Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXX

RECIPES FOR COOKING VEGETABLES.

 
CHAPTER XXX
 

The time vegetables take to boil depends on their age. Young vegetables with tender fibres will, as a rule, cook in about 20 minutes, whereas those fully matured, and consequently containing a relatively larger amount of fibrous substance, will average no less than 40 minutes. The colour of green vegetables may be preserved by adding a little soda to the water in which they are boiled. The discoloration is due to hard water holding in solution a certain amount of lime, which is destroyed by the addition of a little soda, thereby softening the water and preserving the colour of the vegetables. As soon as the vegetables are sufficiently cooked they should be removed from the saucepan and drained, otherwise they absorb water, lose some of their flavour, and become discoloured.

GENERAL RULES FOR BOILING VEGETABLES.

All vegetables should be put into boiling water, to which salt should be added in the proportion of 1 tablespoonful to 2 quarts of water. The salt greatly improves the flavour of the vegetables, and it also raises the boiling point of the water, thus tending to preserve their colour. Plenty of water should be used for green vegetables, and a little soda to soften the water and counteract the hardening effect of the salt. All vegetables must be kept boiling, but Jerusalem artichokes, vegetable marrows, and others of a similar character, must be boiled more gently than cabbage and other greens, otherwise they may break. As soon as the vegetables are sufficiently cooked the water should be drained from them, for some are liable to break, and one and all become watery when kept in the water after they are done. They may, however, be covered with a cloth, and kept hot in a colander placed over an empty iron saucepan for a considerable time without injury.

GENERAL RULES FOR STEWING VEGETABLES.

The long, slow process of stewing is not often applied to green vegetables, for it would destroy their colour, but celery, celeriac, salsify, and cardons are frequently stewed, the method being peculiarly adapted to them when old. Very little stock or water should be used, and the vessel containing these vegetables must be kept closely covered to prevent the escape of the steam, which helps to cook them.

1435.—ARTICHOKES, BOILED. (Fr.Artichauts au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—2-3 Globe artichokes, salt, Hollandaise or other suitable sauce.

Method.—Wash the artichokes in several waters, cut off the stems, and, if necessary, trim the leaves. Put them into boiling water, add about 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and if the water be hard, or the vegetable old, also add a piece of soda, the size of a Spanish nut. Keep the saucepan uncovered, and boil quickly from 25 to 30 minutes, or until the vegetables are tender. Drain well, and serve with Hollandaise, white, or other suitable sauce, or, if preferred, oiled butter.

Time.—From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 3d. to 6d. each. Seasonable, from July to October.

Compositae, or Composite Plants.—This natural order is the most extensive and universally distributed of herbs and shrubs. The flowers are monopetalous, and from the form of its corolla are divided into three natural groups or sub-orders: Tubuliflorae, Labiatiflorae, and Liguliflorae; the last comprises plants belonging to this order, which grow in colder and temperate climates, and the former tropical and extra-tropical plants. Included among the Compositae are many familiar and useful plants, as the daisy, dandelion, aster, chicory, lettuce, artichoke, arnica, chamomile, etc.

1436.—ARTICHOKES, FRENCH METHOD OF COOKING. (Fr.Artichauts aux Fines Herbes.)

Ingredients.—Globe artichokes, a small bunch of savoury herbs, salt, oiled butter.

Method.—Prepare the artichokes as directed in the preceding recipe. Place them in boiling water, add the herbs and a little salt, boil until tender, then drain well, and serve with oiled butter.

Time.—To cook the artichokes, 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d. each. Allow ½ a large artichoke or 1 small one to each person. Seasonable from July to October.

1437.—ARTICHOKES, FRIED. (Fr.Artichauts Frits.)

Ingredients.—6 artichokes. For the batter: 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 tablespoonful of salad-oil, 1 egg, salt.

Method.—Trim and boil the artichokes as in the preceding recipe. When they are quite tender take them up, remove the fibrous internal part, called the "choke," and divide the bottoms into 3 or 4 pieces, according to size. Mix the flour, salt, salad-oil, milk and yolk of the egg smoothly together, and let it stand for a time. When ready to use, beat the white to a stiff froth, and stir it lightly into the batter. Have ready a deep pan of boiling fat, dip the pieces of artichoke into the batter, take them out on the point of a skewer, drop them into the fat, and fry light-brown. Garnish with fried parsley, and serve with white sauce.

Time.—25 to 30 minutes to boil the artichokes; 5 to 7 minutes to fry them. Average Cost, from 1s. 10d. to 3s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from July to October.

Constituent Properties of the Artichoke.—These are in 1,000 parts—starch, 30; albumen, 10; saccharine matter, 148; gum, 12; fixed oil, 1; woody fibre, 12; inorganic matter, 27; water 770. The constituents, however, vary with the different plants and the character of the soils in which they grow.

1438.—ARTICHOKES WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr.Artichauts aux Champignons.)

Ingredients.—3 or 4 Globe artichokes, ½ a lb. of mushrooms, ½ a pint of white sauce, No. 223, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt.

Method.—Trim the artichokes, cut them into quarters, and boil them until tender in slightly salted water. Melt the butter in a stewpan, peel and trim the mushrooms, fry them very gently for about 15 minutes, then add the white sauce, salt and pepper to taste, and stir the ingredients until they boil. Drain the artichokes, arrange them on the dish in a circle, with the leaves outwards, and pour the mushroom sauce in the centre.

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes, to boil the artichokes. Average Cost, about 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 8 or 10 persons. Seasonable from July to October.

1439.—ARTICHOKES, JERUSALEM, BOILED. (Fr.Topinambours au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—1½ to 2 lbs. Jerusalem Artichokes, vinegar, salt, water, white sauce or melted butter sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Wash the artichokes and peel them, put them at once into the vinegar and water to preserve their colour. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, to each quart allow a heaped teaspoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of vinegar, put in the artichokes, and boil gently for about 20 minutes. They should be tried frequently after a ¼ of an hour, as they are apt to break and become discoloured if overcooked. Drain well, and serve in a hot vegetable dish, with the sauce poured over.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. or 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to June.

Uses of the Jerusalem Artichoke.—This tuberous rooted plant, with its leafy stem, from four to six feet in height, affords excellent fodder for cattle. The tubers are also used as a nutritious culinary vegetable. The fibres of the stem can be separated by maceration, and manufactured into cordage or cloth; an operation carried on in some parts of the north and west of France. The leaves form a convenient material for the packing of fruit. One drawback to the cultivation of artichokes in gardens is that if the soil is favourable to them, they spread rapidly, and are difficult to keep within bounds. The artichoke is a pleasantly flavoured and nourishing vegetable.

1440.—ARTICHOKES, JERUSALEM, FRIED. (Fr.Topinambours Frits.)

