Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXIII

RECIPES FOR COOKING POULTRY.

CHAPTER XXIII

1145. CANNELONS OF CHICKEN. (Fr.Cannelons de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Chicken croquette mixture, No. 115. rough puff paste, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Roll out the paste as thinly as possible, and cut it into 1¼ or 1½ inch squares. Place a little chicken mixture in the centre of each square, and roll up rather tightly. Coat them carefully with eggs and breadcrumbs, fry in hot fat until lightly-browned, then drain well, and serve garnished with crisply fried parsley.

Time.—To fry, 5 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. each. Allow 2 or 3 to each person. Seasonable at any time.

1146.—CANVASSBACK, BOILED.

See "American Cookery."

1147.—CANVASBACK, ROASTED.

See "American Cookery."

1148.—CAPONS AND POULARDES, TO DRESS.

The male fowl, the capon, and the female bird, the poularde, are both, by treatment while young, made incapable of generating, with that their size is increased, and they become fatter than ordinary fowls. The flavour of the poularde is considered more delicate than that of the capon, but the latter is the larger bird. They may be boiled, braised, roasted, or otherwise dressed, according to the directions given for cooking chickens and fowls. Care, of course, must be taken that the methods, accessories, and garnishes used are equal to the birds in point of excellence.

1149.—CHICKEN À LA MARENGO. (Fr.Poulet sauté à la Marengo.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¼ of a pint of salad-oil, 1 pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces, No. 244), the pulp of 2 ripe tomatoes, ½ a glass of sherry, 1 dozen preserved mushrooms, 6 stoned olives, 1 truffle, salt and pepper, fleurons for garnish.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat pieces, and fry them in salad-oil until nicely browned, then drain well and pour away the oil. Heat up the Espagnole sauce with the tomato pulp, replace the chicken in the stewpan, add the sherry, mushrooms and olives whole, the truffle cut into large pieces, and simmer gently for three quarters of an hour, or until the chicken is tender. When done, pile in the centre of a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and garnish with the mushrooms, olives and truffle. Place a few fleurons, i.e., half-moon or crescent-shaped pieces of puff pastry, or crôutes of fried bread, round the dish.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Fowls.—The name sometimes applied to birds of large size, but more usually restricted to those of the genus Gallus, of which the domestic fowl is a familiar example. Such birds form a typical group of Rasores, or "scratchers." They are furnished with strong beaks and claws, and the heads of the males are distinguished by a comb, brightly coloured and frequently erectile, their legs are provided with spurs used in conflict, the cock being a very pugnacious bird, and resenting the presence of a rival. The plumage of the male bird is much more brilliant than that of the female, except in the case of the pure white breeds, the long feathers of the cock's tail, with their graceful curve, adding beauty to the appearance of the bird. The fowl is interesting from its susceptibility to variation under domestication. Its original habitat appears to have been Eastern Asia and the Malayan Archipelago. The Bankiva Jungle Fowl, a native of Java, is supposed to have been the original stock from which the domesticated varieties have been derived. Among the numerous breeds or varieties are the Common or Barndoor fowl, a bird of no special breed, but representing interbreeding between various varieties: the Cochin-China fowl, the Polish fowl, the Spanish fowl, the Hamburg, the Dorking, the Bantam and the Game fowl. The term chicken is applied to the young female bird, from the period it is hatched until it is four months old; after that age until they begin to lay they are called pullets, and subsequently hens.

1150.—CHICKEN, BOILED, TURKISH STYLE. (Fr.Poulet Bouilli à la Turque.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken or fowl, ½ a lb. of boiled rice, ½ a pint of tomato sauce (see Sauces No. 281), 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of cornflour, 1 finely-chopped shallot, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the chicken and cut it into neat joints. Melt the butter, fry the shallot slightly, add the tomato sauce, and when thoroughly hot put in the pieces of chicken, and simmer very gently for 25 minutes. A few minutes before serving add the cornflour previously blended with a little cold water. Arrange the chicken neatly in a border of boiled rice, strain the sauce over, and serve.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1151.—CHICKEN, BOMBS OF. (Fr.Petites Bombes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1 oz. of flour, ½ an oz. of butter, ½ a gill of water, 3 whites of eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, chopped parsley, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178).

Method.—Pass the chicken 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, or chop it finely. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, stir in the flour, add the water, boil well, then turn the panada or culinary paste on to a plate to cool. Pound the chicken in a mortar until smooth, adding the panada gradually, and each white of egg separately. Season to taste, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Have ready the bomb moulds thickly coated with clarified butter, and sprinkle their entire surface with chopped parsley. Whip the cream slightly, stir it lightly into the chicken purée, and pipe the mixture into the moulds. Place them in a stew-pan containing boiling water to about half their depth, cover with a buttered paper, put on the lid, and cook gently for 20 or 25 minutes. Arrange them in 2 rows on a hot dish, pour the hot sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes, to cook the bombs. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 10 or 12 bombs, according to size.

1152.—CHICKEN, BOMBS OF (Cold). (Fr.Petites Bombes de Volaille à la Gelée.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of cooked chicken, 2 tablespoonfuls of white sauce, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, ½ a gill of thick cream, ½ a pint of aspic jelly, 4 sheets of gelatine, dressed salad. For coating the moulds: aspic jelly, cream, small green peas, truffle, chili, or other decoration.

Method.—Coat the moulds thinly with aspic jelly, decorate them tastefully with truffle, or whatever is preferred, set with aspic jelly, then line with aspic cream, made by combining cold liquid aspic jelly and cream in equal quantities. Chop the chicken finely, pound in a mortar until smooth, adding seasoning, white sauce, and sherry by degrees. Rub through a fine wire sieve, then add the nearly cold aspic jelly (in which the gelatine must have been previously dissolved), and the cream stiffly whipped, mix all lightly but thoroughly together, and turn into the moulds. When cold serve on a bed of dressed salad, and garnish with aspic jelly, cucumber, tufts of endive, or other suitable garnish.

Average Cost.—3s. to 3s. 6d., exclusive of the chicken. Sufficient for 8 or 10 small moulds.

The Dorking derives its name from the town of that name in Surrey, where the breed exists in large numbers and in great perfection. The colour of the true Dorking is pure white; the bird is long in the body and short in the legs. A characteristic feature of the Dorking is its possession of five claws on each foot; the extra claw is not, however, sufficiently long to encumber the foot, or cause the fowl to "drag" its nest. It has been a subject of dispute from what particular breed the Dorking is derived, some contending that the Poland fowl is the progenitor of the Dorking, basing the assertion on the resemblance of the shape of the latter to the former, and the fact that the Poland cock, although sombre in hue, will occasionally beget thorough white stock from Dorking hens.

1153.—CHICKEN, BOUDINS OF. (Fr.Boudins de Volaille à la Richelieu.)

Ingredients.—For the farce, or stuffing: ½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1 oz. of flour, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a gill of stock (made from chicken bones), 1 egg, salt and pepper, nutmeg. For the salpicon, or mince of game or poultry: 1 sweetbread, or a few lambs' throat breads, 1 slice of tongue, 6 preserved mushrooms, 1 large truffle, 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of white sauce, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan, stir in the flour, add the stock, boil well, then turn the panada, or culinary paste, on a plate to cool. Chop the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, pound it in the mortar until smooth, adding the panada and egg gradually, then season to taste, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Blanch and cook the sweetbread in stock, cut it and the tongue, mushrooms and truffle into small dice, moisten with the white sauce, and season well. Have ready 8 or 10 boudin or quenelle moulds well coated with clarified butter, line them evenly and rather thickly with the chicken farce, fill with the salpicon, cover with farce, and smooth the surface with a hot, wet knife. Place them in a sauté-pan, surround them to half their depth with boiling water, cover with a buttered paper, and cook in a moderate oven from 25 to 30 minutes. Unmould, and, when cool, coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry until golden-brown in hot fat. Drain well, arrange neatly on a folded serviette or dish-paper, and serve with hot ravigote or other suitable sauce.

Time.—To cook, from 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient for 8 or 10 boudins.

1154.—CHICKEN, CASSEROLE OF. (Fr.Poulet en Casserole.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, 4 to 6 oz. of streaky bacon, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 shallot, finely-chopped, 2 tablespoonfuls of coarsely-chopped mushrooms, preferably fresh ones, stock, 1 oz. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat joints. Heat 1 oz. of butter in a casserole just large enough to hold the chicken, and fry in it the bacon cut into strips. Then put in the chicken, add the shallot and mushrooms, cover, and cook slowly. Turn the pieces over, and when both sides are nicely browned, add stock to barely cover, and season to taste. Knead the flour and the remaining oz. of butter together, and add the mixture in small pieces, about 15 minutes before serving. The chicken should be served in the casserole, but it may, if preferred, be turned on to a hot dish.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

POULTRY.

 
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1. Chaudfroid of Capon. 2. Chicken Quenelles and Peas. 3. Fricassée of Chicken.

ENTRÉES.

 
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1. Mould of Chicken. 2. Quenelles of Quail (Cold). 3. Braized Fillets of Duckling in Paste Border.

1155.—CHICKEN CREAM. (Fr.Crème de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, free from bone and skin, ⅛ of a pint of thick Béchamel sauce (see Sauces No. 178), ⅛ of a pint of double cream, 1 egg, salt and pepper, truffles.

Method.—Chop the chicken meat finely, pound it in a mortar until smooth, adding the egg and white sauce gradually, and pass the ingredients through a wire sieve. Whip the cream stiffly, stir it lightly in, and season to taste. Turn the mixture into 1 large or 6 or 7 very small buttered moulds and steam gently until firm. Dish up and sauce over. Server garnished with truffles, and send a boat of Béchamel or other suitable sauce to table separately.

Time.—To steam in 1 mould, about 30 minutes; in small moulds, about 25 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. to 3s. 6d. Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Pencilled Hamburg.—This variety of the Hamburg fowl is of two colours, golden and silver and is very minutely marked. The hens of both these varieties have the body pencilled across with several bars of black—hence the name—and the hackle in both sexes of good breed is perfectly free from dark marks. The cocks do not exhibit the pencillings, but are white and brown respectively in the golden or silver birds. The Pencilled Hamburgs are compact in form, and sprightly and graceful in their attitudes. The hens lay abundantly, but are not sitters. They are imported in large numbers from Holland, and are also bred in England, the latter being much superior in size. These birds are known in various parts of the country as "Chitteprats," "Creoles" or "Corals," "Bolton bays and greys," and in some parts of Yorkshire are called "Corsican fowls."

1156.—CHICKEN, CREPINETTES OF. (Fr.Crepinettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of cooked chicken, 2 oz. cooked ham, 4 button mushrooms, 1 truffle, 1 yolk of egg, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of thick white sauce, salt and pepper, pig's caul, ¼ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Cut the chicken, ham, mushrooms, and truffle into shreds about 1 inch in length, add the yolk of egg to the hot sauce, season to taste, put in the shredded ingredients, stir by the side of the fire for a few minutes, then put aside until cold (this is called the Salpicon). Wash the caul in salt and water, dry it, and cut it into 4-inch squares. Enfold a desertspoonful of the mixture in each piece of caul, form into a round shape, and either bake them in the oven for 6 minutes, and brush them over warm glaze, or coat them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Serve on a bed of spinach or purée of green peas, and pour the sauce round.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. Sufficient for about 4 or 5 persons.

The Bantam.—This small variety of the game fowl is noted for its elegant appearance, animation, plumage and spirited courage, which, despite its diminutive size, it displays to a remarkable degree, especially when defending its progeny. Like the game bird, its original habitat is the East, and it is supposed to have derived its name from Bantam, in Java. The black and nankeen varieties are considered to be the best.

1157.—CHICKEN, CROQUETTES OF. (Fr.Croquettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—6 to 8 ozs. of cold chicken or fowl (boned), 2 ozs. of cooked ham or tongue, ¼ of a pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of cream, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 6 button mushrooms, 1 truffle, salt and pepper, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Chop the chicken and ham or tongue finely, cut the mushrooms and truffle into small pieces. Melt the butter, fry the flour without browning, add the stock, and cook well. Stir in the chicken, ham or tongue, cream, lemon-juice, mushrooms and truffle, season with salt and pepper, and turn on to a plate to cool. Make into cork-shaped croquettes, coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry until lightly browned in hot fat.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for about 6 persons.

1158.—CHICKEN KROMESKIS. (Fr.Cromes Quis de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Make a salpicon as directed in the preceding recipe, as many small very thin slices of bacon as there are cork-shaped pieces of the mixture. For the batter: 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of salad-oil or oiled butter, 1 egg, salt, frying-fat.

Method.—Mix the above ingredients into a smooth batter, and add to it 1 saltspoonful of salt.

Wrap each piece of the chicken mixture in a slice of bacon, dip into a light batter prepared from the above named ingredients, and fry in a deep pan of hot fat. Drain, and serve garnished with parsley.

Time.—1 hour. Probable Cost, 1s. 9d., to 2s. Sufficient for about 6 persons.

1159.—CHICKEN, CUTLETS OF. (Fr.Côtelettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of cold chicken, ¼ of a pint of white sauce, 1 oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, ½ a shallot finely-chopped, salt and pepper, nutmeg, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Chop the chicken finely. Fry the shallot and flour in the butter without browning, add the stock, and boil well. Put in the chicken, add nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, stir over the fire until thoroughly hot, then add the yolks of eggs, and cook the ingredients for 2 or 3 minutes longer. Cool the mixture; when firm, shape into cutlets, egg and crumb them, and fry in deep fat. Drain well, arrange them in a close circle on a dish paper, garnish with fried parsley, and serve hot, 2 or 3 oz. of lean ham, finely chopped, may be added to the chicken if liked.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. Sufficient for about 7 persons.

1160.—CHICKEN, ESCALOPES OF. (Fr.Escalopes de Poulet.)

Ingredients.—The legs of a large uncooked chicken, ½ a lb. of lean veal, ¼ of a lb. of bacon (a corresponding amount of sausage-meat may be substituted for the veal and bacon), 6 mushrooms, 1 truffle, 2 yolks of eggs, 1 pint of stock, 3 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, a few drops of lemon-juice, 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a small turnip, 1 strip of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper, spinach purée.

Method.—When veal and bacon are used, chop and pound them smoothly, then rub through a fine sieve. Add to this purée of meat the mushrooms and truffle cut into dice, season well with salt and pepper, and bind with 2 yolks of eggs. Bone the legs with the prepared farce or stuffing, shaping them as much like a roll as possible. Put 1½ ozs. of butter and the sliced vegetables into a stew-pan, lay the chicken legs on the top, cover, and fry gently for 20 minutes. Add stock to ¾ the depth of the vegetables, place a buttered paper over the chicken legs, put on the lid, and cook gently for 1 hour. Meanwhile, melt the remaining butter, stir in the flour, and cook over the fire until a brown roux, or thickening, is formed. When the chicken legs are sufficiently cooked, remove them and keep them hot; strain the stock on to the brown roux, stir until boiling, simmer for 20 minutes, then add the sherry and lemon-juice, season to taste, and keep hot until required. Cut the chicken legs into ½-inch slices, arrange them slightly overlapping each other on the bed of spinach, strain the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1161.—CHICKEN FOR INVALIDS.

See "Chicken, Ramakins of," No. 1186. "Chicken, Small Soufflé of," No. 1193. "Chicken, Soufflé of," No. 1194. "Chicken Panada," No. 1178; also Chapter on "Invalid Cookery."

The Feather-legged Bantam.—Since the Bantam was introduced into Europe it has differentiated into several varieties, all more or less elegant, and some remarkable for their beauty. The Bantam should be of small size, but vigorous and brisk, exhibiting in its movements stateliness and grace. The most popular variety is remarkable for the tarsi or beams of the legs, which are plumed to the toes with stiff long feathers, brushing the ground. This variety is rare in its pure state. Another variety is red with a black breast and single dentated comb, with smooth tarsi and of a dusky colour. When this variety is pure it is a game fowl in miniature, both as regards courage and spirit, and is as handsome as it is spirited. There is also a pure white breed, which possesses the same characteristics.

1162.—CHICKEN FORCEMEAT. (Fr.Farce de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, free from bone, 1oz. of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1 egg, ½ a gill of chicken stock, salt and pepper, nutmeg.

Method.—Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock, boil well and let the panada or culinary paste cool slightly. Cut up and pound the chicken meat in the mortar until smooth, adding the egg, and the panada by degrees. Season to taste, rub through a fine wire or hair sieve, and use for quenelles, cutlets, boudins, bombes, timbales, etc. Before moulding or shaping the farce, its constituency should be tested, and if found too firm a little cream may be added.

1163.—CHICKEN FRIED IN BATTER. (Fr.Fricandelles de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Chicken mixture as for croquettes of chicken, No. 1157, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat. For the batter: 4 ozs. of flour, ½ a pint of milk, 1 egg, 1 saltspoonful of salt.

Method.—Make the chicken mixture as directed. Mix the flour, milk, egg and salt into a smooth batter, and prepare some very thin pancakes. As each one is fried, spread the meat preparation over one side and roll up tightly. When cold, cut across into 2 or 3 pieces, about 1½ inches in length, coat with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain well, and serve garnished with fried parsley.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, from 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

1164.—CHICKEN, FRICASSÉED. (Fr.Fricassée de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 boiled chicken, 1 pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces), ½ a gill of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of 1 lemon, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the chicken before it is quite cold into neat joints. Make the sauce as directed, put in the pieces of chicken, let them remain until thoroughly hot. Add the yolks and cream previously blended, and stir by the side of the fire until the sauce thickens, without boiling. Season to taste, add the lemon-juice, arrange neatly on a hot dish, and strain the sauce over. The dish may be garnished with truffle or cooked green peas, and the fricassée served in a border of mashed potato if desired.

Time.—About ¾ of an hour, after the chicken is boiled. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1165.—CHICKEN, FRITOT OF. (Fr.Fritot de Poulet).

Ingredients.—Cold chicken, either roast or boiled. For the marinade or liquor: 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ¼ of a teaspoonful of salt, ⅛ of a teaspoonful of pepper. For the batter: 4 ozs. of flour, ¼ of a pint of tepid water, 1 tablespoonful of salad-oil, the whites of 2 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, frying-fat.

Method.—Cut the chicken into small joints, remove the skin, trim the pieces neatly, place them in a deep dish, pour over the marinade, and let them remain in it for 1½ hours, turning them frequently. Mix the flour, salt, water, and salad-oil into a smooth batter, let it stand for 1 hour, then stir in lightly the stiffly-whisked whites of eggs. Drain the pieces of chicken well, dip them into the batter, and fry until nicely browned in hot fat. Drain from the fat, arrange neatly on a dish-paper, garnish with crisply-fried parsley, and serve. Tartare or tomato sauce should be served separately in a sauceboat.

