of both genera and species is always a task of much difficulty, and until Blume undertook the revision of the genera, of this order, nothing could be more perplexed. His very valuable and costly work, the Flora of Java, I have not an opportunity of consulting, there not being, so far as I am aware, a single copy in Madras, but being very fortunately favoured, through Dr. Arnott, with an abstract of his observations on the order I shall take the liberty of introducing it, which I do, the more readily, as it was prepared with reference to the species here represented.

The generic characters assigned by DeCandolle for the separation of Magnolia and Michelia, appearing to me involved and unsatisfactory, I requested Dr. A. to supply me with what information he possessed or could procure on the subject : the following is his answer.

"I have looked at different books about the difference between Magnolia and Michelia, and find the only man who has really made himself master of the subject to be Blume in his Flora Java?. He has remodelled the genera completely, and does not allow a single Magnolia in all East India; the true ones are all American, and are determined by the anthers extrorse. Then as to DeCandolle's second section of Magnoliae, about the fruit of which DeC. was ignorant, Blume shows that it is composed of two or three genera, one part of them belongs to Michelia, another to Talauma, and one to Manglietia. He characterizes Michelia thus. Petals (i. e. petals and sepals combined) 6-15, rarely more, in a ternary or quinary order. Stamens numerous, the anthers anticous. Ovaries numerous, or rarely few, densely spiked but distinct from each other, many ovules. Capsules sub-globose, coriacious, half 2 valved, loosely spiked, many seed, or by abortion 1-2 seeded. To this genus Blume refers all the Asiatic Magnoliae with axillary flowers and loosely imbricated fruit, whether the latter contain few or many seeds. To these belong Magnolia fuscata, Mag. excelsa Wall. Mag. parviflora DeC. Michelia parviflora De Lessert ic. tab: 85 non DeC.) and several others. His genus Manglietia, we have nothing like, but to it belongs Magnolia insignis Wall, the ovaries contain many ovules and are concrete, while the capsules are combined into an egg-shaped fruit. A third of Blume's genera is Aromadendron, having 28-36 petals, in a quaternary order, ovaries closely combined, 2 ovuled, &c. but that is truly a Java plant — lastly, is Talauma, which he has ascertained scarcely to differ from the American species for which Jussien made the genus. Here then are 9-15 petals (or sepals) in a ternary order : Stamens numerous, anthers anticous, ovaries several, united, 2 ovuled — Fruit of one mass, strobiliform, woody, irregularly dehiscent. Seeds 1-2, pendulous in the pits of the central, cylindrical, elongated, receptacle ; which by the dehiscence is left free ; the inflorescence is terminal. To this genus Blume refers Magnolia pumila of Springel (excluding synonyms) Magnolia pumila Andr. and DeCandolle, Magnolia Rumphii Spr. (excl. syn. Linn.) or Rumph. 2 tab. 69 &c. under his Talauma pumila (or Magnolia pumila Andr.) he quotes (like DeCandolle) Guillimia Indica Rottl : which Rottler says he found in the continent of India. Now a question here arises, can Rottler's plant have been cultivated? or wild? The only information I can get on that, is that in Curtis' Magazine, where, at t. 977, Magnolia pumila is figured, it is said "we have been informed that some botanists in Madras considering this plant a new genus named it Guillimia, in honor of Lady Gwillim, the patroness of science in that presidency." But there it is said to be from China. Now if Rottler's plant came from China, then it may be the true Talauma pumila, but if it came from the Peninsula, then I suspect it to be your Magnolia, probably the same as that given by Zenker as Michelia nilagirica ; and also the same as Colonel Walker and you have from Ceylon. At all events whatever Rottler's be, yours, Zenker's, and Walker's, have axillary inflorescence, and more than two ovules in each ovary, and carpels splitting down the middle so as to be half 2-valved, and are unquestionably Michelia. This exposition of the characters of the genera of this order leaves no room to doubt, that the plant have figured is a true Michelia,

