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MARKETING

 
CHAPTER V
 

A Guide for Choosing and Buying Provisions and Home Requisites. With full Information about the Prices and Seasons of Fish, Meat, Poultry, Game, Dairy Produce, Vegetables, Fruit, Tinned Meats, Groceries, Wines, Spirits, etc.

That these lists may be of real service, neither time nor care has been spared to render them as complete and reliable as possible. They show not only the prices and seasons of all provisions, but when they can be bought at their cheapest and best, points to be studied by all household managers, particularly those who have to provide for large families.

With regard to fish, meat, poultry, game, dairy produce, vegetables and fruit, the prices have been obtained from the principal provincial towns as well as from different parts of London, so as to arrive at the average cost.

In the case of tinned provisions, groceries, etc., they are quoted from various sources, and at the present reduced scale of charges generally adopted by tradesmen and stores throughout the kingdom.

MEAT

Except in the case of early lamb, whicn is always expensive (unless the excellent New Zealand lamb is used), the price of meat varies but little with the season. Lamb and veal are in full season during spring and summer, and are generally preferred in the hot weather to beef and mutton, which are not then considered so good.

MARKETING GUIDE: BULLOCK.

 
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1. Sirloin. 2. Rump. 3. Aitchbone. 4. Buttock. 5. Leg. 6. Flank. 7. Thin Flank. 8. Brisket. 9. Prime Rib. 10. Middle Rib. 11. Chuck and Leg-of-Mutton Piece. 12. Neck. 13. Head. 14. Clod. 15. Shin.

MARKETING GUIDE: BEEF.

 
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1. Round. 2. Aitchbone. 3. Brisket. 4. Tongue 5. Leg. 6. Ribs. 7. Sirloin. 8. Buttock: e. Topside or Buttock; f. Silverside or Round. 9. Hind-quarter: a. Leg. b. Buttock. c. Thick Flank. d. Aitchbone.

BEEF.

Part. In Season. Best. Average Price.
ENGLISH. AMERICAN.
Aitchbone All the year During Winter d. per lb. d. per lb.
Baron ,, ,, 9d. ,, ——
Brisket ,, ,, d   ,, d   ,,
Buttock ,, ,, 10d.   ,, 10d.   ,,
Clod ,, ,, 4d.   ,, ——
Flank ,, ,, d.   ,, 4d.   ,,
Hock ,, ,, 5d.   ,, ——
Silver side ,, ,, 9d.   ,, 8d.   ,,
Neck ,, ,, 5d.   ,, d.   ,,
Ribs ,, ,, d.   ,, d. to d.,,
Rump (in steaks) ,, ,, 1s. 1d. ,, 11d.   ,,
Shin ,, ,, d.   ,, ——
Round ,, ,, d.   ,, 7d. to d,,
Sirloin ,, ,, 9d.   ,, 8d.   ,,
Cheek ,, ,, 1s. 3d. ea. ——
Heart ,, ,, 1s. 6d. ,, ——
Kidney . ,, ,, 10d per lb. 9d per lb.
Tail ,, ,, 1s 9d. ,, ——
Tongue . ,, ,, 2s. 6d. ,, 2s. 6d. ea.

Australian and Foreign Meat—Although it is difficult to equal, and impossible to surpass, the best British grown beef and mutton, we have as a nation immensely benefited by the enormous and ever-increasing imports of meat from America, Australia and New Zealand. The large supplies of beef which reach us from the river La Plata and elsewhere have undoubtedly kept down prices, so that meat is no longer a luxury except among the poor. Much of the beef from South and North America reaches us alive, but it is not of this phase of the trade that we need speak. The great development arose when it was found that cattle and sheep could be slaughtered and dressed on the other side of the ocean, then packed close together in freezing chambers on board ship, and so imported here. Actual freezing, many contend, injures the quality of meat, and certainly if the meat is heated carelessly on arrival it quickly deteriorates. As a matter of fact, however, most meat is now "chilled," that is packed in chambers in which the air is made cold, but is not suffered to reach freezing point. Moreover, it is packed in loose-woven cloth wrappers, and on arrival in England is removed to cold storage chambers, and gradually exposed to higher temperature before it is put on the market. When carefully treated, mutton and lamb are none the worse for the long chilly voyage. Beef, however, is apt to lose somewhat of its natural firmness and elasticity; it therefore requires to be carefully stored, and, when cooked, should be subjected for some minutes to very high temperature, which should be subsequently lowered, otherwise the albuminous constitutents will soon drain out in the gravy, leaving the mass of meat stringy, tasteless, and not very nourishing. Imported killed meat cannot safely be kept long except in winter, unless hung in a refrigerator. The housewife who takes special pride in her roast beef, had better buy English joints, using the imported meat for stews and "made dishes."

VEAL.

Part. In Season. Best. Average Price.
Breast Feb. to Nov. In Summer. 8d. per llb.
Cutlet ,, ,, 1s. 2d.,,
Fillet ,, ,, 1s.,,
Knuckle ,, ,, 6d.,,
Loin ,, ,, d.,,
Shoulder ,, ,, d
Head ,, ,, 5s. each.
Heart ,, ,, 9d. each.
Sweetbread ,, ,, from 1s. each.

MUTTON.

Part. In Season. Best. Average Price.
English. New Zeal'd.
Breast. All the year Sept. to April. 4d. per lb. 2d. per lb.
Haunch ,, ,, 10d   ,, ——
Leg ,, ,, d.   ,, d.   ,,
Loin ,, ,, d.   ,, d.   ,,
Neck (best end) ,, ,, 9d.   ,, d.   ,,
Neck (Scrag end) ,, ,, 6d.   ,, 4d.   ,,
Saddle ,, ,, 10d.   ,, 6d.   ,,
Shoulder ,, ,, 8d.   ,, 6d.   ,,
Head ,, ,, 6d.   each. ——
Heart ,, ,, 3d. to 4d. ea. ——
Kidney ,, ,, d.   each. 1d.   each.
Chops ,, ,, 1s. per lb. 8d. per lb.

LAMB.

Part. In Season. Best. Average Price.
English. New Zeal'd.
Breast Mar. to Sept. May to July. 7d. per lb. 4d. per lb.
Fore-quarter ,, ,, 9d.   ,, 7d.   ,,
Hind-quarter ,, ,, 11d.   ,, d.   ,,
Leg ,, ,, 1s.   ,, d.   ,,
Loin ,, ,, 11d.   ,, d.   ,,
Neck (best end). ,, ,, 10d.   ,, 6d.   ,,
Neck (Scrag end) ,, ,, 8d.   ,, 5d.   ,,
Shoulder ,, ,, 10d.   ,, d.   ,,
Fry (about) ,, ,, 8d. to 1s ——

PORK.