Time.—Altogether, 2 hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d., when a large chicken is used. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Sir John Sebright's Bantams.—This celebrated breed, which Sir John Sebright, after many years of careful experiment, brought to perfection, is considered to be the best and most beautiful of Bantam fowls. The bird is very small, with unfeathered legs, and a rose-comb and short hackles. Its plumage is gold or spangled, each feather being of a golden-orange or a silver-white colour, with a glossy jet-black margin. The tail of the male is folded like that of the hen, with the sickle feathers shortened nearly or quite straight, and broader than in other varieties of the Bantam. It possesses high courage and has a singularly proud, erect and gallant carriage, throwing back the head until it nearly touches the two upper feathers of the tail. Half-bred birds of this kind are not uncommon, but the pure breed is highly valued.

1166.—CHICKEN GRILLED WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr.Poulet Grillé aux Champignons.)

Ingredients.1 chicken, ½ lb. lean raw ham, ½ a pint of Espagonle sauce (see Sauces, No. 244), 2 dozen button mushrooms, salad-oil or oiled butter, a croûton of fried bread.

Method.—Divide the chicken into pieces convenient for serving. Make the sauce as directed, add to it the mushrooms, season to taste, and keep hot until required. Cut the croûton to fit the dish, and fry it until lightly browned in hot fat. Cut the ham into short pieces and fry it. Brush the pieces of chicken over with salad-oil or oiled butter, and grill them over or in front of a clear fire. Arrange neatly on the croûton, strain the sauce round, and garnish with groups of mushrooms and ham.

Time.—To grill the chicken, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 5s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

1167.—CHICKEN GUMBO. (See. American Cookery.)

1168.—CHICKEN ITALIAN. (Fr.Poulet a l'Italienne.)

See "Chicken with Italian Sauce," No. 1204.

1169.—CHICKEN JELLY. (Fr.Gelée de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken or fowl, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the chicken into small pieces and put them into a stewing-jar with about 1 pint of water and a little salt and pepper, and cook it in a moderately cool oven for 2 hours. Cut the flesh off the breast, wings and legs in thin slices, replace the bones and trimmings in the stew-jar, and cook as rapidly as possible on the stove for ½ an hour. Meanwhile arrange the slices of chicken in a mould or piedish, leaving a space at the sides, and as much space as possible between the layers, to be afterwards filled with stock. When the stock is ready, strain it, season to taste, let it cool slightly, and pour it over the chicken. Turn out when cold, and serve as a breakfast or luncheon dish.

Time.—To cook, about 2½ hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. Sufficient for 1 mould of medium size. Seasonable at any time.

The Poland.—This bird, a native of Holland, is a great favourite with fowl-keepers, from the great number of eggs which the birds of this variety produce, a circumstance which has caused Polands in many parts to be known as the "everlasting layers." From observation of the number of eggs produced by this prolific fowl, it was found that in one year five hens laid no less than 503 eggs, the average weight of each egg was 1 oz. and 5 drachms, the total weight of the whole, exclusive of the shells, amounting to 50¼ lb. The common black breed is plain in appearance, and has a bushy crown of white feathers; other varieties, as the "silver-spangled" and the "gold-spangled," are handsome birds. The Poland is easily fattened, and its flesh is considered to be more juicy and of a richer flavour than many other fowls.

1170.—CHICKEN KLOPPS.

See "Indian Cookery."

1171.—CHICKEN LEGS AS CUTLETS. (Fr.Cuisses de Volaille en Côtelettes.)

Ingredients.—Chickens' legs, slices of bacon, stock, Espagnole sauce (see "Sauces," No. 244), 2 onions sliced, 2 carrots sliced, 1 small turnip sliced, 8 peppercorns, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the thigh bones, but leave the drumstick, season the legs with salt and pepper, and fold the skin under. Shape as much like a cutlet as possible, enfold each leg in a piece of muslin, and fasten securely. Put the vegetables, bouquet-garni and peppercorns into a stewpan, nearly cover them with stock, and lay the legs on the top. Cover each one with a slice of bacon, place a greased paper over the whole, put on a close-fitting lid, and cook gently for about 1 hour. Remove the muslin and serve with the sauce poured over, or they may be glazed and have the sauce poured round. If preferred, the legs may be enclosed in a pig's caul, instead of muslin, in which case they should be browned in a hot oven, and glazed before serving.

Time.—To braise, from 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, accessories to 4 chicken legs, about 1s. Allow 1 leg to each person. Seasonable at any time.

1172.—CHICKEN LEGS, STUFFED. (Fr.Cuisses de Volaille Farcies.)

Ingredients.—The legs of a cold fowl, 1 tablespoonful of sweet oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped sweet herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped lemon rind, 2 slices of onion (blanched and chopped), 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 egg, 4 slices of streaky bacon, 2 slices of toasted buttered bread, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut each leg into 2 joints, and saw off the drumsticks, place them on a plate, season with pepper and salt, and moisten with a little sweet oil. Put the breadcrumbs, lemon rind, sweet herbs, onion and parsley in a basin, mix well, moisten with the yolk of an egg and season with a pinch of salt and a tiny pinch of cayenne. Drain the chicken's legs, cover each with the farce or stuffing above prepared, then wrap up in a slice of bacon, tie with twine, or skewer them securely. Place them on a greased baking-tin or sauté-pan, and cook in the oven for about 20 minutes. Cut each slice of toasted bread in two, trim neatly, dress the chicken's legs on these, dish up, garnish with a few sprigs of curly parsley, and serve hot.

Time.—To cook, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 1s. 9d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons.

The Serai Ta-ook or Fowls of the Sultan.—This fowl, which was first introduced into England in 1854 from Constantinople, takes its name from the Turkish sarai, "sultan's palace," and ta-ook, "fowl." They are lively brisk birds, excellent layers, but not good sitters, and their eggs are large and white in colour. In size they resemble the English Poland bird, and have a white and flowing plumage, a full-sized compact Poland tuft on the head, are muffled, have a full-flowing tail, short well-feathered legs, and 5 toes on each foot. Their comb is peculiar, consisting only of two little points, and their wattles are small. The colour of the bird is pure white.

1173.—CHICKEN LIVER PATTIES. (Fr.Pâtés de Foie de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Chicken livers, butter, brown sauce (see "Sauces," No. 233), rough puff paste, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the gall and wash and dry the livers, cut them into rather small pieces, and toss them in hot butter over the fire for about 5 minutes. Have ready some patty-pans lined with thinly rolled out paste, fill them with liver, season highly with salt and pepper, and add a little brown sauce. Cover with paste, brush over with beaten egg, and bake in a moderately-hot oven for about 20 minutes, and serve either hot or cold.

Time.—To bake, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. each. Allow 1 to each person. Seasonable at any time.

1174.—CHICKEN LIVERS ON TOAST.

See Chapter on "Savouries."

1175.—CHICKEN, MAYONNAISE OF. (Fr.Mayonnaise de Volaille.)

'Ingredients.—1 cold boiled chicken or fowl, ¾ of a pint of Mayonnaise sauce (see Sauces, No. 201), ¼ of a pint of aspic jelly, dressed salad.

Method.—Cut up the chicken into small joints, remove all the skin and ends of bones, and shape the pieces as neatly as possible. Dissolve the aspic jelly; when cool enough, add it to the Mayonnaise sauce and mask the chicken. To facilitate the masking process place the pieces of chicken on a wire tray and pour over the sauce carefully by means of a tablespoon. When the sauce is set, decorate tastefully with truffle and chervil, and mask with a thin layer of liquid Aspic. Arrange neatly on a dish on a bed of dressed salad, and garnish the side of the dish with sprigs of endive, slices of cucumber and blocks of aspic jelly.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 5s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1176.—CHICKEN, MINCE OF, BREADED. (Fr.Poulet au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of coarsely-chopped cooked chicken, free from bone, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped cooked ham, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce, (see Sauces, No. 178) breadcrumbs, butter, nutmeg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Mix the chicken and ham together, stir in the sauce, which should thoroughly moisten the whole, otherwise more sauce must be added. Season to taste, add a pinch of nutmeg, and turn the mixture into 6 or 8 well-buttered scallop shells. Cover lightly with breadcrumbs, add 2 or 3 small pieces of butter, bake in a moderately-hot oven until nicely browned, then serve.

Time.—To bake, from 6 to 8 minutes. Average Cost, 8d., exclusive of the chicken. Seasonable at any time.

Various Modes of Fattening Fowls.—It is considered by some fowl-keepers that the flesh of a healthy well-fed fowl, which has lived a free, out-of-door life, is both in flavour and wholesomeness preferable to a bird kept in confinement and compulsorily fed. If, however, special fattening is resorted to, the birds should be confined in a clean warm pen or run, and fed three or four times a day on as much soft food as they will eat, care being taken to feed them very early in the morning and as late as possible at night. When specially fattened for the market the fowls are kept in the dark, which encourages them to rest—an essential to the laying on of flesh. The foods chiefly used for fattening are ground oats, whole wheat-meal, maize-meal and buckwheat-meal; the last should always be included among the food; fatty substances, as suet, are added by some to increase the fatness of the fowl. The true object, however, should be to develop abundance of good, wholesome flesh. Milk, either new or skimmed, is a valuable addition to the food, with which it should be mixed hot. Three weeks is the usual period for fattening a fowl.

1177.—CHICKEN, MINCED. (Fr.Poulet Émincé.)

Ingredients.—Cold chicken; to each ½ lb. allow 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ½ a pint of stock, salt and pepper, poached eggs.

Method.—Chop the chicken finely, boil the bones and trimmings for at least 1½ hours, and use the stock for the sauce. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock and boil gently for 20 minutes. Season to taste, add the minced chicken, draw the stewpan aside, then let it remain until the contents are thoroughly hot, and serve garnished with neatly poached and trimmed eggs.

Time.—Allow ¾ of an hour, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 1s. 3d., exclusive of the chicken. Allow 1 lb. of chicken and 6 eggs for 4 or 5 persons.

1178.—CHICKEN PANADA. (Fr.Panade de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—4 to 5 ozs. of raw chicken, ½ a gill of cream, pepper and salt.

Method.—Pass the chicken freed from skin and bone 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, then place it in a buttered jar, cover closely, stand the jar in a saucepan containing a little boiling water, and simmer constantly for nearly 1 hour. Pound the chicken in a mortar, adding the liquid in the jar, season to taste, and pass the mixture through a wire sieve. Whip the cream slightly, stir in the chicken preparation, and serve on toast or in ramakin cases. If preferred, the panada may be heated in a saucepan, and served on hot buttered toast.

Time.—To cook the chicken, about 1 hour. Average Cost, about 1s. 8d. Sufficient for 2 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Eggs for Hatching.—Eggs intended for the hatching should be removed as soon as laid, and placed in a dry cool place. Choose those that are nearly of the same size, for as a rule, eggs equally thick at both ends contain a double yolk, and are worthless. Eggs intended for hatching should not be stored longer than a month; it is preferable to keep them a less time. In winter nine to eleven eggs are sufficient to place under a hen; in warmer weather this number may be increased to thirteen, and if it be very hot to fifteen. The egg should be carefully tested by candle light when they have been sat upon for a few days; the seventh or eighth evening will be sufficiently early. All clear eggs should be removed; they will serve excellently for puddings, etc. The fertile eggs should be opaque or clouded, and must be carefully replaced under the hen without shaking. If during incubation an egg should be broken, it must be removed, and the remainder taken out and cleansed in tepid water, otherwise the contents of the broken egg will cause the others to cling to the hen's fathers, and they too may become fractured. Many eggs are now hatched by artificial incubators, at a steady temperature of 101° to 104°. It is important that eggs hatched in this manner should be fresh.

1179.—CHICKEN PATTIES. (Fr.Bouchées à la Reine.)

Ingredients.—4 to 6 ozs. of cold boiled chicken, 2 ozs. of cooked ham, 6 button mushrooms, 1 truffle, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper, ¼ of a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178), puff paste.

Method.—Chop the chicken and ham not too finely, cut the mushrooms and truffle into small dice, and mix all together. Stamp out 9 or 10 patty cases from the puff paste and mark the centres with a smaller cutter to form the lids (see Oyster Patties.) Bake in a quick oven, then scoop out the soft inside, take care of the lids, and keep the cases hot until required. Have the Béchamel sauce ready in a stewpan, add to it the chicken preparation, season with salt and pepper, put in the lemon-juice, and stir the mixture over the fire until thoroughly hot. Fill the cases, put on the lids, and serve, garnished with tufts of fresh or fried parsley.

Time.—To bake the pastry, from 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 8 or 9 patties.

Hatching.—Sometimes the chick within the shell is unable to break away from its prison; for the white of the egg will occasionally harden in the air to the consistence of joiners' glue, when the poor chick is in a terrible fix. All able writer says: "Assistance in hatching must not be rendered prematurely, and thence unnecessarily, but only in the case of the chick being plainly unable to release itself; then, indeed, an addition may probably be made to the brood, as great numbers are always lost in this way. The chick makes a circular fracture at the big end of the egg, and a section of about one-third of the length of the shell being separated, delivers the prisoner, provided there is no obstruction from adhesion of the body to the membrane which lines the shell. Between the body of the chick and the membrane of the shell there exists a viscous fluid, the white of the egg thickened with the intense heat of incubation, until it becomes a positive glue. When this happens the feathers stick fast to the shell, and the chicks remain confined, and must perish if not released."

The method of assistance to be rendered to chicks which have a difficulty in releasing themselves from the shells is to take the egg in the hand, and dipping the finger or a piece of linen rag in warm water, to apply it to the fastened parts until they are loosened by the gluey substance becoming dissolved and separated from the feathers. The chick, then, being returned to the nest, will extricate itself—a mode generally to be observed—since, if violence were used, it would prove fatal. Nevertheless, breaking the shell may sometimes be necessary; and separating with the fingers, as gently as may be, the membrane from the feathers, which are still to be moistened as mentioned above, to facilitate the operation. The points of small scissors may be useful, and when there is much resistance, as also apparent pain to the bird, the process must be conducted in the gentlest manner, and the shell separated into a number of small pieces. The signs of a need of assistance are the egg being partly pecked and chipped, and the chick discontinuing its efforts for five or six hours. Weakness from cold may disable the chicken from commencing the operation of pecking the shell, which must then be artificially performed with a circular fracture, similar to that made by the bird itself

1180.—CHICKEN PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Volaille à l'Anglaise.)

Ingredients.—1 large or 2 small chickens, ½ a lb. of ham or bacon, 2 hard-boiled eggs, veal forcemeat balls, No. 412, ¾ of a pint of chicken stock, 1 yolk of egg, salt and pepper, puff paste,

Method.—Divide the chickens into neat joints, cut off the legs and wings at the first joint, and boil these with the backbones, necks and gizzards for about 2 hours, then strain and use for stock. Parboil the livers, chop them very finely, and mix them with the forcemeat. Cut the ham into strips, and the eggs into sections or slices. Place the pieces of chicken and the prepared ingredients in a pie-dish in layers, season carefully with salt and pepper, ¾ fill the dish with stock. Roll out the paste, cover the piedish with it, ornament, and brush over with yolk of egg. Bake from 1¼ to 1½ hours, in a quick oven, until the paste has risen and set, and then more slowly. Before serving, add the remainder of the hot stock to the pie. If preferred, the bones may be removed and the pieces of chicken stuffed with sausage-meat, or the veal forcemeat may be used for this purpose instead of being made into balls. See also the forcemeat used in making "Lark Pie."

Time.—To bake the pie, from 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, if with 2 chickens, about 8s. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

1181.—CHICKEN PILLAFF. (Fr.Pillau de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken or fowl, 3 pints of stock (or 3 pints of water and 2 lb. of scrag end of neck of mutton), 6 ozs. of Patna rice, 4 ozs. of butter, 2 Spanish onions, 2 small onions, 1 tablespoonful of curry paste, 1 carrot, 1 blade of mace, 6 black peppercorns, salt, pepper.

Method.—Divide the chicken into pieces convenient for serving, remove the skin and the feet and wings at the first joint. Put the backbone, neck, giblets, bones and trimmings into a stewpan with the stock (or the water and mutton cut into small pieces), add the outside layer of each Spanish onion, the carrot, mace and peppercorns, and boil gently for 2 or 3 hours, then strain. Heat 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan, cut the Spanish onions into dice, fry them until lightly browned, add the rice (previously well washed and drained), 1½ pints of stock, season with salt and pepper, and cook the ingredients gently by the side of the fire. Melt the remaining 2 ozs. of butter, fry the pieces of chicken slowly until nicely browned, keep them hot until the rice has absorbed the greater part of the stock, then put them with the curry-paste into the stewpan and mix well with the rice. Continue the cooking until the rice and chicken are perfectly tender, adding more stock if necessary. A few minutes before serving re-heat the butter in which the chicken was fried, cut the 2 small onions into thin slices, and fry them brown. Pile the pillau in the centre of a hot dish, scatter on the rings of fried onion, and serve.

Time.—About 1 hour, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Young Chicks.—The young chicks which are first hatched should be taken from underneath the hen, otherwise she may think her task accomplished, and leave the remaining eggs to spoil. As soon as the young birds are taken from the mother they should be placed in a basket lined with, soft wool, flannel or hay, and placed in the sun if it be summer, or near to the fire if it be winter. A common, but unnecessary practice, is to cram the young chicks with food as soon as they are born, but if kept warm they will receive no harm if they are not supplied with food for twenty-four hours after their birth. If the whole of the brood is not hatched by that time, those that are born may be fed with bread soaked in milk and the yolk of a hard-boiled egg with Emden grits, or food of a similar nature.

1182.—CHICKEN, POTTED. (Fr.Terrine de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast chicken; to every lb. allow 3 ozs. of cooked ham, 4 ozs. of butter, nutmeg, salt and pepper, clarified butter.

Method.—Pass the chicken and ham 2 and 3 times through the mincing machine, or chop them finely; then pound in a mortar until smooth, adding seasoning to taste and the butter gradually. Rub through a fine wire sieve, press into small pots, and cover the contents with clarified butter.

Average Cost.—1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d.

1183.—CHICKEN PURÉE FOR GARNISH.

See "Chicken Forcemeat," No. 1162.

1184.—CHICKEN, PURÉE OF, WITH RICE. (Fr.Purée de Poulet au Riz.)

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of finely-chopped cooked chicken, 2 ozs. of finely-chopped cooked ham, 4 ozs. of rice, white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper, chopped truffle.

