Madras Journal of Literature and Science/Series 1/Volume 6/On the Language, Manners and Rites, of the Khoonds, or Khoi Jati, of the Goomsoor Mountains

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, Series 1, Volume 6  (1837)  by J. A. R. Stevenson and W. G. Maxwell
On the Language, Manners and Rites, of the Khoonds, or Khoi Jati, of the Goomsoor Mountains.
II.—On the Language, Manners, and Rites, of the Khoonds, or Khoi Jati, of the Goomsoor Mountains; from documents furnished by J. A. R. Stevenson, Esq. Commissioner in Goomsoor, and W. G. Maxwell, Esq., m. d.; with Illustrative and connecting Observations. By Reverend W. Taylor, Member of the Madras Literary Society, &c.

Previous to any other observations it may be desirable to settle the true name of the people who have been designated Khoonds. In the title to Mr. Stevenson's paper on their customs they are styled కొడులు Codulu, and in Dr. Maxwell's list Khoi-jati. If the orthography of the first written term be correct, as I presume it may be so considered, it must be a mistake to write the word Khoonds, intimating a transition through the Hindustani. The Telugu alphabet has a letter corresponding with k′h; but as it is not used in Mr. Stevenson's paper, the proper representative according to Sir W. Jones's orthographical system is c.; and as Dr. Maxwell only intends to give the sound, and probably made use of Hindustani as a medium of intercourse, his spelling does not necessarily militate against the same conclusion. The people I presume to be the same with those who have been otherwise termed Goands, usually classed as similar with the B'heels. There is besides a resemblance to the native term for the Coorg mountaineers, which is Codugu; and I am inclined to think, that any one who fully understood the Coorg dialect, could hold intercourse with the Khoonds. The insertion of the obscure nasal sound of n I may observe is no objection: it may be inserted or left out, in many Telugu words, and in some Tamil ones. Codulu is plural in Telugu, and Codur, would be the same in Tamil. If from deference to the usage, which has obtained, I use the term Khoonds, it is still improperly, and from a regard only to perspicuity.

The papers by Mr. Stevenson and Dr. Maxwell, in a loose and unarranged form, may, for order's sake, be classed under two heads, as relating to the language, and to the manners and rites, of this singular people.

On the language the vocabulary transmitted by Mr. Stevenson may be first inserted; because of the precision conveyed by the use of Telugu letters. The orthography by which they are represented is not systematic; but it may suffice. I am guided by the Telugu writing.


Khoond pronunciation in
Teloogoo character.