Ingredients.—Jerusalem artichokes, frying-batter.

Method.—Prepare and parboil the artichokes, cut them into rather thick slices, and season well with salt and pepper. Make the batter as directed in recipe No. 1437, dip in the slices of artichokes, fry them until nicely browned in hot fat, and drain well. Garnish with crisply-fried parsley, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—To parboil the artichokes, 20 minutes after the water boils; to fry them, 6 or 7 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to June.

1441.—ARTICHOKES, JERUSALEM, FRIED. (Fr.Topinambours Frits.) (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Artichokes, frying-fat or oil, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and peel the artichokes, drain them thoroughly, and cut them into thin slices. Have ready a deep pan of hot fat or oil, and fry the slices in a basket, a few at a time. Drain well, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve them as hot and as crisp as possible.

Time.—About 20 minutes, to fry the artichokes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to June.

1442.—ARTICHOKES, JERUSALEM, MASHED. (Fr.Purée de Topinambours.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of artichokes, 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash, peel, and boil the artichokes in the same manner as potatoes. Drain well, rub them through a fine sieve, replace them in the stewpan with the butter, cream and pepper, stir over the fire until the purée is quite hot, then serve.

Time.—From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to June.

1443.—ARTICHOKES, JERUSALEM, WITH WHITE SAUCE. (Fr.Topinambours, Sauce Blanche.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of artichokes, 1 quart of water (about), 1 heaped teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of vinegar, ½ a pint of white sauce.

Method.—Wash, peel, and trim the artichokes to a cone shape. Add the salt and vinegar to the water when boiling, put in the artichokes, and boil for about 20 minutes. Drain well, serve in a hot vegetable dish, and pour over the hot white sauce.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to June.

The Jerusalem Artichoke.—(Fr. topinambour) This well-known plant, which derives its name from the Italian girasole, a sunflower, was introduced into England in the sixteenth century. Its tubers are not only cultivated as a garden vegetable but also an agricultural crop. By many it is much esteemed as an esculent vegetable, when cooked various ways, and domesticated animals eat both the fresh foliage and the tubers with much relish.

1444.—ASPARAGUS, BOILED. (Fr.Asperges au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—1 bundle asparagus, salt, water, toast.

Method.—Scrape the white part of the stems, beginning from the head, tie them into bundles of about 20 each, keeping all the heads in one direction. Cut the stalks evenly, and keep the asparagus in cold water until it is time to cook it. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add a heaped teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, put in the asparagus, and boil gently for about 20 minutes, or until tender. Dish on toast, and serve with Hollandaise, white, or other suitable sauce, or, if preferred, oiled butter.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 2s. to 3s. 6d. per 100 heads. Seasonable from April to July.

Asparagus (Fr. asperges).—This plant, which belongs to the natural order Liliaceae, is a native of Great Britain. It is found growing on various parts of the sea coast, and in the fens of Lincolnshire, but it is smaller in size than the cultivated plant. At Kynance Cove, in Cornwall, there is a rocky island called "Asparagus Island," from the circumstance that this plant was once cultivated there. Asparagus is raised from seed, and the plants are usually allowed to remain in the ground for three years before being cut, after which they yield an annual supply.

1445.—ASPARAGUS WITH EGGS. (Fr.Asperges aux Oeufs.)

Ingredients.—50 heads of asparagus, 1 pint of milk (or equal quantities of milk and water), 1 large head of lettuce finely-shredded, 1 medium-sized onion parboiled and cut into small pieces, 1 bay-leaf, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, 1½ ozs. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper, 6 or 8 nicely poached eggs.

Method.—Cut off the tops of the asparagus, and keep them in cold water until wanted. Bring the milk to boiling point, put in the stalks of the asparagus, lettuce, onion, bay-leaf, thyme, and salt, simmer gently for about 20 minutes, then rub through a fine sieve. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, cook slightly, then add the purée of vegetables, the milk in which they were cooked, and stir the mixture until it boils. Cool slightly, then add the yolks of eggs, and cook gently until they thicken, stirring meanwhile. Prepare the asparagus tops by boiling them from 10 to 15 minutes, and poach the eggs and trim them to a nice round shape. Add the lemon-juice to the purée, season to taste, pour it down the middle of a hot dish, arrange the eggs on either side, and garnish the top of the purée in the space between the two rows of eggs with the asparagus points.

Time.—About 40 minutes. Average Cost, from 3s. 9d. to 4s. 6d. Seasonable from April to July.

1446.—ASPARAGUS, FRENCH STYLE. (Fr.Asperges à la Bonne Femme.)

Ingredients.—1 bundle or 100 heads of asparagus, 1 pint of milk (or equal quantities of milk and water), 1 head of lettuce finely shredded and cut into short lengths, 1 medium-sized onion parboiled and finely-chopped, 1 bay leaf, one sprig of thyme, 1½ ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper, croûtes of buttered toast or fried bread, chopped parsley, strips of cucumber.

Method.—Wash and trim the asparagus, and tie it into 3 or 4 bundles. Bring the milk to boiling point, put in the asparagus, lettuce, onion, bay-leaf, thyme, and salt, and simmer gently for about 20 minutes. Drain the asparagus well, cut off the points and the edible parts of the stalks, and keep them hot. Strain the milk and return it to the stewpan, add the butter and flour previously kneaded together, and stir until a smooth sauce is obtained. Beat the yolks of eggs slightly, add them to the sauce, and stir until they thicken, but do not allow the sauce to boil, or the yolks may curdle. Season to taste, and add the lemon-juice. Pile the asparagus on the croûtes, cover with sauce, garnish with strips of cucumber, and a little chopped parsley, and serve as a vegetable entremet, or as an entrée for a vegetarian dinner.

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. to 7s. Seasonable from April to July.

Medicinial uses of Asparagus.—Not only is this plant valuable as a wholesome and nutritious vegetable, but it posses diuretic properties, due to the presence of a crystalline substance, which is also found in the potato and lettuce. The chemical analysis of its juice shows the presence of a peculiar crystallizable principle called asparagin, albumen, mannite, malic acid, and certain salts. The cellular tissue contains a substance analogous to sago.

1447.—ASPARAGUS, INDIAN STYLE. (Fr.Asperges à l'Indienne.)

Ingredients.—Asparagus, curry sauce (see Sauces, 241).

Method.—Prepare, cook and drain asparagus (see Asparagus, Boiled), serve with a little curry sauce, either poured over the points, or handed round separately.

1448.—ASPARAGUS POINTS, OR PEAS. (Fr.Pointes d'Asperges.)

Ingredients.—Green asparagus, oiled butter, pepper.

