Index:Life of Sir William Petty 1623 – 1687.djvu

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

1623-1652.


PAGE

Birth at Rumsey—Early taste for mechanics and seamanship—Apprenticeship at sea—Stranded on the coast of France—Studies at Caen—Enters the Royal Navy—Outbreak of the Civil War—Retires abroad—Studies in Paris—Friendship with Hobbes—Correspondence with Dr. Pell—Returns to England—Death of his father—Invents a manifold letterwriter, and writes a treatise on Education—Idea of a society to advance arts and science—Partnership with Holland of Deptford—Death of Antony Petty—Agreement with John Petty—Friendship with Boyle—Removal to Oxford—Degree of Doctor of Physic—Becomes Fellow of Brasenose and Deputy-Professor of Anatomy—Case of Ann Green—The dead raised to life—Appointed Professor of Anatomy and Gresham Professor—Oxford Philosophical Society—Appointed Physician General to the army in Ireland—His reform of the medical service of the army—Death of Ireton 1

CHAPTER II.

1652-1658.

Arrival in Ireland—Condition of that country in 1652—General Fleetwood Lord Deputy—The forfeited estates—Proposal to transplant the former proprietors and replant with English settlers—The adventurers and the army—Plan to pay the debt with the forfeited estates—A survey necessary—Benjamin Worsley, Surveyor-General—The Grosse Survey—Early distributions of land—Struggle between Worsley and Petty—Rapacity of the officers and commissioners—Henry Cromwell's mission—The transplantation into Connaught of the native Irish proprietors—Attacked by Vincent Gookin—Petty supports him—A new scheme set on foot—The massacre of the Waldenses—Outburst of popular fury—The transplantation ordered to proceed—The Civil Survey instituted to ascertain the forfeitures—Dr. Petty prepares a plan for the mapping and admeasurement of the army lands—A general map of Ireland—The 'Down Survey'—Letter to Robert Boyle—Conclusion of the

Civil Survey—The Down Survey commenced—Henry Cromwell succeeds General Fleetwood in Dublin—Dr. Petty's methods of work and assistants—Employment of soldiers as surveyors on the spot and of skilled artists at head-quarters—Quarrels amongst the officers—Firmness of Henry Cromwell—He is appointed Lord Deputy—The survey completed and approved by the Council—The adventurers entrust the survey of their lands to Dr. Petty—Dr. Petty carries out this survey also—The distribution of the army lands—Violence of the officers—Dr. Petty resists the rapacity of the army—He is supported by Henry Cromwell—The struggle embittered by the political situation—Payment of Dr. Petty in land—Embarrassed condition of the finances of the Commonwealth—The distribution of the adventurers' lands—Journey to England to meet the committee of adventurers—Death of Oliver Cromwell—Dr. Petty returns to Ireland—Carries out the distribution of the adventurers' lands—Opinion of Lord Clarendon and of Sir Thomas Larcom—Effects of the rapidity with which the survey was completed 23

CHAPTER III.

1658-1660.

Discontent of the army—Quarrels among the claimants—Sir Hierome Sankey—Struggle between the party of the Protector and the Anabaptists—The struggle extends to Ireland—Sir Hierome Sankey attacks Dr. Petty—Various attempts to ruin Dr. Petty—Offer of a military command—Henry Cromwell appoints Dr. Petty private secretary and additional clerk to the Council—Effect of the death of the Protector—Controversy in regard to the distribution of the lands before the Council in Dublin—A committee appointed—They approve Dr. Petty's conduct—Dr. Petty elected Member of Parliament—Account of an Irish election in 1659—Sir Hierome Sankey attacks him in Parliament—Dr. Petty's speech in Parliament—Support given by Henry Cromwell to Dr. Petty—Dissolution of Parliament—Fall of the Cromwellian party—Dr. Petty dismissed from all his employments—Retires to Ireland—Renewed attacks of Sir Hierome Sankey—Disappearance of Sir Hierome Sankey—Dr. Petty publishes a defence of his conduct—His imprudent use of ridicule and satire—He commences a History of the Survey—He returns to England—The Rota Club—Dr. Petty's conduct at the Restoration 69

CHAPTER IV.