Method.—Blanch the rice, drain well, cover with white stock, and cook gently until tender and dry. Pound the chicken and ham until smooth, moistening gradually with a little stock, and pass these ingredients through a wire sieve. Stir in the cream, season to taste, make thoroughly hot, stirring meanwhile, and add stock, a little at a time, until the preparation is reduced to the consistency of thick cream. Turn into 5 or 6 well-buttered scallop shells, arrange the rice to form a narrow border, sprinkle the surface with truffle, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, about 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Feeding and Cooping the Chicks.—When all the chicks are hatched they should be placed with the mother hen under a coop, in a warm dry place. If two hens happen to have broods at the same time, care must be taken to keep their broods separate, for should they become mixed and go under the same coop, the hens will probably maim and destroy the chicks which do not belong to them. After being kept snug beneath the coop for a week—the coop being placed under cover at nightfall—the chicks may be allowed to run about for an hour or so during the warmest part of the day. They should be gradually weaned from the soaked bread and chopped egg, and grits or boiled barley substituted. In eight or ten days their stomachs will be sufficiently strong to receive bruised barley, and, if healthy, at the end of three weeks, the chicks will be able to take care of themselves. It is well, however, to watch over them for a week or so longer, to prevent older chickens driving them away from their food. Great care should be taken that the very young chicks do not run about the wet ground or on damp grass, which causes the chief and most fatal disease to which the young birds are liable. While under the coop with the hen a shallow pan of water should be supplied to the chicks, as they are apt to drench themselves and take cold, or get drowned in a deep vessel.

Detached nesting-boxes containing finely-sifted moist sand or cinder ashes, good straw, and a little hay on top, should be placed against the walls of the house, which is preferable to fixed rows of nests, since they can readily be moved, limewashed and cleansed. In front of the house a wired-in run should be provided, not less than six feet in height, and as long in extent as possible. The floor of the run should be covered with sifted ashes or good gravel, the latter being very helpful to the birds in assisting the process of digestion.

1185.—CHICKEN, QUENELLES OF. (Fr.Quenelles de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—8 ozs. of raw chicken, 2 ozs. of flour, ½ an oz. of butter, ¼ of a pint of stock or water, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper.

Method.—Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock, let boil whilst stirring. This will produce the panada; which put aside to cool. Shred or mince the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, pound well in the mortar, adding the panada by degrees and each egg separately, season well, and rub through a fine wire or hair sieve. Whip the cream slightly, and stir it lightly into the chicken purée. Poach a little of the preparation and, if too stiff, add a little more stock or cream. See "Quenelles of Veal" for directions for shaping, cooking and serving.

1186.—CHICKEN, RAMAKINS OF. (Fr.Soufflés de Volaille en Caisses.)

Ingredients.—6 ozs. of raw chicken, ¼ of a pint of cream, 4 yolks of eggs, 2 whites of eggs, ½ an oz. of butter, 2 mushrooms, 1 truffle, salt and pepper.

Method.—Shred the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, then pound it well in the mortar, adding by degrees the yolks of 4 eggs, season well, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Whip the cream slightly, and whisk the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and then add with the mushrooms and truffle cut into small dice, to the chicken purée. Mix lightly together, and put the mixture into 8 well-buttered china or paper ramakin cases. The cases should not be more than three parts filled, as the mixture rises considerably in baking. Place the cases on a baking-sheet and cook them in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes. Serve in the cases, and, if liked, send hot Béchamel or other suitable sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To bake, from 18 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 8 cases.

The Fowl House.—In constructing a fowl house, care should be taken to build it against a wall or fence facing the south, or in one corner, so that the garden or fence forms two of the sides. The corner should if possible face south or south-east, thus sheltering the fowls from cold-winds, and driving rains or sleet. The side and end of the fowl house should be built of sound weather boarding, and the roof of the same material with a good fall, so that the rain may run off quickly. The door with a slide should be placed in the corner of the house furthest away from the corner leading into the fowl run. The floor of the house should slope half an inch to the foot from back to front, to ensure good drainage. If practicable, it should be made of concrete, to keep away rats or other vermin. Failing this material a good floor may be formed of chalk and dry soil, mixed together and well rammed down. Upon this some three inches of dry ashes should be sifted, and kept regularly raked. The perches should be of good size and rounded, arranged like steps, not placed one above the other—the ends falling into sockets, so that they may be easily taken out and cleaned. Convenient slips of wood should be driven into the wall, to render access to the perches as easy as possible. Ventilation, which is essential to the health of fowls, should be at the top of the house, and the amount of air admitted regulated by a sliding door; light is also important for the birds; one or two small panes of glass should therefore be let into the house front on the sunny side.

1187.—CHICKEN, RECHAUFFÉ OF.

See "Fowl, Hashed," Recipe No. 1224.

1188.—CHICKEN, RISSOLES OR RISSOLETTES OF. (Fr.Rissolettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—About 4 ozs. of cooked chicken, 2 ozs. of cooked ham or tongue, 4 button mushrooms, 1 small truffle, ½ an oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, ¼ of a pint of white stock, 1 tablespoonful of cream, salt and pepper, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, rough puff paste.

Method.—Chop the chicken and ham finely, cut the mushrooms and truffle into small dice. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the stock, stir and boil well. Put in the chicken and ham, season to taste, mix the ingredients well over the fire, then add the mushrooms, truffle and cream, and put aside to cool. Roll out the paste as thinly as possible—stamp it out into rounds of about 2 inches diameter, pile a teaspoonful of the preparation in the centre, wet the edges with water, place another round of paste on the top, and press the edges together neatly. Brush over with egg and cover with breadcrumbs, and fry until lightly browned in hot fat. If preferred, half the quantity of the meat mixture may be enclosed in 1 round of paste, one half of which must be folded over to form them into half-moon shapes; variety may be introduced by substituting crushed vermicelli for the breadcrumbs.

Time.—Altogether, 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 8 to 12 rissoles, according to the size made.

1189.—CHICKEN, ROASTED. (Fr.Poulet Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 good chicken, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, ½ a pint of stock, fat for basting, salt and pepper, bread sauce (see Sauces, No. 180), a few drops of liquid caramel, watercress.

Method.—Truss the chicken for roasting, prick the entire surface of the breast with the point of a metal skewer or trussing needle, skewer over it the slices of bacon, baste well with hot fat, and roast before a clear fire or in a moderate oven for about 1 hour. Baste frequently, and a few minutes before serving remove the bacon for the breast to brown. Meanwhile simmer the neck (and the liver and gizzard when not trussed in the wings) in the stock. When the chicken is sufficiently cooked remove it to a dish, drain off every particle of fat, taking care not to disturb the sediment, pour in the stock, boil for 2 or 3 minutes, season and colour to taste, and strain into a sauceboat. Have ready the watercress well washed, drained, and season lightly with salt and pepper, and use as garnish. Serve both gravy and bread sauce separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient from 4 to 6 persons.

Note.—The pricking of the breast is not essential, but some cooks prefer this way.

1190.—CHICKEN, ROASTED, FRENCH STYLE. (Fr.Poulet Rôti à la Française.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, 1 oz. of butter, 1½ gills of stock. For the mirepoix, or foundation: 1 small onion, 1 carrot, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, salt and pepper, bread sauce (see Sauces No. 180), watercress for garnish.

Method.—Draw the chicken, wash the liver and heart, and put them aside; cut off the legs just below the first joint, truss for roasting, and spread the butter thickly over the breast. Slice the vegetables, put them into a baking-tin with the bacon, and the liver and heart of the chicken, fry these a little, then place the chicken on the top of the mirepoix, season well with salt and pepper, and cook in a quick oven for about 40 minutes. Baste frequently, and, if necessary, cover the breast with buttered paper to prevent it becoming too brown. When the chicken is done, remove the trussing string and skewers and keep hot. Drain the fat from the baking-tin, add the stock, boil for 2 or 3 minutes, season it to taste, and strain. Garnish the chicken with tufts of crisp watercress, and serve the gravy and bread sauce separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Characteristics of Health and Power.—The chief characteristics of health in a fowl are brightness and dryness of eye and nostrils, the comb and wattles firm and ruddy, and the feathers elastic and glossy. The most useful cock is generally the greatest tyrant, who struts among his hens despotically, with his head erect, and with ever watchful eyes. A cock to be handsome should be of medium size, his bill short, his comb bright red, his wattles large, his breast broad, and his wings strong. His head should be small, his legs short and sturdy, and his spurs well-formed; his feathers should be short and close, and the more frequently and heartily he crows, the better father he is likely to become. Medium-sized hens are, as the rule, the best for breeding purposes.

1191.—CHICKEN SALAD. (Fr.Salade de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Cold chicken (roast or boiled) cut into joints or pieces if boned; to 4 tablespoonfuls allow 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-shredded celery, 1 tablespoonful of finely shredded white of hard boiled egg, 4 tablespoonfuls of Mayonnaise sauce (see Sauces, No. 201), 1 dessertspoonful of salad-oil, 1 dessertspoonful of vinegar, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, ¼ of a teaspoonful of pepper. For garnishing: pickled gherkins, capers, fillets of anchovy, stoned French olives, lettuce.

Method.—Mix the shredded chicken, celery, and white of egg together, in a bowl, stir in the salad-oil and vinegar, season with the salt and pepper, and let the mixture stand for 1 hour. When ready to serve, stir in the Mayonnaise sauce, range the salad in a dish on a bed of crisp lettuce, garnish the surface with the gherkins, capers, anchovies, olives, and, if liked, the yolks of eggs, previously rubbed through a fine sieve.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. 3d. for this quantity. Sufficient for 5 persons.

1192.—CHICKEN SAUTÉ. (Fr.Poulet Sauté.)

See "Chicken à la Marengo," Recipe No. 1149, and "Fowl Fried, with Peas," No. 1230.

1193.—CHICKEN, SMALL SOUFFLÉS OF. (Fr.Petits Soufflés de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—4 to 5 ozs. of raw chicken, ¼ of a pint of cream, 2 eggs, 1 truffle, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces No. 178), salt, pepper.

Method.—Scrape the meat finely, pound it in a mortar with the yolks of the eggs, add seasoning to taste, and rub through a fine wire or hair sieve. Whip the cream slightly and whisk the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, add the mixture lightly to the chicken purée, put in the truffle cut into dice, and ¾ fill some well-buttered china or paper ramakin cases with the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes, and serve the hot sauce in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To prepare and cook, about 1 hour. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 1 dish.

1194.—CHICKEN, SOUFFLÉ OF. (Fr.Soufflé de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1½ ozs. of butter, the whites of 2 eggs, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ of a pint of cream, pepper and salt, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces No. 178).

Method.—Shred the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, then pound it in the mortar with the butter and yolk of egg, season with salt and pepper, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Whip the cream slightly and whisk the whites of egg stiffly, and add them lightly to the chicken purée. Place in a well-buttered soufflé (plain Charlotte) mould, cover with a buttered paper, and steam gently from 50 to 60 minutes. Or, fill up several small dariol moulds, and steam for about 25 minutes. Serve with the white sauce poured over, and, if liked, decorate with finely-chopped truffle.

Time.—60 to 90 minutes. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Stocking the fowl House.—In selecting birds for stocking a fowl-house care should be taken that they are not more than two years old. The surest indications of old age in fowls are the fading of the comb and gills from brilliant red to a dingy brick colour, general paleness of plumage, brittleness of the feathers, length and size of the claws, and the ragged and corny appearance of the scales of the legs and feet. The selection will be dependent upon the purposes for which the fowls are to be kept, and the accommodation for keeping them. If the poultry is designed for the table, Dorkings, Game, Houdans are good breeds for that purpose. If for laying, Minorcas, Orpingtons, Wyandottes, Hamburgs, Leghorns, Polish and Spanish fowls are suitable. If both poultry and eggs are the object, Brahmas, or Langshans, and Brahmas crossed with one or other of the above breeds, will be found the best. If the object be the breeding of birds for exhibition the fancier will choose the particular bird he desires for competition.

1195.—CHICKEN, SPATCHCOCK. (Fr.Poulet à la Crapodine.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, butter, salt and pepper. Tartare, piquante, or other sharp sauce (see Sauces) 4 to 5 thin slices of bacon.

Method.—Split the bird in half, cutting it through the back only, cut off the legs and wings at the first joints, and arrange in a flat form by means of skewers. Brush over with warm butter, season with salt and pepper, and grill over or in front of a clear fire for about 15 minutes. Turn frequently, brush over with butter, and when done season lightly with salt and pepper. Remove the skewers, dish up, garnish with fried bacon, and serve with it in a sauce-boat one of the above-named sauces.

Time.—About 25 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

1196.—CHICKEN, TIMBALES OF. (Fr.Petites Timbales de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1½ ozs. of butter, the whites of 2 eggs, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ of a pint of cream, pepper and salt, ½ a pint of Béchamel (see Sauces, No. 178), macaroni.

Method.—Boil the macaroni in salted water until tender, cut it across into rings about ⅛ th of an inch in thickness, and with the rings line several well-buttered timbale moulds. The rings should be arranged as evenly as possible; and the somewhat tedious task may be facilitated by using the point of a larding needle to fix them in position. Prepare the chicken purée as directed for "Soufflé of Chicken," No. 1194. Fill the prepared mould with the mixture. Steam the timbales 25 to 35 minutes, arrange neatly on a hot dish, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—1 hour Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Hens Sitting.—Some hens are very capricious as regards sitting; they will make a great fuss and keep pining for the nest, but when they are permitted to sit will remain just long enough to addle the eggs, and they will leave them. To guard against this annoyance it will be found to be a good plan to supply the hen with some hard-boiled eggs; if she sits upon them for a reasonable time and seems inclined to remain, it will then be safe to supply her with proper eggs.

1197.—CURRIED CHICKEN. (Fr.Kari de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¾ of a pint of white stock, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of curry paste, 1 dessertspoonful of desiccated or fresh cocoanut, 1 dessertspoonful of chutney, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 apple, 1 onion, salt, cooked rice.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat joints, and fry them lightly in hot butter. Remove them from the stewpan, put in the onion minced, fry for 2 or 3 minutes without browning, add the flour and curry powder, stir and cook for a few minutes, then pour in the stock and stir until boiling. Replace the chicken in the stewpan, add the curry-paste, cocoanut, chutney, sliced apple, lemon-juice, and salt to taste, cover and cook very gently for about ¾ of an hour if the bird is young, or until the flesh of an older bird is tender. Arrange neatly, add the cream to the sauce, and strain over the chicken. The rice should be handed separately.

Time.—From 1½ to 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 persons.

Fowls as Food.—The fine and delicate flavour of the flesh of birds, which are included under the category of "poultry," readers it alike palatable and nourishing for both the delicate and the robust, and by the skill of the cook it can be served at the table boiled, roasted, fried, fricasseed, hashed, hot, cold, whole, dismembered, boned, broiled, in the form of cream or souffles, or as pies to please every taste, and adapted to suit the most delicate digestion.

1198.—CURRIED CHICKEN OR FOWL. (Fr.Poulet à l'Indienne.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold roast chickens or fowls, 1 onion, 1 apple, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of red currant jelly or chutney, 2 ozs. of butter, ¾ of a pint of stock, salt, cooked rice.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat joints, simmer the bones and trimmings in stock or water for 1½ or 2 hours, then strain and use. Slice the onion, fry it lightly in the hot butter, add the flour and curry-powder, stir over the fire for 2 or 3 minutes, pour in the stock, and bring to the boil, stirring all the time. Now add the sliced apple, chutney, and salt to taste, cover, and simmer gently for ½ an hour, then put in the pieces of chicken and let them remain in the sauce for 30 minutes, but the stewpan must stand where the contents will be kept hot without boiling. When ready, arrange the chicken neatly add the lemon-juice to the sauce, season to taste, and strain over the chicken. Rice should be served separately.

Time.—About 1½ hours, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. to 3s.

Age and Flavour of Chickens.—The flesh of young chickens is the most delicate and easily assimilated of animal foods, which makes it especially suitable for invalids and persons whose digestion is weak. Few animals undergo so great a change with regard to the quality of their flesh as the domestic fowl. When quite young, cocks and hens are equally tender, but as chickens grow older the flesh of the cock is the first to toughen, and a cock a year old is fit only for conversion into soup. A hen of the same age affords a substantial and palatable dish. This rule respecting age does not apply to capons, which, when well-fed and well-dressed for the table, are surpassed by few animals for delicacy of flavour. Even when three years old the capon is as tender as a chicken, with the additional advantage that his proper chicken flavour is more fully developed. The above remarks are applicable only to capons naturally fed and not crammed. The latter process may produce a handsome-looking and heavy bird, but when tested by cooking its inferiority will be only too apparent. As a rule small-boned and short-legged poultry are generally the more delicate in colour, flavour and fineness of flesh.

1199.—CHICKEN, VOL-AU-VENT OF. (Fr.Vol-au-Vent de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of puff paste, a pint of Béchamel or Supreme sauce (see Sauces), 6 ozs. of cooked chicken, 2 ozs. of cooked ham or tongue, 2 truffles, 6 mushrooms, salt and pepper, aromatic spice.

Method.—When the paste has had 6 turns, roll it out to about ¾ of an inch in thickness, and cut it into either a round or oval form, as may be desired and place on a baking tin. Brush over the top of the paste shape with beaten egg, make an inner ring, cutting the paste to about half its depth, and bake in a quick oven. Meanwhile, cut the chicken and ham into dice shapes or small cubes, cut the mushrooms and truffles into small slices, stir the whole into the hot Béchamel sauce, season with salt, pepper and aromatic spice, and make thoroughly hot. When the vol-au-vent case is sufficiently baked, remove the lid, scoop out the soft inside, fill with the prepared ragoût, put on the cover, and serve hot.

Time.—¾ of an hour, after the paste is made. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient for 6 to 8 persons.

The Moulting Season.—During the moulting season, beginning properly at the end of September fowls require extra attention, for although moulting is not itself a disease, it frequently leads to weakness and subsequent illness. Tonics, as Parish's Food and cod liver oil, or a small quantity of iron in the drinking water; nourishing food with abundance of green food should be given. Should the feathers, especially the head feathers, not come out, the dead feathers may be extracted with a pair of tweezers. A strong bird will usually get over his moulting in about three weeks.

1200.—CHICKEN ROAST, STUFFED WITH HERBS. (Fr.Poulet rôti aux Fines Herbes.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of shredded onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of shredded carrot, 1 teaspoonful each of chopped parsley, chervil, tarragon, or other herbs which are liked, 1 glass of white wine, ¾ of a pint of stock. For the forcemeat: 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful each of finely chopped parsley, shallots, chervil and tarragon, the liver of the chicken, 1 oz. of oiled butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the gall bladder, wash and chop the liver, finely, and add to it the breadcrumbs, parsley, shallots, chervil, and tarragon, with a liberal seasoning of salt and pepper. Add sufficient oiled butter to moisten the whole, stuff the crop of the bird with the preparation, secure the opening, and retruss the bird. Roast the chicken in front of a clear fire, or in a moderately hot oven for about 50 minutes basting frequently. Meanwhile melt the remaining 1½ oz. of butter in a stewpan, fry the onion and carrot slightly, add the flour, and cook gently until lightly browned. Put in the stock, stir until boiling, season to taste, add the wine, and about a teaspoonful of parsley, chervil and tarragon mixed, simmer gently for ¼ an hour, then strain. Serve with a little of the sauce poured round, and send the remainder to table separately.