God (Telugu characters) Mahaprabhoe

goddess (Telugu characters) pennoo

earth (Telugu characters) taunah water (Telugu characters) kakary, sedrajee

name (Telugu characters) pautha

fire (Telugu characters) taunee

tree (Telugu characters) mrahunnoo

village (Telugu characters) nauzoo

villages (Telugu characters) nausakah

house (Telugu characters) iddhoo

cows (Telugu characters) codingah

goat (Telugu characters) voddungah

bullocks (Telugu characters) balatha koddinga

buffaloes (Telugu characters) tullekoroo

birds (Telugu characters) pottagah

animals (Telugu characters) jontoo

tiger (Telugu characters) kraudee

fowl (Telugu characters) cozoo

sheep (Telugu characters) mendah

mountain (Telugu characters) sorakah

nullah or water course (Telugu characters) jodee

nullahdo. in plural (Telugu characters) jodingah

river (Telugu characters) noyee

tank (Telugu characters) bundhah

paddy-field (Telugu characters) kettah

stone (Telugu characters) buddy

herds (Telugu characters) kodingah

man (Telugu characters) loko

male (Telugu characters) mronajoo

female (Telugu characters) ausamriddah

child (Telugu characters) middah

mother (Telugu characters) ayan

father (Telugu characters) abban

daughter (Telugu characters) booddee

son (Telugu characters) mrinjoo, anpoe

daughter-in-law (Telugu characters) coodoova, jahary

son-in-law (Telugu characters) zaumah


wife (Telugu characters) hramauvy

birth (Telugu characters) gaudajonay

life (Telugu characters) nibbamanay

death (Telugu characters) sautay

marriage (Telugu characters) behah

gift (Telugu characters) bidday

male-child (Telugu characters) aupoe

female-child (Telugu characters) ausamiddah

big (Telugu characters) tharaury

how many (Telugu characters) yessay

do you know (Telugu characters) poonjee

hallo (Telugu characters) auday

head (Telugu characters) tlavoo

hairs of the head (Telugu characters) tlauvootlamalaka

eyes (Telugu characters) canakah

ears (Telugu characters) creevoo

nose (Telugu characters) moongaloo

mouth (Telugu characters) sooddah

teeth (Telugu characters) patakah

chin (Telugu characters) toddaly, soddaunga

tongue (Telugu characters) bangosee

cheeks (Telugu characters) guddauggah

moustache (Telugu characters) serekoraungah

throat (Telugu characters) docka, sareky

shoulder (Telugu characters) cunda, cuggoo

hand (Telugu characters) cuzzoo, cuckah

arm (Telugu characters) bahah, mopokootah

elbow (Telugu characters) cohony, gauty

hand (Telugu characters) muddah

finger (Telugu characters) basakaka, vonagary

nails (Telugu characters) nockoggah

heart (Telugu characters) monno-jeddah


chest (Telugu characters) bookhoo

belly (Telugu characters) tootoo

navel (Telugu characters) pooneddy

thigh (Telugu characters) goddauggah

calf of leg (Telugu characters) soorady

leg (Telugu characters) catakah

feet (Telugu characters) padaggah

pavoo pavoo

back (Telugu characters) gundee

buttocks (Telugu characters) ghizzah

curry (Telugu characters) coosah

rice (Telugu characters) baha, pullah

afterwards (Telugu characters) batoe

before (Telugu characters) noyeto

one side (Telugu characters) puckhah

above (Telugu characters) sendoky

below (Telugu characters) neddah

distant (Telugu characters) dhoorah

dew (Telugu characters) saree

falls (Telugu characters) theepekamunnay

so much (Telugu characters) goollay

paddy (Telugu characters) coodingah

rice (Telugu characters) praungah

paddy fields straw (Telugu characters) peeree

green gram, or pasaloo (Telugu characters) mogaggah

Dholl or puppoo (Telugu characters) jayee

turmeric (Telugu characters) seningah

salt (Telugu characters) sauroo

tamarind (Telugu characters) neddy

chillie (Telugu characters) pretakavoo

gnee (Telugu characters) gheehee

oil (Telugu characters) nizzoo

castor oil (Telugu characters) gubbauggah

milk (Telugu characters) pauddoo

curds (Telugu characters) dhoyeggah

wey, buttermilk (Indic characters) golloe

fish (Indic characters) menakah

flesh (Indic characters)voongah

cloths (Indic characters) sindah

new (Indic characters) poonary

old (Indic characters) praddary

will you give (Indic characters) seyahmoo

take (Indic characters) vomoo

I will give (Indic characters) seyayee

I will take (Indic characters) voyemayee

do not want (Indic characters) sidday, coyay

I require (Indic characters) lodamunnay

onions (Indic characters) peyazookah

garlic (Indic characters) lasooneekah

unripe (Indic characters) siddaree

ripe (Indic characters) sanataree

young fruit (Indic characters) coggaree

leaf (Indic characters) aukah

a bough (Indic characters) dettee

bud, blossoms (Indic characters) comalakah

wind (Indic characters) belevoo

what (Indic characters) innah

why (Indic characters) innaky

will you come (Indic characters) bayinjeegeenah

come (Telugu characters) baumoo

are you going (Indic characters) sajeegeenah

go (Indic characters) salamoo

don't go (Indic characters) coonasullah

be satisfied (Indic characters) suttashamoo

be happy (Indic characters) munjadoomoo

you will be ruined (Indic characters) bausungaudy

it will be good for you (Indic characters) neggaraudy

don't fear (Indic characters) azza-ah

weeping (Indic characters) dreemunnay

laughing (Indic characters) cuckanary

talk (Indic characters) cuttachastamoo

eat (Indic characters) tenoomoo

drink (Indic characters) voonoomoo

good (Indic characters) neggaree

not good (Indic characters) vodauyetaury

ask (Indic characters) jaumoo

tell (Indic characters) basoomah

I will tell (Indic characters) baseepinjayee

do you understand (Indic characters) poosee

I understand (Indic characters) poosay

collect in one place (Indic characters) robatah

friend (Indic characters) tonay

Mitto mitto

dark (Indic characters) addaunghy light (Telugu characters) voozzady

break of day (Indic characters) balatah

night (Indic characters) nadanghee

sun (Indic characters) balah

moon (Indic characters) daunjoo

stars (Indic characters) soockaggah

morning (Indic characters) naudee

midday (Indic characters) bendah

tomorrow (Indic characters) beyay

day after tomorrow (Indic characters) mauyesy

yesterday (Indic characters) reyasy

day (Indic characters) nenzoo

month (Indic characters) aunjo

year (Indic characters) borasakah

raining season (Indic characters) pizzoodenah

cold season (Indic characters) pennadenah

hot season (Indic characters) caradenah

plural (Indic characters) dahah

singular (Indic characters) ronday

wax (Indic characters) sittah

honey (Indic characters) phooeky

maiming (Indic characters) cattanah

fly (Indic characters) beesah

one (Indic characters) ronday

twenty (Telugu characters) codacauttoo

hundred (Indic characters) soyakah

two hundred (Indic characters) Reeso

thouaand (Indic characters) Azarakah

two thousand (Indic characters) ree azarah

small (Indic characters) cogaury

The first word is Sanscrit, with a dialectic termination. It means great chief, prince, or lord, from mahat great and prab′hu a lord, &c. and is so used in, I believe, all the dialects of Southern India. The second word is Tamil simply for a woman or female, in ordinary acceptation. The word for earth, is one designating place or locality; and, derived from Sanscrit (if not adopted by it), runs through most of the Hindu languages, with dialectic variations. The word for fire, corresponds nearly with the Tamil (Tamil characters) tanal, great heat. The word for tree at first embarrassed me; but it is evidently only a dialectic variation of the Tamil (Tamil characters) maram, a tree. The word for village is the Tamil (Tamil characters) nádu, properly country as distinguished from town, sometimes denoting a district, and in use nearly synonimous with village: the difference of du and zu, is merely dialectic. The plural form kah, besides differing little from the Tamil plural, kal, is further a close resemblance to the mode in which the plural is enunciated in the extreme south. The word for house varies very little from the Tamil (Tamil characters) védu, denoting the same thing. The word for cow has in it the Sanscrit root go, or gau. The term for goat is like the Telugu (Tamil characters) venta, a sheep or goat: it must I think be the same word. The word for birds, cutting off the plural termination, is the Telugu (Indic characters) petta a bird. The next word for animal, is Sanscrit, Telugu, and Tamil, common I believe throughout India. For fowl the word is the Tamil, (Tamil characters) corzi, the Telugu letters expressing an imitation of the Tamil sound: the retaining this Tamil peculiarity is favourable to an inference as to the Tamil origin of the Khoonds. Mendah[1] for sheep is an intermediate sound between the Telugu (Indic characters) venta, and the Tamil (Tamil characters) mantai, the former signifying a sheep, the latter more properly a flock. The word for mountain, is, setting aside the kah, apparently the Tamil (Tamil characters) surumpu, or of kindred origin. The term for river would seem to be only a dialectic variation of the Tamil நதி nathi, (vulgó nuddee, and nullah) a word which, coming from the Sanscrit, is found in all Hindu languages. The words for tank, stone, man, seem to come from the Hindustani, or possibly from the Udiya language of the province of Orissa. The word for mother is a slight variation from a Tamil word of like meaning, though now not much used. Abba, for father is found in Hebrew, Syriac, Telugu, Tamil, and in some of