Method.—Cut the points and the tender green parts of the asparagus into short pieces, place them in slightly-salted boiling water, and cook gently from 5 to 10 minutes, according to size and age. Drain well, put the asparagus into a stewpan containing a little oiled butter, sprinkle with pepper, toss over the fire for a few minutes, then serve either as a garnish or vegetable. It is a mistake to add anything that will impair the delicate flavour of the asparagus, but sometimes a little chopped shallot and parsley are fried in the butter before putting in the asparagus; and the dish may be still further varied by stirring in, just before serving, tablespoonfuls of good white sauce, or 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of thick cream and a yolk of egg.

Time.—To boil the asparagus, from 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 10s. 6d. per 100. Allow 100 points for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable from April to July; obtainable from January.

1449.—ASPARAGUS PUDDING. (Fr.Pouding d'Asperges.)

Ingredients.—¼ of a pint of asparagus points, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of very finely-minced ham, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, milk.

Method.—Cut up the nice green tender parts of asparagus, about the size of peas, put them into a basin with the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the flour, ham, butter, pepper and salt. Mix all these ingredients well together, and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding of a consistency of thick butter. Put it into a pint buttered mould, tie it down tightly with a floured cloth, place it in boiling water, and let it boil for 2 hours. Turn it out of the mould on to a hot dish, and pour plain melted butter round, but not over the pudding.

Time.—2 hours. Average Cost, about 3s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from April to July.

1450.—ASPARAGUS ROLLS. (Fr.Petits Pains aux Asperges.)

Ingredients.—50 heads of asparagus, 6 small French rolls, ½ a pint of milk, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the crust from the bottom of each roll, scoop out the inside, and, if convenient, fry them in hot fat, if not, crisp them in the oven. Boil the asparagus in the usual way, then cut off the points and keep them hot, and rub the stalks through a fine sieve. Heat the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, and cook slightly, then add the milk, and stir until boiling. Put in the purée of asparagus and yolks of eggs, season with salt and pepper, and stir by the side of the fire until the mixture thickens, but it must not be allowed to boil or the eggs may curdle. Fill the rolls, piling the preparation rather high, garnish the top of each one with asparagus points, and serve as a vegetable entremet, luncheon dish, or vegetarian entrée.

Time.—About 40 minutes. Average Cost, from 3s. to 4s. Seasonable from April to July.

1451.—BEANS, FRENCH, BOILED. (Fr.Haricots Verts au Natural.)

Ingredients.—French beans, salt.

Method.—Cut off the heads, tails, and a thin strip on each side of the beans, so as to remove the string. Cut the beans in a slanting direction into slips, and, as they are cut, drop them into cold water. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add 1 heaped teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and a small piece of soda if the beans are old. Put in the beans, keep the saucepan uncovered, and boil briskly from 15 to 25 minutes, according to age. Drain well, sprinkle with pepper, then serve.

Time.—To boil the beans, from 15 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, from 3d. to 1s. per lb., according to season. Seasonable from July to October.

The Golden Bean.—It is much esteemed in Germany, but is little known in England. It is sown early in June, and becomes a bright golden hue in September. It should hang on the plant until perfectly ripe. Both the pod and bean are eaten, and have a delicious taste.

1452.—BEANS, FRENCH METHOD OF COOKING. (Fr.Haricots Verts, à la Maître d'Hotel.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of French beans, 2 ozs. of butter, the juice of ½ a lemon, a dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut and boil the beans as in the preceding recipe; when tender drain them into a stewpan, and shake over the fire until the greater part of the moisture has evaporated. Add the butter, parsley, lemon-juice, season well with salt and pepper, toss over the fire for a few minutes, then serve.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. per lb. Seasonable from July to October; obtainable all the year.

Origin and Varieties of the Bean.—It is uncertain from what region the bean was introduced into other countries; probably it first came from Asia. The bean was cultivated in ancient Egypt, and in Europe and Asia from time immemorial, and it has been long known in Britain. Its numerous varieties may be included under the general divisions—the white or garden-beans, and the grey or field-beans. Of the former, are the Windsor the Mazagan, and long pod; of the latter, the horse-bean, and the small or ticks, are the principal sorts. New varieties are produced in the same manner as other plants.

1453.—BEETROOTS, BAKED.

See Beetroot, Boiled. Recipe No. 1454.

1454.—BEETROOT, BOILED. (Fr.Betterave au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—Beetroot, boiling water.

Method.—When large, young and juicy, this vegetable makes a very excellent addition to winter salads, and may easily be converted into an economical and quickly-made pickle (see Pickles). Beetroot is more frequently served cold than hot: when the latter mode is preferred, melted butter should be sent to table with it. Beetroot may also be stewed with button onions, or boiled and served with baked onions. Wash the beets thoroughly, but do not prick or break the skins before they are cooked, or they will lose some of their beautiful colour in boiling. Put them into boiling water, and let them boil until tender, keeping them well covered. If the beets are to be served hot, rub off the peel quickly, cut the beet into thick slices, and send to table with melted butter. For salads, pickle, etc., let the root cool, then peel by rubbing, and cut into slices.

Time.—Small beetroot, 1½ to 2 hours; large, 2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 1d. to 3d. each. Seasonable, at any time.

Note.—In boiling beetroot great care must be taken not to damage the skin otherwise it will "bleed," becoming white and tasteless. Should the skin be accidentally broken it is better to bake them in a moderate oven, previously covering the damaged parts with a little flour paste.

Beetroot (Fr. betterave).—The geographical distribution of the natural order, Chonopodiaceae, to which the beetroot belongs, is most common in extra tropical and temperate regions, where such plants grow as weeds, frequenting waste places, and on marshes by the sea shore. They are characterized by the large quantity of mucilage, sugar, starch, and alkaline salts which are found in them. Many are used as pot-herbs, and some are medicinally valuable as vermifuges and emetics. The root of the red beet is very wholesome and nutritious. From the white beet sugar is obtained, and the manufacture of beet-sugar is an important industry in France, Germanv, Belgium, Holland, and other countries. Excellent beer is produced from the beet, which also yields a spirit of good quality.

1455.—BEETROOTS, STEWED.

See Beetroot, Boiled. Recipe No. 1454.

1456.—BROAD, OR WINDSOR BEANS. (Fr.Fèves à la Maître d'Hôtel.)

Ingredients.—1 peck broad or Windsor beans, salted water, parsley sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—This favourite vegetable to be nice should be young and freshly gathered. After shelling the beans, put them into boiling water, salted to taste, and boil rapidly until tender. Drain them well in a colander; dish, and serve separately a boat of parsley sauce. Boiled bacon often accompanies this vegetable, but should be cooked separately. This dish is usually served with the beans laid round the bacon, and the parsley butter sauce in a tureen. Beans also make an excellent garnish to a ham: when used for this purpose they should have their skins removed.

Time.—Very young beans, 15 minutes; when of a moderate size, 20 to 25 minutes, or longer. Average Cost, unshelled, 6d. to 10d. per peck. Allow 1 peck for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable in July and August.

