Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet. Volume 1
THE TANGUT COUNTRY,
SOLITUDES OF NORTHERN TIBET:
Narrative of Three Years' Travel in Eastern High Asia.
LIEUT.-COLONEL N. PREJEVALSKY,
OF THE RUSSIAN STAFF CORPS: MEM. OF THE IMP. RUSS. GEOG. SOC.
E. DELMAR MORGAN, F.R.G.S.
WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES BY
COLONEL HENRY YULE, C.B.
LATE OF THE ROYAL ENGINEERS (BENGAL).
IN TWO VOLUMES—VOL. I.
With Maps and Illustrations.
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON,
CROWN BUILDINGS, 188 FLEET STREET.
All rights reserved.
THE FIRST VOLUME.
FROM KIAKHTA TO PEKING.
Eve of departure — Post across Mongolia — Mode of conveyance — Departure from Kiakhta — Physical features of the country north of Urga — Temples there — Brick-tea — The Kutukhtu and Chinese Policy towards Lamaism — Description of the town — Disposal of the dead— Government — The Dungans — The Gobi — Its character — Its vegetation and inhabitants — The post-road — Argols — Rapacity of crows— The Sand-grouse (Syrrhaptes) — The Mongol lark — The Alpine hare — The Steppe antelope (Dzeren) — Antelope-shooting — The native methods of hunting — Pastures of the Chakhar Mongols — Characteristics of people — Border-land of the Mongolian Plateau — Town of Kalgan or Chang-kia-kau— Tea caravans — Chinese Impositions on Mongols — The Great Wall — Compradors and their Dialect — 'Pigeon-Russian' — Road to Peking — Chinese inns and cuisine — Descent into great plain of China — Arrival at Peking
The Mongols — Physical characteristics — Modification of character on the Chinese border— Pigtail introduced — Costume — The Yurta or Felt Tent — Uncleanliness — Tea-drinking— Food and beverages — Gluttony — Animal food — Cattle — Importance of their herds— Indolent habits — Physical capabilities and defects — Cowardice — Sagacity and obtuseness — Curiosity — Points of the compass — Estimation of distance — Calendar and Year-Cycle — Language and diversities —Literature — Love of gossip — Songs — Mongol women — Marriage customs and domestic relations — Hospitality and polite customs — Freedom of manners — Lamaism — Religious service — 'Оm mani padmi hom' — The Dalai Lama — Pilgrimages— The Clergy — Monasticism — Superstitions — Masses for the dead — The Author's view of Missions — Administrative organisation of the Mongol tribes — Grades of rank among chiefs, and their salaries — Population — Laws, punishment, and taxation — Military force — Decay of martial spirit
THE SOUTH-EASTERN BORDER OF THE MONGOLIAN PLATEAU.
Peking — First impressions — The streets and walls — European establishments — Preparations for the journey — Fire-arms and outfit — Insufficiency of funds and its consequence — Financial Arrangements — Chinese Currency — Inconvenience of the Copper Currency — Passport — Departure from Peking — Preliminary tour to the North — Ku-pe-kau gate in wall — Migration of wild-fowl — Road to Dolon-nor — Wood on the way — Jehol — Fauna of the route — Goitre — Khingan Range — Dolon-nor— Idol foundry — Shandu River — Tsagan Balgas — Sandhills called Guchin, gurbu or 'the 33' — A Steppe-fire on the Dalai-nor — The Lake Dalai — Birds on the lake — Mocking-bird — Surveying difficulties — Mode of surveying — Suspicions of the Natives — The Route plotted daily — Road back to Kalgan — Steppe horses — Imperial pasture lands — Climate of South-Eastern Mongolia — The two-humped camel — Its habits, uses, &c. — Arrival at Kalgan
THE SOUTH-EASTERN BORDER OF THE MONGOLIAN PLATEAU—(continued).