the dialects of the islands in the eastern archipelago; and is perhaps one of the most remarkable of all words. Booddee for daughter is the Sanscrit putri, slightly corrupted. Aupoe for son, is perhaps none other than the familiar domestic term of endearment அபபாவு appavu, only used in addressing a male-child. కుడువ coodoova is the Telugu word కోడలు codalu, a daughter-in-law. The word for son-in-law seems merely a corruption of the Sanscrit jamalu, having the same meaning. Behah is also a mere dialectic variation from the Sanscrit vivaha marriage. The word for male-child is the same as the above for son, and the word for female-child may be a corruption of the Sanscrit átmajà, a daughter. Yessay for how many, is, I think, originally the same with the Tamil எததணை yettani, of the same meaning; த் and ச் or t and s, are frequently interchangeable in Tamil as in பெரிது, பெரிசு great, பழது, பழசு old, சிறிது, சிறுசு small, in which case s is the more rude, and t the more refined. Tlavoo, seems also to be originally the same word with the Tamil word தலை tali head. The word for eyes is Tamil, with a slight difference in the plural termination, as before noticed. The word for ear in Sanscrit is srava, in Telugu, sevata, in Tamil sevi, in the Todar dialect of the Neilgherries kevi, in the Khoond dialect, crìvu, in Tamil the word hearing is கெள்வி kelvi shewing that s is changeable into k, as is indeed the case with some other words. The natural conclusion is, that the whole of these words are dialectic variations from the Sanscrit srava, or conversely that the Sanscrit word was adopted from a common root; but I would not assert either conclusion. The word for nose is in Tamil மூச்சூ múccu, or Telugu ముక్కు muccu. For teeth the Tamil word is டர்சள் parcal, differing very little from the Khoond word. The Todars of the Neilgherries I am informed use the sound டர்சச் parch, for tooth. The word for throat, docha, is used in Tamil to signify any hollow of a tube or pipe. The first of the two words for shoulder is the Sanscrit scand'ha having the same meaning; and in Tamil, words from the Sanscrit, with the initial letters sc, usually lose the s, by which process the word would become cand′ha, or canda, as in the Khoond dialect. The word for hand seems to come from the very old Tamil kayi (Tamil characters), the modern spelling being (Tamil characters) kai. The (Tamil characters) by no unusual process is changed into (Tamil characters) chu, whence the Khoond word cuzzoo, or as I should spell it cajju. The word bahak, is Sanscrit báhu the arm. The word for nails differs only slightly in its plural form (as before) from the Tamil (Tamil characters) nacangal, of the same meaning. The two words for heart, are, I doubt not, the same with (Tamil characters) and (Tamil characters) manam, and sittam, usually denoting the mind and will, but used interchangeably with (Tamil characters) irutayam, heart, in the sense of will or inclination. Padaggah is only the Khoond plural added to the Sanscrit pata and Tamil Template:Tamil misisng patam, a foot. Gundee for the back is I believe the Tamil (Tamil characters) gundi, the lower part of the back. The word for afterwards is probably Hindustani. The word for distant comes from the Sanscrit, and is common to all Hindu languages. In Tamil (Tamil characters) piri, and (Tamil characters) puri, are used for a straw rope, and I doubt not that the same is meant by the Khoond, peeree. Sauroo for salt, is from the Sanscrit, cshara. In Tamil the word is usually combined with the common word for salt, to express the flavor or relish of salt. The ward for chillie, differs only very slightly from the Telugu word for the same. Nizzoo is only the Tamil word (Tamil characters) neyi, the (Tamil characters) channged (as before) into chu, making nejju; but this in Tamil signifies ghee, or butter-oil. The word for fish, cutting off the Khoond plural, is the Sanscrit min and Tamil (Tamil characters) min. Poonary for new, seems to be an antique word, preserved here and in the Tamil (Tamil characters) punirru, the Tamil word being now only applied to the new birth from a cow. The word for old may have a connexion with the Tamil, but the resemblance is obscure. The word for garlic is Sanscrit, lasuna. Aukah for leaf is Telugu, (Telugu characters) acu. The word for bud, blossoms, rejecting the Khoond plural, is Tamil (Tamil characters) cumili, a bud. Innah for what, is the Tamil (Tamil characters) yenna, what? Innaky, for why is seemingly the Tamil (Tamil characters) yennattuku to what, why? In the phrase for will you come? the root of the verb to come, and the interrogating particle are both Tamil: the Tamil root is also found in the Khoond word baumoo, come. Salamoo, cutting off the Khoond termination, is Sanscrit sala, to move, to go, it is corrupted both into Hindustani and Tamil. The word for don't fear seems to bear a relation to the Tami (Tamil characters) anjaté. The word for laughing is preserved in the Tamil phrase (Tamil characters) he laughs uttering cacac, in the Telugu (Tamil characters) cacacnavu, is a rude, or horse laugh; and a resemblance is also found in our common English, to chuckle. The phrase for talk is half Hindustani, half Telugu. Tenoomoo for eat, in the Tamil (Tamil characters) tinnu, with the Khoond termination. Voonoomoo in like manner is the Tamil (Tamil characters) unnu, eat or drink. The word for tell is Telugu. Tonay for friend, is the Tamil (Tamil characters) tunai, a friend, a prop. The other word is Sanscrit mitra,[2] a friend, it is adopted into Tamil, but most usually to signify treacherous friendship. The words for light, and break of day, have only an obscure resemblance to Tamil words of like meaning. For night, the word resembles the Tamil (Tamil characters) nattam, night. The word for stars rejecting the Khoond plural is Telugu (Tamil characters) succu a star. The word for morning seems the same as the Telugu, (Tamil characters) nadu a day. Borasaka, for year, or, as I suppose, for years is no doubt, the Tamil (Tamil characters) varusham, a year. The three following words, for hot, cold, and rainy season seem to come from the Hindustani: the same remark applies to the word for maiming. The word for hundred seems to be a corruption of the Sanscrit word, that for thousand is I think the same as the Tamil (Tamil characters) ayiram and for two thousand, a sort of bad pronunciation of the Tamil (Tamil characters) irayiram, two thousand.

Such is the result of an investigation of the list of words, transmitted by Mr. Stevenson, expressly made the more minute, because both of the precision and check afforded by being written in Telugu characters: without these I should not have been able to give the words their proper enunciation, as the English orthography is not systematic and therefore uncertain. It must, however, be remembered that even the Telugu only gives the sound as conveyed to the ears of a comparative foreigner; though more likely to catch the true sound than an English ear. I suppose the mountaineers in question to have no written language.

From what has been stated, conclusions might be ventured; but it may be best to bring in further examples. The vocabulary of Dr. Maxwell has a somewhat larger number of words and phrases. It was accompanied by the following letter:

To The Secretary to the Madras Literary Society.

&c. &c. &c.

Sir,—Any thing connected with the history of the tribes above the Goomsoor ranges of mountains, being interesting at the present moment, I beg to send you a list of Khond (or Ghond) words, which I collected whilst up there.

The Wodiah, I have also put down, which will render the list more interesting, and enable those, better qualified than myself, to make useful comparisons. To those passing through Wodiana into Khondistan this little list may also be of some service. I have only to regret that I cannot send you a more extended one.

I have the honor to be,
Your obedient servant,

Samulcottah, March 15, 1837.

W. G. Maxwell, m. d.

The Vocabulary is the following one:—

H tig dsn. rroaatali. Anona. one ekke ekke two douc doue three tine tine four chare chare five panch panchu six chau sau seven sat sathu eight ath athu nine nau nau ten dos dosu eleven egarah egara twelve barah baarali thirteen terah terah fourteen chaudah saudah fifteen pundarah pundarah sixteen sol ah solah seventeen satarah sataarah eighteen atarah ataarah nineteen unis unisi twenty kody koze a man manusha jama woman maikinya asamida boy pua apo ghia budc father boppa aba mother ma aya

grandfather bodda boppa akenja

grandmother bodda ma atha

grandfather, mother's side wodja akey

elder brother nunna dada

younger brother sana bhai apo

elder sister nanni bhai

younger sister bhouni budi

what is your name? tuora naum kiso anni padatatti inu

where is your village? toura gau koture utchi mi naju embam unni

come early in the morning boddu soccale aso daasay vara or bam

how far is your village? tuora gau kete door utchee mi naju esse duro

my village is ten coss humara gau dos kos utchee mai naju dos kossu ane

how far is Patlingeah?

have you cooked food?

have you eat food?

how many seers of rice did you eat?

I eat three seers of rice

do you eat meat?

what meat will you eat?

I will eat mutton

I will eat fowl

I will eat fish

I will eat dry fish

I will eat pig's flesh

who is your God?

what is his name?

how many gods have you?