The genus Michelia under Blume's amended and simplified character, is one of easy recognition, but the determination of the species, owing to the great accession which has been made to their number, is now most difficult, not so much, perhaps, from their not affording adequate discriminating marks, as from their never having been subjected to a sufficiently comprehensive scrutiny to admit of their proper characters being elicited, by a careful comparison of' one with another. Nor. indeed is this to be wondered at, when we consider how seldom opportunities occur of examining them in their native places, and how few have yet found their way into cultivation. It is not without feelings of regret that I find myself forced, from the imperfection of my materials, to leave this task to another, or at all events to postpone the examination until some future opportunity, as the very few species of which I possess specimens, barely enables me to conjecture, what series of organs are most likely to furnish either good specific marks or sectional subdivisions. For the latter purpose the number of spathes or bracts enveloping the young flower bud may prove serviceable, namely, whether two or three. For example, in M. Champaca, there are two, one exterior, and early caducous, which, (for convenience) I call bractial,and one closely embracing the flower, which (for the same reason) I call calycine, while in M. Pulneyensis there are three, one bractial and two calycine. The number of petals will perhaps be found to furnish another set of good characters, though for the present that seems doubtful ; but the number in each verticel whether 3, 4, or 5, promises to afford excellent sectional characters, since it may be presumed, that that series of numbers will be constant in each species. These structural differences, aided by variations in the forms and surfaces of the leaves ; whether rough or smooth, glabrous or clothed ; the colour, kind, and degree, of clothing, of the spathes ; the form, size, colour, and whether smooth or warty, of the carpels ; and lastly, the number of seeds in each compared with the ovules, ought I think, to present such a combination of easily recognizable characters, as should leave but little difficulty in distinguishing a much more extended series of species, than we have any reason to believe appertains to this genus.

To what extent these hints for the discrimination of species will be found to avail in practice, it is difficult to say, but it seems desirable that they should speedily be brought to the test of experience, since there is no genus, of the same extent, in which it is so difficult to determine the species. Much attention, and the examination of numerous specimens will no doubt be required towards the determination of the value of characters taken from the corolla, but those taken from the spathes and fruit, will, I suspect, be more steady, and, by so much, more valuable, at the same time, that they are more easily ascertained.

Adopting the number of spathes as a sectional character in the manner mentioned above, the following distribution of species into two leading sections, will probably be found correct.

1st. Flower buds with one bractial and one calycine spathe.

M. Champaca, M. excelsa, M. Doltsopa, M. Kisopa, M. aurantiaca, M. fuscata, M. nilagirica? and three undescribed species in my herbarum frosn Ceylon.

2d. With one bractial and two calycine spathes.

M. Pulneyensis, M. lanuginosa (?) and perhaps some of the Magnoliae of DeCandolle's second section, which are referable to this genus.

The Nepal species with the exception of the last, T have referred to the first section on the authority of the following passage in Wallich's Tentamen Fl. Nepalensis, " they (the flower buds) are enveloped in two entire membranous rounded spathes, the outer one much sooner caducous than that within." Such is the case with the outer or bractial spathe of M. Pulneyensis, while the two interior ones seem to separate about the same time. M. lanuginosa, I have doubtfully referred to the second section, owing to two bracts being represented in the figure as if caducous about the same time ; while in the others, one only is figured. Should the sectional characters I have proposed be found applicable to all the species I have respectively referred to them, there can be no doubt of my plant being distinct from all, unless it should be found that M. nilagirica is incorrectly described, which I fear is the case, though from never having seen specimens, I do not feel myself at liberty to offer any opinion on the subject. I may here observe that the cluster of fruit represented in my figure does not belong to the true M. Pulneyensis, but to a new and distinct species, (namely, M. Rheedii of this work,) and was, I now think rather unfortunately, introduced, merely as an example of the fruit of the genus. To prevent confusion however, I shall in a future number, publish a figure of an entire specimen, such as I found them.

The following synopsis of Indian species of Michelia, arranged on the principles above explained, though probably far from correct, is offered, in the hope that it may prove useful to those who may have opportunities of examining recent specimens, by directing attention to those points whence it seems probable, good characters may be derived, and thereby enable them to draw up such descriptions as will furnish botanists with the materials required to define, with precision, the species of this hitherto most difficult genus. The want of specimens or figures of the Eastern forms, prevents my attempting to introduce any of them.


§ 1. One bractial and one calycine spathe.