1457.—BROAD BEANS, WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. (Fr.Fèves à la Poulette.)

Ingredients.—2 pints of broad beans, ½ a pint of stock, a small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, a small lump of sugar, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ of a pint of cream, pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Procure some young and freshly gathered beans, and shell sufficient to make 2 pints; boil them, as in the preceding recipe, until nearly done, then drain them and put them into a stewpan, with the stock, finely-minced herbs, and sugar. Stew the beans until they are perfectly tender and the liquor has reduced a little, then beat up the yolk of an egg with the cream, and add this to the beans. Let the whole get thoroughly hot, and, when on the point of simmering, serve. Should the beans be very large, the skins should be removed previously to boiling them; they are, however, more quickly removed after they are boiled.

Time.—10 minutes to boil the beans, 15 minutes to stew them in the stock. Average Cost, unshelled, 6d. to 10d. per peck. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in July and August.

1458.—BROAD BEANS, WITH SPANISH SAUCE. (Fr.Fèves à l'Espagnole.)

Ingredients.—1½ pints of shelled beans, ¾ of a pint of good brown stock, ½ a glass of sherry, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 small onion finely chopped, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 6 or 8 button mushrooms, 1 bay-leaf, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, salt and pepper, lemon-juice.

Method.—Shell the beans, put them into boiling water, boil rapidly for 6 or 7 minutes, then drain, and remove the skins. Have the stock ready boiling in a stewpan, add to it the beans, onion, thyme, and bay-leaf, season with salt and pepper, and simmer gently from 20 to 30 minutes, according to the age of the beans. Meanwhile fry the mushrooms for a few minutes in the hot butter without browning, then transfer them to the stewpan containing the beans. Add the flour to the butter, cook over the fire until it acquires a nut-brown colour, then strain in the stock from the other stewpan, and stir until a perfectly smooth sauce is obtained. Season to taste, add the parsley, sherry and lemon-juice, the beans and mushrooms, and when thoroughly hot, serve. If liked, the dish may be garnished with tiny rolls of crisply-fried bacon, croûtes of fried bread, or potato croûtes (see recipe No. 1576). The sherry and mushrooms may be omitted, and the dish would then be Broad Beans with Brown Sauce. Vegetarians could substitute vegetable stock or milk for the meat stock.

Time.—From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable in July and August.

1459.—GOLDEN BEANS.

See Lima, or Butter Beans. Recipe No. 1525.

1460.—BROCCOLI, BOILED.

Ingredients.—Broccoli. To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Method.—Strip off the dead leaves, and cut off the inside ones level with the flower, cut off the stalk close to the bottom, and put the broccoli into cold salt and water or vinegar and water with the heads downwards. Let them remain for about ¾ of an hour, then put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and keep them boiling gently with the stalk upwards and the saucepan uncovered. Take them up with a slice the moment they are done; drain them well, and serve with a tureen of melted butter, a little of which should be poured over the broccoli. If left in the water after it is done, the broccoli will break, its colour will be spoiled, and its crispness lost. If boiled too fast they break.

Time.—Small broccoli, 10 to 15 minutes; large broccoli, 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. each. Seasonable from October to March.

Note.—It is a good plan to place a small piece of toast or crust of bread in the saucepan in which any vegetable of the cabbage tribe is boiled, as this absorbs the unpleasant odour generated during the cooking.

The Kohl-Rabi, or Turnip Cabbage.—This variety presents a singular development. The stem swells out like a large turnip on the surface of the ground, the leaves shoot from it all round, and the top is surmounted by a cluster of leaves. If used when young and tender, the Kohl-rabi is a wholesome and palatable vegetable.

1461.—BRUSSELS SPROUTS, BOILED. (Fr.Choux de Bruxelles à la Sauce Blanche au Beurre, or, Maître d'Hôtel.)

Ingredients.—Brussels sprouts. To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a very small piece of soda, white sauce No. 222 or parsley butter.

Method.—Clean the sprouts from insects, wash them, and pick any dead or discoloured leaves from the outsides; put them into a saucepan of boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion; keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender; drain, dish, and serve with a tureen of melted butter: maître d'hôtel sauce is sometimes poured over them. Another method of serving is to toss the sprouts in about 1 oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. They must, however, be sent to table very quickly, for on account of the smallness of the sprouts this vegetable soon cools.

Time.—From 10 to 15 minutes, after the water boils. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from September to March.

Savoys and Brussels Sprouts (Fr. chou de savoie).—When green kale, or borecole, has been further improved by cultivation, it develops the headed or hearted type, with blistered leaves; it is then known by the name of savoy, and brussels sprouts. Another of its headed forms, but with smooth, glaucous leaves, is the cultivated garden cabbage (Borecole oleracea capitula), with all its varieties of green, red, dwarf, tall, early, late, round, conical, flat, and other varieties.

1462.—CABBAGE, BOILED. (Fr.Choux au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—Cabbages. To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a very small piece of soda.

Method.—Pick off all the dead outside leaves, cut off as much of the stalk as possible, and cut the cabbages across twice at the stalk end; if very large, quarter them. Wash them well in cold water, place them in a colander, and drain; then put them into plenty of fast-boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportions. Stir the cabbages once or twice in the water, keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil quickly until tender. The instant they are done take the cabbages up into a colander, place a plate over them, let them thoroughly drain, dish, cutting them into squares.

Time.—Small young cabbages, 15 to 20 minutes; large cabbages and savoys, from 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, from 1d. each. Seasonable all the year.

The Cabbage Tribe: their Origin.—Of all the species of the Cruciferae the genus Brassica are the most important, containing plants which, both in themselves and their products, occupy a prominent position in agriculture, commerce, and domestic enconomy. In many places on the coast of Dorsetshire, Cornwall and Yorkshire, these grow as a wild plant, with variously indented, much waved, and loosely spreading leaves of a sea-green colour and large yellow flowers. This is the Brassica olcracea, the wild cabbage, or colewort, from which have originated all the varieties of cabbage, cauliflower, greens, and broccoli.

1463.—CABBAGE, BRAISED. (Fr.Choux braisés.)

Ingredients.—Savoy cabbages, slices of fat bacon, 1 or 2 onions, 1 or 2 carrots, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), stock, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash, trim and halve the cabbages, cover them with boiling water, adding 1 tablespoonful of salt. Boil rapidly for 15 minutes, then drain well, and cut away the stalks. Sprinkle carefully with salt and pepper, put 2 halves together, and fasten them securely. Cover the bottom of a stewpan with slices of bacon, put in the cabbages, add the onions and carrots thickly sliced, herbs, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper. Add sufficient stock to nearly cover the cabbages, put on a closely-fitting lid, and simmer gently for 1 hour. When ready, remove the strings, drain well, press dry in a cloth, shape as required, and use as a garnish to an entrée.