Takurani is the greatest of all

pray to


Patlinga kete dur utchi bhatta randuloki bhatta khailoki kete ser chaulo bhatto khailo J tin ser chaulo bhatto ( 1 how do you the God? what is the name this month ? February khailu Maunsa khailoki tu ki maunsa khaibo cheli maunsa khaibu kukuda maunsa khaibu matcho khaibu sukwa matcho khaibu gusri maunsa khaibu tumara kau Deybota J tumara Deybota narao kiso tumara kete Deybota utchi samos teko bodda taku- rani ki mante Deybota puja korocho ane • t Patlingaki essse dur ( ane veyha vasiti ginnaa veyha tisi ginnaa pranga esse adiah tinge tin adiah veyha tiee inuonga tin ji ginnaa ani onga rinji odu onga anu tiee kodju ongha tiee minu anu tiee nore minu tiee anu paji onga tiee mindi anni peynu anni pey- ye masuro namo kiso Mhago mi peynu nu mi peynu esse pey- nu munne guile tiki dumalurri durani peynuki singhi laki- deru iree anni danju Keydu how many people do> gulema8Ureketc manu . S™^" vnn eapmhpp in f>n#»>° . < mmmmi p&kldir- you sacrifice in one month ? so katuso amongst the khonds t khondare kete jati ut- $ khoi jati esse jati

how many castes ? I chi ( munney

raaliks maliko maliko

toddy dealers sundee

cattle dealers gouro

smiths shouro

potters comboro

basket-makers dambo

weavers panu

do you kill the women in your country? tumara gau re maikina ko mari pakawucha mi naju tarrani asamidani pakadirganaa

yes they kill any person they can get je milibo lukku marachu esso anni paneru e anni paginirru

before killing how long are they kept? kariba agere ketedin rakucho paginne veline esso dinno raigadirru

no time is fixed ko dinno tikkana nein denno tikna ate

in this month they sacrifice ye masure sonki katucho edanju mariinmi paginirru

fire nia nari

ashes karo nari niju

charcoal ongharo 1. nari sirovi 2. ongaranga

jungle bono gossa

tree gotza mhranu

chatty tikki

dammer saddali

fan bichana bichane

sun korra karra

moon junno danju

star torra sukkanga

cloud megho mudeng

rain barrosa piju

word, speech kotha katta

head munda tulao

nose nakko mungeli

mouth sudda suddo

lip upper todde

lip lower rapaddi

teeth dant patka

hair bala tala merka

breast bukko dukhi

belly pettau tutu

hand katau kadju

finger angoti vanju

nail nakkan ongoli

thumb bodda angoti darra vanju

foot gaddu kadu guttasi

knee anthu menda

leg punda pottu

eye ankhi kannu

ear kanno kirru

tongue jibbo wangosy

earth matti virra

stone patro vaddi

water pani 1. sideru 2. sideruji

milk palu padu

salt nuno saru

leather chummo (gooroo) panda

battle-axe tangi tangi

cloth lugga sinda

brass-goglet pida muta

marking-nut gonje

gooseberry aumla zarga kanga

saber bean chary gotza (tree) pa erri (fruit)

horse ghorra ghora

leaf puttera akka

(mountain) indigo vareda

(mountain) beans of vareyda guzerka

(mountain) flowers of vareyda poongha

I eat the flowers of M. I. vareda poongha tinum

tree (bark of) terasu mhranu

burra gotza bodda gotza darri mhranu

burra dez bodda dez muta khonda

what language do you speak? ki kotha koucho anni katta vespimanjari

dubash dobashi dubassa

what business is the dubash's? dobashi ki, ki peyti wutchi dubassa anni kabbari giajinaru

who went there now? yebbe kese golla ci battere i pari imbai sajjumunni

what did you do with the cloth? ce lugga kaunokollo e sinda anna gitti

I gave it to my wife to put on humaro bhajoki pindibako dellu mai kura nagulaimunni site tatite

give a seer of rice to that man ce manusho ko sere chaulo de e manaheniki pranga ade ka site

give a seer of rice to that woman ce maikana ko sere chaula de e asamida ade ka pranga sidu

give a seer of toor to that horse ce ghorra ko sere khandulo de

e ghoratiki khanga ade ka sidoo

how many wives do the khonds take? khond jattire gutte jonon ke lutta vivaha utchi koi jattiki esso unni vengha teru

do you smoke tobacco? tu dhua khao chuki inu dhua undiginaa

do you eat tobacco? tu dhua tondere pakka utchi ki inu dhua tinjiginaa

bring fire nia ano 1. tammare nari 2. nari tummu

bring food bhatta ano tammare veyha

bring paddy dhanno ano tammare kodinga

bring rice chaulo ano pranga tammu

take away the fire nia ne nari om

take away the rice bhatto ne veyha om

take away the paddy dhanno ne kodinga om

father take away the paddy kodinga ommare aba

bring the horse ghorra ano ghora tammu

bring the goat cheli ano oda tammu

kill the goat cheli maru pukka oda kattam

a kid cheli pilla oda mida

bring the cow gai ano koudi tammu

bring the calf damri ano dradu tammu

house ghorre iddu

is there any fire in your house? tumara ghorre bihtere nia watchiki mi idduta nari munueginnaa

is there water in your house? tumara ghorre bihtere pani watchiki mi idduta sideruji munneginnaa

how many people in your house? tumara ghorre kete jonon watchinti mi idduta esse loku maneru

who cuts the wood to build the houses? ghorre bandibako katho ke dowatchi iddu gariki vattiki vesca imbasianne

all the villagers cut sub gaun lokko katti annile gulle najutakka vesca kattinerru

what wood is that plank? ce potta ki kotha erri anne vesgu patta

mangoe ambo katho mha vesca patta

how many planks are got from one large mangoe tree? gutte ambo gotzeru kete potta banvo erande mhranu essoni putta anu

two Jure joreka

terminalia bellerica bare khanga

terminalia fruit of

terminalia leaves of bare aka

terminalia tree bare mhranu

terminalia kernel bare monzo

terminalia stone bare palla

people eat the dry kernel monzo gulla takka tinum

burra sahib darre saib

maharaja mapara maharaja raju

queen mhade

toddy tree sollupu gotza sorta mhranu

comb kangai or punya sireni

go to that village and call a man ce gaun ko jaikare gotte monushu ko dakiano e naju sajane arkamu mauheni erru anni arkam

will you go to Berhampore? tu Berhamporko jiboki inu Berhamporko sajiginaa

I will go mu jibi ana sagimai

I will come to-morrow morning succalu asihi daase vai

grass ghasso solah

long grass nhoda judah solah

basket takkei bogah

dammer tree loringhi gotza zirgi mhranu

dammer flowers zirgi poungha

red lall inghu

black kolla kali

white dhoba longi

yellow holidia siningha

chair kursi (no name)

bow kando banso viddu

kheli bow kheli viddu

bamboo-bow mari viddu

bow-string gumo viddu vessa

arrow sorro miliu

point gouri mouari

barb sorro charo gouri kora

binding loi goha

notch gunno jugga tauni

feather phonkhi katka

quill phonkhi kedu

I am coming tan asowatchi anu idde (illegible text)