Reorganisation of the Party — Fresh start from Kalgan — R. C. Missions — Samdadchiemba, Hue's companion — Dishonest convert — Vigilance needed against thieves — Shara-hada Range — Suma-hada Range — The Argali; its habits and incidents of chase — Late spring — Lifeless aspects — The Urute country and Western Tumites — Tedious purchase of sheep — Dumb bargaining — Difficulties in purchase of milk — Our traffic with the Mongols — Throw off the trading character with advantage — Rude treatment from Chinese — The strong hand necessary — Difficulties about change — The In-shan mountain system — First sight of Hoang-ho — Tent flooded — Bathar Sheilun temple — The mountain antelope — Its extraordinary jumps — Chinese soldiers — Munni-ula mountains — Their flora, fauna, and avifauna — Legends regarding them — Ascent of the range — Chinese demand for stags' horns — Vicissitudes of inountain sport — Impressive scenery — Pass across range — Valley of the Hoang-ho — City of Bautu — Interview with Commandant — Search for lodging — Mob rudeness — We are made a show of — Departure from Bautu — Passage of the Hoang-ho — Military opium smokers
Definition of Ordos — Nomads contrasted with settlers — Historical sketch — Divisions— The Hoang-ho and its floods — Route up the Valley — Depth, width, and navigation of river — Old channels; deviation of its course — Disputes about boundaries — Flora of the valley — Scanty vegetation — Liquorice root — Aspect of valley changes — Kuzupchi sands — Terrors of the desert — Legends — Oases and their vegetation — Sterility of the valley — Birds and animals— Traces of Dungan insurrection — A stray camel — Intense heat — Lake Tsaideming-nor — Opium cultivation — Bathing — Superstition about the tortoise — Flight of Chinghiz-Khan's wife — Tradition of Chinghiz-Khan — The White Banner — Tomb of Chinghiz-Khan — The Kara-sulta, or Black-tailed antelope — Shooting these antelope — Their haunts in the desert — Ruined temple of Shara-tsu — Scarce population — Wild cattle — Their origin and habits — Two bulls shot — Fishing ; Mosquitoes — Salt lake ; Ruins of city — Order of march; sweltering heat — Water ! the halt — Wolfish appetites; evening — Loss of a horse; Djuldjig — Arbus-ula range ; Ding-hu — Crossing Hoang-ho — Interview with Mandarin — Showing our guns — Baggage examined — Mandarin robs us — Embarrassing situation — Under arrest — Explanations — We take our departure
The Eleuths — Extent and character of Ala-shan — Sandy tracts of Ala-shan — Flour of the Sulhir grass — Flora and Fauna of Ala-shan — Birds of Ala-shan — Population of Ala-shan — Mongols of Ala-shan — Lake Tsagan-nor — Route to Din-yuan-ing — Arrival there — Din-yuan-ing and the Prince — The Prince of Ala-shan and his family — The Gigen — Lama Baldin-Sordji — Curiosity of the people — Intercourse with the younger Princes — Questions about Europe — Openings for trade — Stories about the Dalai Lama — 'Shambaling,' the Promised Land — State visit to the Prince — Interview with Prince Ala-shan — Views of the Anglo-French war — We proceed to the mountains — Mountains of Ala-shan — Birds of Ala-shan mountains — Mammals of Ala-shan — The kuku-yamans or mountain sheep — Shooting them in the mountains— A frightened herd — Desperate leap — Return to Din-yuan-ing — Obliged to retrace our steps
TABLE OF NOTES TO VOLUME I.
NOTES BY MR. MORGAN.
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES BY COL. YULE.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
THE FIRST VOLUME.
Map of Eastern Asia, showing Col. Prejevalsky's and Huc's Routes.
Col. Prejevalsky's Route Survey Map.
Portrait of Author
Chinese Cart in front of the Russian Consul's House at Urga, being a Facsimile of that in which the Author travelled from Kiakhta to Kalgan (from a Photograph lent by Baron Fr. Osten Sacken, Hon. Corn Mem. R.G.S.)
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General View of Ta-kuren (Urga) (from a Photograph lent by Baron Fr. von der Osten Sacken)
Street in Urga (borrowed from the Tour du Monde)
The Yurta, or Felt Tent (from a Photograph lent by Baron Fr. Osten Sacken)
Mongol Girl (from a Photograph lent by Baron Fr. Osten Sacken)
Group of Khalkas Mongols (borrowed from the Tour du Monde)
Ruins of Emperor's Summer Palace (from a Photograph by J. Thomson, Esq., F.R.G.S.)
Mongol Cavalry (from a Photograph lent by Baron Fr. Osten Sacken)
Mongol Soldier (from a Photograph lent by Baron Fr. Osten Sacken)
Ruins of Chapel of Sisters of Mercy at Tien-tsin, destroyed by Chinese Rioters (from a Photograph by J. Thomson, Esq., F.R.G.S.)