Time.—Altogether, about 1½ hours. Average Cost, cabbages, 2d. cach. Allow 1 small cabbage for 2 persons. Seasonable in winter.

1464.—CABBAGE WITH WHITE SAUCE. (Fr.Choux à la Sauce Blanche.)

Ingredients.—Cabbage, ½ a pint of white sauce, or melted butter sauce (see Sauces, Nos. 223 and 202). To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a very small piece of soda.

Method.—Pick off all dead or faded outside leaves, cut off as much of the stalk as possible, and cut the cabbages across twice at the stalk end; if they should be very large, quarter them. Wash them well in cold water, and drain. Throw them into plenty of fast-boiling water, to which have been added salt and soda in the above proportions. Stir them down once or twice in the water, and let them boil quickly for 8 minutes; have another saucepan with fast-boiling water prepared as above, and throw them into it, and let them boil for 15 minutes; cast away the water in the first saucepan, and fill it as before, remove the cabbages once again into this, and let them boil for 10 minutes if small, for 20 minutes if large. Take up into a colander, drain and press well, and season with pepper. Serve in a hot vegetable dish, cut into squares, and pour over the sauce.

Time.—20 to 40 minutes, according to size and age. Average Cost, from 1d. each. Seasonable all the year.

1465.—CABBAGE, BUTTERED. (Fr.Choux au Beurre.)

Ingredients.—1 good cabbage, 2 medium-sized Spanish onions, 1½ ozs. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the cabbage and onions together, allowing a little longer time to the latter, when the cabbage is young, then drain, and chop finely. Heat the butter in a frying-pan, put in the vegetables, season well with salt and pepper, fry for 10 or 15 minutes, then serve. If preferred, a tablespoonful each of good gravy and vinegar may be added before serving.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6d. Seasonable at any time.

The Wild Cabbage, or Colewort (Fr. choux verts).—This plant, found on the sea cliffs of Britain, is the original of the cabbage tribe in its simplest and normal form. In this state it is the true collet or colewort, although the name is now applied to any young cabbage which has a loose and open heart.

1466.—CABBAGE AU GRATIN. (Fr.Choux au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—1 good cabbage, 3 or 4 slices of bacon, 1 dessertspoonful of grated cheese, 1 dessertspoonful of breadcrumbs, ½ a pint of white sauce (see Sauces, No. 223), 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash, trim, and quarter the cabbage, put it into boiling water, add a tablespoonful of salt, and boil rapidly. When ¾ cooked, drain well, chop coarsely, season with salt and pepper, and press into a pudding basin. Place the bacon in a gratin dish, or in any fire-proof dish that may be sent to table, invert the basin on the top, and turn out the cabbage. Cover the surface with the mixed grated cheese and breadcrumbs, put small pieces of butter on the top, and bake in a moderate oven until lightly brown. Serve the sauce separately.

Time.—From 40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 9d. Seasonable at any time.

Green Kale or Borecole.—When colewort or wild cabbage is brought under cultivation it becomes greatly improved, although it still retains its large, open leaves, and in this form is called green kale, or borecole. The scientific name of borecole is Borecole oleracea acephala, and there are many varieties, both in respect of the form and colour of the leaves, and the height of the plants. Among these are included the thousand-headed, and the cow, or tree cabbage.

1467.—CABBAGE, MINCED.

Ingredients.—1 cabbage, 3 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper, hard-boiled eggs.

Method.—Boil, press the cabbage dry, and chop it finely. Heat the butter in a frying-pan, sprinkle in the flour, mix smoothly, and put

VEGETABLES.

 
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1. Carrots. 2. Cauliflower with White Sauce. 3. Scarlet Runners.

VEGETABLES.

 
Mrs Beeton (54).jpg

1. Boiled Potatoes. 2. Braised Cucumber. 3. Buttered Peas.

in the cabbage. Add salt and pepper to taste, put in the vinegar, stir over the fire for 5 or 6 minutes, then serve garnished with sections of hard-boiled egg.

Time.—Altogether, from 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d., exclusive of the eggs. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1468.—CABBAGE, RED, STEWED. (Fr.Choux au Jambon.)

Ingredients.—1 red cabbage, 1 small slice of ham, ½ an oz. of fresh butter, 1 pint of fresh stock, 1 gill of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.

Method.—Cut the cabbage into very thin slices, put it into a stewpan, with the ham cut in dice, the butter, ½ a pint of stock, and the vinegar; cover the pan closely, and let it stew for 1 hour. When it is very tender, add the remainder of the stock, a seasoning of salt and pepper, and the pounded sugar; mix the ingredients well together, stir over the fire until nearly all the liquor has dried away, and serve. Fried sausages are usually sent to table with this dish: they should be laid round and on the cabbage as a garnish.

Time.—Rather more than 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. without sausages. Seasonable from September to January.

1469.—CARDOONS, BOILED. (Fr.Cardons au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—Cardoons, white-sauce, salt.

Method.—Cut the stalks into 3-inch lengths, remove the prickles, cover with salted boiling water, boil gently for 15 minutes, and drain well. Rub off the skins with a cloth, replace the cardoons in the saucepan, cover them with cold water, add a little salt, and boil until tender. Serve with white sauce. Cardoons may also be cooked according to the directions given for dressing celery, but in all cases they must be blanched before cooking, in order to remove the slime.

1470.—CARROTS, BOILED. (Fr.Carottes au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—To each gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, carrots.

Method.—Cut off the green tops, wash and scrape the carrots, and remove any black specks. If the carrots are very large cut them in halves, divide them lengthwise into 4 pieces, and put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion; let them boil until tender, which may be ascertained by piercing the carrots with a skewer or fork, then drain well. Young carrots should be boiled whole.

Time.—Young carrots, about ½ an hour; old ones, from 1 to 1½ hours. Average Cost, young carrots, from 6d. to 8d. a bunch. Seasonable, young carrots from April to June; old ones at any time.

1471.—CARROTS WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. (Fr.Carottes à la Maître d'Hôtel.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of small new carrots, 1 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, the juice of ½ a lemon, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and trim the carrots; if very young, allow 2 or 3 of the tiny leaves at the top to remain, as this adds to the appearance when served. Put them into boiling water slightly salted, and boil for about 15 minutes, or until tender. When done, drain off the water, put in the butter, parsley and lemon-juice, season with salt and pepper, toss over the fire for a few minutes, then serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. per bunch. Seasonable from March to June.

Constituents of the Carrot.—These contain crystallizable and uncrystallizable sugar, a small quantity of starch, extractive gluten, albumen, volatile oil, pectin or vegetable jelly, alts, malic acid, and a peculiar crystallizable ruby-red, odourless, and tasteless principle called carotin. Pectin exists more or less in all vegetables, and is especially abundant in those roots and fruits from which jellies are prepared.