I am going mu jaowatchi anu sajimai

he is going ce jaowatchi yanjhu sajimunni

he is coming ce asowatchi yanjhu vai (illegible text)

we are coming hum asowatchu amu vanam

you are coming tum asowatchu era vadu

they are coming ye asowatchi vaimanenju

I will go mu jibi anu sagimai

he will go ce jibu yanjhu sajimunni

we will go hamen jibbu amu sagimunnum

spirits modda kallu

they make toddy from the Erpatree flowers, &c.[3]

moulo gotzere teiaro koriba modda

erpi phoungha mhranuta kallu teiari gia manju

they put (the flowers and fruit ground small) into water for four or five days—and then boil—and then take off the spirit

(phullo phallo) chair panchi dini panire bottere rukhibo tein potche randibo tein potche moddo karibo

char panch din sideruji itininju dau vajininni dau kallu eheneju

what is the use of the kissi tree?

kissi gotza ki peyti ki asowathei

kissi mhranu anni veygierru

we use the bark to make strings

lohi douri pain noutchu

amu nossu doruki vattiki onum[4]

After making out the list of words and questions, I took every opportunity of interrogating any Khond whom I met, and it was amusing to see his astonishment when I spoke to him.

On returning to the low country the only Khonds I met with, were some young children that had been preserved from sacrifice by the Collector. To one of these I addressed myself, asking his name in Khonds; speaking fast, at first he did not understand me, but on pronouncing more slowly and distinctly, he instantly called out his name.

In the preceding vocabulary the numerals are derived from the Sanscrit: the Tamil numerals are quite different. Some few of the words have been explained in Mr. Stevenson's list. In the rest there is a tolerable sprinkling of words, which are synonimous with Teluga or Tamil words. The Udiya dialect is seen at a glance, to be derived from the Mágadha, or Bengal and Babar dialects, if not from the Hindustani, to which it has a frequent resemblance, some times amounting to identity. But I look upon the Udiya (or Wodiah) to be more modern than the Khoond speech. The word for milk may be noted as being in Udiya, the same as in Telugu, and nearly the same as in Tamil, while Pádú, as the Khoonds have it, shews a variation, which would give a different sense in Tamil; and yet it is probable that the word in all three dialects is originally the same. It will not perhaps, be expected, and I know not that it would answer any really valuable object, to pursue as mutate an examination with this list as with that of Mr. Stevenson. It may suffice to say that the same general result is indicated; which is, that the Khoonds have words peculiar to themselves, and others which are found in the low-land languages of the peninsula.

Before proceeding I must premise, for the information of some readers, that it has been a question among learned Orientalists, whether the refined Sanscrit was the parent of the common Hindi, the latter being a corruption, or whether the Hindi formed the basis or substratum of a common Indian language, adopted by the Brahmans on their entry into Hindustan, but polished by improvements and enriched by the addition of scientific and other terms, especially astrological ones, brought with them on their emigration. Perhaps from acquired partiality to the Sanscrit, there has been, with scholars in that language, a tendency to adopt the first supposition, just as there was with the same individuals a disposition to consider Telugu and Tamil as derived languages from the Sanscrit. But the erroneous character of this last deduction, reflects a doubt on the other part of the supposition as regards the Hindi; and I confess that when reading Mr. Colebrooke, in particular, the proof which he brought to bear in favour of Sanscrit being the original, and Hindi the derivative, produced in my own mind a strong doubt on that side of the question; while his admission of existing difficulties as insuperable on that hypothesis seemed to me to argue in favour of Hindi being the parent, and Sanscrit the polished, improved, and enriched, derivative. The very meaning of the term Sanscrit, implying finished, polished, perfected, argues towards the same conclusion. Even so our present polished English language, must be considered as founded on the Saxon; it would be absurd for any foreigner to term the old Saxon an early corruption of the original polished English. That view of the case which considers the Sanscrit to be a learned refinement on ruder dialects, if correct, leads to connection with another opinion, one that is likely to have strengthening evidence constantly added to it, which is, that there was one original substratum of an early and rude language, running through the whole of Hindustan and the peninsula; broken by time and distance into local dialects, which however still retain a strong affinity with each other. Such being supposed to be the case, is the Khoond dialect a relic of that common language, somewhat modified by time? or has it been made up by intercourse with people speaking the different languages, that have been discovered to exist, as if naturalised in the Khoond dialect? I am not able to determine either way; but, with some allowance for the latter source, in some cases, I incline rather towards the former view of the subject. I have read in some publication, concerning the Khoonds, that they have among them a tradition of having emigrated from the south, and from some mountain termed by them Dodah. This was the cause of my conjecturing some connexion with the mountaineers of the Neilgherries, whose highest mountain is Dodabet, and whose chief people are the Todars. The comparison[5] of language however, so far as I have been able to effect it, has not much assisted any such conclusion. The Khoonds have words which are of antique, pure, and high Tamil; such words are favourable to an ancient origin of their tongue. If at an early period they were driven to take refuge hi mountain-fastnesses, by reason of nomadic hordes of foreigners taking possession of the low-lands, then they might very probably carry with them the ancient general dialect of the low country. I have some reasons for such an opinion, founded on documents not yet before the public; but the most I can here do is to throw out the question for further consideration and investigation.

The second topic of attention is the manners, and rites, of this singular people. A brief extract from Mr. Stevenson's letter to the Editor of this Journal may perhaps best introduce this part of the subject.

"I must quite give up all hopes of being able to compile anything connected with the Khonds, &c. I have in vain attempted to find time to translate the enclosed memorandum, which are answers to queries put from time to time by me: you will have no difficulty in getting them translated, and if worth anything they can be made use of—the small Vocabulary is, I think correct—the account of the Merria or human sacrifice is also correct—but this I gave to Mr. Russell with a request that if he did not wish to incorporate it in his Report he would send it to you. If you think it worth while you might procure his consent to publishing it—to which, as he has finished his report, he would not probably object. The form of oath in their own language is curious and striking—these notes may assist you, or others who have collected materials, in drawing up a short memoir."

The memorandum to which Mr. Stevenson alludes, is a Telugu paper, rather in a Cutcherry hand-writing. It illustrates some of the curious peculiarities of the Khoonds. I have made with some care, and here present the following


The customs of the race of people called Codulu.