A. Petals numerous, (12-15) in a ternary or quinary order.

1. M. Champaca, Leaves ovate, oblong, much acuminated, acute at the base, the midrib beneath, petiols, peduncles and spathes, silky —Blume.

Leaves lanciolate, glabrous — D. C.

Leaves lanciolate — Lin. Willd. Persoon.

Such are the brief and vague characters assigned to this species; hence it is not to be wondered at, that the habitation allowed is equally vague and unlimited; namely, the whole of India and the Eastern Archipelago. As synonyms, DeCandolle quotes Rumphius, Herb. Amboynense 2— tab. 67, and Rheede Hort. Mai. 1 tab. 19; which, judging from the figures and the descriptions are, I think, different plants.

According to Rumphius's figure, the leaves are ovate lanciolate, tapering to a slender point, and are described as "being a span long, and two inches broad," (agreeing so far with Blume's character) the flowers have 15 petals, ranged in three rows, or in a quinary order, the five exterior ones smaller than the middle row, while the interior are much smaller than either; and lastly, the stamens are described as numerous, short and thick, bearing roundish anthers ; apeculiarity, which at once separates it from all continental Indian species. Rheede's description is less explicit, but still such as to afford good grounds for separating his from the Amboyna plant. The leaves, according to the figure, are elliptic, much acuminated, and attenuated at the base, until they imperceptibly pass into the petiol. The petals are said to be in verticels of eight, indicating a quaternery order, (thus associating it with Wallich's M. excelsa) the inner row passing into stamens; which are said to be cuspidate, as in the other Indian species. The fruit are differently represented by each, but by neither well; but Rheede describes the ovaries of his plant as terminating in a circular scutelliform point; a very unusual appearance in the genus, but which, I have ascertained to exist in the ovaries of the fruit represented in my plate, and from which I infer that that spike presents a correct figure of the fruit of Rheede's plant. This therefore I propose separating from Rumphius' plant as a new and distinct species, to be afterwards defined in its, presumed, proper place, under the name of M. Rheedii. Whether Blume and Rumphius describe the same plant, I leave to eastern botanists to determine, as I have seen neither.

2. M. Doltsopa. (Wall. Tent. PI. Nep.) Leaves elliptic-oblong, much acuminated, slightly pubescent beneath, long petioled : stipules and spathes clothed with rusty coloured pubescence : petals 15, arranged in quinary verticels, sub-pubescent, mixed with minute spofsatthe base: styles short, recurved, very papillose. Woods of the valleys and lower hills of Nepal — Wall. The fruit is neither described nor figured.

I have adopted Wallich's figure and description in this and the following, for the type of these species, as he seems to have no doubt of the identity of his plants, and those of Buchanan Hamilton, and DeCandolle.

3. M. Kisopa. (Wall. 1. c.) Leaves ovate, lanciolate, acuminated, coriacious, glabrous: stipules and spathes villous, whitish, the last very obtuse : petals 12 (ternary ?) nearly equal, acute: ovaries villous: styles longish, recurved : carpels remote, smooth, sub-globose, contracted at the base as if pedicelled, not verrucose, three or four seeded : seeds enclosed in red pulp.

Found in many of the woods of Nepal—Wall.

The rachis of trie fruit is represented as branched : this must surely be a very unusual occurrence, yet it is not alluded to in the description, which merely mentions the spike as being tortuous. It is perhaps attributable to an error of the draughtsman, who has taken that method of representing a tortuous spike. The carpels of this species are too smooth, and free from warty inequalities on their surface, to admit of this being associated with my M. Rheedii.

4. M. aurantiaca (Wall. Plant. Asiat. Rar. 2. 39 tab. 147 ) Young shoots, petiols, and peduncles, hairy : leaves ovate, oblong, ending in a long attenuated acumen, acute at the base, pubescent beneith : stipules and spathes, clothed with greenish brown pubescence : petals numerous (20) in a quinary order, (orange coloured) stamens numerous, sessile, much shorter than the column of fructification: ovaries densely congested, ovate: styles recurved : ovules— fruit' —

Pegu near Rangoon, flowering in September — Wall.