Part. In Season. Best. Average Price.
Belly Sept. to April Nov. to March 8d. per lb.
Hand ,, ,, d.   ,,
Fore-loin ,, ,, 8d.   ,,
Hind-loin ,, ,, 9d.   ,,
Leg ,, ,, d.   ,,
Spare ribs ,, ,, 8d.   ,,

FISH.

In purchasing Fish it should be remembered that it is generally best when in full season, and the following list will be found useful in ascertaining when it is best and cheapest. To give a satisfactory table of the prices of fish is a difficult and almost impossible task. Many circumstances conspire to make the variations in price greater than in the case of any other food commodity. The fact that fish is a most perishable article of food and is usually caught while travelling in shoals, results in alternate scarcity and over-supply of a particular kind of fish, whilst the question whether the purchaser resides near or far away from a seaside or big distributing town, affects the situation. All we have been able to do is to record fluctuations in prices over a period of years, from which the housewife must form her own judgment. In conclusion, we would say that in no branch of marketing is personal attention better repaid, both in quality and economy, than in the buying of fish. The lady who markets herself will select the fish that on the day of her visit is plentiful, consequently cheapest and often best.

Name of Fish. In Season. Best & Cheapest Average Price.
Bloaters Sept. to April Sept. to Feb. 9d. to 1s. 6d. doz.
Brill All the year Aug. To April 6d to 1s. per lb.
Cod Nov. to March Feb. to March 3d. to 8d. per lb.
Crabs April to October Summer 3d to 3s. each.
Eels June to March Sept to Nov. 6d. to 1s. per lb.
Haddocks August to Feb. Winter 3d. to 1s. 3d each.
Halibut All the year Nov. to June 4d. to 10d. per lb.
Herrings May to January June to Sept. 6d. to 1s.. 6d. doz.
Lobsters All the year Summer 6d. to 3s. each.
Mackerel Nearly all the year April to July 3d. to 8d. each.
Mullet (red & grey) All the year April to October 6d to 1s. 2d per lb.
Oysters Sept. to April Winter 6d to 1s. per doz.
Plaice All the year May to Nov. 4d. to 8d. per lb.
Prawns Mav to Dec. Mav to Nov. 1s. to 2s. per pint.
Salmon Feb. to Sept. Spring & Summer 10d. to 3s. per lb.
Shrimps All the year April to Nov. 3d. to 6'd per pint.
Smelts October to May Winter 1s. to 2s. 6d. per box
Soles All the year April to July 1s to 2s per lb.
Sprats Nov. to March Nov. and Dec. 1d. to 3d. per lb.
Trout Feb. to Sept. April to July 8d. to 2s. per lb.
Turbot All the year Spring & Summer 6d. to 1s. 2d. per Ib.
Whitebait Jan. to Sept. Feb. to May 1s. to 2s. per qt
Whiting All the year Spring & Summer 2d to 6d. each.

POULTRY.

The cost of poultry varies considerably, being affected both by the season of the year and the district in which it is purchased. It is well to remember that poultry almost invariably rises in price at Christmas, and also tends to be expensive when no game is on the market. These considerations borne in mind, the table below will give a reliable average of prices.

Poultry. In Season. Best & Cheapest Average Price.
Chickens Feb. to October July to October 2s. to 3s. 6d. each.
Ducklings Feb. to August May to July 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. ea.
Ducks August to Feb. Sept. and Oct. 3s. to 4s. each.
Fowls All the year June to October 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. each.
Geese Sept. to Feb. Oct. and Nov 6s. to 10s. each.
Green Geese. May to August June 6s. to 10s. each.
Guinea Fowl Feb. to August Summer 3s. to 4s. each.
Pigeons August to April Winter 9d to 1s. each.
,, (Bordeaux) All the year Winter 1s. to 1s. 4d.
Rabbits All the year October to Feb. 6d. to 8d. per lb.
,, (Ostend) All the year October to Feb. 7d. and 8d. per lb.
Turkeys Oct. to March Nov. to January 10s to £1 each.
Wheatears Sept. to March Sept. and Oct. 1s. each.

GAME.

Game varies very much in price, being generally very expensive on the first day or two of the season, whilst on the other hand, any one watching the market may sometimes buy it more cheaply than ordinary poultry at any subsequent period of the season.

In this variable climate no hard and fast rule can be laid down for the keeping of Game before it is cooked. In all cases it requires hanging; but while in winter it is safe to buy birds that have been shot some time, in damp or warm weather no such risk should be run.

Game. In Season. Best & Cheapest Average Price.
Blackcock Aug. to Nov. Sept. and Oct. 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. b'e.
Ducks (wild) Oct. to Sept. Nov. and Dec. 2s. to 3s. brace.
Grouse August to Nov. September 3s. 6d. to 5s. brace.
Hares Sept. to March October 3s. 6d. to 5s. each.
Partridges Sept. to Feb. Oct. and Nov. 3s. to 5s. brace.
Pheasants Oct. to Feb. Winter 6s. to 10s. brace.
Plovers Oct. to Feb. Winter 1s. to 1s. 6d. each.
Ptarmigan Sept. to April September 1s. to 1s. 6d. each.
Quail Sept to Feb. Sept. and Oct. 1s. to 1s. 6d. each
Snipes Oct to Feb. Oct. and Nov. 2s. 6d. to 3s. brace.
Teal Oct. to Feb. Winter 1s. to 1s. 6d. each.
Venison Sept. to Jan. Sept. and Oct. 1s. to 2s. per lb.
Widgeon Oct. to Feb. Oct. and Nov. 1s. to 1s. 6d. each.
Woodcock Oct. to Feb. Oct and Nov. 3s. 6d. to 5s. brace.

VEGETABLES AND FRUIT.

Vegetables and fruits vary greatly in price according to the abundance or scarcity of the supplies. Our table gives the average prices which would have to be paid at the various seasons of an average year.

VEGETABLES.

Name. In Season. Best & Cheapest Average Price.
Artichokes Jan. to April February 3d. to 6d. each.
,, Jerusalem Oct. to March December 1d. to 2d. per lb.
Asparagus Feb. to July April and May . 2s. 6d. to 5s. per 100
Beans (French) May to November Summer 3d. to 1s. per lb.
,, (Broad) July and Aug. August 6d. to 9d. per peck.
,, (Runners) July to Oct. Aug. and Sept. 2d. to 4d. per lb.
Beetroot All the year Autumn 1d. to 3d. each.
Broccoli ,, Autumn 2d. to 6d. each.
Sprouts Nov. to May April 1d. to 4d. per lb.
Brussels Sept. to March Oct. and Nov. 2d. to 4d. per lb.
Cabbages All the year Spring and Smr. 1d. to 2d. each.
Carrots All the year Early Smr & Atm 4d. to 6d. bunch.
Cauliflowers All the year Summer 2d. to 6d. each.
Celery Sept. to March December 1d. to 4d. per hd.
Horseradish All the year Winter 1d. to 2d. per stick
Leeks ,, Oct. and Nov. 3d. to 6d. bundle.
Lettuce ,, Summer 1d. to 4d. each.
Onions ,, Summer and Atm. 1d. to 2d. per lb.
Parsnips . Oct. to April . Feb. and March . 1d. to 2d. per lb.
Peas June to Sept. July and Aug. 4d. to 2s. per pck.
Potatoes All the year Autumn ½d. to 1d. per lb.
,, New March to Aug. June and July 1d. to 8d. per lb.
Radishes April to Nov. June to Aug. 1d. to 2d. per bch.
Seakale Nov. to May Feb. and March 1d. to 2s. 6d. bskt.
Savoys Nov. to March Dec. and Jan. 1d. to 4d. each.
Spinach All the year Summer 2d. to 4d. per lb.
Tomatoes ,, Sept. and Oct. 2d. to 8d. per lb.
Vegetable Marrows July to Oct. September . 1d. to 6d. each.
Watercress All the year Spring and Smr. 1d. per bunch.

