Marcus Aurelius (Haines 1916)/Glossary

III.—GLOSSARY OF GREEK TERMS

ἀδιάφορα (=μέσα), V. 20; VI. 32, 41, 45; VII. 31; VIII. 56; XI. 16; things indifferent, i.e. neither good nor bad = (1) things absolutely indifferent, such as the number of pebbles on the shore; (2) προηγμένα, things to be chosen as having a relative value, as good health; (3) ἀπροηγμένα, to be rejected, as of less relative value, cp. Fronto, De Eloq. Nab. p. 143

ἀερῶδες, τό, IV. 4, 21; VIII. 54; IX. 9; x. 7, § 2. From a comparison of these we get τὸ στερέμνιον = τὸ γεῶδες (earth), τὸ ὑγρὸν (water), τὸ πνευματικὸν = τὸ ἀερῶδες (X. 7, § 2, the spiritual or pneumatic into airy or aerial), τὸ πυρῶδες (fire) = ? τὸ νοερ῀ον, cp. XI. 20

ITUX, TC I aiTtov, Ti> a.mwo es (see Seil- eca, Ep. 65), the Causal, Formal, or Formative Principle which makes a thing what it is, con trasted with vXrj (matter), IV. 21 ; vi. 5 ; VII. 29 ; vm. 3, 11 ; XII. 8, 10, 18, 29 ; the Primary Cause, or Xature, or God, vm. 27 ; IX. 29 ; the Individual Cause in Man, vm. 7 ; IX. 31 ; X. 26 ; the Quality of the Cause, i.e. the power it has of making a thing what it is, ix. 25 ; absorbed into the Aoyos of the Universe, VII. 10; Destiny, the primal Cause and sum of all lower causes, v. 8

KiTaArjTTTOs, OKaTaArji/Ha, impossi bility of any certain conviction, v. 10; VII. 54. It was the main position of the Sceptics that nothing could be really known, but even Socrates and his suc cessors said similar things. Epi- ctetus stoutly maintains the con trary

iucttvainfTOf, one who selfishly disre gards the common interests and cuts himself adrift from his fel lows, H. 1, 2; III. 5; vm. 34; X. 6; XI. IS ad Jin-; XII. 23

iviipopd, the reference of a thing to its end or purpose, its relation to its objective, with Cause and Matter making up the whole thing, XII. 8, 10, 18. 20

if ", (1) the true value or worth of things, (2) the relative value of things preferential, III. 11; VI. 3, etc.

in-afleia, the passionless calm of the true Stoic, I. 9 (of Sextus) ; vi. 16; XI. 18 ad fin. ; cp.irapafun

niraf Aeyojuei/a, Words Only found (it seems) in Marcus are : axv/SeuTo? I. 8; t avSpovo^flcrffai X. 19; or- pvAAioy IV. ^0 ; ctTTctAAciKTicii X. 36 ; a7ro<catcraptoC<T#<u VI. 30 ; uTroppf fi/3- ffrBai III. 4 ; IV 22 ; <i7rpoo-TOT77TOS XII. 14; c <pe<rKeuTiKOS I. 16; a</>u- o-(oAoy<)Ta)S X. 9 ; ui/dKapSios IX. 3 ; yaAaKTioc V. 4 ; yAio-xpeuecrlJcH V. 5 ; VII. 54; f^i epyrjoWeii III. 7; ei - T pioi (?) VI. 13 ; fei XP T ^^a I. 15 ; KaAof j0>7sI. 1 ; <coti 0i orj(i/oo-i r>) I. 16 ; nviKiov VII. 3 ; nvfapioi/ IV. 48; VI. 13; OMoSoynaTeJi/ IX. 3; XI. 8 ; H/AGpa^/yeti XI. 8 ; Trapft^VjTct v XII. 5 ; rrtpi |)opos I. 15 ; TrpOTTTWT- IKO? XI. 10; jrpouprio-(reo-(?ai IV. 49; pin-Tao-T.KOs I. 16; atp-VOTV^ia. IX. 29 ; o-jocapaySior IV. 20 , .o-TpwftoTioc V. 1 ; cruy/ca.TaT/;Kfcr0ai V. 1 ; avfA- /J.fipveo-0a.i. ni. 11 ; VIII. 23 ; crvju.