5. M. Walkerii. Young shoots villous, leaves elliptic, lanciolate, acuminated, acute at the base, glabrous, except the young ones which are clothed beneath with silky pubescence : stipules and spathes silky : petals about 12, narrow, lanciolate, pointed : stamens numerous, mucronate, equalling or exceeding the colums of fructification, half the length of the petals : ovaries 2 ovuled : carpels globose, one seeded, slightly warted.

Ceylon in woods, Nuera Ellia, flowering in March and April. First communicated by Colonel Walker, and afterwards gathered by myself.

A large shrub or small tree, the smaller leaves towards the ends of the branches, narrow, lanciolate, the larger ones elliptic, oblong, coriacious, 21 to 3 inches long, and one broad, short petioled.

B. "Petals feio (6-91 in a ternary order.

6. M. ovalifolia. (R. W.) Glabrous, leaves elliptic, broader towards the point, abruptly and shortly acuminated, acute, passing imperceptibly into the petiol, at the base : stipules and spathes clothed with stiff short appressed shining hairs: petals 6, spreading, obovate, obtuse : stamens numerous, nearly sessile, mucronate, shorter than the column of fructification ; ovaries few, three ovuled, style curved at the point, equalling the ovaries: fruit— Native of Ceylon whence my specimens were communicated by Colonel Walker.

Apparently a shrub, with smallish (3 or 3| inches long, by 1| broad) coriacacious leaves flowers, large in proportion, petals 4 or 5 times the length of the stamens and column, ovaries, as in all the other species I have examined, clothed with whitish hair.

7. M. glauca. (R.W.) Very ramous ; branches rigid, short, glabrous, except the extreme shoots : leaves glaucous beneath, obovate, much attenuated towards the base, ending in a short blunt acumen : stipules and spathes whitish, silky, petals 6, spreading, obovate : stamens numerous ; filaments nearly equalling the short anthers, which together, scarcely exceed the pedicel of the column of fructification, and are about six times shorter than the petals : ovaries numerous, densely congested towards the point of the column ; styles recurved at the point only : fruit —

A native of Ceylon, where it was found by Colonel Walker, who communicated specimens, but without fruit.

This like the other Ceylon species, judging from specimens only, has more the appearance of a shrub than a tree : the leaves rarely exceed an inch and half in length, and are nearly as much in breadth across the broadest part, near the point, these are borne, two or three together ; on the extremities of numerous short rigid branches. The most distinctive mark however of the species is, the short anthers in proportion to the filaments. Generally the anthers are three or four times the length of the filaments, but here, they scarcely exceed that standard, and then both barely equal the length of the elongated pedicel of the ovarial column,

C. Petals in a quaternery order,

8. M. excelsa. (Blume. Magnolia excelsa 'Wall, Tent. Fl. Nepal). Leaves oblong, elliptic, acuminated, glaucous beneath, stipules and spathes, tomentose, deep rusty brown coloured, petals 12 in a treble series, (quaternery) stamens numerous, one third the length of the petals, filaments very short: ovaries, small, 4ovuled: carpels, sub-globose, small, warty, one seeded; seed enclosed in red fleshy pulp.

Nepal. — Sheapore hill at an elevation of about 7000 feet above the sea. Flowering in March-— fruit ripe in October— Wall.

This magnificent tree attains the height of from 50 to 80 feet, and is most remarkably limited in its station being, Dr. Wallich informs us, confined to a single spot on mount Sheapore. The wood is highly prized by the natives of Nepal, where it is sold under the name of Champ.

? 9. M. Rheedii. (R. W.) Arborious, glabrous : leaves elliptic, oblong, acuminated, attenuated at the base : flowers many petaled, (about 20) in a quaternery (?) order, the outer series the largest, obtuse, the interior ones cuspidate: ovaries numerous, congested; styles caducous, leaving a smooth, circular, shield-like scar on the apex: ovales numerous (10-12) : carpels large, approximated, rough, marked with numerous prominent warts, about four seeded; seeds triangular, testa hard, black, enveloped in red fleshy pulp.

Champacam Rheede Hort. Mai. 1. tab. 19. M. Champaca partly Lin. Willd. DeCandolle, not Blume.

A native of Malabar and the more elevated hills of the Peninsula, Putney mountains at an elevation of about 5000 feet. Shevaroy hills 4500 — on both of which I gathered specimens.