1660-1667.

The Oxford Philosophical Society removes to London—Meetings at Gresham College—Extracts from the Journal—The King affects the society of scientific men—Shows special interest in the researches of Dr. Petty—The Duke of York—Attempts to undermine the confidence of the King in Dr. Petty—He is denounced for acting as trustee for the family

of the Protector—Failure of these attempts—Dr. Petty is knighted on the occasion of the incorporation of the Royal Society—Marked favour shown by the King and the Duke of Ormonde to Dr. Petty—Sir Robert Southwell, Clerk to the Privy Council, and Sir William Petty—A grant of land in Ireland made to the Royal Society—Anecdote of Sir William Petty by John Aubrey—Sir William Petty's scientific experiments—The 'double-bottom' ship—Success and subsequent failure of the 'experiment'—A party at the Durdans—Sir William Petty and Mr. Pepys—Latitudinarian views of Sir William Petty—Designs a treatise entitled the 'Scale of Creatures'—His hostility to the Church of Rome—The Oporto Auto-da-fé—The death of George Penn—Sir William Petty's hostility to the Calvinists and Anabaptists 102

CHAPTER V.

1660-1667.

Sir William Petty invests a portion of his fortune in Irish land—Kerry in the latter half of the seventeenth century—Parties at the Restoration—The Acts of Settlement and Explanation—Sir William Petty's estates confirmed to him—Completes a map of Ireland—His relations with the widow of Henry Cromwell—'The Political Anatomy of Ireland'—His estimate of the results of the successive changes in the tenure of land in Ireland—The farmers of the Irish Revenue—Their extortionate conduct—They claim arrears from Sir William Petty—Hostility of Sir James Shaen—Difference with the Duke of Ormonde—Letter to Lord Aungier—The commercial policy of England—Hostility of the English landed classes to Ireland—Sir William Petty opposes the Irish Cattle Acts—The Acts passed—Effect of the Acts on the rate of exchange—Rise of the class of absentee proprietors—Sir William Petty proposes a union between England and Ireland—His high opinion of the capacity of the Irish character—His plans for improving the country—Settlement at Kenmare—Condition of the South of Ireland—Continuation of the struggle with the farmers—Fall of the Duke of Ormonde—Attacks on Sir William Petty—Sir Alan Brodrick challenges Sir William Petty to a duel 125

CHAPTER VI.

1667-1678.

Marriage of Sir William Petty—Sir Hardress Waller—Lady Fenton—Troubles of furnishing—Offer of a peerage—Sir William Petty's reply—His London house destroyed in the Great Fire—Domestic correspondence—Versatility of Sir William Petty's character—His manifold accomplishments—Anecdote of Sir William Petty and the Duke of Ormonde—Sir William Petty's children: Charles, Henry, and Anne—Correspondence with Lady Petty—The Quakers of Balliboy—Letters from William Penn and John Aubrey—Character of Sir William Petty—He is committed for contempt of court—His spiritual consolations—The Duke of Ormonde again Lord-Lieutenant—Sir William appointed

Judge of the Irish Admiralty Court—He spends three years continuously in Ireland—Vicissitudes of Sir William's struggle with the farmers of the revenue—Remonstrances of Sir Robert Southwell—Sir William Petty goes to England—He is assaulted by Colonel Vernon 153

CHAPTER VII.

POLITICAL ARITHMETIC.