^- pucris IV. 40 , (rvfJ.irfpi<j>avTa.^e<TSai. X. 38; av^n-poo-Trui-Teu/ VII. 22; X. 31; XII. 27; owe^e peii/ III. 4; <rvvv>i9eiv (?) IV. 34 ; Tpiyepiji tos, IV. 50 J i/TrepTao-is, X. 8 ; iftavra.- <7iO7rAjicTu>s, I. 7 , x v ^ c P tO1 VI- 13 aTTpocu peTa, things not in our choice or power, xn. 3, 23, 33 apx<" , Zeno recognized 0e<> (TO n-oi- ovv) and vAt) (TO Trao-xoc) as apx ai or Beginnings aTapajia (cp. aTraSeia) ix. 31, free dom from perturbation at external things aTo/j.oi, iv. 3 ; VI. 24 ; vii. 32, 50 ; vin. 17 ; ix. 28, 39 ; x. 6 ; xi. 18. Indivisible atoms endowed with motion were, according to Demo- critus, and after him Epicurus and Lucretius, the origin of all things without any First Cause. Marcus often puts this view, but only to reject it a<J>opju>/ = means. Marcus does not use the word in its Stoic sense of " disinclination " )( op/jnj Sai/j.<av, evil spirit, I. 6; good, x. 13 ; = evSa^ovla., vii. 17 ; the "genius" or "daemon" within us, n. 13, 17 ; m. 6, 7, 12, 16 ; vm. 45 ; xn. 3 ; given by Zeus to us, v. 27 ; = teds, v. 10 ; = "oOs, in. 3 SnxAvo-i;, vii. 50, etc.; a breaking up of things into their component parts, and the subsequent sifting out of these into the elements Siavoio., faculty of thought, or mind, in. 1; = AoytKij i^vx 7 ). vi. 32; not affected by the motions of the irvfv^a., IV. 3 Sia.irv<;~i<r0a.i, to breathe through the veins and arteries, a medical theory (see Gataker in loc. for il lustrations from Galen), in. 1 ; Vi. 16 56-y^a, a postulate, axiom, or prin ciple established by reason and experience ; what the sensations are to the body and impulses to the soul, S6y para are to the intel ligence, ni. 16; called "sacred," x. 9. See Kpl^a and 0ea >pi)u.a 410 e Sos, only used once (xi. 20) in its philosophical sense of "general term," "class," or "species" ei/uapju.e 1/rj, rj, destiny, in. 6; v. 8, etc. ; = Clotho, IV. 34 ; ra <rvyKu9- ontva., m. 4, 11, 16; rv. 26; T) Tren-pw^ieVr), III. 8; TO (nJfJ.fio.lvov, IV. 44 etc. eic/cAio-is, avoidance )( ."pefis (q.v.), VHI. 7 ; xi. 37. The things that are " within the man " are Kplms judgment, op^ij impulse, opefts propension towards, e^icAio-is aversion from, a thing, vin. 28; but the latter must be reserved only for things in our power, vin. 7 ; xi. 37 cKTTvpiovi-;, cyclical conflagration of the Universe, a doctrine of Heraclitus (q.v.), in. 3. Justin Apol. ii. 7 points out the dif ference between the Stoic and Christian view of this conflagra tion (2 St. Peter iii. 7, 10) ei/i/oia, conception, thought, or no tion not amounting to a^convic- i tion (Si>yfj.a), but KOU r) fvvoia. = fyoLVTatria. KaToXr)7TTiK), a conclusive conviction. Se-e TrpoAr/iJ/is efaywyrj = suicide does not occur, but see in. 1 (t&KTeov) iff is, vi. 14; vn. 16; xi. 18; xn. 16. Lucian, Conviv. 23, says, 5ia- <e p<:i o-xeVis ef ews ; and in Hermot. 