I am enabled by means of cultivated specimens of the Champaca, which correspond in almost every particular with Blume's character, so far as it goes, to separate this species, though on characters less precise and satisfactory than I could have wished, owing to my specimens not being in flower. The ovaries and carpels afford, in the present state of our knowledge, the best distinctive characters, the polished shield-like the ovaries is very characteristic, while the large prominent warts of the carpels are scarcely less so.

? 10. M. nilagirica. (Zenker) Leaves elliptic, glabrous, acuminated, acute at the base : stipules and spathes silky: petals 8 in two verticels: stamens shorter than the column of fructification : ovaries numerous, 1-ovuled : carpels one seeded, warty.

Neelgherries in woods. Flowers white.

This species associates in so many points with my plant, that I suspect a more careful examination will unite them. The points of difference are, that in M. nilagirica, the spathes are described as single in place of double, the corolla as 8 petaled, ranged in quaternery series, 4 and 4, in place of 6-9 in ternary order, and lastly, as having ovaries with solitary ovules, in place 4 in each.

§ 2. One bractial and two calycine spathes.

11. M. Pulneyensis. (R.W.) Glabrous, leaves elliptic, or sub-obovate, acuminated, acute at the base : stipules and spathes, clothed with silky appressed hairs : petals 6-9, ranged in ternary order, exterior ones obovate, interior when nine, lanciolate: stamens numerous mucronate, nearly equalling the column of fructification : ovaries numerous, 4-ovuled : fruit —

Woods, Pulney mountains at an elevation of 6000 feet, flowering in September.

A handsome, tall, straight, tree, with ascending scarcely spreading branches. The leaves vary in their form, being elliptic in some and passing into obovate in others, coriacious, glabrous. Peduncles shorter than the petiols, thick, hairy, marked with two rings, where the spathes have separated, stamens numerous, caducous, except two, which often remain, long after the others, attached to the middle pedicel, ovaries numerous, ovules, very constantly, four, suspended.

? M. Lanuginosa.. (Wall. Tent. Fl. Nepal.) Every where clothed with greyish woolly pubescence : leaves oval, obtusely acuminated, slightly attenuated and acute at the base : stipules and spathes, tomentose ; petals about 12 in a ternary (?) order : column of fruc- tification nearly twice the length of the stamens : ovaries numerous, carpels sub-globose, 2 or 3 seeded.

Woods of Nepal, flowering in April and May.

This species is readily distinguished by being every w'here clothed with woolly pubescence. As already observed I have referred it doubtfully to this section, on account of its supposed double spathe, two being figured, and mentioned in the description.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE.

5th.—Magnoliaceae.

1 and 6. — 1. Flowering branch of Michelia Pulneyensis, and 6, spike of ripe fruit of M. Rheedii, natural size. — 2. Flower bud, the exterior, or bractial spathe removed, and showing the 2 calycine spathes ready to drop off.— 3. Torus, stamens, and column of fructification.— 4. Anther, front view.— 5. Ovary, entire, and cut

vertically, to show the pendulous ovules. — 7- 8. Seeds, entire, and cut transversely, all more or less magnified. — 9. Seed, natural size, covered with pulp, and 10 (by mistake also 9) the same (the pulp removed) somewhat magnified to show its triangular form.
Illustrations of Indian Botany, Vol. 1.djvu

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  1. * The order Winteriaceae is only distinguished, essentially, from this by the transparent dots of its leaves, and being so closely related, was formerly combined with Magnoliaceae. It is now said, that what all writers have stated about the aromatic stimulant properties of Magnoliaceae, should be applied to Winteriacew. No species of the order has yet been found in India proper, but Illicium Anisatum is a native of China, whence the Indian Bazars are largely supplied with its star-like capsules, possessing, as the name imports, both the fragrance and aromatic carminative properties of the true anise seed; and like it, furnishing to distillation, an essential oil, scarcely, if at all distinguishable from that procured from the European herb. The Canella alba or Winters bark is procured from a plant of this order, (Drymis Winteri) a native of South America. It does not seem probable that if transferred to India the Drymis would succeed, but there is every reason to suppose that the star Anise {Illicium), might with care be introduced, and prove a valuable acquisition to this country.