1472.—CARROTS, STEWED. (Fr.Carottes à la Crême.)

Ingredients.—6 or 7 large carrots, ½ a pint of stock, ¼ of a pint of milk, 1 tablespoonful of cream, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Scrape the carrots, put them into boiling water, boil rapidly until half cooked, then drain, and cut them into rather thin slices. Heat the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the stock and milk, and stir over the fire until a smooth sauce is obtained. Season to taste, put in the sliced carrots, simmer very gently until they are tender, stirring occasionally, then add the cream, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, about 9d. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Properties of the Carrot.—The nutritive matter of the carrot amounts to 98 parts in 1,000, of which 95 are sugar, and 3 parts starch. The carrot is used in winter and spring in the dairy, to give colour and flavour to butter, and is excellent in stews, haricots, soups, or, when boiled, with salt beef. Owing to the large proportion of saccharine in its composition, the carrot yields a greater proportion of spirit than the potato, 10 lb. weight producing ½ a pint of strong spirit.

1473.—CARROTS WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. (Fr.Carottes à la Poulette.)

Ingredients.—1 bunch of young carrots, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 gill of milk, ½ a gill of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper.

Method.—Blanch the carrots in boiling water for 5 minutes, rub off the skins with a clean cloth, and cut the carrots into thin slices. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the milk, season with salt and pepper, put in the sliced carrots, and cook gently until tender. Beat the yolks of eggs and cream together slightly, pour into the stewpan, and stir very gently until the eggs thicken, then add the parsley, season to taste, and serve.

Time.—30 minutes. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. Seasonable from March to June.

The Seed of the Carrot.—To preserve the seed of the carrot, the most perfect and best-shaped roots are annually selected in the taking-up season. These are either preserved in sand in a cellar or dark storehouse until spring, or are planted immediately in an open airy part of the garden protected with litter during severe frost. or earthed over and uncovered in March. In August the seed is fit to be gathered, but is best preserved on the stalks until required.

1474.—CARROTS FOR GARNISH.

Ingredients.—Carrots, salt, rich beef or veal stock.

Method.—Trim the carrots with a round cutter, and parboil them in salted water. Drain away the water, cover with strong stock, boil gently until tender, then strain and keep them hot, and replace the stock in the stewpan. Boil rapidly until reduced to a thin glaze, then put in the carrots, shake over the fire until well coated with glaze, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, about ¾ of an hour. Average Cost, 2d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1475.—CARROTS, GERMAN STYLE. (Fr.Carottes à l'Allemande.)

Ingredients.—6 carrots sliced, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped onion, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 pint of stock, nutmeg, salt and pepper. For the sauce: 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, stock.

Method.—Heat 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan, put in the carrots, onion, parsley, and a pinch of nutmeg, and toss over the fire for a few minutes. Add the stock, season to taste, cover closely, and simmer gently until nearly cooked. Meanwhile heat the remaining oz. of butter in another stewpan, add the flour, and stir and cook until nicely browned. When ready, strain the stock from the carrots, add sufficient stock or water to make ¾ of a pint, pour it on to the browned flour, and stir the mixture until it boils. Add seasoning, if necessary, put in the carrots, cook gently until quite tender, then serve.

Time.—About ¾ of an hour. Average Cost, 8d. to 10d., inclusive of the stock. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1476.—CARROTS, GLAZED. (Fr.Carottes en demi-glace.)

Ingredients.—Young carrots, butter, good stock, mace, castor sugar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Scrape and trim the carrots into a good shape. Cover them with boiling water, add a little salt, boil gently for 5 or 6 minutes, and drain well. In a stewpan, large enough to hold the carrots in a single layer, melt sufficient butter to just cover the bottom, then put in the carrots. Add a good seasoning of pepper, a pinch of sugar, sprinkle lightly with mace, and more liberally with pepper. Pour in good stock to about half the depth of the carrots, and cover first with a greased paper, and afterwards with a close-fitting lid. Cook gently until tender, remove and keep them hot, and boil the stock rapidly until reduced to a thin glaze. Replace the carrots 2 or 3 at a time, turn them from side to side until well coated with glaze, and use as required. (See Recipe No. 1474, Carrots for garnish.)

1477.—CAULIFLOWER, BAKED, WITH CHEESE. (Fr.Choufleur au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—2 to 3 small cauliflowers, ¾ of a pint of white sauce (see Sauces, No. 223), 2 tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, preferably Parmesan, 1 tablespoonful of brown breadcrumbs, 1 oz. of butter.

Method.—Boil the cauliflowers as in the following recipe, drain well, and divide them into pieces convenient for serving. Have ready a round gratin dish, or any fireproof dish that may be sent to table, butter it well, and in it arrange the pieces of cauliflower so as to appear as one large one. Mix ⅔ of the cheese with the cold white sauce, and the remainder with the breadcrumbs; pour the sauce over the cauliflower, and cover the surface with the mixed breadcrumbs and cheese. Place small pieces of butter on the top, and bake in a moderate oven until well browned.

Time.—About 40 minutes. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. Seasonable from June to October; broccoli from October to March.

Cauliflower and Broccoli (Fr. choufleur et brocoli).—These are only forms of the wild cabbage in its cultivated state. The purple and white broccoli are varieties of the cauliflower.

1478.—CAULIFLOWERS, BOILED, WITH WHITE SAUCE. (Fr.Chouxfleurs à la Sauce Blanche.)

Ingredients.—2 cauliflowers (to each gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt), white sauce No. 223.

Method.—Choose cauliflowers that are close and white, trim off the decayed outside leaves, and cut the stalk off flat at the bottom. Open the flower a little in places to remove the insects, which generally are found about the stalk, and let the cauliflowers lie in salt and water for an hour previous to dressing them, with their heads downwards; this will effectually draw out all insects. Put them into boiling water, with the addition of salt in the above proportion, and let them boil gently, keeping the saucepan uncovered. The water should be well skimmed. When the cauliflowers are tender, take them up with a slice, let them drain, and lay them carefully in the dish. Serve with white sauce or else plain melted butter, a little of which may be poured over the cauliflower.

Time.—Small cauliflower, 12 to 15 minutes; a large one, 20 to 25 minutes, after the water boils. Average Cost, from 3d. to 4d. each. Seasonable from June to November.

1479.—CAULIFLOWER, CURRIED.

See Vegetables Curry of, Recipe No. 1636.

1480.—CELERY. (Fr.Céléri.)