Time.—To roast the chicken, about 40 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1201.—CHICKEN WITH MACARONI. (Fr.Poulet à la Milanaise.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¼ of a lb. of macaroni, ¼ of a pint of tomato sauce (see Sauces, No. 281), ¼ of a pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244, a few drops of lemon-juice or Tarragon vinegar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the chicken until half cooked in stock, or, if this is not at hand, in water flavoured with vegetables. Put the macaroni into salted boiling water and cook rapidly for 15 or 20 minutes, until it is perfectly tender but not broken, then drain well, and cut into short lengths. Heat the sauces in a stewpan, and when the chicken is sufficiently cooked, cut it into pieces convenient for serving, and put them into the sauce. Add the macaroni, salt, pepper, lemon-juice or vinegar to taste, and simmer very gently for ¾ of an hour. Arrange the macaroni to form a bed in the centre of a hot dish, place the chicken on the top of it, strain the sauce over, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Diseases of Fowls and their Cure.—Fowls are liable to various diseases; the most dangerous of these is, perhaps, roup, a highly contagious disease. It commences with a cold, and is characterized by a thick discharge from the nostrils and eyes, which, unless the bird is at once isolated, will infect the other birds, especially through the medium of the drinking water. The vessels which contain it should be thoroughly disinfected. The nostrils and eyes of the isolated bird should be well washed out with warm water, or warm milk and water, and disinfectants, as Condy's Fluid, Labarrague's solution of chlorinated soda, one part to two of water, and Gamjees' Roup Pills, may he administered with advantage. When recovering, tonics, as Parish's Food and cod liver oil, will be serviceable. Fresh air and good ventilation in the fowl houses are the best preventatives of this dangerous disease.

1202.—CHICKEN, WITH RICE AND TOMATOES. (Fr.Poulet au riz à la Milanaise.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, larding bacon, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, all thickly sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, stock, ¼ of a pint of tomato purée, 3 ozs. of grated Parmesan cheese, salt and pepper.

Method.—Truss the chicken, lard the breast in close rows, and wrap it in greased paper. Put the vegetables, herbs and peppercorns into a stewpan, add sufficient stock to nearly cover them, and place the chicken on the top. Cover closely, cook gently for about 1½ hours, adding more stock to replace that which boils away. Wash and blanch the rice, cook it in good stock until tender and dry, then stir in the tomato purée and cheese, and season to taste. Put the chicken in a hot oven for a few minutes, to crisp the bacon, then serve with the rice either as a border or formed into timbales.

Time.—About 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Obstruction of the Crop.—This ailment is commonly caused by weakness or greediness. To cure it, the crop should be kneaded to remove its contents; if no good effect is produced, warm water should be poured down the throat, and another attempt made. The crop should if possible be emptied through the mouth, and a dessertspoonful of castor oil administered. If the crop cannot be emptied by kneading, it will be necessary to cut it, taking care that the incision avoids the large blood vessels, and is sufficiently large to admit a finger or teaspoon for the removal of the obstruction. A fine needle and horsehair or fine silk should be used to stitch up the crop, care being taken to stitch together first the inner skin and then the outer skin of the crop. Sometimes a diamond-shaped piece is cut from the crop before sewing it up, to contract the crop if it is permanently loose.

1203.—CHICKEN, WITH SUPREME SAUCE. (Fr.Suprême de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¾ of a pint of Supreme sauce (see "Sauces" No. 262), white stock, garnish of truffles or macedoine of vegetables.

Method.—Stew the chicken in stock until tender, then divide it into neat joints, put the back aside, and pile the remainder on a hot dish. Pour the sauce over, garnish with truffles or mixed vegetables, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Turn.—The malady called "turning" among song-birds is known as the "turn" in fowls. In both cases its origin is similar—overfeeding and want exercise. A fowl so affected will totter and then fall from its perch, and unless assistance be speedily given will soon die. The veins of the palate should be opened, and a few drops of a mixture composed of six parts of sweet nitre and one part of ammonia poured down the throat.

1204.—CHICKEN WITH ITALIAN SAUCE. (Fr.Poulet à la Italienne.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, trussed for roasting, ¾ of a pint of Italian sauce (see Sauces). For the macédoine, or vegetable mixture: carrot, turnip, leek, celery, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt, chopped parsley.

Method.—Roast the chicken in front of a clear fire, or in a moderate oven, and cut it into pieces convenient for serving. Cut the vegetables with a plain ½-inch diameter cutler into rounds about ¼-inch in thickness, boil them separately in salted water, and drain well. Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the vegetables, season with pepper, and toss them over the fire until the butter is absorbed. Arrange the chicken in the centre of a hot dish, strain the hot sauce over, group the vegetables round the base, sprinkle over them the chopped parsley, and serve.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Skin Diseases in Fowls.—Cutaneous diseases are acquired by fowls kept in unventilated and dark places, but where the birds are lodged in healthy quarters such diseases are not likely to occur. Want of freedom, fresh air and insect food are the predisposing causes of such ailments, which are characterised by the falling of the feathers from the head and neck. By removing the causes a cure is effected.

1205.—CHICKEN, COLD, GARNISHED. (Fr.Chaud-froid de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—2 cold boiled fowls, 1 pint of Béchamel (No. 175) or Supreme sauce (No. 212), ½ a pint of aspic jelly, 1 oz. of gelatine. For garnish: dressed salad, truffle, chili, aspic jelly.

Method.—Divide the chickens into pieces of convenient size, skin and trim them neatly. Dissolve the gelatine, previously soaked, in a little cold water, add it to the warm Béchamel sauce, stir until cool, then pour it carefully over the pieces of chicken. Decorate with fancifully-cut pieces of truffle and chili, and when the sauce is quite set, coat with cold liquid aspic jelly, pouring it carefully over each piece with a tablespoon. Arrange in a pyramidal form on a bed of dressed salad, and garnish with slices of cucumber, tufts of endive and cubes of aspic; or the aspic jelly may be coarsely chopped.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 8s. to 9s. Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Note.—Considerable variety may be introduced by using tomato, Espagnole, and green chaud-froid sauces (see Sauces), the combination of green and white, and brown and red being particularly effective.

Diarrhœa and Dysentery.—Sudden alteration of diet, superabundance of green food, and other causes, produce this complaint among fowls. In its less acute form a little arrowroot or ground rice mixed with water and made into a pill and followed by a diet of boiled rice, to which a little powdered chalk has been added, will be found a good remedy. An excellent prescription is composed of 5 grains of chalk, 5 grains of rhubarb, 3 grains of cayenne pepper made into a pill, with half a grain of opium added in severe cases. Chlorodyne, 2 to 6 drops in a teaspoon of warm water is used with good results. Dysentery, if acute, is difficult to cure, and the more merciful course is to kill the bird and bury it with disinfectants.

1206.—DUCK, BRAISED WITH CHESTNUTS. (Fr.Canard Braisé à la Française.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, 1 pint of stock, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces No. 244), 1 glass of port wine, 1 dessertspoonful of red currant jelly, 1 Spanish onion, 1 lb. of chestnuts, larding bacon, 2 ozs. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs. For the mirepoix, or foundation: 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 small turnip, 2 strips of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 allspice, 2 cloves, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the chestnuts and remove the skins, cook the Spanish onion in stock or water until tender, chop both finely, season with salt and pepper, add the yolks of eggs, and use these for stuffing the duck. Truss the duck and lard it neatly Put the butter and sliced vegetables into a large stewpan, place the duck on the top of them, cover and fry gently for 20 minutes. Next add as much of the stock as will cover the vegetables, and the remainder as that in the stewpan boils away. Cover the duck with a buttered paper, put on the lid, and cook gently for about 2 hours, or until the duck is perfectly tender. Heat the Espagnole sauce, add to it the wine and jelly, and season to taste. Remove the trussing strings, and put the duck in a hot oven for a few minutes to crisp the bacon. Serve with a small quantity of the sauce poured over, and the remainder in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 5s. to 5s. 6d. Sufficient, for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

1207.—DUCK, BRAISED WITH TURNIPS. (Fr.Canard à la Nivernaise.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, 1 pint of good stock, larding bacon, ½ a glass of sherry, 3 young turnips, salt and pepper, mirepoix as in the preceding recipe, glaze.

Method.—Truss and lard the duck, and braise it as directed in the foregoing recipe. When cooked, brush over with warm glaze, and crisp the lardoons in the oven. Strain the stock and reduce it by rapid boiling until about half the liquid remains, then add the sherry, and season to taste. Have ready the turnips cut into dice, and cooked until tender. Place the duck on a hot dish, arrange the turnips in groups, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient, for 4 to 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Duck (Fr. Canard.)—This well-known bird is a member of the sub-family Anatidae, and is allied to the swans, geese, guillemots and gulls. There are numerous species of ducks which are found extensively distributed over most parts of the world. Their food is partly vegetable, partly animal, consisting of insects, larvae, and, in the domesticated state, of corn, maize, etc., worms and aquatic plants. Some species are migratory, flying in the summer season from warmer to colder regions. Their nests are constructed on the ground among the rushes on the margins of lakes or in marshy places. The male duck, or drake is distinguished from the female by its greater size, the recurved four middle feathers of its tail and the brighter colour of its plumage; the feathers of the female being of a more sombre tint, but during the moulting season in June and November the drakes more nearly resembles the ducks. Ducks are gregarious in their habits. The characteristic harsh quack of the duck is due to the curiously twisted conformation of the trachea or windpipe.

1208.—DUCK, FILLETS OF. (Fr.Filets de Canard à la Bigarade.)

Ingredients.—1 good duck, ½ a pint of Bigarade sauce, No 226 (see Sauces), 2 small oranges, salad-oil, potato border, salt and pepper.

Method.—Singe, draw and truss the duck, and roast it in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven until tender. Peel the oranges, separate them into their natural divisions, remove the pith and pips, warm over boiling water in a covered basin or between 2 plates and before serving mix with them a teaspoonful of salad-oil. Remove the breast from the duck, cut it into long fillets, arrange them neatly overlapping each other on a nicely-browned potato border, and pour the Bigarade sauce over. Pile the compote of oranges in the centre, and serve. The remainder the duck should be put aside, and afterwards converted into a salmi or hash (see recipes for same).

Time.—To roast the duck, from 40 to 60 minutes, according to size and age. Average Cost, 4s. to 6s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The White Aylesbury Duck is a favourite bird for the table, its flesh being whiter and more delicate than that of other varieties.

The Buenos Ayres Duck is a very handsome bird, and is chiefly kept as an ornament for lakes and ponds in parks and the grounds of private mansions. Its prevailing colour is black with a metallic lusture, and a blue steel sheen on its breast and wings.

1209.—DUCK, HASHED. (Fr.Canard au Vin Rouge.)

Ingredients.—1 Cold roast duck, 1 pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 orange, 1 onion, a glass of claret, salt, and pepper.

Method.—Divide the duck into pieces (joints) suitable for serving. Chop the onion finely, fry it in the butter, add the flour, stir over the fire until brown, then pour in the stock, stir until it boils, and simmer for 10 minutes. Cut the orange rind into very thin strips, add them with the juice of the orange, the wine and the duck to the sauce, season with salt and pepper, and simmer very gently for ½ an hour.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 6d., to 4s. 6d. Sufficient, allow 1 duck for 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Varieties of Ducks.—Among the numerous species and varieties of ducks are the Canvas-back duck, a native of North America, and highly esteemed for the table; the Muscovy-duck, an erroneous form of musk-duck (Cairina moschata), a native of South America, but domesticated in Europe. It is larger than the common duck, and possesses a peculiar musky smell. The Shoveller duck, an inhabitant of our island in the winter, is chiefly remarkable for its long bill and hooked widely-broadened tip. The plumage of the back is brown, with green on the head and neck. Its eggs are dirty-white tinted with green. The Pintail, which takes its name from the long tapering form of the tail of the male bird, inhabits Britain and the South of Europe in winter. The plumage of the pintail is brown, with white and black lines, and its flesh is palatable.

1210.—DUCK AND RED CABBAGE. (Fr.Canard au Chou rouge.)

Ingredients.—Remains of 2 or 3 cold ducks, ½ a red cabbage, 2 ozs. of butter, good gravy or stock, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and drain the cabbage, and shred it finely. Heat the butter in a stewpan, put in the cabbage and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, cover closely, and cook gently for 1 hour, adding a little gravy or stock if necessary to prevent burning. Divide the ducks into neat joints, place them in a stewpan with just sufficient hot gravy or stock to barely cover them, put on a close-fitting lid, and allow the stewpan to stand just below simmering point for nearly 1 hour. When ready, add the vinegar to the cabbage, turn it on to a hot dish, arrange the duck neatly upon it, and serve with a little good gravy, either poured round or handed separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the ducks. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable, September to January.

American Mode of Capturing Ducks.—Various methods of capturing ducks are employed on the rivers in America. Sometimes half a dozen artificial birds are fastened to a little raft, so weighted that the sham birds squat naturally in the water, and attract the notice of a passing flock of the wild ducks, which fall an easy prey to the fowling-piece of the hunter, concealed in ambush. Another method is pursued in the winter time by the fowler of the Delaware when the water is covered with rubble ice. He paints his canoe entirely white, lies down in the bottom of it, and floats with the broken ice; the ducks being unable to distinguish between the colour of the canoe and that of the ice. As soon as the fowler recognizes by the quacking, fluttering, and whirring, of wings that he is in the midst of a flock he rises up suddenly, discharges his gun, and scatters a deadly leaden shower among the surprised birds.

1211.—DUCKS, ROASTED. (Fr.Canards Rôtis.)

Ingredients.—2 ducks, sage and onion stuffing No. 404 (see Forcemeats) ½ a pint of stock, ½ an oz. of flour, salt and pepper, apple sauce No. 316 (see Sauces).

Method.—Stuff the body of the ducks with the onion farce or stuffing and truss them as directed. Baste them well with hot fat, and roast them in front of a clear fire or in a moderately hot oven for about 1 hour, basting frequently. When done, pour off the fat and if a thick gravy is preferred, brown the flour in the dripping-pan before adding the stock. Bring the gravy to boiling point, season to taste, simmer for 1 or 2 minutes, and serve in a sauce-boat.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 7s. to 8s. Sufficient for 8 to 9 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Bow-Bill Ducks.—The short legs of the Anatidae or duck sub-family, from their backward position, cause the fore part of the body to preponderate, and produces the ungainly movement which charcterizes the duck when walking on land. Some species of ducks are, however, more adapted to terrestrial habits than others, and among these is the summer duck of America (Dendonessa sponsa). This handsome bird usually rears her young in the holes of trees which overhang the water. When sufficiently strong the duckling scramble to the mouth of the hole, launch into the air with their little wings and feet outstretched, and drop into the water. If the nest is situated some distance from the water, the mother carries them to it one by one in her bill, carefully holding each so that is sustains no injury. It has been noticed that when the tree is still further away from a stream or pool the duck allows her young to fall upon the grass and dry leaves beneath the tree and afterwards leads them directly to the water. Among the varieties of ducks some are interesting, owing to some singularity of appearance, as the bow-bill or hook-bill duck, so named from the distorted shape of its bill, and the Penguin-duck, which waddles in an upright position, and thus resembles its namesake.

1212.—DUCK, ROUENNAISE STYLE. (Fr.Canard à la Rouennaise.)

Ingredients.—1 large "Rouen" duck, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of chopped shallots, a bouquet-garni (parsly, thyme, bay-leaf), ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 glass of claret, ½ a pint of stock, 1 desertspoonful of flour. For the stuffing: the heart and liver of the duck, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, 1 small onion parboiled and finely chopped, 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the gall bladder from the liver, wash both liver and heart, and chop them finely. Add the breadcrumbs, parsley, onion, a good seasoning of salt and 1 oz. of butter, previously oiled. Stuff the duck with this preparation, secure the opening, and truss into shape. Heat the 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan sufficiently large to hold the duck, put in the duck and chopped shallot, then fry until nicely browned. Remove the duck, sprinkle in the flour, let it brown, add the stock and claret, and stir until boiling. Replace the bird, add the bouquet-garni and lemon-juice, season to taste, cover closely, and braise in a moderately cool oven for about 1 hour, or until tender. Joint the duck, but keep it in shape, and serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 4s to 4s 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from March to September, but to be obtained all the year round.

The Rouen Duck, bred largely in Normandy, is a large and handsome variety of duck. Its plumage is somewhat sombre, and its flesh is darker and less delicate in flavour than the Aylesbury duck, with which breed the Rouen duck is usually mated, the result being an increase of size and strength. These ducks abound in Normandy and Brittany, and duck-liver patés are a popular relish in those districts.

The Shoveller-Duck is characterized by its long hooked bill, with a broadened tip. Its head and neck are green, and the colour of its body brown, with white underneath. It inhabits Britain during the winter.

1213.—DUCK, SALMI OF. (Fr.Salmis de Canard aux Olives.)

Ingredients.—1 duck (or remains of cold ducks), 12 stoned French olives, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 medium-sized Spanish onion, fat for basting, salt and pepper.

Method.—Singe, draw, and truss the duck, slice the onion, and put it into a baking-tin; place the duck on the top, baste with hot fat, and roast in a moderate oven for ½ an hour, basting frequently. In the meantime, melt the butter, stir in the flour, and cook over the fire until a brown roux or thickening is formed, then add the stock, stir until boiling, and simmer until required. When the duck is sufficiently roasted, remove the trussing string, cut the bird into small joints, add these with the olives to the sauce, season well, and simmer gently for about ½ an hour. Return the baking-tin to the oven until the slices of onion are tender, then rub them through a fine hair sieve, and add them to the contents of the stewpan. Drain off every particle of fat, and add the sediment in the baking-tin to the sauce. When it is ready dish the salmi in the centre of a hot dish on a croute of fried bread, pour over the sauce, and the olives. Serve hot.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. to 5s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Wild Duck.—In many parts of England the wild duck is to be found, especially in desolate fenny places where water is abundant. Wild ducks are plentiful in Lincolnshire, and are taken in the decoys, or ponds situated in the marshes, and surrounded with wood or reeds to prevent the birds which frequent them from being disturbed. The birds sleep in these ponds during the day, and as soon as the evening sets in the decoy-duck rises, for the wild ducks feed during the night. Now is the time for the decoy-ducks to entrap the others. From the ponds in different directions canals diverge, at the end of which funnel-shaped nets are placed. Along these the decoy-ducks lead the others in search of food. When they have gone a certain length a decoy-man appears, and drives the birds further on until they are finally taken in the nets. The London market is largely supplied from the Lincolnshire fens. The Chinese have a singular method of capturing wild ducks. A man having his head covered with an empty calabash wades in the water up to his chin, and approaches the place where the ducks are swimming. The unsuspicious birds allow the calabash to move among them at will. The man accordingly walks about in the midst of the game, pulls them by the legs under the water, and fixes the ducks to his belt until he has secured as many as he requires, and then moves off without the birds discovering the trick played upon them. This mode of duck-hunting is also practised on the Ganges, earthen vessels being used by the Hindus instead of calabashes.