FRUIT.

Name. In Season. Best & Cheapest Average Price.
Apples All the year Oct. to Dec. 2d. to 6d. per lb.
Apricots June to Sept. August 1s.6d. to 3s. 6d.do.
Bullaces Autumn October 2d. to 3s. per lb.
Cherries June to Aug. July 4d. to 8d. per lb.
Currants July to Sept. August 4d. to 8d. per lb.
Damsons Sept. and Oct. October 1d. to 4d. per lb.
Figs ,, ,, 2s. to 3s. per doz.
Gooseberries July to Sept. August 4d. to 8d. per qt.
,, (Green) May to July June 2d. to 6d. per qt.
Grapes (Foreign). All the year Autumn 4d. to 1s. per lb.
,, (Hothouse) Sept. to Nov. October 1s. and upwards.
Greengages Aug. and Sept. August 3d. to 8d. per lb.
Medlars Oct. to Jan. Oct. and Nov. 4d. to 8d. per lb.
Melons June to Nov. October 9d. to 5s. each.
Nectarines Sept. and Oct. October 2s. to 6s. per doz.
Oranges All the year Winter From 4d. per doz.
Peaches Sept. and Oct. October 4s. to 8s. per doz.
Pears Oct. to March Oct. and Nov. 1d. to 6d. each.
Plums Aug. to Oct. Sept. and Oct. 2d. to 6d. per lb.
Quinces Sept. and Oct. October 2s. to 3s. per doz.
Rhubarb Jan. to May March and April 4d. to 8d. bundle.
Strawberries June to Sept. July 4d. to 1s. per lb.

Dried Vegetables and Fruits.—We have long known such dried fruits as raisins and currants, prunes, dates and figs, and pippins. These useful pudding and dessert fruits are now more abundant than ever, and as a rule prices are moderate. Within recent years other fruits have been added to the list, and we now have dried apple rings, apricots, etc. These apple rings and apricots reach us chiefly from America and Australia, where they are dried in large quantities in specially constructed ovens. They are used for pies and tarts, or may be served stewed. Before cooking, place the required quantity of dried fruit in a colander, and allow tepid water to run over them in order to remove dust. Then place in a bowl and cover with water and allow to soak. When soft, place in an enamelled pan and stew gently, adding more water if desired. If intended for a pie, stew for a quarter of an hour, then place in piedish, add sugar, place crust on, and bake. If to be used as a compote, only add the sugar a few minutes before removing from the fire. If sugar is added too soon, it is apt to turn to caramel and harden the fruit.

Recently vegetables in great variety have been treated by the desiccating process, that is, cut in pieces, and exposed to a more or less quick heat, to remove the water. The vegetables are afterwards packed loosely or compressed. They retain their colour and flavour, and only require soaking before being cooked. These dried vegetables are chiefly to be recommended for use on board ship, for travellers, or for the store cupboards of housewives. Unquestionably fresh vegetables are to be preferred, whenever obtainable.

SHEEP.

 
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1. Welsh Mountain Ram. 2. Hampshire Ram.

MARKETING GUIDE: SHEEP.

 
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1. Leg. 2. Loin (best end). 3. Loin (chump end). 4. Saddle. 5. Neck (scrag end). 6. Shoulder. 7. Breast. 8. Head. 9. Shank. 10. Trotters.

DAIRY PRODUCE, HAM, BACON, ETC.

Dairy produce varies somewhat in price in accordance with locality, but the differences are not so great of late years, the increased railway facilities having brought about a greater uniformity of price.

DAIRY PRODUCE.

Article. Average Price.
Butter—
Fresh 1s. to 1s. 4d. per lb.
English, Normandy or Brittany 1s. per lb.
Salt 10d. to 1s. 2d. lb.
Margarine 6d. to 8d. per lb.
Cheese—
American 6d. to 8d. per lb.
Cheddar 10d. per lb.
Cheshire d. to 1s. per lb.
Cream 3d. to 1s. each.
Dutch 7d. to 9d. per lb.
Gorgonzola from 9d. per lb.
Gruyère from 10d per lb.
Stilton 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.
Eggs  
Hens 8d. to 2s. per doz.
Ducks' 1s. to 2s.,,
Geese 3s. to 4s.,,
Guinea Fowls' 1s. to 2s.,,
Plovers' 3s. to 5s.,,
Turkeys' 3s. to 4s.,,
Milk 4d. per qt.
,, Separated 2d
Cream 1s. to 3s. per pint.

BACON, HAM, ETC.

The cheaper parts of bacon vary from 5d. to 9d. per lb. but by reason of the quantity of bone contained in them they are not in reality more economical than the best.

Article. Average Price.
Bacon (best part). 10d to 1s. per lb.
Ham—
English 8d to 1s.,,
American d to 9½d.,,
Canadian. 7d to 9d.,,
Lard 7d. to 10d..,,
Pickled Pork 8d
Sausages 8d. to 1s.,,


PROVISIONS AND HOUSEHOLD REQUISITES.

For groceries, tinned provisions, jams, biscuits and other household requisites, the prices quoted will be found a fair average of those charged by the principal provision dealers and grocers in London and the chief provincial towns.

Tinned meats, soups, fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables now occupy an important place in our food supply, being available at any time, and handy substitutes when fresh provisions are difficult to procure. In the respective chapters will be found recipes giving full directions for their use.