Method.—This vegetable is generally eaten raw, and is served with cheese. Let the roots be washed free from dirt, all the decayed and outside leaves being cut off, preserve as much of the stalk as possible, and carefully remove all specks and blemishes. Should the celery be large, divide it lengthwise into quarters, and place it root downwards, in a celery-glass, which should be rather more than half filled with water. The top leaves may be curled by shredding them in narrow strips with the point of a knife to a depth of about 2 inches from the top.

Average Cost,—From 2d. per head. Seasonable from September to February.

Origin of Celery.—In its wild form celery is known as "smallage" a common plant found growing in ditches and marshy places near to the seacoast. Under cultivation it looses its acrid properties and becomes mild and sweet. In its natural state it has a peculiar rank, coarse taste and smell. Its root was included by the Ancients among the "five greater aperient roots." There is a large and turnip-shaped variety of celery, which is extensively used in Germany, and considered preferable to the variety cultivated in England.

1481.—CELERY, BRAISED. (Fr.Céléri braisé.)

Ingredients.—3 or 4 heads of celery, seasoning. ½ a pint of rich stock, 2 or 3 slices of streaky bacon, a little Brown or Espagnole Sauce (see Sauces, No. 223 and No. 244), and a small piece of meat glaze.

Method.—Trim and wash the celery, cut each head into 2 or 3 portions, and tie up each with 4-inch lengths of thin twine. Range them in a well buttered sauté-pan, season with salt, pepper and nutmeg, and moisten with the stock. Cut the bacon into strips, fry them a little, and put these on top of the celery. Cover the pan, and put it in a hot oven to cook its contents for about 30 minutes. When done, take up, drain the celery, and reduce the liquor or stock, adding a little brown or Espagnole Sauce to it, also the meat glaze. Dress the celery on a vegetable dish, strain over some of the sauce, and serve hot.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable, November to February.

1482.—CELERY CROQUETTES. (Fr.Croquettes de Céléri.)

Ingredients.—2 heads of celery, stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 shallot, 1 gill of milk, seasoning, 2 yolks of eggs, egg and breadcrumbs, fat for frying.

Method.—Trim and wash the celery, and cut into short pieces, blanch them in salted water, and drain, then cook till tender in well seasoned stock. Drain the cooked celery, and chop it rather finely. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the shallot (chopped), and fry a little, stir in the flour, blend these together, and gradually add a gill of milk. Stir till it boils, and put in the chopped celery. Season with salt and pepper, and cook for 15 minutes, adding the egg-yolks at the last. Spread the mixture on a dish and let it get cold. Make up into croquettes—cork or ball shapes—egg and crumb them, fry in hot fat to a golden colour, drain them on a cloth or paper, and dish up.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 2d. to 1s. 4d. Sufficient for 6 to 7 persons.

1483.—CELERY FRITTERS CURRIED. (Fr.Beignets de Céléri au Kari.)

Ingredients.—Celery, Béchamel sauce No. 178, curry-paste, curry-powder, frying-batter, salt.

Method.—Wash and clean some white celery, cut it into 2-inch pieces, and cook it till tender in stock or salted water. Drain the pieces on a sieve. When cold toss it in the thick Béchamel sauce, previously mixed with Mulligatawny or curry-paste: the pieces must be thoroughly coated with sauce. Dip each piece in batter; drop into boiling fat, fry a golden colour, and drain on a cloth or paper. Sprinkle with fine salt mixed with a little curry-powder (just enough to colour it), dish up on a folded napkin, and send to table immediately.

Asparagus, cucumber or marrow may be treated in the same manner. Instead of using batter, they may be egged and rolled in breadcrumbs, though this is rather more difficult than the former method.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. for 1 dish. Seasonable from September to February.

Alexanders.—This plant, Smyrnium olusatrum, is a native of Great Britain, and is found in its wild state near the sea coast. It was formerly cultivated for its leaf-stalks, but its place is now taken by celery.

1484.—CELERY, FRIED. (Fr.Beignets de Céleri.)

Ingredients.—Celery, frying-batter, frying-fat.

Method.—Prepare and boil the celery, as directed in Celery with White Sauce, and cut it into short lengths. Have ready some frying-batter and a deep pan of hot fat, dip each piece of celery separately into the batter, and fry until crisp and lightly-browned. Drain well, and serve at once.

Time.—To fry the celery, from 4 to 5 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per head. Sufficient, allow 1 head for 2 persons. Seasonable from September to February.

1485.—CELERY AND MACARONI STEW. (Fr.Ragoût de Céléri et Macaroni.)

Ingredients.—3 heads of white celery, milk, water, salt, bayleaf. 2 ozs. of macaroni, 1½ gills of Béchamel or white sauce (see Sauces. No. 178 and No. 222). white pepper, a grate of nutmeg.

Method.—Trim and wash the celery, boil it till tender in milk and water, seasoned with salt and a bayleaf. Drain and cut the celery into 2-inch lengths. Cook the macaroni likewise in salted water; when done drain on a sieve and cut into short pieces. Heat up the sauce, put in the celery and macaroni; season with white pepper and nutmeg, and let the whole simmer gently for 15 minutes or longer. Great care must be taken not to break the celery or macaroni. Dish up on a hot dish, and serve.

Time.—¾ of an hour. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable, November to February.

1486.—CELERY, STEWED.

See Celery with Espagnole Sauce, No. 1489; and Celery, Ragoût of, No. 1490.

1487.—CELERY WITH WHITE SAUCE. (Fr.Céléri à la Sauce Blanche.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 heads of celery, ½ a pint of white sauce (see Sauces, No. 223), salt, toast.

Method.—Wash the celery, remove the outer stalks and the greater part of the root, trim away the green tops, and cut each head lengthwise into four. Have ready a saucepan of slightly-salted boiling water, put in the celery, and cook from 30 to 35 minutes, or until the root may be easily pierced with a skewer. Drain well, dish on the toast, pour over the sauce, and serve.

Time.—From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. per head. Seasonable from September to February.

1488.—CELERY WITH CREAM. (Fr.Céléri à la Crème.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 heads of celery, 1½ pints of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1½ ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, 1 medium sized onion finely-chopped, salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare the celery as in the preceding recipe. Put it into cold water, bring to the boil, then drain off the water, add the milk and onion, season to taste, and simmer gently for about ½ an hour. Meanwhile melt the butter in another stewpan, stir in the flour, and cook for a few minutes without browning. Take up the celery and keep it hot; strain the milk on to the roux or mixture of flour and butter, and stir until boiling. Rub the onion that was cooked with the celery through a hair sieve, add it with the cream and lemon-juice to the sauce, season to taste, and simmer for about 5 minutes. Arrange the celery neatly on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and serve hot.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s 3d. Seasonable from September to February.