Account of Sir William Petty by John Aubrey—His inventive head and practical parts—Special devotion to economic studies—'Observations on the Bills of Mortality of the City of London'—Relations of Petty and Graunt—'Observations on the Dublin Bills of Mortality'—Birth of statistical science—Condition of political economy in the seventeenth century—Relations of political philosophy with economics—The science or art of political arithmetic—Sir William Davenant on the works of Petty—Petty 's methods of inquiry and calculation—His principal works—Influence of Hobbes—Petty's desire to strengthen and organise the powers of the State—His hostility to privilege and separate jurisdictions—The finances of the Restoration—The Act of Navigation—The examples of France and Holland—Colbert—The 'Treatise on Taxes'—Petty's account of the natural charges of a State—His views on taxation—His attitude towards the prohibitory and the mercantile systems—His opinion that labour is the true origin of wealth— His theory of trade—His 'measures of customs'—Concessions to adversaries—Explanation of these concessions—Comparison of Petty with Quesnay—Opinions of Sir William Davenant—Petty's silence on the General Navigation Act—Considers an excise the best tax—An excise on beer—His views as to 'a par of value,' currency, laws against usury, State lotteries, rent and population—The 'multiplication of mankind'—Southwell and Petty on the Deluge—The growth westwards of London—High wages and low living—The division of labour—Supply and demand—Economic effects of penalties—Results of religious toleration—Example of Holland—Multiplicity of parishes and of sermons—The 'Political Arithmetick'—Summary of the views of the author—A protest against political pessimism—Petty's confidence in the greatness and future of England 179

CHAPTER VIII.

1678-1685.

The 'Popish Plot'—Conversion of Captain Graunt—He is accused of helping to cause the Great Fire—Discussion of the Popish Plot—Sir William Petty and the Church of Rome—Outburst of popular fury against Roman Catholicism—It extends to Ireland—Condition of that country—The secret and clandestine Government—Sir William Petty declines to join in the outcry—Effects of the struggle on the powers of the House, the Privy Council, and the Cabinet—Plans of Sir William Temple—Sir William Petty and the Privy Council—He is again offered

a peerage—His prospects in Ireland improve—Southwell appointed Envoy to Brandenburg—Reaction after the Oxford Parliament—Renewed troubles—Attacks of the farmers on Sir William Petty—His troublesome position as Judge of Admiralty—Resigns it—Summoned to England to aid in the reorganisation of the Revenue—The Privy Council rejects his proposals, but abolishes the system of farming—Made a Commissioner of the Navy—Illness of his children—Founds the Royal Society of Ireland—Reorganises the Dublin College of Physicians—Extracts from the minutes of the Dublin Society—Various designs and inventions—The 'double bottom' again—Correspondence with Southwell, Aubrey, and Lady Petty—Death of Charles II 232

CHAPTER IX.

1685-1687.

Accession of James II.—Effect on Ireland—Sir William Petty takes a favourable view of the intentions of the King—The 'Sale and Settlement of Ireland'—Sir William Petty writes a reply—Correspondence with Southwell—Southwell's warning—Plans of Sir William Petty for meeting the situation—He again suggests a union between England and Ireland, and proposes a plan for freedom of conscience—His views on Imperial questions and on the reform of Parliament—Interviews with the King—Draws up a plan for the reform of the Irish Administration—A squib against Sir William Petty—Southwell's opinion of his plans—The King avows his real intentions—Petty recognises the danger of the situation—His correspondence with Southwell—Tyrconnel, Lord Deputy—The Declaration of Indulgence—Repeal of the Edict of Nantes 269

CHAPTER X.

1687.

Attack on Kenmare—The survivors escape to England—Sir William Petty's failing health—He commences to put his affairs in order—His papers relating to the survey—His coat-of-arms—His views on the education of his children—Anne Petty—Instructions to Lady Petty—Letters to Southwell on his early life—Discussion of a paper by Pascal on the relations of the mathematical faculty to general ability—Instructions to his sons, Charles and Henry—Views on the education of Edward Southwell—The 'Principia' of Newton—Sir William Petty at once recognises the greatness of the work—Serious illness—Last dinner at the Royal Society—Account of his death—A political prophecy—Lady Petty made a peeress—Anne Petty marries John Fitzmaurice—Sir William's views on mourning for the dead and charitable bequests—His will—Monument in Romsey Church 289

APPENDIX 317

INDEX 331