Article. Average Price.
Almonds—Jordan 1s. to 2s. 6d. per lb.
Valencia 1s. to 2s. 6d. per lb.
Baking powder d. per tin.
Beef Essence—
(Brand's) 1s. 3d. per tin.
(Mason's) d. per bot.
(Liebig's) 2s. 3d. per ¼ lb.
Beef Tea in skins 5s. to 6s. per lb.
Blancmange Pwdr. 6d per box.
Capers 5d. per ¼ lb. bottle.
Candied peel—
Lemon d. per lb.
Orange 5d. per lb.
Citron 7d. per lb.
Mixed 6d. per lb.
Chicory 4d. per lb.
Chocolate 10d. per lb.
Best do. 11d per tin.
Milk paste 11d. per tin.
Cocoa 2s. 6d. per lb.
Essence from 1s. 6d. per lb.
Nibs 1s. 3d. per lb.
Cocoatina 1s. 7½d. per ½b. tin.
Coffee—
Whole, or ground from 1s. to 2s. per lb.
East-India 1s. 6d. per lb.
Mocha 1s. 9d. per lb.
Coffee and Milk. 10½d. per tin.
Currants d. to 5d. per lb.
Custard powder d. per tin.
Curry powder 1s. 6d. per lb. bot.
Paste 1s. 2d. per pt. jar.
Egg powder 6d. per pkt.
Fruit—Dried 1s. 2d. per lb.
Apricots 1s. 3d. per lb.
Lunettes 1s. 4d. per lb.
Melon 1s. 6d. per lb.
Mixed 1s. 4d. per lb.
Greengages 1s. 4d. per lb.
Chinois 1s. 4d. per lb.
Crystallized—Cherries 1s. 3d. per lb.
Pears 1s. 4d. per lb.
Angelica 1s. 1d. per lb.
Figs 1s. 4d. per lb.
Flour—Best Whites from 11d. 7 lb. bag.
Self-raising. 1s. 10d. 12 lb. bag.
Whole Meal 11d. 7 lb. bag.
Gelatine d. per pkt.
Ginger 8d. per lb.
Ground 8d. per lb.
Crystallized 1s. 1d. per lb.
Preserved 5d. per lb. in jar.
Golden syrup. 1s. per 4 lb. tin.
Herbs 5d. per bot.
Isinglass 5d. per pkt.
Mustard 1s. 4d. 1 lb. tin.
Prunes 4d. per lb.
Pudding powder 6d. per pkt.
Raisins—
Valencia 5d. per lb.
Sultanas 6d. per lb.
Muscatels 8d. to 1s. 4d. per lb.
Spices, various d. per tin.
Sugar—Demerara d. per lb.
Loaf d. per lb.
Tea—
Congou 1s. 2d. per lb.
Ceylon 1s. 6d. to 3s. per lb.
Orange Pekoe 2s. 8d. per lb.
Gunpowder 3s. per lb.
Assam Pekoe 2s. 6d. per lb.
Oolong 2s. 6d. per lb.
Young Hyson 2s. 6d. per lb.
Consolidated 2s. 8d. per lb.
Yeast-Powder 4d. per tin.


Preserved and Tinned Provisions.—The preservation of meat and other foods by pickling, salting and smoking has been in use since early times in many lands. The primitive methods of exposing slabs of meat, or split-open fish and fowls, to the fierce rays of the sun, or to the action of smoke, have been improved upon. A large choice of smoked hams and bacon (the pork having undergone some process of "curing" before the actual smoke exposure) is now afforded, and other dried foods usually found in the market are smoked tongues, smoked and salted herrings, mackerel, salmon, eels, turtle, etc., smoked breasts of geese and sausages.

Of much more recent origin are the methods of preserving foods in bottles and tins. This system is due to a Parisian, named Appert. He placed meats, vegetables and fruits in bottles, brought them to the boil, and hermetically sealed the openings. It is true that before his day, it had been the custom to put foods in vases with or without water and vinegar, and pour on an air impervious seal of oil. But Appert's system was a great step in advance, and gave rise to the enormous trade in tinned and bottled foods. For years the system was chiefly applied to the preserving of expensive delicacies, but it was ultimately adopted in Australia and America for the packing of cheap foods, such as beef and mutton, and afterwards rabbits, soups, salmon and lobster. In the early stages, Australian meat was partly roasted, then packed in tins which were boiled in a water bath, or by steam, and then sealed down. Though the meat was cheap, it was somewhat overcooked, and therefore neither tasty nor nourishing. Improvements have been steadily produced, and now the meat, fowl, and fish imported from abroad in tins is usually excellent. Some precaution should be taken. The food remains wholesome so long as the tins remain air-tight, but if air gets in, decomposition soon follows. It is therefore necessary to see that the tins are perfect and air-tight. Tins should not be bulged; the tops and bottoms should be concave, and have the appearance of depressions. They should be free from rust. Bulged and rusty tins should be rejected, and so ought those which emit a rush of air on being opened. As soon as a tin is opened the whole contents should be turned out. Fish should be eaten (or at all events cooked) the same day it is opened. This does not apply to sardines and other kinds preserved in oil, although even these had better be placed in glass or earthenware dishes. Tinned vegetables and fruits soon deteriorate when opened if left in the tins.

As a rule, foods preserved in earthenware and glass are better and safer, though rather more expensive than those sold in tin cans.

Tinned and bottled fruits should be stored in a cool, dry cupboard.

Tinned sardines, bottled anchovies and anchovy paste ought always to be kept in store, as they are useful in preparing many dishes.

TINNED PROVISIONS, JAMS, etc.