The male of the wild duck is called a "mallard," and the young ducks "flappers." The time to try to find a brood of these is about the month of July among the rushes of the deepest and most retired parts of some brook or stream, where, if the old bird is sprung, it may be assumed that its brood is not far off. When once found flappers are easily killed, as they attain their full growth before their wings are fledged. The sport, therefore, more resembles hunting water-rats than shooting birds. When the flappers take wing they are then called wild ducks, and about the month of August they betake themselves to the cornfields, remaining there until disturbed by the harvest operations. The wild ducks then frequent the rivers early in the evening, and afford excellent sport to those who possess the patience to wait for the birds. To recognize a wild duck it is only necessary to look at its claws, which should be black.

1214.—DUCK, STEWED WHOLE. (Fr.Canard en Ragoût.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, 1 pint of brown stock, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 2 onions sliced, 2 sage leaves, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.

Method.—Roast the duck, or bake it in a good oven for 20 minutes, then place it in a stewpan with the herbs and onions, and cook slowly for ¾ of an hour. Melt the butter, add the flour, and, when well browned, strain in the stock. Stir over the fire until a smooth sauce is obtained, then draw the stewpan aside, simmer gently for 20 minutes and strain. Serve the duck on a hot dish, pour over it some of the sauce, and send the remainder to table in a sauceboat.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 3d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Mallard or Wild Duck (Fr. canard sauvage).—Anas boschas is the original stock from which the numerous varieties of the domesticated duck have been derived. It is found throughout Europe, Asia and America. The plumage of the male is metallic green on the head and neck, the latter being encircled with a collar of white; the body is of a dark chestnut colour, marked with black; that of the female is of dull brown hue. In the spring the plumage of the male begins to fade, and in about two months the brilliancy of his feathers disappears, so that the male bird is scarcely distinguishable from the female. Then the greens and the blues and the browns begin to bud out again, and by October he is once more a gorgeous drake. It is a curious fact that domestication has seriously deteriorated the moral character of the duck. In the wild state the drake is a faithful husband, devoting himself to one wife, but in the domestic state he becomes a polygamist and owns a dozen wives. The females are much more solicitous for their progeny in the wild state than when tame, and if her ducklings are molested she will buffet the transgressor with her broad wings, and dash boldly into his face, striking vigorously with her stout beak. If her nest is searched for in the long grass, the mother bird will try by every means in her power to lure away the intruder, a favourite manœuvre being to simulate lameness to encourage pursuit and capture. After being pursued for half a mile or so, the bird will fly up and make her escape.

The duck was highly esteemed by the Romans for the delicacy and flavour of its flesh, to which even medicinal virtues were ascribed. Plutarch states that Cato preserved his household in health during a plague by dieting its members on roast duck.

1215.—DUCK STEWED WITH GREEN PEAS. (Fr.Canard aux Petits Pois.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold roast ducks, 1 pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233), 1 pint of shelled peas, 1 sprig of mint, 1 lump of sugar, lemon-juice.

Method.—Parboil the peas with the mint and sugar, and drain well. Divide the remains of the ducks into neat pieces, put them into the hot brown sauce, add the peas, season to taste, and simmer very gently for ½ an hour. Before serving, add a few drops of lemon-juice.

Time.—From 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 1s., exclusive of the ducks. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Common Teal (Fr. sarcelle) is the smallest of the Anatidae, or duck family. Its bill is long and furnished with a horny tip; the plumage of the male is brown, with feathers of a lustrous metallic green. It visits Britain during the winter and teal shooting is a favourite sport in the fen districts. It is also capture in large numbers by means of decoys. The green-winged teal and the blue-winged teal of North America are handsome birds; and the Chinese teal, or Mandarin duck, is especially noted for the bright tints or purple, green, white and dark brown, which distinguish the male bird.

The Blue-bill Duck, known as the Scaup-duck, frequents our coasts in winter, and feeds upon small fish and molluscs. Its flesh is coarse.

1216.—DUCKLING, STUFFED. (Fr.Caneton à la Rouennaise.)

Ingredients.—1 large "Rouen" duckling, 1 chicken liver, ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces No. 233), 3 ozs. of breadcrumbs, 1 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, ½ a shallot finely-chopped, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped thyme, or ½ the quantity of powdered thyme, salt and pepper, nutmeg.

Method.—Blanch the chicken liver and the liver from the duckling, chop them finely, add the herbs, breadcrumbs, butter melted, a pinch of nutmeg, a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and bind with the yolks of eggs. Stuff the duckling, baste it well with hot butter or fat, and roast in a quick oven for about ½ an hour, basting frequently. Then drain off every particle of fat, pour the hot brown sauce into the baking-tin, and continue the cooking until the duckling is tender; 15 or 20 minutes should be sufficient, and the duckling must be almost constantly basted during the time with the sauce. Serve on a hot dish, strain over a little of the sauce, garnish with orange quarters, and send the remaining sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 6s. 6d., according to size and season. Seasonable from March to August.

The Eider-Duck (Fr. eider) Somateria mollissima, supplies the useful "down" used for making coverlets and other purposes. It is obtained from the nests of the eider-duck, the female plucking from her breast the warm, soft elastic down to line her nest and cover over and keep warm the eggs which she has laid. Each female bird supplies about ½ a lb. of down. The down is imported in the form of balls, weighing 3 to 4 lb. The eggs of a pale green colour are five or six in number and two broods are produced each year. The eider-duck is twice the size of the ordinary duck, about 24-in. in length, and weighs some 7 lb. The plumage of the male is white on the neck and back and black underneath the body, the crown of the head is deep black, and the sides of the head white. It has a green bill and green legs. The female is reddish-brown marked with black. Its wings have two white bands. The king eider-duck, common in Greenland, has a red beak and legs, and the male has a warty protuberance on the base of the upper bill. The chief habitats of the eider-duck are Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and the northern islands of Britain, where it frequents solitary rocky shores. It is also abundant on the coasts of North America.

1217.—DUCK, TO STEW WHOLE. (Fr.Canard en Ragoût.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, good stock, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 2 onions sliced, 4 sage-leaves, 2 or 3 strips of lemon-thyme, salt and pepper, fat for basting.

Method.—Truss the duck, baste it well with hot fat, and cook it quickly either in front of a clear fire or in a hot oven until well-browned. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onions brown, then remove them and sprinkle in the flour, and let it cook slowly until well-browned. Place the duck in a stewpan containing sufficient hot stock to barely cover it, add the fried onions, sage-leaves and lemon-thyme, cover closely, and simmer gently for ½ an hour. When ready, strain and add ¾ of a pint of the stock to the blended butter and flour, stir until boiling, season to taste, and simmer gently for 5 minutes. Serve with a little sauce poured over, and hand the remainder separately. Plainly-boiled green peas should accompany this dish.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from March to August.

Duck Snares in the Lincolnshire Fens.—The following method was formerly practised in snaring wild ducks in the fens of Lincolnshire. The favourite haunts of the birds in the lakes to which they resorted were noticed, and a ditch was cut across the entrance to the most sequestered part of a haunt. This ditch of a circular shape narrowed gradually from its entrance to the further end which was usually 2 feet in width. On each side of the ditch the banks of the lake were kept clear of weeds and close herbage, to enable the ducks to rest upon them. Along the ditch poles were driven into the ground, close to the edge on each side, the top of the poles being bent across and secured together. The poles then bent forward at the entrance to the ditch, and formed an arch, the top of which was 10 feet distant from the surface of the water; the arch was made to decrease in height as the ditch decreased in width, so that the remote end was not more than 18 in. in height. The poles were placed about 6 ft. from each other, and connected with other poles laid lengthwise across the arch and fastened together. A net was thrown over all, and made fast to a reed fence at the entrance 9 or 10 yards up the ditch, and afterwards strongly pegged to the ground. At the end of the ditch furthest from the entrance was fixed a "tunnel" net, 4 yards in length of a circular form, and kept open by a number of hoops 18 in. in diameter, placed at a small distance from each other to keep it distended. On one side a number of reed fences, called "shootings," were constructed, for the purpose of screening the decoy-man from observation, and in such a manner that the fowl in the decoy might not be alarmed while he was driving those in the pipe. These "shootings," ten in number, were about 4 yards in length and 6 feet in height. From the end of the last shooting a person could not see the lake owing to the bend of the ditch, and there was then no further occasion for shelter. Except for these "shootings" the fowl that remained about the mouth of the ditch would have been alarmed if the person driving the ducks already under the net should have been exposed, and would become so shy as entirely to forsake the place.

1218.—DUCK WITH CARROTS. (Fr.Canard aux Carottes.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold ducks, 3 or 4 large carrots, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces, No. 244), 1 oz. of butter, sugar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the carrots in a small quantity of water with a small piece of loaf sugar until tender, then rub them through a fine sieve, season to taste, add the butter, and re-heat. Cut the ducks into pieces convenient for serving, put them into the hot sauce, and let them simmer very gently for ½ an hour. Place the purée of carrots on a hot dish, arrange the pieces of duck neatly on the top, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 9d., exclusive of the duck. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Decoy-Man, Dog and Ducks.—The decoy-man on approaching the ditch, described above, took a piece of lighted peat or turf and held it near to his mouth, to prevent the ducks smelling him. A specially trained dog accompanied him. The man then walked very silently about half-way up the shootings, where a small piece of wood was thrust through the reed fence, making an aperture just large enough to enable him to see if any fowls were inside; if none were there he walked on to ascertain if the ducks were about the entrance to the ditch. If successful in his search the decoy-man stopped, made a motion to his dog, and gave him a piece of cheese to eat, when the sagacious animal went directly to a hole through the reed fence, and the birds immediately flew off the bank into the water. The dog returned along the bank between the reed fences, and came out to his master at another hole. The master then gave his canine assistant something more to encourage him; and the dog repeated his rounds until the birds were attracted by his motions, and followed him into the mouth of the ditch—this operation was called "working" the ducks. The man now retreated further back, "working" the dog at different holes until his prey were sufficiently under the net. The man next commanded the dog to lie down under the fence, and going himself forward to the ditch nearest to the lake, he took off his hat, and waved it between the shootings. All the birds that were under the net could then see him, but not those which were in the lake. The former flew forwards; and the man ran to the next shooting, and waved his hat, driving the birds along until they came into the tunnel net, into which they crept. When they were all in, the decoy-man gave the net a twist, thus preventing them from getting back. He then took the net off from the end of the ditch, and taking the ducks out, one by one, dislocated their necks.

1219.—DUCK, ROASTED, WILD. (Fr.Canard Sauvage Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 wild duck, a pint of Espagnole sauce, (see Sauces, No. 244), 1 glass of port wine or claret, the juice of a lemon, watercress, salad-oil, salt and pepper.

Method.—Draw and truss the bird, and roast it in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes, basting frequently. Make the sauce as directed, add to it the wine and lemon-juice, season to taste, and keep hot until required. Serve the duck on a hot dish, garnish with watercress, previously well washed, dried and seasoned with pepper and salad-oil, and send the sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Ducks's Eggs.—All ducks are good layers if carefully fed and properly tended. Ducks when in good health usually lay at night or early in the morning, and one of the surest signs of indisposition among birds of this class is their irregularity in laying. The tint of the eggs laid depends chiefly upon the colour of the duck—light-coloured ducks laying white eggs, brown ducks eggs of greenish-blue, and dark-coloured birds producing the largest-sized eggs. When placing the eggs of other birds under a duck to be hatched, care should be taken that the eggs match those of the duck as nearly as possible, otherwise the duck may turn out of the nest and destroy the eggs which differ from her own in size and colour.

Cooping and Feeding Ducklings.—Brood ducks should be cooped at some distance from the other birds. Just outside the coop should be placed a wide and flat dish of water, which must be frequently renewed. Barley or meal should be given to the ducklings as their first food. If the weather be wet the tails of the young birds must be clipped to prevent these draggling and causing weakness. The state of the weather and the strength of the ducklings will determine the period of their confinement to the coop. As a general rule a fortnight is sufficient, and the luxury of a swim may sometimes be permitted them at the end of a week. At first the ducklings should not be allowed to stay too long in the water, for they then will become ill, their feathers get rough, and their stomachs disarranged. In the latter case the birds must be closely cooped up for a few days, and bean-meal or oatmeal be mixed with their usual food.

Fattening Ducks.—Some duck keepers allow their ducks to wander about and pick up food for themselves, and they appear to fatten on this precarious living; but unless ducks are supplied in addition to chance food with a liberal morning and evening meal of corn or grain their flesh will become flabby and insipid. The simplest way to fatten ducks is to allow them to have as much substantial food as they will eat, especially bruised oats and pea-meal. No cramming is required, as they will eat to the verge of suffocation. They should, however, be well supplied with clean water and allowed to have plenty of exercise.

1220.—FOWL, BOILED. (Fr.Poulet Bouilli.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 onion, 1 carrot, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 white peppercorns, salt.

Method.—Truss the fowl for boiling. Have ready a saucepan just large enough to contain the fowl, and as much boiling stock or water as will cover it. Rub the breast of the bird with lemon, wrap it in a buttered paper, put it into the saucepan, bring to the boil, and skim well. Add the sliced vegetables, bouquet-garni, peppercorns and salt if necessary, and cook very gently until the fowl is tender. A young fowl should be ready to serve at the end of 1 hour, but an old bird may need twice that length of time. Meanwhile, melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, cook for a few minutes without browning, pour in the stock (use some of the liquor in which the fowl was cooked if none other is at hand), and boil up, stirring all the time. Season to taste, and simmer for 10 minutes, or until the fowl is ready. Remove the trussing string, place on a hot dish, pour over the sauce, which must be thick enough to coat it, garnish with chopped truffle, parsley, or hard-boiled yolk of egg, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 2 hours, according to age. Average Cost, 3s. 3d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Speckled or Spangled Hamburg.—There are two varieties of this fowl—a favourite with many fanciers—the "golden speckled" and the "silver speckled." The general colour of the former is golden or orange-yellow, each feather having a glossy dark brown or black tip, particularly on the hackles of the cock, the wing-coverts, and on the darker feathers of the breast. The female is yellow or orange-brown, the feathers are margined with black. The ground colour of the "silver speckled" bird is silver-white, with a tinge of straw-yellow, each feather being edged with a glossy black half-moon shaped mark. Both these varieties are very handsome, and the hens are good layers.

1221.—FOWL, BOILED WITH OYSTERS. (Fr.Poulet aux Huîtres.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, 3 dozen oysters, ¾ of a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178) ½ a gill of cream, 1 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 blade of mace, salt and pepper.

Method.—Beard the oysters, place 2 dozen of them inside the fowl, and truss for boiling. Put the fowl with the mace and butter into an earthenware fireproof stew-jar with a close-fitting lid. Place the stew-jar in a baking-tin, surround with boiling water, and cook on the stove or in a moderate oven for 2½ hours, or until the fowl is perfectly tender. Blanch the remaining oysters in their liquor, strain the liquor, pour it over the oysters, and put both aside until required. When the fowl is sufficiently cooked, transfer it to a hot dish, strain the liquor and add it to the Béchamel sauce, and, when boiling, stir in the cream and yolks of eggs, previously blended. Continue the stirring and cooking until the sauce thickens, but it must not boil, or the eggs may curdle. Season to taste, pour a little of the sauce over the fowl, add the oysters and their liquor to the remainder, and serve it in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 3 hours. Average Cost, 7s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 6 persons, according to size.

1222.—FOWL, BROILED, WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr.Poulet Grillé aux Champignons.)

See "Chicken, Grilled, with Mushroom Sauce," No. 1166.

1223.—FOWL, CURRIED. (Fr.Poulet en Kari.)

See "Fowl, Hashed, Indian Style," No. 1231, also "Indian Cookery."

1224.—FOWL, HASHED. (Fr.Hachis de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast fowls, 1 pint of stock, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the fowls into neat joints and, when no stock is at hand, simmer the bones and trimmings for at least 1 hour, adding the usual flavouring vegetables. Melt the butter, fry the flour until lightly-browned, add the stock, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, put in the pieces of fowl, let the stewpan stand for at least ½ an hour, where its contents will keep hot without cooking, then serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 9d., in addition to the fowl. Sufficient, for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Black Spanish.—The real Spanish fowl is characterized by its uniformly black colour, burnished with tints of green, its peculiar white face, and the large development of its comb and wattle—the large high comb of the cock being erect—and blue legs. The Black Spanish fowl is an excellent layer, and its eggs are of a large size. It is, however, a bad sitter, and its eggs should therefore be placed in the nests of other varieties for hatching. It is a good bird for the table, although somewhat small. The handsome carriage and striking contrast of colour in the comb, face and plumage make the Black Spanish fowl an addition to the poultry yard. They are admirably adapted as a town fowl, and their flesh is esteemed.

1225.—FOWL, RAGOÛT OF. (Fr. Ragoût de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, ¼ of a lb. of ham or bacon cut into dice, 2½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1¼ pints of stock, 1 onion finely-chopped, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the fowl into neat joints. Heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the pieces of fowl until nicely-browned, then remove and keep it hot. Fry the onion slightly, then sprinkle in the flour, cook slowly until well-browned, and add the stock. Stir until boiling, season to taste, replace the fowl, put in the ham or bacon, and cover closely. Cook very gently from 1 to 1½ hours, or until the fowl is tender, then serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or more persons, according to size.

CHICKEN ENTRÉES.

 
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1. Chicken fried in Batter. 2. Chicken Soufflé. 3. Chicken Spatchcocked.

COLD COLLATION ENTRÉES.

 
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1. Pigeon Pie. 2. French Raised Pie. 3. Raised Game Pie, with Aspic Jelly.

1226.—FOWL, ROAST, GERMAN STYLE. (Fr.Poulet Rôti aux Marrons.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, veal farce, 1 lb. of chestnuts, 1 lb. of sausages, 1 pint of good stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 lemon, salt and pepper, butter or fat for basting.

Method.—Slit the skins of the chestnuts, throw them into boiling water, cook them for 15 minutes, then remove both skins, and bake until tender. When ready, lay a dozen aside, put the remainder into the body of the bird, and stuff the crop with veal forcemeat. Truss into shape and roast in front of a clear fire or in a moderately-hot oven for about 1 hour, basting frequently. Meanwhile melt the butter, fry the flour until lightly-browned, then add the stock and stir until boiling. Season to taste, add the remaining 12 chestnuts, and simmer gently for 10 or 15 minutes. Serve garnished with fried sausage and slices of lemon, and send the sauce to table separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in winter.

The Cochin China.—This familiar fowl, a native of Cochin China, now common among our domestic poultry was, on the introduction of the first pair of these birds from Shanghai, the occasion of a remarkable furore among poultry fanciers. The fowls were exhibited by the late Queen Victoria, to whom they had been presented at the Dublin Poultry Show of 1846. They created an immense sensation; the approaches to the house of a dealer who possessed some of these birds were blocked by broughams, carriages and cabs, containing people eager to obtain specimens of the new importation. Large sums were paid for the coveted birds, and guineas were weighed against the eggs. The reign of Cochin China was, however, of short duration. The bird is large and ungainly in appearance, but is an excellent layer even during the winter, and its buff-coloured eggs are much esteemed; the quality of its flesh is inferior to that of the Dorking and some other breeds, but by cross breeding with other varieties it is much improved.