81 he laughs at the jargon of philosophy with its e<ris and <rX <ms, its KaraA^cis and <f>avra- o-i ai. 2x*Vis, feature; tis, a simple essential form or quality (irotoTijs) ; <u<ns, a forming power, vi. 14 eWcujuoi i a., harmony of man s will (Sa.ifniai ) With God s = evpoia |3i ou, vii. 17 eupovs, evpotif (cvpoia, Epict. i. 4. 6), the calm even flow of the virtuous life = evoSelv, v. 34 ; x. 6 ; even of Zeus himself, v. 8 ; tvpow KCU 8fovSii jSiW, n. 5 evepyeia, the activity of the tyvxy contrasted with Ti-ticns (q.v.) = the passivity of the body, v. 20, etc. riyeiioviKOV, To (Or TO Kvpitvov, TO Trpoaipenxdi , VHI. 56), the Ruling Reason (q.v.) or Principle (or Inner Self, Kendall), II. 2 ; IV. 1 ; V. 26; XII. 14, etc. = Adyos, Aliens, or even Ttvi AoyiK/;, V. 4; VIII. 7 (cp. </<i)xi7, V. 32); Sidvoitt., VII. 64, 68; cou?, ix. 22; in. 16; x. 24; xn. 3; sometimes even of God, VII. 75; ix. 22 eojpi)fj.a, a truth pefceived in Science, I. 7, 4, 8; iv. 2; in Ethics = Sdyn, a principle or con viction; TO eeiaprjTiKov, the faculty of pure thought, x. 9 ; p. 375 a.8rjKov, TO = officium, duty. Among ra xaBrjKovTa., duty in the highest sense perfectly performed, is K<XT- ap9<afia (not used by M.). KO.TOP- ewo-eis, v. 14, are acts that are the outcome of right reason araArji/HS, VI. 30 (KaTaAa/xjSdveif, KaTaArjTTTtKo; (IX. 6), a/caTuAr)7rTO?) ; an important term in the Stoic philosophy meaning a " true com prehension " or " clear percep tion " of a thing, without which no right conduct in life is pos sible. See under o-vyKaTd0e<ris dTopOiocns, see KaOrJKOv iVqcris, motion = change, v. 10 ; in the flesh (Epicurus), ix. 41 ; of the senses, vm. 26; of the flesh (smooth or rough), x. 8 ; to anger, fear, etc., xi. 20 ; of the mind, vii 55; of virtue, vi. 17; )( o-xVis, vii. 60; xi. 2; tension (TOI/OS), VI. 38 OLI/O? and its kindred words occur over eighty times, and Marcus apparently coins the beautiful word Koii/oi/orjfiotrui i) (i. 16), which deserves to rank with the " loving- kindness" of Coverdale s Bible. See under Fellowship Kpi>a, conviction, almost = Soy^a, iv 3, 2 ; judgment, v. 19 ; vm. 47 ; xi. 11 : cp. <cpi o-i<r, vi. 52, etc., the antecedent to w>;, vm. 16, 28; of the Christians, XI. 3; = U7roY)/is W>acT<xo-i a), XI. 16, 18, 7 Adyos (AoyiKds), reason or the reason, I. 8 ; II. 10 ; IV. 13, 16, 19, 24, 30, 33; V. 8, 9, 14, 28; VI. 23, 30; vn. 8, 11, 24 ; vm. 48 ; ix. 10, 42 ; X. 31, 32 (i oCs Kai A.) ; right reason, (= virtue, Cic. Tusc. iv. 15. 34), m. 6, 12; xi. 9; xn. 35; civic reason, rv. 29; ix. 12; common to Gods and men, vn. 53 ; A. of Nature, iv. 29 ; v 32 ; vi. 58 ; vn. 10 ; common to all intelligent creatures, iv. 4 ; Vii. 9 ; = a man s self (T < -nycfj-oviKov, q.v.), vm. 40 ; convincing reason n. 5 ; iv. 24 ; (TTrcp/uariKol Adyot, of the Universe into which all things are taken back = seminal principles, iv. 14, 21 ; vi 24 ; = A6yo5 only, vn. 10 ; x. 7; Aoyixos, applied to <?oi>, oiijo-is, self-conceit or illusion, iv. 