Article. Average Price.
Cherries in Brandy 1s. 7d. per half bot.
Cake, Various. 10½d each.
Fruit in Tins—
Peaches 10d. per tin.
Pineapple d. to 11½d. per tin.
Pears 9d. to 1s. 6d,, ,,
Apricots 8d. to 1s. 4d.,, ,,
Bottled Plums d. per bottle.
Cranberries d. per bottle.
Gooseberries d. per bottle.
Black Currants 11d. per bottle.
Red Currants d. per bottle.
Cherries 10d. per bottle.
Greenages 9d. per bottle.
Raspberries and Currants 1s. per bottle.
Haddocks, Blanch-flower. 10d. per tin.
Herrings 8d. per tin.
Honey 11d. per jar.
Jams—
Apricot 5d. per lb. jar.
Raspberry 6d. per lb. jar.
Strawberry 5d. per lb. jar.
Raspberry and Currant d per lb jar.
Greengage 5d per lb. jar.
Black Currant 6d. per lb. jar.
Red Currant 5d. per lb. jar.
Gooseberry d. per lb. jar.
Plum 4d. per lb. jar.
Jellies—
Red Currant 4d. per ¼ lb. pot.
Black Currant 4d per ¼ lb. pot.
Calf's Foot 1s. 6d. per qt. bot.
Orange 1s. 6d. per qt. bot.
Lemon 1s. 6d. per qt. bot.
Madeira 2s. per qt. bot.
Aspic 1s. 6d. per qt. bot.
Lobster 8d. per tin.
Marmalade 4d. per lb. jar.
Meats, Game and Poultry—
Ham and Chicken 1s. 4d. small tin.
Turkey and Tongue 1s. 4d. small tin.
Ham, Chicken, and Tongue 1s. 4d. small tin.
Beef, Ham and Tongue 2s. large tin.
Veal, Ham and Tongue 2s. large tin.
Chicken and Tongue 2s. 1½d. large tin.
Chicken and Ham 2sd. large tin.
Chicken, Ham and Tongue 2s.1½d. large tin.
Turkey and Tounge 2s.1½d large tin
Veal and Ham 2s. 1½d. large tin.
Pork and Rabbit 1s. 8d. per tin.
Beef, Boiled or Roast 1s. 2d. per tin.
Chicken, Roast, whole, in ielly. 3s. 3d. per tin.
Chicken (Poulet de Bresse) 2s. 6d. per tin.
Half Roast Fowl and Sausage 2s. per tin.
Chicken and Tongue (half circle tin) 1s. 10½d. per tin.
Chicken, Spring (one bird in tin) 1s. 6d. per tin.
Chicken, Roast 1s. 3d. per 1½b. tin.
Chicken, Boneless 11½d. per ¾ lb. tin.
Duck, Boneless 11½d. per ¾ b. tin.
Calf's Head and Tomato 1sd. per tin.
Camp Pie 1s. 4d. per tin.
Game Pie 1s. 4d. per tin.
Jugged Hare 1s. 3d. per tin.
Lambs' Sweetbreads with Tomato Sauce 1s. 4½d. per tin.
Larks, Roast, 6 birds 2s. 9d. per tin.
Lunch Ham 1s. 1d. per 1¼ lb. tin.
Minced Collops d. per 2 lb. tin.
Minced Steak d. per 2 lb. tin.
Mutton Cutlets with Tomato Sauce 1s. 9d. per tin.
Mutton, Roast 10d. per tin.
Mutton, Boiled 1s. 2d. per tin.
Ox Tongues 2s. 9d. per tin.
Ox Tails (solid) d. per 2 lb. tin
Pheasant, Roast, whole, in Jelly 4s. 6d. per tin.
Ptarmigan 1s. 9d. per tin.
Pic-nic Pie 1s. 4d. per tin.
Rabbit, excellent quality 9d. per tin.
Rabbit, finest quality 10½d. per tin.
Rabbit, Curried 10½d. per 2 lb. tin
Stewed Kidney and Mushroom 1s. 9d. per tin.
Turkey and Tongue 11½d. per tin
Turkey,—Roast 1s. 3d. per tin.
Turkey, Boneless 11½d. per ¾ lb. tin.
Tête de Veau (en Tortue) 1s. 5d. per tin.
Veal and Ham (half - circle tin) 1s. 10½d. per tin.
Veal Cutlets with Tomato Sauce 1s. 9d. per tin.
Veal Loaf d. per tin.
Milk—
Anglo-Swiss d. per tin.
English 5d. per tin.
Olives—
French 6d. per bottle.
Spanish 8d. per bottle.
Oysters d. per tin.
Plum Pudding 1s. 10d. per lb. tin.
Potted Meats
Anchovy 5d. per tin.
Bloater 5d. per tin.
Ham—Tongue 5d. per tin.
Strasbourg Meats—
Beef 5d. per tin.
Pâté de foie gras 2s. 6d. per jar.
Game 5d. per tin.
Rabbit 1s 8d per tin.
Salmon 8d. per tin.
Sardines (Péneau) (Philipee and Canaud) 1s. 4d. per tin.
Sausages 6d. to 2s. per tin.
Soups—
Turtle (Brand's) 1s. 5d. per qt. tin.
Ox Tail, Mock Turtle, Hare, Julienne, Mulligatawny, Gravy, and Giblet From 1s. per qt. tin.
Soups (Crosse & Blackwell, and Lazenby)—
Game—Hare 1s. 6d. per qt. tin.
Mock Turtle, Ox Tail 1s. 4d. per qt. tin.
Giblet, Mulligatawny 1s. 4d. per qt. tin.
Julienne 1s. per qt. tin.
Gravy, Vegetable 1s. per qt. tin.
Green Pea 7d. per qt. tin.
Mutton Broth 1s. per qt. tin.
Truffles 1s. 8d. ¼ bottle.
Vegetables—
Artichokes 1s. 4½d. per bot.
Asparagus 1s. per tin.
Celery 9d. per tin.
French Beans 1s. per tin.
Green Peas 10d. per qt. tin.
Haricots, Verts 1s. per qt. tin.
Macedoine 10½d. per qt. tin.
Mushrooms 1s. per qt. tin.
Tomatoes 4d. to 6d. per tin.

BISCUITS.

Article. Average Price.
Abernethy 6d. per lb.
Almond Rings 6d. per lb.
Arrowroot 7d. per lb.
Arrowroot (thin) 8d. per lb.
Bath 7d. per lb.
Breakfast 8d. per lb.
Butter 5d. per lb.
Butter Cream 7d. per lb.
Butter Fingers d. per lb.
Butter Nuts d. per lb.
Cinderella 6d. per lb.
Captain 5d. per lb.
Cheese 5d. per lb.
Coffee 10d. per lb.
Colonial 6d. per lb.
Cracknel 1s. per lb.
Cream Cracker 6d. per lb.
Dessert 10d. to 1s. 3d per lb.
Digestive 9d. per lb.
Dinner 9d. per lb.
Garibaldi 6d. per lb.
Ginger From 6d. per lb.
Ginger Nuts 6d. per lb.
Ice Creams 1s. 8d. per lb.
Jam Fingers 8d. per lb.
Kindergarten 5d. per lb.
Lunch From 3d. per lb.
Macaroons 11d. per lb.
Marie 8d. per lb.
Mâitre d'Hotel From 1s. per lb.
Milk 5d. per lb.
Mixed From 6d. per lb.
Nice From 6d. per lb.
Oat cakes 1s. 6d. per lb.
Olive 10½d. per lb.
Osborne 7d. per lb.
Oswego 9d. per lb.
Ratafias 1s. 6d per lb.
Shortbread From 9d. per tin.
Tea 6d. per lb.
Toast 7d. per lb.
Water 5d. per lb.
Wafers (various) 1s. 2d. to 1s. 8d.
Wholemeal 8d. per lb.

GRAIN AND PREPARED FOODS.

Article. Average Price.
Arrowroot From 5d. to 10d. per lb.
Barley 2d. per lb.
Corn Flour 5d. per lb. packet.
Groats 4d. per lb. packet.
Hominy 2d. per lb.
Lentil Flour 3d. per lb.
Oatmeal From 2½d. per lb.
Pea Flour 6d. per tin.
Rice—
Rangoon 2d. per lb.
Patna d. per lb.
Java d. per lb.
Carolina 3d. per lb.
Ground 2d. per lb.
Sago, Small 2d. per lb.
Large d. per lb.
Semolina d. per lb.
Tapioca 2d. per lb.
Best 4d. per lb.
Vermicelli d. per lb.