1227.—FOWL, ROAST, STUFFED. (Fr.Poulet Farci rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, veal forcemeat, No. 396, bread sauce, gravy (see "Sauces and Gravies"), thin slices of bacon.

Method.—Press the forcemeat lightly into the crop of the fowl, truss into shape, and roast in front of a clear fire, or in a moderately-hot oven for about 1 hour. Serve garnished with crisply-fried rolls of bacon, and hand round bread sauce and gravy separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Game Fowl (Fr. coq de combat.)—This bird, known for its pugnacious disposition and handsome plumage, has been domesticated from early ages. Pliny writes: "The gait of the cock is proud and commanding; he walks with head erect and elevated crest; alone of all birds, he habitually looks up to the sky, raising at the same time his curved and scythe-formed tail, and inspiring terror in the lion himself, that most intrepid of animals. ... They regulate the conduct of our magistrates, and open or close to them their own houses. They prescribe rest or movement to the Roman forces; they command or prohibit battles. In a word, they lord it over the masters of the world." Among the Greeks as well as the Romans, "alectomancy," or divination by means of a cock was practised, as in the case of deciding the day on which a battle should be fought. A grain of corn was placed on the letter of each day in the week, turned face downwards; the sacred cock was then liberated, and according to the letter he picked the corn from, the time of battle was regulated. The breeding of game fowls for cock-fighting was in practice many hundred years before the Christian era, for Themistocles (514-449 b.c.), The Athenian King, is said to have taken advantage of a pitched battle between two cocks to harangue his soldiers on their courage. "Observe" he said, "with what intrepid valour they fight, inspired by no other motive than love of victory; whereas you have to contend for your religion and liberty, for your wives and children, and for the tombs of your ancestors."

1228.—FOWL STEWED WITH RICE. (Fr.Poulet au riz.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, 4 ozs. of rice, 1 quart of stock, 2 or 3 onions, 2 or 3 strips of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 peppercorns, salt and pepper.

Method.—Truss the fowl for boiling, put it into a stewpan, or earthenware stew-casserole, with the cold stock; when it boils add the onions and celery in large pieces, and the herbs and peppercorns tied in muslin. Cover closely, and cook very slowly for 1 hour, then add the rice (previously well washed), salt to taste, and continue the gentle cooking until both fowl and rice are perfectly tender. The rice should absorb nearly all the stock. Before serving, remove the vegetables and herbs, season with salt and pepper, and place the fowl on a hot dish, surrounded by the rice.

Time.—From 1½ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Best Fowls to Fatten, etc.—The chicks most likely to fatten well are those first hatched in the brood, and those with the shortest legs. Long-legged fowls, as a rule, are by far the most difficult to fatten. The most delicate sort are those which are put up to fatten as soon as the hen forsakes them; for, as says an old writer, "then they will be in fine condition and full of flesh, which flesh is afterwards expended in the exercise of foraging for food and in the increase of stature; and it may be a work of some weeks to recover it, especially with young cocks." But whether you take them in hand as chicks or not till they are older, the three prime rules to be observed are—sound and various food, warmth and cleanliness. There is nothing that a fatting fowl grows so fastidious about as water. If water any way foul be offered him he will not drink it, but sulk with his food and pine, and you all the while wondering the reason why. Keep them separate, allowing to each bird as much space as you can spare. Spread the ground with sharp sandy gravel; take care that they are not disturbed. In addition to their regular diet of bruised corn, make them a cake of ground oats or beans, brown sugar, milk and mutton suet. Let the cake lie till it is stale, then crumble it, and give each bird a gill measureful morning and evening. No entire grain should be given to fowls during the time they are fattening, indeed the secret of success lies in supplying them with the most nutritious food without stint, and in such a form that their digestive mills shall find no difficulty in grinding it.

1229.—FONDU OF CHICKEN.

See "Chicken, Ramakins of," No. 1186, and "Chicken, Small Soufflé of," No. 1193.

1230.—FOWL, FRIED, WITH PEAS. (Fr.Poulet Sauté aux petits pois.)

Ingredients.—The remains of 1 or 2 cold roast fowls, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 pint of shelled peas, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the fowl into pieces convenient for serving, and boil the bones and trimmings down for stock. Fry the fowl in hot butter until well-browned, then remove and keep it hot, and sprinkle in the flour. Brown slightly, add the stock, stir until boiling, and season to taste. Replace the fowl, cover closely, draw the stewpan aside where the contents will keep hot without cooking, and let it remain for ½ an hour. Meanwhile boil and drain the peas, and season them with pepper. Serve the fowl arranged in a circle on a hot dish with the sauce strained over and the peas piled in the centre, or, if preferred, serve the peas separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, about 2s. 6d. to 2s. 9d. Seasonable from June to September.

1231.—FOWL, HASHED, INDIAN STYLE. (Fr.Hachis de Volaille à l'Indienne.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast fowls, ¾ of a pint of curry, sauce, see Sauces, No. 241.

Method.—Divide the fowls into pieces convenient for serving, and when stock is needed, simmer the bones and trimmings for at least 1 hour in just as much cold water as will cover them. Make the sauce as directed, put in the pieces of fowl, and allow the stewpan to stand for about ½ an hour where its contents will remain just below simmering point. Serve with boiled rice.

Time.—To re-heat the fowl, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, 9d., in addition to the chicken.

1232.—FOWL, INDIAN DISH OF. (FrPoulet à la Diable.)

Ingredients.—The remains of 1 or 2 cold roast fowls, 2 or 3 onions sliced, 2 or 3 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, salt, 1 lemon.

Method.—Divide the fowl into neat joints, score them, spread on a little butter, sprinkle on a little salt and the curry-powder, and let stand 1or about 1 hour. Heat the remainder of the butter, fry the onions brown, then remove and keep hot. Now fry the pieces of fowl, and when nicely-browned, pile them on the onions, and serve garnished with sliced lemon.

Time.—To fry, altogether, about 30 minutes. Average Cost, exclusive of the fowl, 8d. Seasonable at any time.

1233.—GALANTINE OF FOWL. (Fr.Galantine de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 boned fowl, 1 lb. of sausage meat, ¼ of a lb. of ham or bacon, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 truffles, ½ an oz. of pistachio nuts blanched, pepper and salt, aromatic spice.

Method.—Bone the fowl cut it down the centre of the back, spread it out on the table, season the flesh well, and distribute it in such a manner that all parts are of nearly equal thickness. Spread on half the sausage meat, on the top place narrow strips of bacon, slices of egg, slices of truffle, intersperse the nuts, season liberally with salt and pepper, and cover with the remainder of the sausage meat. Roll up tightly, fasten securely in a cloth, and simmer gently in stock for about 2 hours. When cooked, tighten the cloth and press between 2 boards or dishes until cold. Before serving, glaze thickly and garnish with aspic jelly.

Time.—About 2 hours to cook the galantine. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. to 8s. 6d., according to size and quality of fowl. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

1234.—GIBLET PIE. (Fr.Pâté aux Abatis à l'Anglaise.)

Ingredients.—1 set of goose giblets, 1 lb. of rump steak, 1 onion, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), puff or rough paste, salt, pepper.

Method.—Wash the giblets, put them into a stewpan with the onion sliced, bouquet-garni, peppercorns, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, cover with cold water, and simmer gently from 1½ to 2 hours. Cut the steak into small thin slices, put a layer of them at the bottom of a pie-dish, add the giblets and the remainder of the steak in alternate layers, and season well. Strain the stock, season to taste, pour over the meat to about ¾ its depth, and add the remainder when the pie is baked. Cover with paste (see Veal Pie, No. 481), bake in a brisk oven for about ½ an hour, then reduce the temperature, and continue the cooking for about 45 minutes longer. The appearance of the pie may be improved by brushing it over with yolk of egg either before baking or when it is 3 parts done. Before serving, pour in the remainder of the hot stock.

Time.—To bake, from 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 2s., exclusive of the giblets. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1235.—GIBLETS, CAPILOTADE OF. (Fr.Capilotade d'Abatis.)

Ingredients.—Cooked giblets, to which may be added slices of any kind of cold poultry or meat, 1 large onion shredded, 1 carrot thinly sliced, 2 tablespoonfuls of coarsely chopped mushrooms, preferably fresh ones, salad-oil, ½ a pint of good stock, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Put 4 or 5 tablespoonfuls of oil or an equal quantity of butter into a stewpan, and when it is thoroughly hot add the onion, carrot and mushrooms. Sprinkle in the flour, cook gently for about ½ an hour, then add the stock, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, put in the giblets, make thoroughly hot, and serve. In Italy, white wine is used instead of stock.

Time.—To re-heat the giblets, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 4d. to 1s. 8d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from September to February.

1236.—GIBLETS, STEWED. (Fr.Abatis d'Oie.)

Ingredients.—1 set of goose giblets, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare the giblets as directed in the recipe, wash them, cover them with stock and water, and stew them until tender. Remove the liver, neck and tendons as soon as these are sufficiently cooked, and continue to stew the gizzard until it can be easily pierced with a fork. Meanwhile heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the flour brown, and, when ready, remove the giblets, and strain ¾ of a pint of the stock on to the flour and butter. Stir until boiling, season to taste, put in the giblets, and when thoroughly hot, serve.

Time.—About 2 hours Average Cost, 11d. to 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable, September to February.

1237.—GOOSE, HASHED. (Fr.Ragoût d'Oie.)

Ingredients.—Remains of roast goose, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 pint of stock, 2 finely-chopped onions, 6 button-mushrooms or a few fresh ones, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 6 allspice, salt and pepper, croûtons of fried bread, apple sauce, No. 316.

Method.—Cut the remains of the goose into neat pieces. Fry the onions in the butter, when turning brown add the flour, stir over the fire until it acquires a nut-brown colour, then add the stock, and boil for 10 minutes. Add the goose, mushrooms, spices wrapped in muslin, and simmer very gently for ¾ of an hour. Arrange the pieces of goose neatly on a hot dish, remove the spices, season the sauce to taste, and pour it over. Garnish with croutons of fried bread, and serve with apple sauce.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 8d., exclusive of the goose. Seasonable from September to February.

The Goose (Fr. oie).—This familiar bird is generally distributed over the world, being met with in North America, Lapland, Iceland, Arabia and Persia. There are many varieties, but they do not differ widely from each other; in England there is only one species, which is supposed to be a native breed. The best geese are those on the borders of Suffolk, and in Norfolk and Berkshire, but the largest flocks are reared in the fens of Lincolnshire and Cambridge. Geese thrive best where they have an easy access to water, and large quantities are annually sent to the London market. The period when the goose is at its greatest perfection for the table is when it has just acquired its full growth and has not begun to harden. The best time for green geese is from the second week in June to the first of September. A tradition ascribes the institution of the Michaelmas goose to Queen Elizabeth, who is said to have chanced to dine on one at the table of an English baronet, when the news of the defeat of the Spanish Armada reached her Majesty. In commemoration of this event she commanded the goose to make its appearance at table on every Michaelmas.

1238.—GOOSE, ROASTED. (Fr.Oie Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—1 goose, onion stuffing (see Forcemeats), ¾ of a pint of good beef stock or gravy, apple sauce, fat for basting.

Method.—Prepare and truss the goose, put the onion forcemeat inside the body, baste it well with hot fat, and either roast or bake from 2 to 2½ hours, according to size and age. Baste frequently, and if the surface is not well browned, dredge with flour when the bird is ¾ cooked. Remove the trussing string, serve on a hot dish, and send the gravy and apple sauce to table in sauce-boats.

Time.—From 2 to 2½, hours. Average Cost, from 6s. to 12s., according to size. Sufficient for 10 or more persons, according to size. Seasonable from September to February.

The Wild Goose.—This bird is sometimes called the "Grey-lag," and is believed to be the original of the domestic goose. The Gray-lag (Anser ferus) is a denizen of all the extensive marshy districts throughout the temperate regions of Europe. Northwards it ranges to the 53° of latitude, and southwards to the northern parts of Africa, and easterly to Persia. It is the legendary bird that saved the Capitol by its vigilance, and was valued accordingly by the grateful Romans.

1239.—GOOSE HAMS.

Ingredients.—1 large goose, ¼ of an oz. of saltpetre, 2 ozs. of common salt, 1 oz. of coarse sugar.

Method.—Split the goose down the back, and rub in the saltpetre, salt and sugar. Let it lie in pickle 12 days in summer, 14 in winter. Rub and turn it regularly every day, then roll it in sawdust and smoke it.

Time.—12 to 14 days. Average Cost, 9d. to 1s. per lb.

The Brent Goose.—This is the smallest and most numerous of the species of the geese which visit the British Islands. It makes its appearance in winter, and ranges over the whole of the coasts and estuaries, frequented by other migratory geese. A very large number of these birds annually resort to the extensive sandy and muddy flats which lie between the mainland and Holy Island on the Northumbrian coast, and are covered by every flow of the tide. This part of the coast appears to have been a favourite resort of these birds from time immemorial, where they have always received the name of Ware geese, possibly from the fact of their continually feeding on marine vegetables. The flesh of the Brent goose has an agreeable flavour.

1240.—GOSLING ROAST. (See. To Dress a Green Goose.)

1241.—GREEN GOOSE, TO DRESS A. (Fr.Oison Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 Goose, 3 ozs. of butter, pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Geese are called green until they are about 4 months old, and should not be stuffed. After the goose has been singed and trussed, put into the body a seasoning of pepper and salt, and the butter to moisten it inside. Roast before a clear fire for about ¾ of an hour, allow it to brown nicely, and serve with a brown gravy, and, when liked, gooseberry sauce. This dish should be garnished with watercresses.

Time.—About an hour. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. each. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable August to November.

The Egyptian Goose.—The Greek historian Herodotus calls special attention to this bird, which he stated was held sacred by the ancient Egyptians. Mr. Salt, the traveller, remarks: "Horus Apollo says the old geese stay with their young in the most imminent danger, at the risk of their own lives, which I have myself frequently witnessed. Vielpansier is the goose of the Nile, and wherever this goose is represented on the walls of the temples in colours, the resemblance may be clearly traced." The goose is also stated to have been a bird under the care of the goddess Isis. The Egyptian goose has been placed by the naturalist, Mr. Gould, among the birds of Europe; not from the number of half-reclaimed individuals who are annually shot in Britain, but from the circumstance of its occasionally visiting the southern parts of the Continent from its native country Africa.

1242.—GUINEA FOWL, ROASTED. (Fr.Pintade Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—1 guinea fowl, bacon, fried breadcrumbs, bread sauce, Espagnole sauce, No. 244 (see Sauces), watercress, salad-oil, salt and pepper.

Method.—Truss the bird, cover the breast with slices of fat larding bacon, and roast it in front of a clear fire or in a moderately hot oven for about 1 hour. When ¾ cooked remove the bacon, that the breast may brown. Wash, drain, and dry the watercress, and season it with salt, pepper, and a little salad-oil. Serve on a hot dish, garnish with watercress, and hand the fried breadcrumbs, bread sauce, and Espagnole sauce separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, from 4s. each. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Guinea Fowl (Fr. pintade), called also Pintado, is a genus of gallinaceous birds domesticated in England, and belongs to the same family as the pheasants. It is, as its name implies, a native of the West of Africa; it is common in poultry yards, and bears some resemblance to the turkey. Its plumage is slate-coloured, variegated with small white spots. Its head is ornamented with a hard protuberance or "casque." The wattles are prominent, those of the male being of a purplish-red, and those of the female red. Its site is about the same as that of the common fowl, but its legs are longer. The guinea-fowl is gregarious in its habits, associating in large flocks, perching at night in trees of elevated situations. Though domesticated it retains much of its wild nature, and is apt to wander. The hens lay abundantly, and its eggs yellow-red spotted with dark brown, are excellent. Its flesh is not so white as that of the common fowl, and more resembles the flesh of the pheasant in colour. It is savoury and easy of digestion, and the guinea-fowl is in season when game is out.

1243.—LARK PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Mauviettes.)

Ingredients.—12 larks, 1 lb. of rump steak, ¼ of a lb. of bacon, ½ a pint of good stock. For the farce of stuffing: 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped suet, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped ham or parboiled chickens' livers, 1 dessertspoonful of chopped mushrooms (preferably fresh ones), 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-grated lemon-rind, ¼ of a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, 1 egg, a good pinch of nutmeg, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, ¼ of a teaspoonful of pepper, puff paste, the yolk of 1 egg.

Method.—Bone the larks and stuff them with the farce, cut the beef into small thin slices, and the bacon into strips. Put a layer of beef at the bottom of a pie-dish, arrange the larks on the top, intersperse the remainder of the meat and the strips of bacon, season well with pepper and salt, ¾ fill with stock, and cover with the paste. Brush over with yolk of egg, bake in a quick oven until the paste has risen and become set, then cook more slowly for about 1 hour. Before serving, add the remaining stock, pouring it carefully through the hole in the centre of the pie. Serve either hot or cold, but a little gelatine must be added to the stock if the pie is intended to be eaten cold, in order that the gravy may form a jelly.

Time.—To bake the pie, about 1¼ or 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable from November to February.

1244.—LARKS, BROILED. (Fr.Mauviettes Grillées.)

Ingredients.—1 dozen larks, 1 egg, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper, croûtes of toasted bread, butter.

Method.—Prepare the larks as directed in "Larks, Roasted," brush them over with beaten egg, and coat them carefully with breadcrumbs seasoned with a little salt and pepper. Broil over a clear fire for 10 minutes, and as soon as the breadcrumbs are set, brush them lightly over with oiled butter. Serve on croûtes.

Time.—About 10 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. to 3s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable November to February.

1245.—LARKS, ROASTED. (Fr.Mauviettes Rôties.)

Ingredients.—12 larks, 12 small thin slices of bacon, 12 round or oval pieces of buttered toast, fried breadcrumbs, water-cress, salad-oil, lemon, butter or fat for basting, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pick and singe the birds, cut off the feet, and remove the gizzards. Truss them in shape by means of a skewer, which should be long enough to hold six. Brush them over with hot butter or fat, cover each breast with a piece of bacon, and roast the birds before a hot fire for about 10 minutes, basting them constantly. Place each bird on a piece of toast, arrange them in a close circle on a hot dish, fill the centre with fried breadcrumbs, and garnish with cut lemons, and watercress seasoned with salad-oil, salt and pepper.

Time.—About 10 minutes, to roast. Average Cost, from 2s. to 3s. per dozen. Sufficient, 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to February.

1246.—LARKS STUFFED AND ROASTED. (Fr.Mauviettes Farcies et Rôties.)

Ingredients.—8 or 9 larks, 8 or 9 very small rolls of crisply-fried bacon, 8 or 9 round or oval pieces of buttered toast. For the farce or stuffing: 1 oz. of warm butter, 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped cooked ham or tongue, 1 large, finely-chopped fresh mushroom, or 4 small preserved ones, 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 very finely-chopped shallot, salt and pepper, egg, brown breadcrumbs, butter for basting, fried potato straws.