12 ; ix. 34 ; XII. 27 oucovopto, iv. 19, 51 ; xi. 18, 5 ; management, and so policy, ex pediency, adaptation to circum stances, ulterior end, secondary purpose, and even finesse. We keep the double sense of the word in our " economy of truth " opefis, propension or inclination to wards a thing, of which the result is iipfiri and the incentive <j>avTa<ria, ix. 7 : cp. vm. 28. )( eVKAio-is, vm 7. See under rraflo; op.uii = 4>opa I//UX11? eri TI (Stqb. Ed. ii. 160), impulse of the mind to wards a thing (see i;psi<r), result ing in a 7r<i0os 6<ri6r>)s = SiKaio<rvVr) irpb? Bfov, piety, sanctity, holiness ovtria, Substance or Being, some times = vA?), matter; )( I/<UXT, iv. 40 dflos, the "affect " resulting through Treieris from opjurj, the second stage of <"pefts, which depends itself on assent (auy/caTdetcrtir). Stobaeus defines it (Eel. ii. 164) as a mo tion of the Soul contrary to Na ture ; na9ooyelv. VIII. 13, to study the va.8-1] = Ethics TraAtyyei-eo-ia, XI. 1 ; CJ>. VII. 19. The Stoic theory was that every thing repeated itself in periodic cycles, when the world was re newed again after each conflagra tion (see <FK7rupu><Tis and under He- raclitus); cp. Chrysippus, n-fpi irpoiWas, "there will be another Socrates to live the same life again"; and Seneca, Ep. 36. 10, " veniet iterum qui nos in lucem reponat dies." But whether Marcus believed in this dismal theory is very doubtful. cp. X. 31. TrapaTofis, opposed line in battle, so opposition, not obstinacy (xi. 3) m. 3 ; VIII. 48. See also p. 381. 7rro-tsX epyeia, v. 1, a passive con dition antecedent to a KiVrjo-is in the case of the body, correspond ing to an evtpyeia of the mind, in. 6; v. 26; vi. 51; vn. 55; ix. 16 jrepi oSoi, V. 13, 32; X. 7. See TraAiy- yevetria. Ttvfvfia = ai-e^os, ii. 2; the surround- ing air, IX. 2; the inferior part of the i^vx? as distinct from I oOs, iv. 3; it and its motion quite distinct from the 5iaoio, iv. 3. Marcus does not seem to use the word in the sense of Atmospheric Current unless xn. 30 affords an instance. irvf-utidTa, what remains of things when ovo-t a, ^vxn, and voepa tyvxil are subtracted, xn. 30 TrvfV^ariKOvjTO, the SOUl (= TO TTV(V- /ucmoi ) Of Which the n-i-ev^a Or breatli element at death goes back into TO aepwSes, and the i/ov? into TO jrupwfies, IV. 4 ; x. 7 ; XI. 20 TTVeV/JLOLTLOV, TO = (1) </<VXT/ (SOUl) ID ItS lower sense (cri/xa, nvfviJ.dri.ov, vovs, xn. 14) ii. 2; vm. 56; ix, 36; XII. 3, 14; (2) ^v X Si in its higher sense, including the vow, v. 26. 