1. The mode of celebrating marriages.—Some of the relatives of the intended bridegroom, go to the house of the future bride, and atk if it be agreeable to give their daughter in marriage to the person indicated. If agreeable to the latter persons, they signify their consent; and they give a she-buffalo to the persons who came to make the demand. On the road back, they kill this animal, slightly roast it, and eat it. The following" day the people of the intended bride's family go to see the purposed bridegroom : on which occasion the relatives of the latter shew every thing contained in their dwelling, or possession,, to the visitors. Whatsoever these find to be valuable, be it a cow, or any thing else, they desire that it may be given to them; and they receive a promise that it shall be given, though it is not allowable then to receive and take it away : they feast on ardent spirits and flesh, and then depart. The next day the relatives of the man, call together a few other people; and the whole proceed, carrying the cow, and other things, to be given as requested. The people of the woman's family kill a number of buffaloes, proportioned to the visitors; on half the flesh of which the whole feast together, while the other half is carried back by the visitors, and made to feast all their relatives. Another time, the man's relatives proceed to the other house, and give them a formal invitation. On the female's relatives going accordingly, the people of the man's house kill buffaloes, eating one half together, and giving the other half, with rice, to the visitors, who carry the same back, and with it feast their relations.

Subsequently, the mother and father of the man, go to the other house, and ask when it will be agreeable to the female's relatives, that they should come to escort the female; and when any day whatsoever[6] is fixed upon, the precise place where the parties are to meet is specified. At this visit free use is made of spirits and flesh, before the visitors depart.

On the appointed day, mats[7] are laid down for the bride to walk over, and spreading a mat over her for the sake of shade, they give to her all needful household stuff, or utensils; and, accompanied by a crowd of men and women, they go a short distance in procession to the place previously indicated. The mother, father, and relatives of the man, remain previously a little farther off. The people of the female convoy, call out to the others to come and fetch the bride; and then a mock fight, with stones and thorny brambles, is begun by the female convoy against the parties composing the other one. In the midst of the beating, the assaulted party take possession of the bride, and all the furniture brought with her; and carry alt off together. The female's relatives return from that place to their dwelling. The day following this transaction the man's relatives locate the female, and the furniture brought with her in the inner open court of their house. Subsequently placing her on a stool, they pour water over her head in bathing. Beneath this stool, the younger sisters or younger brothers of the bride-groom ace concealed; and the water flows down over them. They take occasion, during the bathing, to snatch off the ring, from the bride-groom's finger. On her asking to receive back her ring, they strip off from one of themselves some valuable ornament, and give it to her, retaining the ring. Soon after, their hierophant (Jáni) comes bringing with him a cord,[8] a turmeric rod, also a nut of the tree mesua ferrea, which he strings upon the cord, and taking these things together with the bride and bridegroom only, he goes into the woods, where a hut, made only of sticks has been before prepared, in which being seated, the Jáni wishes them both health and domestic prosperity, and ties the cords[8] on the neck of each one. Afterwards they return to the house. Hogs and other animals are killed, and liquors brought, when they prepare báji (supposed from the use of the word in another place to be a son of olio, or mixed dish) and all partake of it. From this day forward, the parties are considered to be man and wife. They beat on drums; they give to the Jáni, rice, flesh, and liquor, and send him away.

2. The ceremonies attendant on the birth of a child.—As soon as a child is born, they follow the ancient custom (not explained). For a month after the birth the mother does not eat out of the household vessels. On the day which completes the month, they kill some animal, and prepare the flesh, they also procure liquor, and make bàji. The victuals is cooked by the mother of the child. They pour a small-quantity of liquor out upon the ground (as a libation) saying, "O beneficent goddess! preserve the child." They then distribute portions of prepared food and curries to the houses of their various relations. Those immediately belonging to the house, consume as much liquor as they please, and make báji: (here the word seems to denote a riotous banquet, or a feast).

Six months after, on a fixed day, they make Gáduthuvà (supposed to mean the same as Námacaruna, or ceremony of naming the child). On that day killing a hog, and procuring liquor, they make báji. They wash the feet of the child. The Jáni being come, he ties a cord from the haft to the point of a sickle; they divine by means of it. Having assembled the Petrilu (literally ancestors, but here denoting household images, or gods) they put rice on the sickle. As the names (of the ancestors? or family?) are repeated in order, each time the rice is put on, that name is chosen on the mention of which the sickle moves, and is given to the child. They then drink liquors, and eat báji. They give rice and flesh to the Jáni.

When two years are elapsed, they cut off the child's hair, and on that occasion, killing some animal, and procuring liquor, they make báji.

3. The ceremonies customary at funerals.—On the life ceasing, they tie a sheep to the foot of the corpse. They carry the clothes, brass eating-dish, brass drinking-vessel, ornaments, grain in store, and the said sheep, all together to the burning-ground. Having burned the body, and gone round about the pile, they leave all those things there, and beating drums, return home. Those garments the Pánó[9] take away. They procure liquor, and drink it. They then go to their respective houses and eat. On the next day, they kill a she-buffalo, and get together a great quantity of liquor. The whole of the tribe (near and distant relations) being assembled, they make baji, and eat: they beat the drum (or drums). If the deceased were of any consequence, dancers come, and dance to the sound of their drums; to whom some animal is given, which they take and go away. Subsequently on the twelfth-day, they carry a hog to the spot where the body was burned; and after perambulating the site of the pyre, return to their home; where they kill the hog in the place set apart for their household gods; and procuring liquor, they make báji; the members of the tribe eating together.

4. Case of death by a tiger.—Should a tiger carry off any one, they throw out of doors all the (preserved) flesh belonging to him, and all the people of the village, not excepting children, quit their homes. The Jáni being come, with two rods of the tummèca tree (Tamil—Véla maram) he plants these in the earth; and then bringing one rod of the Conda-támara tree, he places it transversely across the other two. The Jáni, performing some incantation, sprinkles water on them. Beginning with the children, as these and the people pass through the passage so formed, the Jáni sprinkles water on them all. Afterwards the whole of them go to their houses, without looking behind them.

5. (Degraded occupations).—The Mangili (barber) Pánó, Hadi, Dandási, these castes, being excepted, the Codulu people eat with all the other tribes.

6. (Treatment of Brahmans).—The Codulu people do not pardon the Brahmans (or show them favour beyond others).

7. The castes (or tribes) of the Mountaineers.

1. Codulu

2. Páno

3. Hadi

4. Chittra

5. Lóhárá

6. Gunnà

7. Gaudd'ha

8. Cumari (potters)

9. Sudbà

10. Gaudu

11. Tòmla

12. C'hadbà

13. Cheduvà

14. Vódià

15. B'badálà

16. Béniyà

17. Vómayattá

18. Sodi.

These tribes are in the mountains.

8. The gods honoured by the Codulu people.—1. Dherma dévata. 2. Savuri-pennuga, a forest-goddess. 3. Jácari-pennuga, a local goddess. 4. Járápennu, so called a Linga dévata, which is their favorite deity. 5. Jurachi-pennuga, the god or goddess of rain. 6. Tada-pennuga, the earth-goddess.

9. The manner of worshipping these deities: 1. If occasion arise to present any offering to Dherma-devata, they take inferior rice and mingling turmeric with it, they hold it up, and worship.