Method.—Prepare the birds as in the preceding recipe, stuff with the prepared farce, coat with egg and brown breadcrumbs, truss and fix on a skewer, and roast for about 10 minutes before a clear fire. As soon as the coating becomes fixed, baste with hot butter, and repeat the process frequently. Place each bird on a piece of toast, dish them in a close circle, pile the potato straws in the centre, and garnish with the rolls of bacon. Serve with a boat of nicely seasoned gravy.

Time.—About 10 minutes to roast. Average Cost, from 2s. to 3s. per dozen. Allow 2 to each person. Seasonable from November to February.

1247.—LARKS, SALMI OF. (Fr.Salmis de Mauviettes.)

Ingredients.—2 dozen larks, 1 pint of good gravy or stock, 1 glass of port wine or claret, the juice of ½ a lemon, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs of flour, 3 finely-chopped shallots, cayenne, salt, butter for basting, croûte of fried bread.

Method.—Roast the larks before a clear fire or in a moderately-hot oven for 10 minutes, basting them frequently with hot butter. Fry the shallots in the butter, add the flour, cook over the fire until brown, put in the stock, and stir until boiling. Simmer for 10 minutes, add the wine, lemon-juice, salt and cayenne to taste, put in the birds, and cook very gently for about 10 minutes. Dish the larks on the croûte, strain the sauce over, and serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes, to cook the larks. Average Cost, 4s. to 5s. Seasonable from November to February.

1248.—PICKLED POULTRY.

Ingredients.—2 or 3 fowls, 4 quarts of water, 2 lb. of common salt, 4 ozs. of brown sugar, ¼ of an oz. of saltpetre.

Method.—Boil the salt, sugar, saltpetre and water together for ½ an hour, skimming when necessary. Pour the brine into an earthenware vessel, and when quite cold put in the fowls, and let them remain 2 or 3 days. This method of preserving poultry is employed in South Africa, Australia and other hot countries. The birds are killed, immediately scalded and stripped of their feathers, and at once immersed in brine. They are usually conveyed to market in small barrels, 3 or 4 being packed closely together, and covered with brine. They are best when dressed as a curry or pilau.

1249.—PIGEONS, COMPOTE OF. (Fr.Compôte de Pigeons.)

Ingredients.—3 pigeons, 1½ ozs. of butter, ¼ of a lb. of raw ham or bacon, 2 dozen button onions, 1 carrot, ½ a turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 1 clove, 6 peppercorns, 1 pint of good stock, 1 tablespoonful of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Truss the pigeons for roasting, cut the bacon into dice, peel the onions, and fry the whole in hot butter until well browned. Add the stock, and when boiling put in the herbs and the carrot and turnip, previously cut into dice. Cover closely and cook gently for nearly 1 hour. A few minutes before serving skim off all the fat, add the flour, previously blended with a little cold water, stir until the sauce reboils, season to taste, and simmer at least 10 minutes to cook the flour. Remove the trussing strings, cut the birds in halves, arrange them neatly on a hot dish strain the sauce over, group the vegetables and bacon round the dish, and serve.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, from 1s. to 1s. 6d. each. Sufficient' for 6 or 7 persons.

The Pigeon (Fr. pigeon).—This familiar bird is widely distributed over the world, and some species are found even in the Arctic regions. The true pigeons or Columbidae are represented by the stock-dove; the ring-dove or cushat is the largest British species. Pigeons in general are arboreal in their habits, and build their nests in high places. Their food consists chiefly of grain The note of the pigeon is the well-known "cooing." From the wild or rock pigeon the numerous domestic varieties are derived. The flesh of the pigeon is savoury, delicate and stimulating.

1250.—PIGEONS, CURRY OF. (Fr.Kari de Pigeon.)

Ingredients.—2 pigeons, 2 ozs. of butter, ¾ of a pint of curry-sauce No. 241 (see "Sauces"), boiled rice.

Method.—Make the sauce as directed, strain, replace in the stewpan, and keep hot until required. Divide each pigeon into 4 quarters, fry them in hot butter until well-browned, and drain them free from fat. Put them into the sauce, let the stewpan stand for about ½ an hour, where its contents will remain just below simmering point, then serve with plainly-boiled rice handed round at the same time.

Time.—To cook in the sauce, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, pigeons, 2s. 6d. to 3s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Pigeon-house or Dovecote.—The first requisite for keeping pigeons is the provision of a suitable and commodious habitation. This may be a wall-locker fixed to the side of a house, stable or other out-building, or a pole-locker, a barrel, or barrel-shaped structure, fixed upon a long pole. The latter kind of locker can be placed on a lawn, in a shrubbery or courtyard, as may be most convenient. Each pair of pigeons should have two holes or rooms to nest in, otherwise there will be the constant possibility of confusion among the inmates, the breaking of eggs and the destruction of the young birds. If pigeons be kept for the special purpose of pairing, breeding and rearing it will be preferable to keep the pigeons in a loft or outhouse adapted for that object. The nesting places should be from 12 in. to 18 in. in height and depth, and 2 ft. 6 in. in length for each pair of birds. Loose movable boxes may be used with advantage if floor-space is available.

1251.—PIGEONS, CUTLETS OF, WITH ESPAGNOLE SAUCE. (Fr.Côtelettes de Pigeons a l'Espagnole.)

Ingredients.—3 pigeons, 6 ozs. of liver farce or stuffing, No. 398, 1 pig's caul, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces), 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 white of egg, glaze, asparagus points, green peas, or other suitable vegetable.

Method.—Split the pigeons in half, remove all bones except the leg bones, leave the feet attached, but cut off the tips of the toes; season well, fold the skin underneath, form the birds into a nice plump shape, fry lightly on both sides in hot butter and press between 2 dishes until cold. Wash the caul in salt and water and dry well before using.

Mask one side of the cutlets with the prepared farce, enclose them in thin pieces of caul, brush over with white of egg, cover with a buttered paper, and cook in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes. Brush the pigeons over with liquid glaze, arrange them in an almost upright position on a potato border, fill the centre with the prepared vegetable, pour the hot sauce round and serve.

Time.—Altogether 2 hours. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Aspect of the Pigeon-house.—The front of a pigeon-house should have a south-west aspect to shelter the birds from the cold of the north and east winds, which frequently occasion canker in the mouth or throat of young pigeons. If the birds are kept in a room a hole should be made in the roof of the building fitted with a trap-door, which can be opened or shut at convenience. A trap or cage also be provided for the pigeons to perch upon and look about them. This should be furnished with bolting-wires to protect the birds from the attacks of cats, which will frequently depopulate a whole dovecote. It is also necessary to secure the pigeons from rats and mice which suck the eggs. The platform or trap should be painted white and renewed as the paint wears off, white being a favourite colour with pigeons; it also serves as a conspicuous mark, enabling the birds to find their way home when flying abroad. The boxes should be painted in a similar manner. Lime and water will serve the purpose as well as paint.

The Necessity of Cleanliness.—This is of the first importance in keeping the birds in good health and comfort. If cleanliness be neglected the pigeons, both young and old, will speedily be covered with filth and vermin. The pigeon-house should be cleaned once a week at least—more frequently if possible—and the floor covered with sifted gravel or gritty sand, which aids the digestion of the birds; old lime and salt should be provided for the formation of eggshell and the prevention of many ailments to which pigeons are liable. Pigeons are very fond of water, and should be furnished with a wide pan of this liquid, often renewed; this serves them for a bath, cools and refreshes the birds, and assists them to keep their bodies clear of vermin.

1252.—PIGEONS, DUCHESS STYLE. (Fr.Pigeons à la Duchesse.)

Ingredients.—3 pigeons (trussed), 4 or 5 ozs. of sausage meat, 1½ ozs. of butter, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces No. 244), eggs, breadcrumbs frying-fat, vegetables, garnish, peas, beans or macedoine.

Method.—Cut the pigeons in halves, remove all the bones except the first bone of the leg, season well, and fold the skin under, shaping them as much as possible like plump cutlets. Fry them on both sides in clarified butter, press until cold, then mask the upper surface with sausage-meat force. Coat with egg and breadcrumbs, fry until nicely browned in hot fat and drain well. Arrange neatly on a potato border, fill the centre with a dressed vegetable, pour the sauce round and serve.

Time.— Altogether about 1½ hours. Average Cost, from 1s. to 1s. 6d. each. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Breeding Pigeons.—In breeding pigeons it to necessary to match a cock and hen and shut them up together, or place them near to each other, and in the course of a day or two there is little doubt of their mating. Various rules have been laid down for the purpose of assisting to distinguish the cock from the hen pigeons; but the masculine forwardness and action of the cock is generally so remarkable, that he is easily ascertained. The pigeon being monogamous, the male attaches and confines himself to one female; and the attachment is reciprocal, and the fidelity of the dove to its mate is proverbial. Under the age of six months young pigeons are termed "squeakers," and then begin to breed when properly managed. Their courtship and the well-known tone of voice in the cock, just when acquired and commencing, are indications of their approaching union. Nestlings, while fed by cock and hen, are termed "squabs," and are at that age sold and used for the table; their flesh is far more delicate than that of older birds. The dovehouse pigeon is said to breed monthly, when well supplied with food. At all events, pigeons of any healthy and well-established variety may be depended upon to breed eight or ten times in the year, whence it may readily be conceived how large are the numbers that may be raised.

1253.—PIGEONS, GRILLED. (Fr.Pigeons Grillés.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 Bordeaux Pigeons salad-oil or oiled butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Split the birds down the back, flatten them with a cutlet-bat, and skewer into shape. Brush over with oil or butter, season with salt and pepper, and grill over or in front of a clear fire from 15 to 20 minutes, turning frequently. Serve with tomato, piquante, brown, mushroom, or other suitable sauce.

Time.—From 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 6d. each, Sufficient, for 4 or 6 persons.

The Carrier Pigeon.—Of the various varieties of pigeons, the carrier, with the exception of the blue-rock pigeon, is probably the earliest known of these domestic birds. Carrier pigeons were used to convey to distant parts of Greece the names of the successful competitors in the Olympic games. During the Crusades, when Acre was besieged by King Richard I, his antagonist Saladin kept up a constant correspondence with the beleaguered garrison by means of carrier pigeons. The stratagem was, however, discovered when the crossbow of an English archer brought one of these feathered messengers to the ground, and Saladin's plans thus unexpectedly disclosed were frustrated.

1254.—PIGEONS, JUGGED. (Fr.Civet de Pigeon.)

Ingredients.—4 pigeons, veal forcemeat, 2 or 3 ozs. of butter, ½ a pint of strong beef stock, 1 oz. of flour, 1 finely-chopped onion, 1 glass of port or claret, salt and pepper.

Method.—Truss the pigeons as if for roasting, fry them in hot butter until well-browned, then place them in a stew-jar. Brown the onion in the butter, turn both into the stew-jar, add the stock, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and cover closely. Place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, or, if more convenient, in the oven in a baking tin filled with water, and cook slowly for 2 hours. Knead the flour and 1 oz. of butter together, divide it into small pieces, and add these to the contents of the jar about ½ an hour before serving. Shape the forcemeat into small balls, egg-crumb them, fry them in hot butter or fat, and drain well. Add the wine 15 minutes before serving. Serve with the sauce poured over, and garnished with the fried forcemeat balls.

Time.—About 2½ hours. Average Cost, pigeons from 1s. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient, for 6 to 8 persons. Seasonable any time.

Tumbler Pigeons.—These pigeons are general favourites, and are found in most parts of the world. They derive their name from the inherited power they possess of turning somersaults in the air. The Tumbler pigeon is characterized by its full breast, smooth round head, thin neck, comparatively short beak, and unfeathered legs and feet. The flight and tail feathers are moderately long. The iris of a perfect bird should be a pearl-white. In the colour of its plumage and marking there is great variety. The Almond tumbler is one of the most beautiful of these birds. Highly-bred birds will attain a high elevation in the air, and there exhibit their peculiar powers. There are numerous varieties of Tumbler pigeons, as the Cumulet or Volant, Long-faced, Whiteside, Muffled, Beard, Baldhead, etc. There are also many varieties of foreign birds of this particular class, including the Bander, Magpie, Helmet and Stralsund Tumblers.

1255.—PIGEON PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Pigeons.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 pigeons, 1 lb. of rump steak, ¼ of a lb. of ham or lean bacon, ¾ of a pint of good stock, 2 hard-boiled eggs, the yolk of 1 egg, puff paste, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut each pigeon into 4 or more pieces, according to their size; cut the beef into small thin slices, the ham into strips, and the eggs into sections or slices. Put these ingredients into a pie-dish in layers, season well, and pour in stock to ¾ fill the dish. Put on the cover (see "Veal and Ham Pie," No. 798), brush over with yolk of egg, bake in quick oven until the paste is risen and set, then cook at a lower temperature for about 1 hour. Have ready a few of the pigeons' feet, scalded and the toes cut off, also the remainder of the stock. Before serving, pour in the stock through the hole in the centre of the pie, and replace the pastry ornament with the feet, fixing them in a nearly upright position. The pie may be served either hot or cold; if the latter, the stock must form a jelly when cold.

Time.—About 1½ hours, to bake the pie. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient, for 6 to 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Runt Pigeon.—This bird, which is supposed to be of great antiquity, is one of the largest of the pigeon varieties. Its colour is usually blue and silver, but black, red and yellow runts are also met with. Although delicate birds to rear, if crossed with the common pigeon, a strong healthy medium-sized bird is produced, the flesh of which is of good flavour and useful for the table. The Runt is frequently called the Spanish Runt, the name by which it was originally known in England.

The Nun Pigeon.—The Tumbler bears a strong resemblance to this variety of pigeon, in the formation of the head and beak; but the Nun, although a good flyer, has not the power of tumbling. According to the colour of its head the Nun is named red, yellow or black, but the last is the favourite colour. The shell-crest, a semi-circular tuft of feathers rising at the back of the head, should, in a bird of good breed, terminate neatly at each side of the head; the larger and more perfectly it is formed, the more highly is the bird esteemed and proportionately valued. The head and beak should be small and the primary flight and tail feathers coloured, but the rest of the plumage white. The iris of a well-bred bird should be of the purest pearl-white. The toenails deep black. The handsome appearance of the Nun renders it a favourite toy pigeon.

1256.—PIGEONS, POTTED. (See Chicken Potted.)

The Trumpeter Pigeon.—This bird has been thus designated from the peculiarity of its voice, which resembles the sound of a trumpet instead of the "coo" of other pigeons. It is of a medium size, and has its legs and feet heavily hocked and covered with long feathers; its plumage, which is loose feathered, is usually black and white. The rose on the forehead in a bird of good breeding should spread out regularly and cover the entire head, concealing the eyes and beak. The Trumpeter pigeon is known on the Continent as the "Drummer."

The Wood or Wild Pigeon.—The stock-dove, as the wood or wild pigeon to also called, is still found in its native state in some parts of Britain. It forms its nest in the holes of rocks, old towers and in the hollows of trees, but, unlike the ring-dove, does not nestle in the branches. Numbers of wild pigeons still visit our shores in the winter, making their appearance about November from their more northerly retreats, and returning thither in the spring. When formerly forests of beechwood covered large tracts of ground in England, the wood pigeon frequented them in vast numbers.

1257.—PIGEONS, ROASTED. (Fr.Pigeons Rôtis.)

Ingredients.—Pigeons, bacon, watercress, salad-oil, salt and pepper, Espagnole, tomato or piquante sauce (see Sauces), croûtons of fried bread.

Method.—Draw and truss the birds, cover each breast with a slice of larding bacon, and roast before a clear fire or in a brisk oven for about 20 or 30 minutes, according to age and size. Baste frequently, and a few minutes before serving remove the bacon to allow the breasts to brown. Remove the trussing strings, replace the bacon, serve each bird on a croûton, garnish with watercress previously washed, dried, and seasoned with salt, pepper, and salad-oil, and serve the sauce in a sauce boat.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 6d. each. Sufficient, allow 1 bird for 2 persons.

Fantail.—This well-known and curious variety is characterized by its possessing the power of erecting its tail in the manner of a turkey cock, during which action it trembles or shakes its neck in a similar way to the peacock when moving about with his train expanded and in full display. The chief colour of the fantail is pure white, but black, blue and other hues are met with. The head is narrow and flat, the beak long and slender, the legs and feet naked, the tail-feathers long and broad. When flying, the fantail contracts its tail contrary to the habit of other pigeons. The Fantail is common in India, where it possibly originated, and is a favourite bird with the Hindus, who ornament the legs of their Fantails with small brass bangles containing little silver balls.

1253.—PIGEONS, STEWED. (Fr.Compôte de Pigeons à la Bourgeoise.)

Ingredients.—3 pigeons, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces No. 244), 1 glass of claret, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a pint of shelled peas, 12 button onions, 6 or 7 very small carrots, salt and pepper, croûte of fried bread, 1½ inches in thickness.

Method.—Cut each pigeon into 4 pieces, and fry them brown in the butter. Have ready the hot Espagnole sauce, put in the pigeons and claret, cover closely, and stew gently for about 35 minutes, or until the birds are tender. Strain the butter into a small stewpan, put in the onions, and cook until tender and well browned. Boil the carrots and peas separately, and drain them well. Arrange the pigeons on the croûte, strain the sauce over, group the onions, peas, and carrots tastefully round the dish, and serve.

Time.—To cook the pigeons, about 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Jacobin.—This is one of the most prized of fancy pigeons. It is a handsome bird, distinguished by a remarkable ruff or frill of raised feathers, which commence behind the head and proceed down the neck and breast, forming a kind of hood which, if perfect, should come forward as far as the eyes. In form the Jacobin should be slenderly made, narrow shouldered, with unfeathered legs, and soft, silky, and very narrow feathers; the head should be somewhat broad and round, and the eyes pearl-white. Its principal colours are red, black, white and yellow.

The Turbit Pigeon.—This variety resembles the Jacobin, having a kind of frill in the fore part of the neck. The present breed of Turbit is characterized by a full frill, small head, broad forehead, short thick beak, prominent hazel eyes, the wings coloured with the exception of the primary flight-feathers, and the remainder of the plumage white. The feathers at the back of the head should end in a high, sharp point, just above the crown. Turbits are of various hues, black, red, blue, silver, yellow and variants of these. The Oriental Turbit, a stronger built bird than the English Turbit, has no crest.

1259.—PIGEONS WITH OLIVES. (Fr.Pigeons aux Olives.)

Ingredients.—2 pigeons, 24 stoned French olives, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole sauce, (see Sauces No. 244), 1½ ozs. of butter, stock.