33; VI. 14; IX. 8, 34; xii. 30; the enveloping body and the ni evfidri.01 that has grown with its growth, xn. 3; the vital breath which will be quenched or transferred elsewhere, vm. 25; the sphere of it and the body 412 outside our power, v. 33 ; unstable like all matter, ix. 36; burdened with the body, ix. 24. See under <^u x<oo-i? TTOIOTIJS, TO TTotoi , the property, qual ity, or form of a thing (almost = the Cause which makes it what it is, IX. 25) ; TO ;5^> 5 JTOIOI-, separate individuality, vi. 3; ix. 25; x. 7; xii. 30 TToAlTlKOS, niOStly = KOU taVlKOS. Stt KOIVOS Trpoai pfcris, free will or choice. See under airpoaipera. TrpoaipeTLKOf, TO(= TO tfftjUHmc6v), the faculty of choice, vm. 56 7rpoTryoviju.ei oj , TO, the leading or car dinal thing, vii. 55 ; vm. 49 ; ix. 41. Marcus does not use the Stoic expression Ta npoiry^fi a. things preferential 7rpoA>)i//(.s = a primary conception possessed by all rational beings, Chrysippus in Diog. Laert. vii 53 (evvoia <t>vtTnci] TWV KaO oAov). Perceptions (<l>avTa.aian) resulting from sensation (aio-07)cm) produce impressions (TUTTOJCT-EIS) which re peated form memory and many memories make experience which gives us conceptions (n-poA^ets) 7K6ao-^6s, <TKOpn-io>i6s (cp. 6iaAuo-i?), a disintegration of things into their component atoms (vi. 24 ; vn. 32 ; yin. 25) or elements. See under Dispersion and Dissolution -KOTTOS (or TAOS, v. 15, 16), the end or objective of life, n. 16; vii. 4; xi. 6, 21 ; to which every 6p^ and </>ai Tao-i a should be directed, n. 7. See under Aim, Objective -TrepfiaTiicbs Aoyos (see under Adyos), iv. 14, 21; vi. 24; ix. 1 ad fin. = the Generative Reason, because the Primary Fire or Reason con tains in it the Germs of all things. The crnepti. yoi are the creative and forming forces in Nature which have produced (1) the Uni verse as a whole, and (2) indi vidual things individually. Jus tin, Apol. ii. 8. 13, applies the Stoic term to Christ TTOiiia, rd., the elements, earth, water, air, nre, H. 3, 17; vi. 17; IV. 4; X. 7 ; xi. 20, etc.; almost- atoui, VI. 17; vn. 31 uyica.Td6e(Tis, the full mental assent required for a convincing impres sion (4>ui Tao-ia KaTaA/7rTiK//) before convictions (Soy^ara) can be trans lated into movement and action, but even this is liable to error, v. 10. See under nd6o<; vyxpifjia, o-uy/cpijuaTcoi/, the COm- pound man, vn.67; vm. 25; Xi. 20; composite things )( O-TOIX<. n.3; vi. 10= Ki/K<rwi , the farrago of things; o-uyicpio-is )( AVO-IS, xn. 24. 30 ; the elements comprising the <rwna, II. 17 ti|U7ra#<-(.a, sympathetic connexion or affinity of the parts in an or ganic whole, v. 26; IX. 9, 3; mutual interdependence, iv. 27 vrei Sijcris, It is curious that Mar cus never uses this Stoic equiva lent for Conscience, but tee vTTfina., an organized body, or or ganism, the parts of which have a relation to one another fX^o-is, a non-essential quality or feature of a thing, K^cw? = rest (Kendall), vn. 60; xi. 2; attitude or relation towards other things, i. 12- vi. 38; vm. 27; xi. 18. Three o-x^ o-ei?, (1) towards the body, (2) towards God, (3) to wards our neighbour, vm. 27. See under f is, /aVrjo-is ra>|Ua, TO [o-w/jCctTtor, <r<xp, (rap/eta (plur.), o-apKi Sioi , KptciSioi ] a com pound of TO -yeoiSes and TO vypov, together forming TO o-Tpt>i tor, iv. 4; x. 