SAUCES AND PICKLES

Article. Average Price.
Sauces—
Anchovy 10d. per bottle.
Browning for Sce d. per bottle.
Brand's A1 8d. per bottle.
Tomato 10½d. per bottle.
Clarence 6d. per bottle.
Harvey's 7d. per bottle.
Ketchup 8d. per bottle.
Reading (Cock's) 10d. per bottle.
Soy d. per bottle.
Regent 1s. per bottle.
Worcester d. per bottle.
Yorkshire Relish d. and 9d. per bot.
Edward's 3d. per bottle.
Mushroom Ketchup 5d. per bottle.
Bengal Chutney. 1s. per bottle.
Curry d. per tin.
Horseradish d. per pot.
Mason's O.K. d. per bottle.
Foundation Sauces
Italienne, dark 1s. 9d. 4 oz. bottle.
Espagnole, brown 1s. 9d. 4 oz. bottle.
Allemande, pale 1s. 9d. 4 oz. bottle.
Pickles—
Cabbage d. per pint bot.
Cauliflower d. per pint bot.
Onions, Mixed d. per pint bot.
Walnuts d. per pint bot.
Piccalilli d. per pint bot.
Gherkins d. per pint bot.
Mangoes d. per pint bot.
Chutnee 1s. per bottle.
Mango 1s. per bottle.
Indian Relish 1s. 6d. per jar.

HOUSEHOLD REQUISITES.

Article. Average Price.
Bath Brick 1d. each.
Beeswax 1s. 9d. per lb.
Blacking 3d. doz. skins.
Ebonite 9d. per bottle.
Blacklead 6d. per packet.
Blue 10d. per lb.
Brunswick Black 7d. per bottle.
Candles, Composite 3s. 6d. 6 lb.
Stearine 3s. 9d. 6 lb.
Rock Wax 3s. 9d. 6 lb.
Dyes d. per bottle.
Gold Paint 10½d. per bottle.
Essences (flavouring); from 3d. per bottle.
Furniture Polish 6d. per pot.
Cream 6d. per bottle.
Knife Powder d. per packet.
Polish d. per packet.
Metal Polishing Pdr. 3d. per box.
Night Lights 4s. doz. boxes.
Nugget d. and 9d. per bot.
Pepper—Whole 1s. 2d. per lb.
Ground 1s. 2d. per lb.
Cayenne 4d. per bottle.
Nepaul 4d. to 1s. per bottle.
Plate Powder 6d. per box.
Polishing Paste 6d. per pot.
Salt d. per 14 lb.
Cerebos 6d. per tin.
Soap, Yellow (Kt.) 3d. per lb.
Soft (Knight) 10½d. 3½-lb. tin.
Cold Water 3d. per lb.
Carbolic 3d. per lb.
Hudson's Extract 4d. per packet.
Toilet 1d. to 6d. per tablet.
Soda 7d. per 14 lb.
Starch Glenfield d. per lb.
Colman's d. per lb.
Vinegar d. per quart.

WINES, SPIRITS AND LIQUEURS.

In the following lists the prices are averaged from those of several good firms of Wine Merchants, both in London and the chief provincial towns. Prices vary very considerably according to the age of the wine and vintage years.

WINES.

Australian Wines (Red)—
Burgundy from 19s. per doz. bots.
Cabernet ,, 24s. per doz. bots.
Chablis ,, 19s. per doz. bots.
Australian Wines (White)
Riesling from 22s per doz. bots.
Muscat ,, 30s. per doz. bots.
Bordeaux (White)
Sauterne from 25s. per doz. bots.
Burgandy (Red)
Burgundy from 18s. per doz. bots.
Beaune ,, 24s. per doz. bots.
Chamberlin. ,, 60s. per doz. bots.
California Wines—
Burgundy from 19s. per doz. bots.
Claret ,, 17s. per doz. bots.
Sauterne ,, 25s. per doz bots.
Hock Riesing ,, 19s. per doz. bots.
Champagne—
Bollinger & Co. from 82s. per doz. bots.
Deutz & Geldermann ,, 70s. per doz. bots.
Duminy & Co. ,, 80s. per doz. bots.
Heidsieck & Co. ,, 90s. per doz. bots.
Laurent-Perrier ,, 78s. per doz. bots.
Moet & Chandon ,, 66s. per doz. bots.
G. H. Mumm & Co ,, 87s. per doz. bots.
Piper-Heidsieck ,, 84s. per doz. bots.
Pommery & Greno ,, 156s. per doz. bots.
Claret—
Ordinary from 12s. per doz. bots.
Medoc ,, 18s. per doz. bots.
Chateau Margaux ,, 72s. per doz. bots.
Chateau Laftte from 400s. per doz. bots.
Chateau Cos d'Estournel ,, 50s. per doz. bots.
Hock—
Niersteiner from 24s. per doz. bots.
Johannisberg ,, 126s. per doz. bots.
Marcobrunner ,, 56s. per doz. bots.
Rudesheimer ,, 30s. per doz. bots.
Italian Wine
Egidio Vitali from 66s. per doz. bots.
Chianti, Ordinary ,, 21s. 6d. per doz bots.
Tarragona Port. ,, 12s. per doz. bots.
Madeira
Dinner Wine from 32s. to 68s. per doz. bots.
Marsala—
Virgin from 19s. 6d. per doz. bots.
Moselle—
Berncastler Doctor
Auslese
from 60s. per doz. bots.
Port ,, 18s.to 144s. per doz bots.
Vintage Wines—
Tuke's, 1802 from 66s. per doz. bots.
Crofts, 1885 ,, 70s. per doz. bots.
Sandeman's. 1865 ,, 144s. per do.
Sherry—
Pale from 18s. per doz. bots.
Golden ,, 20s. per doz. bots.
Superior Golden ,, 48s. per doz. bots.
Montilla ,, 66s. per doz. bots.
British Wines-
Orange from 14s. per doz bots.
Ginger ,, 14s. per doz bots.
Rasin ,, 14s. per doz bots.
Cowslip ,, 14s. per doz. bots
Cider ,, 7s. per doz. bots.


SPIRITS.

Brandy from 40s to 200s. per doz. bots.
Gin ,, 28s. to 38s. per doz. bots.
Holland ,, 30s. to 55s. 6d. per doz. bots.
Rum ,, 35s. to 43s. per doz. bots.
Whiskey ,, 37s. to 66s. per doz. bots.
Vermouth ,, 30s. per doz. bots.