Method.—Divide each pigeon into quarters, and fry them brown in the butter. Have the sauce ready in a stewpan, put in the pigeons, cover closely, and cook them very gently for about 40 minutes, or until tender. Meanwhile, braise or stew the olives in a little good stock. Serve the pigeons on a hot dish, with the sauce strained over, and the olives grouped at the base.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. to 3s. 9d. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Barb Pigeon.—The name of this bird is probably a contraction of Barbary, since Shakespeare refers to it under that designation. The Barb somewhat resembles the Carrier pigeon in appearance. The head is broad and flat, the beak short and the wattle small. The chief characteristic of the Barb is the spongy, bright red, wheel-shaped wattle, standing out all round the eyes, which increases in size until the bird is three or four years old. The brilliancy of the colour of the eye wattles diminishes with age. The eyes of a well-bred Barb should be pearl-white, and its beak white.

The Rock Pigeon.—In its wild state the rock pigeon is found more abundantly on the rocky parts of the West of Scotland and the bold shores of the Western Isles than in any other parts of the British Isles. In these localities the pigeons congregate in great numbers, and flocks from different parts of the coast frequently meet on the feeding grounds, but when the time arrives for returning to rest each pigeon keeps to its own party. A very conspicuous trait of the rock pigeon is its love of home and its constancy in returning to it. The rock pigeon is the original progenitor of the numerous domestic varieties of the pigeon, and is used by the late Dr. Darwin in his Origin of Species and Animals under Domestication, to illustrate his theory of descent by natural selection.

The Pouter Pigeon.—This favourite pigeon is a tall and strong bird with white feathered legs, and is characterized by his great round inflated crop. The more common birds of this variety are the blues, buffs and whites, or an intermixture of these colours. The pouter is not a prolific breeder, is a bad nurse, and degenerates, if not repeatedly crossed and re-crossed with fresh stock, more rapidly than any other kind of pigeon. It is, however, a useful bird, being much attached to its home and strays but little, and thus induces more restless pigeons of other varieties to remain at home.

The Owl Pigeon.—Like the Turbit, the Owl pigeon has a remarkable tuft of feathers on the breast, resembling a frill or rosette, going partly round the neck; the size of the frill constitutes a point of excellence in the bird. Well-bred birds of the Owl type are rounded, broad and short from the eye to the tip of the beak, which should be short and thick, the eye prominent and the breast broad. The Owl pigeon is probably a native of the southern shores of the Mediterranean. There are several varieties of the owl pigeon, the Whiskered Owl, which has a very large frill, and is supposed to have come from China; in Germany it is called the Chinese Owl; the African Owl, with bare legs and destitute of a crest; and the Eastern Owl, imported from Turkey and Asia Minor.

1260.—SAVOURY DUCK.

See "Faggots."

1261.—SMOTHERED CHICKEN.

Ingredients.—A boiled fowl, No. 1220, white sauce, No. 222

Method.—Divide the hot cooked fowl into neat joints, place them on a hot dish, cover completely with sauce, then serve.

1262.—TURKEY, BAKED, À LA MILANAISE.

See "Italian Cookery."

1263.—TURKEY, BLANQUETTE OF. (Fr.Blanquette de Dinde.)

Ingredients.—The remains of a cold turkey, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 yolk of egg, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 small onion, 1 small blade of mace, nutmeg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the turkey into neat slices, and set these aside until wanted. Put the bones, trimmings, onion, mace and a little salt and pepper into a stewpan, cover with cold water, simmer gently for at least 1 hour, and strain. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, cook for a few minutes without browning, put in the stock, and stir until boiling. Simmer gently for 10 minutes, season to taste, add a pinch of nutmeg, put in the slices of turkey, and let them become quite hot without boiling. Mix the cream and yolk of egg together, add them to the contents of the stewpan, stir gently for about 5 minutes, then serve.

Time.—To re-heat the turkey, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d., exclusive of the turkey. Sufficient for 1 dish.

The Turkey (Fr. dindon).—This is one of the gallinaceous birds, the principal genera of which are the pheasants, turkeys, peacocks, bustards, pintatoes and grouse. They live chiefly on the ground scraping the earth with their feet, and feeding on seeds and grain which, previous to digestion, are macerated in their crops. They usually associate in families consisting of one male and several females. Turkeys are especially partial to the seeds of nettles. The common turkey is a native of North America, and it was introduced into England during the reign of Henry VIII. According to Tusser's Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, it began about the year 1585 to form a dish at the rural Christmas feast.

"Beefe, mutton, and pork, shred pies of the best,
Pig, veal, goose and capon, and turkey well drest:
Cheese, apples and nuts, jolly carols to hear,
As then in the country is counted good cheer."

The turkey is one of the most difficult birds to rear, and its flesh is much esteemed.

1264.—TURKEY, BOILED. (Fr.Dinde Bouilli.)

Ingredients.—1 turkey, sausage meat (1 to 2 lbs., according to size of turkey), forcemeat balls (see Forcemeats); a small head of celery, 1 pint of celery sauce (see Sauces No. 184), stock or water, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 small turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 white peppercorns, salt.

Method.—Prepare and truss the turkey for boiling, stuff the crop with sausage meat, wrap the bird in a well-buttered paper, and put it into a pan containing as much boiling stock or water as will cover it. When the liquor boils, add the onions, carrots, and turnip cut into large pieces, the bouquet-garni, peppercorns, and salt to taste, put on the cover and cook gently from 1½ to 2¼ hours, according to size. Meanwhile, make the forcemeat balls, and fry them in a little hot fat or butter. Cut the celery into neat pieces, and boil in well-seasoned stock or water until tender. When the turkey is sufficiently cooked, remove the trussing skewers and strings, place on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and garnish with groups of celery, dice, and forcemeat balls. If preferred, Béchamel sauce may be substituted for the celery sauce; in any case the quantity provided should be proportionate to the size of the bird. Boiled ham or tongue usually accompanies boiled turkey.

Time.—From 2 to 2½ hours. Average Cost, 6s. to 20s., according to size of turkey and season. Seasonable, from September to March. In best condition in December and January.

The Disposition of the Turkey.—The turkey among its own flock is both fierce and quarrelsome, but among other birds is usually both weak and cowardly. The domestic cock will often keep a flock of turkeys at a distance and they will rarely attack him except in an united body, when the cock is crushed rather by the superior weight of his antagonists than by their prowess. The female is less ferocious in her disposition than the male, and when leading forth her young, to which she is very affectionate, to collect their food, gives them if attacked but slight protection, warning them of their danger rather than offering to protect her threatened brood.

GAME & POULTRY.

 
Mrs Beeton (809).jpg
 

1.—Snipe on Toast. 2.—Larks on Toast. 3.—Roast Pheasant. 4.—Roast Pigeons. 5.—Roast Fowl. 6.—Roast Goose. 7.—Roast Duck. 8.—Boiled Fowl. 9.—Roast Turkey.

1265.—TURKEY, CROQUETTES OF. (Fr.Croquettes de Dinde.)

See "Chicken, Croquettes of," No. 1157.

1266.—TURKEY, DEVILLED. (Fr.Dinde à la Diable.)

Ingredients.—Cold roast turkey. For the devilled butter: 1 oz. of butter, ½ a saltspoonful each of cayenne, black pepper, and curry-powder, a pinch of ground ginger, piquante sauce.

Method.—Mix the ingredients for the devilled butter together on a plate. Divide the turkey into pieces convenient for serving, remove all skin, score the flesh deeply, and spread lightly with the butter. Put aside, and let them remain for 1 hour, or longer when a highly-seasoned dish is desired, then grill over the fire, and serve with piquante or other suitable sauce.

Time.—To grill, about 8 minutes. Average Cost, 8d., exclusive of the turkey. Sufficient, one leg will serve 2 persons.

Hunting Turkeys.—A favourite diversion among the Indians of Canada was hunting turkeys. When the retreat of these birds was discovered, usually near to a field of nettles or grain a well-trained dog was sent among the flock. As soon as the turkeys perceived their enemy they ran away at the top of their speed, leaving the dog far behind, but still following in their wake. The turkeys fatigued by their efforts after a time sought shelter in the trees. Sitting there worn out by their exertions, the birds were easily secured by the hunters, who knocked them down one by one with long poles which they carried for that purpose.

1267.—TURKEY, DEVILLED. (Fr.Dinde à la Diable.) (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—2 turkey legs, made mustard, pepper and salt, cayenne.

Method.—Score the legs in deep ridges, in regular lines, both along and across; prepare and salt these, adding cayenne, when liked very hot. Cover with mixed mustard, pressing well into the openings, and let it remain until the next morning. Have a bright clear fire, and grill them until the outside is crisp and brown. Spread with small pieces of fresh butter, seasoned with cayenne, and serve quickly.

Time.—About 8 minutes, to grill. Average Cost, 4d., exclusive of the turkey. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1268.—TURKEY, FRICASSÉE OF. (Fr.Fricassée de Dinde.)

See "Chicken, Fricasséed," No. 1164.

1269.—TURKEY, GALANTINE OF.

See "Gelatine of Fowl," No. 1233, and use a boned turkey in place of chicken.

1270.—TURKEY, HASHED. (Fr.Hachie de Dinde.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast turkey, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, ¾ of a pint of stock made from bones and trimmings of turkey, salt and pepper, a few drops of liquid caramel.

Method.—Divide the turkey into small neat joints, and put them aside. Put the bones and trimmings into a stewpan with a small onion, a blade of mace, a few peppercorns and a little salt, simmer gently for 2 hours, then strain and use. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock, and stir until boiling. Let the sauce boil gently for about 10 minutes, in order that the flour may be thoroughly cooked, then season to taste, add the pieces of turkey, draw the stewpan aside, and let it remain for about ½ an hour, where the contents will be kept just below simmering point. Before serving, improve the colour of the sauce by the addition of a few drops of caramel. The dish may be garnished with sippets of toasted bread, or surrounded by a border of mashed potato.

Time.—About 45 minutes after the stock is made. Average Cost, 6d. exclusive of the turkey.

Note.—For other methods of re-heating turkey, see the numerous recipes for, re-heating chicken.

English Turkeys.—These are reared in great numbers in Suffok, Norfolk and several other counties, whence they were wont to be driven to the London market in flocks of several hundreds; the improvements in our modes of travelling now, however, enable them to be brought by railway. Their drivers used to manage them with great facility, by means of a bit of red rag tied to the end of a long stick, which, from the antipathy these birds have to that colour, effectually answered the purpose of a scourge. There are three varieties of the turkey in this country, the black, the white, and the speckled or copper-coloured. The black approaches nearest the original stock, and is esteemed the best. Its flesh is white and tender, delicate, nourishing and of excellent flavour; it greatly deteriorates with age, however, and is then good for little but stewing.

1271.—TURKEY POULT, ROASTED. (Fr.Dindon rôti.)

Ingredients.—Turkey poult, butter or fat for basting, gravy (see "Gravies").

Method.—Truss the bird for roasting and cover the breast with 2 or 3 folds of buttered paper. Roast for about 1 hour in front of a clear fire, basting frequently, and serve with good gravy, and, if liked, either fried bacon or boiled ham.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6s. to 7s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from June to October.

The Wild Turkey.—In its wild state the turkey is a gregarious bird, going together in large flocks, frequently some hundreds in number. They frequent the great swamps of America, where they roost, but at sunrise repair to the dry woods in search of berries and acorns. They perch on the boughs of trees, usually mounting to the highest tops. In its manner of flight the wild turkey is awkward, but runs with great swiftness. In the early spring they become so fat that they are readily overtaken by a horseman. Wild turkeys are now rare in the inhabited parts of America, but are found in great numbers in the more distant and less frequented districts.

1272.—TURKEY, ROASTED. (Fr.Dinde Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 turkey, 1 to 2 lb. of sausage meat, 1 to 1½ lb. of veal forcmeat (see Forcemeats), 2 or 3 slices of bacon, 1 pint of good gravy. bread sauce (see Sauces, No. 180), fat for basting.

Method.—Prepare and truss the turkey. Fill the crop with sausage meat, and put the veal forcemeat inside the body of the bird. Skewer the bacon over the breast, baste well with hot fat, and roast in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven from 1¾ to 2¼ hours, according to age and size of the bird. Baste frequently, and about 20 minutes before serving remove the bacon to allow the breast to brown. Remove the trussing strings, serve on a hot dish, and send the gravy and bread sauce to table in sauce-boats.

Time.—From 1¾ to 2¼ hours. Average Cost, 10s. to 16s. Seasonable from September to February.

1273.—TURKEY, STEWED OR BRAISED. (Fr.Dinde braisé.)

Ingredients.—1 small turkey, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, 4 ozs. of butter, 2 onions sliced, 2 carrots sliced, 1 turnip sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, salt and pepper, 1 pint of oyster sauce (see "Sauces, No. 310"), stock.

Method.—Truss the bird as for roasting. Heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the turkey until the whole surface is well-browned, then remove it. Put in the vegetables, bouquet-garni, peppercorns and a good seasoning of salt, and add stock to nearly cover the whole. Replace the turkey, lay the slices of bacon on the breast, cover closely, and cook gently for about 2 hours, or until the turkey is quite tender. If preferred, brown sauce may be substituted for the oyster sauce, in which case the bird might be stuffed, as when roasted.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 6s. 6d. to 8s. 6d., exclusive of the sauce. Sufficient for 8 persons. Seasonable September to February.

The Origin of the Turkey.—It is to North America that we an indebted for this bird, which is popularly associated with Christmas fare and rejoicing. It is asserted by some that the turkey was known to the ancients, and that it formed a dish at the wedding feast of Charlemagne. There is, however, little doubt that it is a native of the North of America, where it is found in its wild state, from whence it was introduced into Europe in the sixteenth century. It was imported into France by the Jesuits, who had been sent out as missionaries to the West; and in many localities of France even at the present day a turkey is called a Jesuit. On the farms of North America, where turkeys are very common, they are raised from eggs which have been found, or from young birds caught in the wood; they thus preserve almost entirely their original plumage. The turkey only became gradually acclimatized both on the Continent and in England; in the middle of the eighteenth century scarcely more than ten out of twenty young turkeys were reared; now about fifteen of the same number arrive at maturity.

1274.—TURKEY WITH CHESTNUTS. (Fr.Dinde Farcie aux Marrons.)

Ingredients,—1 turkey, 2 or 3 lb. of chestnuts, 1 to 1½ lb. of sausage meat or veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats), 3 or 4 slices of bacon, ½ a pint of stock, 1 pint of good gravy, or brown sauce (see Gravies and Sauces), 2 ozs. of butter, 1 egg, a little cream or milk, salt and pepper.

Method.—Slit the skins of the chestnuts, throw them into boiling water, cook for 15 minutes, then remove both skins. Replace in the stewpan, add the stock, cover closely and simmer gently for nearly 1 hour, or until the chestnuts are tender. Rub them through a fine sieve, add the butter, egg, a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and if the purée appears at all dry, a little cream or milk. Prepare, and truss the turkey, stuff the crop with sausage meat or veal farce, and fill the body with the chestnut purée. Skewer the bacon over the breast, baste well with hot fat, and roast before a clear fire or in a moderate oven from 1¾ to 2¼ hours, according to size. Baste well, and shortly before serving remove the bacon in order that the breast may brown. Remove the trussing strings, serve on a hot dish, and send the sauce or gravy to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—From 1¾ to 2¼ hours. Average Cost, 10s. to 16s. Seasonable from September to February; in best condition in December and January.

The Feathers of the Turkey.—Human ingenuity has utilized almost every material for use or for ornament, and among primitive races feathers have been widely employed for such purposes. The American Indians made an elegant cloth by twisting the inner ribs of the turkey's feathers into a strong double string with hemp or the inner bark of the mulberry tree, weaving these materials in a similar manner to matting and forming a fabric of a rich and glossy appearance. The tail feathers were made into fans by the Indians of Louisiana.

1275.—TURKEY, WITH CHIPOLATA GARNISH. (Fr.Dinde à la Chipolata.)

Ingredients.—1 turkey, 1½ to 2½ lb. of sausage meat, 1 to 2 lb. of veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats), larding bacon, 1 bottle of preserved mushrooms, ½ a pint each of carrot and turnip scooped out into rounds, 1½ ozs. of butter, ½ a pint of stock, 1 pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244, fat for basting.

Method.—Prepare and truss the turkey, lard the breast, put ½ a lb. of the sausage meat aside, the remainder into the crop of the bird, and stuff the body with veal forcemeat. Baste well with hot fat, and roast before a clear fire, or in a moderate oven from 1¾ to 2¼ hours, according to size. Baste frequently, and as soon as the breast has acquired sufficient colour, cover it with 3 or 4 folds of greased paper. Divide the butter and put it into 2 small stewpans, add the carrots to one and the turnips to the other, and fry for 10 or 15 minutes. Season with salt and pepper, add 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of stock, cover closely, and cook the carrot gently for about 45 minutes, and the turnip for ½ that length of time. The stewpans should be occasionally shaken, and it may be necessary to add more stock, all of which, however, must be well drained from the vegetables before dishing. 15 minutes before serving, put the mushrooms and their liquor into a stewpan, let them become thoroughly hot, then drain and use. Shape the remainder of the sausage meat into small balls, and fry them in hot butter or fat until brown. Remove the trussing strings, place the turkey on a hot dish, arrange the mushrooms, carrots, turnips and sausage meat balls in groups, and serve the Espagnole sauce in a sauceboat.

Time.—From 1¾ to 2¼ hours. Average Cost, 10s. to 16s. Sufficient for 12 or more persons, according to size of the turkey. Seasonable from September to March; in best condition in December and January.

1276.—TURKEY, WITH MUSTARD SAUCE. (Fr.Dinde, Sauce Moutarde.)

Ingredients.—2 turkey legs, ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233) 1 tablespoonful of made mustard, 1 tablespoonful of piquante sauce (see Sauces, No. 265).

Method.—Score the legs deeply, pour over them the mustard and piquante sauce. Let them soak for ½ an hour, or longer if preferred highly seasoned. Make the brown sauce as directed, add to it the legs and the marinade, simmer gently for 20 minutes, then serve on a hot dish with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 9d., exclusive of the turkey. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1277.—WHEATEARS, TO DRESS.

Ingredients.—Wheatears, fresh butter, watercress.

Method.—After the birds are picked, drawn and cleaned, truss them like larks, cook them in front of a quick fire, and baste them well with oiled butter. When done, which will be in about 20 minutes, dish them up, garnish the dish with watercress, and serve with fried breadcrumbs.

Time.—20 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. each. Seasonable from July to October.

The Wheatear (Fr. vitrec).—This elegant little bird, some 6 inches in length, belongs to the family of the Sylviadae or Warblers and is a visitant of Britain during the summer, arriving from the middle or March to May and quitting our island in September. The male is light-grey, the wing-quills and coverts are black, the breast is brown with an orange tinge, and the under parts brown and white. The wheatear is esteemed as a table delicacy when the birds are well-nourished. Large quantities of the wheatear are captured by nets and snares made of horsehair. The wheatear builds its nest in the crannies of rocks and similar situations. Its eggs are of a pale blue tint. It is also known as the Fallow-chat.