2. To Savuri-pennuga, the so-called forest deity, when the corn flourishes, they bring liquor, fowls, rice, and roasting the fowl, they cause worship (puja) to be made by the Jani, and preparing báji they eat.

3. To represent Jacari-pennuga, the local deity, they fix three or four stones, and near to these (representatives) they place dressed dolls, artificial figures of birds on sticks. On the beginning of any thing, or affair, or any particular occasion, they call for the Jani and slaying fowls and hogs, they bring liquor and making baji, eat

4. To represent Jara-pennu, the Linga-daveta or the Petri-devata they make, in brass, figures of elephants, peacocks, dolls, fishes, these and the like, and keep them in their houses. If affliction happen to any one belonging to the household, or if the country cutaneous eruptions break out on any of them, or if the anniversary of an ancestor's death occur, they put rice into milk, and mingling turmeric with it, they sprinkle the mixture on those images, and killing fowls and sheep, they cause worship to be made by the Jani; and, making baji, eat

5. For Jurachi-pennu the rain-deity, if there be no rain, they kill a sheep beneath a tree, and causing worship (puja) to be made by the Jani, they cook half the flesh for the Jani, and cause him to eat, and the other half they divide among themselves.

6. To Tádá, the B'hu-devata, or deity of the earth, they make the merria-sacrifice, or offering. This puja having been finished, they give from one to three pecks (tumu or maracal) of grain, rice, a fowl, a sheep, (or fowls and sheep) to the Jani (or sacrificer).

I may add as regards the name adverted to at the commencement of this digest, that the hand writing sometimes leaves it uncertain whether the word by which they are designated should be Cádulu, or Codulu, but from the way in which the á is sometimes written, I think it is not meant to be introduced into the word, which is I believe Codalu; but I make the remark that I may not wilfully lead into error. I am not sure if the she-buffalo often mentioned may not be a cow; which, however, a Hindu would not like to acknowledge. As to the term Baji it is to me unintelligible. But I think the term may receive some illustration from a passage which I extract from an account of a visit to the Raj-mehal hills near Bhaugulpore in Upper Hindustan. It is the following:

"At 11 a. m. we set off to visit the neighbouring villages. On reaching the former (Dundah-goddah) we found the inhabitants of both villages assembled for pooja and drinking.—Nearly all the people, to the amount of at least 100, were in a state of intoxication. The noise of the drums, cymbals and singing almost prevented us from hearing our own voices. We witnessed the Pooja which had just commenced,—a fowl and a pig were sacrificed, and a part of the blood of the latter, mixed with cooked grain and tuddee, drank by the Daimno." It is this last preparation which seems to me to harmonize with the way in which Báji is spoken of sometimes as a compound-food, sometimes as a feast. I may remark that I have met with the above extract since making the translation, consequently this was in no way influenced thereby. The Daimno of the Raj-mehal people is apparently the Jani of the Khoonds, and it seems to me that there is a close similarity between the customs of the two sets of mountaineers. Several coincidences appear in the account whence the above extract is made. I have otherwise heard that the hill people of Raj-mehal speak a language like Tamil. The name for village in the above extract goddah, or gudi, is perfectly common in the south, and in parts of Mysore. Any similarity of languages between insulated localities, so distant from each other, argues in favour of an early general language throughout India.

In the translated paper there are some things that appear otherwise curious, as the pouring out libations, a custom so familiar to the classic scholar; and an almost universal custom of heathen antiquity. The placing sticks and causing people to pass under, or through them, reminds one of the Furca of the Romans; though the import of the act in either case differs. However not to dwell on such things, nor on resemblances to customs heretofore among the South-sea-islanders, we may advance to that sacrifice which is briefly alluded to at the close, the merria sacrifice, on that of a human victim. This custom also prevailed in the South-sea islands; and I cannot think that the many resemblances are perfectly accidental.

Of the Merria or human sacrifices, the following has been forwarded by Mr. Stevenson, alluded to in the extract from his letter:—

Memorandum regarding Human Sacrifices among the Khoonds.—The sacrifice is offered to Thadha deveta (the earth), under the effigy of a bird. It is offered annually to propitiate the deity to grant favourable crops and seasons. The ceremony is performed at the expense, in rotation, of certain Mootas composing a circle, and connected together from local circumstances. It is impossible to ascertain the number of places in which the annual sacrifices take place, but they are very numerous. Besides the annual sacrifice, human victims are offered up by Mootas, or by individuals, to avert any threatening calamity arising from sickness, murrain, or other causes. The victims may be of any caste, or sex, or age; (I have not however heard of an instance of Khonds being sacrificed): but grown males are the most esteemed, because the most costly. Children are purchased, and reared for years with the family of the person who ultimately devotes them to sacrifice, when circumstances demand a victim from him. They appear to be treated with every kindness, and, if too young to be conscious of their fate, are under no constraint—otherwise they are kept in fetters and guarded. There appears to be no difficulty in procuring victims; most of those that have been rescued were sold by their parents or nearest relatives, and this appears a very common practice. Persons of riper age are kidnapped, and there are individuals who follow a trade in human flesh, and supply victims by kidnapping or forcibly seizing children. The Khonds never sacrifice a criminal, or a prisoner captured in war. It must always be purchased—the price paid is from 60 to 200 Rupees, and the price is paid either in brass vessels, cattle, or coin, or partly in each.

The Janee or priest (who may be of any caste) officiates at the sacrifice, but he performs the pooja offering of incense, flowers, &c. to the idol, through the medium of the Toomba, who must be a Khond child under seven years of age. This child is fed and clothed at the public expense, and eats with no other person, and is not subjected to any act deemed impure.

For a month prior to the day of sacrifice, there is much feasting, intoxication and dancing round the victim, who is adorned with garlands, &c. and, the day prior to the sacrifice, is intoxicated with toddy, and made to sit, (if necessary tied with seven ropes) at the bottom of a post which has previously been planted with some ceremonies, and on the top of which is an effigy of a bird, and at the foot of which a brass figure of the same bird is buried. The Khonds and others dance round the post to music, and addressing the earth, say, "O god! we sacrifice to you, give us good crops and seasons and health." Then the victim is addressed—"We have bought you with a price, not seized you, and now sacrifice you according to custom. No sin rests on us." On the following day the victim is intoxicated with toddy again, and anointed with oil. Each individual present touches the anointed part, and wipes the oil on his own head. They then proceed in procession around the village and its boundaries, bearing the victim, who is preceded by music and a long pole to the top of which is attached tufts of peacocks' feathers. On returning to the post, which is always placed near the village deity (Gram devete), here called "Jakaree penoo," represented by three stones, and near to which the brass effigy of a bird, before alluded to, intended to represent a peacock, is always buried. They proceed to dig a pit, and having killed in sacrifice a hog, the blood is allowed to flow into the pit. The victim, who, if it has been found possible, has been made senseless from intoxication, is seized by five or six persons, thrown into the pit, and his face kept pressed to the earth, till suffocated in the bloody mire. All cries, if any, are drowned by the noises of instruments. When supposed to be dead, the Janee cuts a bit of flesh from the body, and buries it with ceremony near the effigy and village idol, as an offering to the earth; all present then, cut pieces of flesh and carry it to their own villages, where part is buried before the same idols, and morsels in the boundaries of the villages, or fields, to which it is carried in procession, with music, &c. The head and face remains untouched, and when the bones are deprived of flesh, they are buried with the head in the pit.