7; the vessel or sheath of Soul, HI. 3: vm. 27; ix. 3; that which overlays the Soul. XII. 2, 3 TfAos, Sfe O-KOJTOS OI/OS (TOCIKI I?) = tension imparted to soul by atmospheric substance therein existing (Zeller), the cause of virtues and vices. Zeller also says that the Stoics imagined two sorts of motion, the one (=our Repulsion) tending outwards and giving rise to the qualities of mat ter, the other (our Attraction) tending inwards and causing con densation. Cleanthea calls T..I-O? a TrAtjyi; ffupos uA>), TO iiAiKoi/, matter on which the aiTiov (q.v.) acts virotceinevov, TO (or plural), matter not in its primary condition but as formed by the alnov, vii. 29; > j vn-oKc-ijuei r) iiAr;, ix. 36 ; all material things and objects, v. 10; VI. 4, 23; vm. 22, 24; IX. 3; X. 18 vnvtWpto-is, iv. 1: v. 20; vi. 50; xi. 37, exception or reservation; cp. "sapiens ad omnia cum et- ceptione (t*.eO uTrc^aipfo-ews) veniet, si nihil incident, quod impediat " (Seneca, De Benef. iv. 34) u7iY>A>ji//(.s, opinion, imagination ; all things are merely what we think them to be, n. 15; iv. 3, ad fin.: XH. 8, 26; away with opinion! iv. 7; vm. 40; xi. 18, 7; xn. 22, 25 ; leave the fact as it is and add no opinion to it, v. 2G ; hold the power of forming opinions sacred, III. 9; a inroA KUTaATiirTiioj (q.v.) amounts to a truth, ix. 6. See under <t>avTa<ria and Kpi o-i? i/n-oo-Tao-is, substance, ix. 1 ad fin. subsistence, ix. 42; x. 5 fyavraaia, impression, thought, no tion ; don t go beyond first im pressions, vm. 49; they dye or stamp the soul, v. 16; vi. 16; sift them, vm. 26; appraise them aright, V. 36; <f>ai<Ta<ri a KaToArjir- TIKIJ, irresistible impression that carries assent, iv. 22; vii. 54; wipe it out, iv. 24; v. 2; vii. 17. 29; VIII. 29; IX. 7. See under u7roA7jv/(i and KpiVis <t,vvu>oye~n , VIII. 13 = Physics; cp. IX. 41; x. 9; so of the physio logical disquisitions of Heraclitus, ill. 3; cp. ix. 41 (from Epicurus). $v>i, ifyvxa.pi.or, Mail o-u>|ua, *l>vxn, i/oOs, m. 16; but the Soul (fyvxn) twofold, (a) = 7n-vnTiot (irvfvua), an exhalation from blood (ava- evjiuWis, y. 33, vi. 15), and an inhalation (aixxTn/euais) from the air ; (b) r) voepd, AoyiK/;, VI. 14, 32; ix. 8; xi. 1; xn. 30; ^v X ri = TO Tj-y<F j u.o iKoi>, I. 16 ad fin. ; IV. 41; V. 26; IX. 3, 27, 34; an emanation from God, xn. 26; imprisoned in the body, in. 7 ; cp. Int. p. xiv. The natural soul is called po/i/3<k, a vortex or cur rent, n. 17, 1; the rational soul a sphere, xi. 12; its attri butes, XI. 1, 2. There is a Soul of the Universe, XII. 30, 32, an of God, V. 34, the two beinj really the same <V XU>CTI. It was a view of the Stoics that the embryo in the womb had only the <I O-IKI tyvxh f plants, and that the voepa. ^vxn came gradually to the child after birth by contact with the (cold) air, xn. 24. It was by the respiration of the atmospheric nvev^a. that the child received the Trvev^ariov. VI. 15; X. 7