LIQUEURS.
Liqueurs—
Absinthe from 6s. per bot.
Anisette ,, 5s. per bot.
Benedictine ,, 7s. per bot.
Crême de Menthe ,, 5s. 6d. per bot.
Chartreuse (yellow) ,, 9s. per bot.
Chartreuse (green) ,, 11s. 8d. per bot.
Curaçoa (sweet or dry) ,, 5s. 9d. per bot.
Kirschwasser ,, 5s. 6d. per bot.
Kümmel ,, 4s. 3d. per bot.
Maraschino ,, 4s. 9d. per bot.
Vermouth ,, 2s. 6d. per bot.
English Liqueurs—
Cherry Brand ,, 3s. 6d. per bot.
Ginger Brandy ,, 3s. 6d. per bot.
Orange Brandy ,, 3s. 6d. per bot.
Milk Punch ,, 3s. 6d. per bot.
ALES AND STOUT.
Dinner Ale 2s. 6d. per doz. bots.
Stout 2s. 6d. per doz. bots.
Pale Ale 8s. 6d. per 9 gals.
Bitter Ale 11s. 6d. per 9 gals.
Stout in Cask 14s. per 9 gals.
Porter in Cask 9s. per 9 gals.
MINERAL WATERS AND BEVERAGES.
Article. Average Price
Soda Water 1s. 3d. per doz.
Lemonade 1s. 6d. ,,
Ginger Beer 1s. 6d. ,,
Ginger Ale 1s. 6d. ,,
Potass 1s. 6d. ,,
Lithia 3s. 9d. ,,
Soda Water (Sch.) 2s. 9d. ,,
Seltzer 2s. 9d. ,,
Ginger Ale 2s. 9d. ,,
Lemonade 3s. 3d. ,,
Potass 2s. 9d. ,,
Lithia 4s. ,,
Bitters—
Angostura 4s. 6d. per bot.
Hop 2s. 6d. ,,
Khoosh 2s. 6d. ,,
Orange 2s. 6d. ,,
Fruit Juice & Syrups
Lemon Juice d. ,,
Orange Juice d. ,,
Lime Fruit Juice 1s. ,,
Lime Juice Cordl. 1s. 1½d. ,,
Syrups, Lemon, etc 1s. ,,
Vinegar, Raspberry d. ,,
NATURAL MINERAL WATERS.
Name. Properties. Price.
Apenta Aperient 11s per doz bottles.
Apollinaris Table Water 6s. per doz. bottles.
Buffalo Lithia Alkaline Lithiated 9s. per doz. bottles.
Carlsbad Alkaline Lithiated 12s. per doz. bottles.
Hunyadi Janos Saline Aperient 12s. per doz. bottles.
Johannis Table Water, Gaseous 6s. per doz bottles.
Marienbad Alkaline Chalybeate 11s per doz bottles.
Rosbach Table Water 6s. per doz. bottles.
Salutaris (Manufactured) Table Water 4s. 6d. per doz. bottles.
Taunus Table Water, Gaseous 5s. per doz. bottles.
Vichy (State Springs) Alkaline Acidulated 9s. per doz. bottles.

MARKETING GUIDE: MUTTON.

 
Mrs Beeton (17).jpg

1. Hind Quarter. 2. Breast. 3. Neck. 4. Leg. 5. Saddle. 6. Shoulder. 7. Haunch. 8. Side: a. Leg. b. Loin. c. Best End of Neck. d. Breast. e. Shoulder. f. Scrag.

MARKETING GUIDE: PORK AND VEAL.

 
Mrs Beeton (18).jpg

1. Side of Pork: a. Leg, b. Belly, c. Loin, d. Hand, e. Spare Rib. 3. Loin. 4. Hand and Spring, and Belly. 5. Loin (side view): f. Fore-end, g. Middle Loin, h. Hind Loin. 6. Leg. 2. Neck of Veal. 7. Side of Veal: a. Knuckle, b. Fillet, c. Loin, d. Breast, e. Best End of Neck, f. Shoulder, g. Scrag.


COMPARATIVE VALUE OF FOOD, WITH ITS PERCENTAGE OF CARBON AND NITROGEN.
SHOWING WHAT A SHILLING WILL BUY.
A Shilling will Buy Bone. Meat. Total
Weight.
Per Cent.
Carbon
Per Cent.
Nitrogen.
Rumpsteak none. 13 oz. 13 oz. 11.00 3.00
Beefsteak none. 16 oz. 16 oz. ,, ,,
Ribs of beef 2½ oz. 15½ oz. 18 oz. ,, ,,
Leg of mutton piece none. 19 oz. 19 oz. ,, ,,
Shin none 30 oz. 30 oz. ,, ,,
Leg of mutton 2½ oz. 15½ oz. 18 oz. ,, ,
Loin of mutton 3 oz. 15 oz. 18 oz. ,, ,,
Neck (best end) 4 oz. 16 oz. 20 oz. ,, ,,
Shoulder (best end) 3 oz. 17 oz. 20 oz. ,, ,,
Veal cutlet 2 oz. 10 oz. 12 oz. ,, ,,
Breast of veal 6 oz. 16 oz. 22 oz. ,, ,,
Salmon 1 oz. 7 oz. 8 oz. 16.00 2.09
One-third of a fowl 11 oz. 9 oz. 20 oz. 14.00 3.275
Two-thirds of a rabbit 4 oz. 16 oz. 20 oz. —— ——
Bacon 2 oz. 19 oz. 21 oz. 62.58 1.394
Bread —— —— 100 oz. 30.00 1.20
Cheese —— —— 24 oz. 41.24 4.126
Potatoes —— —— 192 oz. 81.00 0.33
Oatmeal[1] —— —— 112 oz. 44.00 1.95
Haricot beans[1] —— —— 95 oz. 45.00 3.22
Hominy[1] —— —— 136 oz. 40.28 1.60


To arrive at the relative value of various foods, it is absolutely necessary to carefully estimate their different nutritive qualities.

By this table it will be seen that some expensive foods are really even more costly than they appear at first sight, because of the small proportion of flesh-forming, or nutritive quality they contain. As an instance of this one shilling will buy only 7 ozs. of salmon, containing 2 per cent nitrogen., while the same sum will buy 30 ozs. of shin of beef, containing 3 per cent, nitrogen, or 24 ozs. of cheese, containing 4 per cent.

The heat-giving qualities can be estimated by comparing the large percentage of carbon which such foods as oatmeal and potatoes contain with the small amount which is found in various meats. Thus one shilling will buy 136 ozs. of hominy, containing 40.28 per cent, of carbon, or 192 ozs. of potatoes, containing 81 per cent., whilst it will only buy 13 ozs. of steak, which contains 11 per cent, of carbon.


"Once, weeklv. remember thy charges to cast,
Monthly, see how thy expenses may last."—Tusser, 1557.

CALENDAR OF FOOD IN SEASON

The following lists will be found useful in arranging menus, as it can be seen at a glance what Fish, Meat, Vegetables, etc., are in season, but it will be necessary to turn to our price lists to know when all such fresh provisions are cheapest and best. It need hardly be added that tinned and preserved provisions are always to be obtained.


JANUARY.

Fish.—Brill, carp, cod, crayfish, eels, flounders, haddocks, halibut, ling, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, prawns, scallops, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, tench, turbot, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, pigeons, pullets, turkeys.