Subsequently to this horrid rite, a calf is brought before the post, and his four feet being cut off, it is left there till the following day, when women, dressed in male attire, and armed as men, drink, and dance, and sing round the post. The calf is then killed and eaten, and the Janee dismissed with a present of rice, and a hog or calf.

Captain Millar (43d Regiment N. I.) when at Coopautee, managed with much discretion to rescue no less than twelve victims; seventeen more have fallen into my hands, making in all twenty-nine. The first who made her escape to my camp, although closely fettered, disappeared after a few days, and I could never learn more of her. She was an elderly woman; of the remainder, ten were restored to their friends, and eighteen children from three to ten years of age, remain with Captain Millar and myself. These were all sold by their parents, or I have been unable to discover their history and origin.

This account differs in some particulars from other accounts which have been published. There may, however, be different modes followed: this account may be considered to be authentic.

The remaining documents to be adduced are two forms of oaths. The one alluded to by Mr. Stevenson is the following:—

Form of Oath.

1. A blood-sucker,

2. A bit of tiger's sking,

3. Peacock's feather,

4. Earth from the white-ants' hill,

5. Rice mixed with fowl's blood,

6. A lighted lamp.

The substance of the circumstance is first repeated by the swearing party, and a basket containing the following things being held before him, he proceeds with his oath, touching each object in the basket at that part of the oath which refers to that object:— the blood-sucker, the tiger-skin, &c.

"Oh father (god!) I swear, and if I swear falsely then, oh father! may I become shrivelled and dry like a blood-sucker, and thus die; may I be killed and eaten by a tiger resembling this blood-sucker, may I crumble to dust like this white-ants' hill, may I be blown about like this feather, may I be extinguished like this lamp."

In saying the last words he puts a few grains of the rice in his mouth, and blows out the lamp, and the basket with its contents is made to touch the top of his head.

Yeree ubba, hahumoo, hurrudda, attamo, mi, dosha, shiddee

Oh Father I Oath take by me fault if is

yera, neekee surruda suttumo Yeree ubba.

on that account to me and mine oh Father.

Ghoe, diogee, Bassee, Bassee, Sunnummoo.

blood-sucker like, dry and shrivelled, may I die.

Ghoyee, dingee, Khradee hanee nangee yesta challa tinee

A blood-sucker like, a tiger may come me having killed eat

Beera, dingee Mhaihe hanai. Mendoo, kuttaka

white-ant hill-like crumble away may I come. Peacock, feather

hanai yengaesahe yenjoo dippo dingee yengee

may I be blown away this lamp like this manner

nimee mammo.

may I be, extinguished.

The other form, of a special character, is as follows:

Oath taken by the chiefs of the Mootahs of Rottungen, and Chinungea, on the occasion of the settlement of a boundary dispute, which had been for many years the cause of war between the two districts.

"The dispute which has existed between us so long is now decided—we will forget it and remain in peace, and hold our lands according to the limits laid down. Whichever party acts otherwise, and causes disputes again to arise, let him be reduced to dust, and his race and name become unknown."

The parties administered the oath to each other, holding over the head of the swearing party a basket of the soil, whilst he repeated the words of the oath.

Such are the materials which I have endeavoured so to digest as to place them in a somewhat clear and intelligible order. I do not know that any remarks of mine, whether laboured, or otherwise, could add to the deep but melancholy interest, which these documents are calculated to excite. It is quite clear that these people are not Hindus; though a few ideas may have been borrowed from the latter. The Khoonds are clearly in a state next to entire barbarism. I am told that people from the north speak of the khoi mountaineers as wild, deformed, and of vindictive character; so much so, that it is not safe to speak to one of them, as a real or imaginary affront is never forgiven, but if possible is avenged with blood. They are also said to be potent in the use of charms, and incantations; but these may be idle tales. One cannot, however, but remark their dissolute and drunken habits, as in most semi-barbarous people; a description of vice usually leading to vindictiveness, ferocity, and blood-shedding. And when ferocity and murder become parts of a people's religion, every thing else may be expected that is degrading to human nature. Philanthropists have a new field opened for their exertions; and I would, with pleasure, anticipate the time when they may become a Christianized, civilized, humane, and respectable, people.

I have to solicit indulgence for any possible faults, that may have inadvertently entered into these observations, which have been prepared amidst many other, and very dissimilar, occupations.

[The foregoing article, based principally on information communicated by the late lamented Commissioner in Goomsoor, will, independent of its intrinsic value, be read with lively, yet melancholy, interest, as a posthumous relic of one, who, to the infinite regret of his many friends, and great loss of the Government, whose upright and talented functionary he was, has been cut off in the prime of life, and in the midst of a career which must have proved eminently useful to the country, as well as highly honourable to himself.—Editor.]

  1. The h in this, or in the other words is not in the Telugu characters but simply long a at found in the word after.
  2. It would hare been desirable to sire the Sanscrit in the original Dévanâgari characters, in the same way as the Tamil and Telugu characters are given. They were written in the copy; but omitted, I presume, through a want of that kind of type.


  3. Bassia longifolia.
  4. The diacritical vowel-marks employed by Dr. Maxwell are omitted in the printing, and by consequence his glossary of them; probably from the want of types with such marks. This explanation is given that Dr. M. may not consider his directions to be neglected. W. T.
  5. After the above had been forwarded to the Editor of this Journal, that gentleman was so kind as to send me the first part of a Vocabulary by Reverend B. Schmid of the language of the Todars and Burghers (or rather Vadagars) of the Neilgherries. The perusal did not add much to resemblances of the Khoond dialect, but the materials on either hand are not full. The Todar language has some few Tamil roots, the Burgher dialect is full of Tamil words. The Todar dialect indicates great antiquity, and derivation, I am almost positive, from the Canarese, probably Hala Kanada,—The speech of the Vadagara (or northerns?) is much more modern—that word at Madras designates the people of Telingana; but being merely a relative term, it may have been used to designate a people who emigrated from some district, or country, north only of the Neilgherries. W. T.
  6. A negligence of auspicious, or inauspicious, days (according to Hindu notions) is implied by the Hindu writer of the original paper.
  7. The Hindus hare a similar custom at their funerals, only they spread cloths instead of mats.
  8. 8.0 8.1 The original is followed; the composition of which is not very exact in the use of singular and plural.
  9. Weavers.—Dr. Maxwell's vocabulary.