Game.—Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wild-fowl, woodcock.

Vegetables.—Jerusalem Artichokes, beetroot, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers, endive, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, spinach, turnips.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, grapes, medlars, nuts, oranges, pears, pines, Spanish nuts.

FEBRUARY

Fish.—Bream, brill, carp, cod, crab, crayfish, eels, flounders, haddocks, halibut, herrings, ling, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, pike, prawns, salmon, scallops, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, turbot, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

Poultry.—Capon, chickens, ducklings, pigeons, pullets, turkeys.

Game.—Hares, partridges, pheasants (until the 15th), snipes, woodcock, wild fowl.

Vegetables.—Jerusalem Artichokes, beetroot, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers, endive, lettuce, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, spinach, turnips.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, chestnuts, grapes, medlars, rhubarb, nuts, oranges, pears, pines, peaches, Spanish nuts.

MARCH.

Fish.—Bream, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, eels, flounders, haddocks, halibut, herring, ling, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, pike, prawns, salmon, scallops, shrimps, skate, smelt, soles, sprats, tench, turbot, whiting, whitebait.

Meat.—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, pigeons, pullets, turkeys, wild-fowl.

Game.—Hares, Guinea fowls. Foreign: black game, ortolans, ptarmigan, quails.

Vegetables.—Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, beetroot, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbages, cauliflowers, celery, chervil, cucumbers, endive, horseradish, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, radishes, spinach, tomatoes, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, figs, grapes, medlars, nectarines, oranges, pears, peaches, pines, dried fruits, rhubarb.

APRIL.

Fish.—Bream, brill, crabs, crayfish, dory, flounders, gurnet, haddock, halibut, lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, prawns, salmon, scallops, shad, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, turbot, trout, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, pullets, rabbits.

Game.—Guinea fowl. Foreign: ortolans, ptarmigan, quails.

Vegetables.—Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, beetroot, broccoli, cabbages, cauliflowers, celery, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, radishes, seakale, spinach, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, figs, grapes, oranges, pines, dried fruits, rhubarb.

MAY.

Fish.—Bass, brill, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, hake, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, prawns, salmon, shad, scallops, smelts, soles, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, pullets, rabbits.

Game.—Guinea fowl. Foreign: ortolans, ptarmigan, quails.

Vegetables.—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, beetroot, cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, cresses, cucumbers, endive, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, peas, potatoes, radishes, seakale, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, figs, gooseberries (green), grapes, oranges, pears, pines, dried fruits, rhubarb.

JUNE.

Fish.—Bass, bream, brill, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, gurnets, halibut, hake, haddock, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, plaice, perch (after 15th), prawns, salmon, shad, soles, shrimps, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, buck venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, pullets, turkey poults.

Game.—Guinea fowls. Foreign: Hazel hens, quails.

Vegetables.—Asparagus, artichokes, beans, beetroot, cabbages, carrots, chervil, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, seakale, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, cherries, currants, gooseberries, grapes, melons, nectarines, peaches, pears, pines, strawberries, rhubarb.

JULY.

Fish.—Bass, bream, brill, carp, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, gurnets, haddock, hake, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, perch, plaice, prawns, salmon, shad, shrimps, soles, tench, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, fowls, goslings, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults.

Game.—Quails (foreign).

Vegetables.—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, beetroot, cabbage, carrots, cauliflowers, chervil, cresses, cucumber, endive, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, peas, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, watercress.

Fruit.—Apricots, bananas, cherries, currants, figs, gooseberries, grapes, melons, nectarines, oranges, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries, strawberries.

AUGUST.

Fish.—Bass, bream, brill, carp, chub, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddock, hake, halibut, lobsters, mullet, plaice, perch, pike, prawns, salmon, shad, shrimps, soles, tench, trout, turbot, whitebait, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducklings, ducks, fowls, geese, goslings, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults.

Game.—Black game, capercailzie (20th), grouse (12th), hares, plovers, woodcock, quails (foreign).

Vegetables.—Artichokes, beans, beetroot, cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, cresses, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, peas, potatoes, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows, watercress.

Fruit.—Apricots, bananas, cherries, currants, figs, filberts, grapes, greengages, melons, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pears, pines, plums, raspberries, strawberries.

SEPTEMBER.

Fish.—Bass, bream, brill, carp, cod, crayfish, dory, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, hake, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, shrimps, soles, trout, turbot, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal, buck venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, turkeys.

Game.—Black game, capercailzie, grouse, hares, partridges.

Vegetables.—Artichokes, beans, beetroot, cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cresses, cucumbers, endive, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms, parsnips, peas, spinach, sprouts, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, apricots, bananas, cherries (morella), cob-nuts, damsons, figs, filberts, grapes, melons, medlars, nectarines, oranges, peaches, pears, pines, plums, quinces, walnuts.

OCTOBER.

Fish.—Bream, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dory, eels, flounders, gurnet, haddocks, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, salmon (Dutch), scallops, shrimps, skate, smelts, tench, turbot, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, veal, doe venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkeys, turkey poults.

Game.—Black game, capercailzie, hares, grouse, pheasants, partridges, ptarmigan.

Vegetables.—Artichokes, beetroots, cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, cucumber, lettuce, mushrooms, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable marrows, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, apricots, bananas, cranberries, damsons, figs, filberts, grapes, medlars, melons, nectarines, peaches, pears, pines, quinces, walnuts.

NOVEMBER.

Fish.—Bream, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dory, flounders, eels, gurnet, haddocks, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, salmon (Dutch), scallops, shrimps, skate, smelts, sprats, soles, tench, turbot, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, doe venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkey-poults, turkeys.

Game.—Black game, capercailzie, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, ptarmigan.

Vegetables.—Artichokes, beetroot, Brussels sprouts, carrots, celery, cresses, cucumbers, leeks, lettuce, parsnips, spinach, tomatoes, turnips, turnip tops, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, chestnuts, cranberries, figs, filberts, grapes, melons, oranges, pears, pines, pomegranates, plums (Californian), walnuts.

DECEMBER.

Fish.—Brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, halibut, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, salmon (Dutch), scallops, shrimps, skate, smelt, sprats, soles, tench, whiting.

Meat.—Beef, lamb, mutton, pork, doe venison.

Poultry.—Capons, chickens, ducks, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkeys.

Game.—Black game, capercailzie (till 20th), grouse (till 18th), hares, partridges, pheasants, ptarmigan.

Vegetables.—Artichokes, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, leeks, parsnips, salsify, savoys, Scotch kale, seakale, spinach, tomatoes, turnip tops, watercress.

Fruit.—Apples, bananas, chestnuts, figs, filberts, grapes, medlars, melons, oranges, pears, pines, plums (Californian), pomegranates, walnuts.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Artificially dried. Reckon half as much again for the water to be added.