1489.—CELERY WITH ESPAGNOLE SAUCE. (Fr.Céléri à l'Espagnole.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 heads of celery, 1 pint of good brown stock, ½ a glass of sherry, ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, 6 or 8 button mushrooms, 2 small onions finely-chopped, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 bay-leaf, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare and blanch the celery as in the preceding recipe. Drain off the water, add the stock, onions and herbs, season to taste, and cook slowly for about ½ an hour. Meanwhile fry the mushrooms in the hot butter for a few minutes, then transfer them to the stewpan containing the celery. Add the flour to the butter, fry until it acquires a nut-brown colour, and when the celery is sufficiently cooked remove it to a hot dish, strain the stock on to the brown roux, and stir until boiling. Rub the onion through a hair sieve, add it with the mushrooms, sherry, lemon-juice and parsley to the sauce, season to taste, and simmer gently for about 5 minutes. Arrange the celery neatly on a hot dish, pour over the sauce, and serve. The mushrooms and sherry may be omitted, and the dish would then be Celery with Brown Sauce. A little ham added to the sauce will be found a great improvement.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, about 1s. 6d. to 2s. Seasonable from September to February.

1490.—CELERY, RAGÔUT OF. (Fr.Céléri en Ragôut.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 heads of celery, 1 pint of white stock, ½ a pint of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 medium-sized Spanish onion, 24 button onions, 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and trim the celery, cut each stick into pieces about 2 inches long, cover with cold water, bring to the boil, and pour the water away. Put in the stock, the Spanish onion finely-chopped, season with salt and pepper, and cook gently for about ½ an hour.

VEGETABLES.

 
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1.—Braized Celery. 2.—Leeks. 3.—Boiled Seakale. 4.—Brussels Sprouts. 5.—Baked Potatoes. 6.—Parsnips. 7.—Boiled Potatoes. 8.—Artichokes. 9.—Cabbage. 10.—Braized Onions.

Meanwhile skin the onions, fry them in hot butter, but very slowly, to prevent them taking colour, drain well from fat, and keep them hot. Add the flour to the butter, and fry for a few minutes without browning. Take up the celery, add the strained stock to the milk, pour both on to the roux or mixture of flour and butter, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, add the cream, and ½ the parsley, arrange the celery in a circle on a hot dish, pour over the sauce, pile the onions high in the centre, sprinkle over them the remainder of the parsley, and serve. The celery may also be served on croûtes of fried or toasted bread, arranged in rows with the onions piled between them. A nice change may be made by substituting mushrooms for the onions.

Time.—About 45 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 10d. to 2s. 3d. Seasonable from September to February. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

1491.—CHICORY, TO DRESS.

See Endive, Recipe No. 1510.

1492.—CORN, FRIED (Preserved). (Fr.Mais.)

Ingredients.—1 tin of corn, 2 tablespoonfuls of oiled butter, 2 eggs, salt and pepper, butter for frying.

Method.—Pound the corn in a mortar until quite smooth, then work in the oiled butter and eggs, and season to taste. Form the mixture into small oval or round shapes, fry both sides until lightly browned then serve.

Time.—To fry, from 8 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 4d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient—for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1493.—CORN, GREEN, BOILED.

Ingredients.—Green corn, butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove all the husk from the corn except the inner layer; strip this down, and take away all the silk surrounding the corn. Replace the remaining layer of husk, tie securely, and place the ears in a stewpan containing sufficient boiling water to cover them. Boil gently from 15 to 20 minutes, then remove the strings, and serve with oiled butter highly seasoned with salt and pepper.

Time.—To cook the corn, from 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain. Allow 1 to each person. Seasonable from May to July.

1494.—CORN PUDDING.

Ingredients.—6 ears of green corn, 6 eggs, 1½ pints of milk, salt and pepper, nutmeg, sweet sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Grate the corn, beat and add the eggs, stir in the milk, and season to taste with nutmeg, salt and pepper. Pour the mixture into a buttered piedish, bake in a moderately hot oven for about 1 hour, then serve with the sauce.

Time.—To bake, about 1 hour. Average Cost, 3d. per cob. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from May to July.

1495.—CORN, STEWED.

Ingredients.—6 ears of fresh green corn, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ¾ of a pint of milk, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the husks and silk, cut downwards through the centre of each row of grains, then remove them with the back of a knife. Place the grains in a stewpan containing sufficient boiling water to cover them, simmer gently for ½ an hour, and drain well. Meanwhile, heat the butter in another stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook it for a few minutes without "browning, then put in the milk. Stir until boiling, season to taste, add the prepared corn, and when thoroughly hot, serve.

Time.—To cook the corn, about 35 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. per cob. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from May to July.

1496.—CORN, STEWED (Preserved).

Ingredients.—1 tin of green corn, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, milk, salt and pepper.

Method.—Empty both corn and liquor into a stewpan, stew gently until the corn is tender, then drain and keep it hot, and with the liquor mix enough milk to make up ½ a pint. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook for a few minutes without browning, then put in the milk. Stir the mixture until it boils, season to taste, put in the corn, simmer gently for 5 minutes, and serve.

Time.—To cook the corn, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 4d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1497.—CORN, GREEN, ROASTED.

Ingredients.—6 ears of green corn, butter.

Method.—Remove the husks and silk from the corn, coat the ears lightly with butter, and roast them in a Dutch oven before a clear fire, turning them frequently. Serve hot.

Time.—To roast the corn, from 20 to 25 minutes. Average cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from May to July.

1498.—CUCUMBER, BAKED.

See Cucumber, Stuffed, Recipe No. 1505.

1499.—CUCUMBERS FOR GARNISH.

See Cucumber with Parsley Sauce. Recipe No. 1503.

1500.—CUCUMBERS, TO DRESS. (FrConcombres à l'Huile.)

Ingredients.—3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, cucumber.

Method.—Pare the cucumber, cut it equally into very thin slices, cutting from the thick end; if commenced at the stalk, the cucumber will most likely have an exceedingly bitter and far from agreeable taste. Put the slices into a dish, sprinkle over salt and pepper, and pour over oil and vinegar in the above proportion; turn the cucumber about, and it is ready to serve. This is a favourite accompaniment to boiled salmon, and is a nice addition to all descriptions of salads.

Average Cost, from 6d. each. Obtainable all the year. Seasonable in April, May, June and July.

1501.—CUCUMBERS WITH EGGS. (Fr.Concombres aux Oeufs.)

Ingredients.—2 large cucumbers, 1½ pints of white sauce (see Sauces), 3 hard boiled eggs, 1 tablespoonful of grated cheese, as many croûtes of fired bread and rolls of rice as there are pieces of cucumber, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pare the cucumbers, cut them into pieces 3 inches in length, and remove the centre with a vegetable cutter or a small knife. Stand them on end in a stewpan in a little hot stock or water, cover closely, and simmer gently until tender; the time required varies from 15 to 20 minutes, according to age of the cucumber. Rub the yolk of 1 egg through a wire sieve and put it aside, cut the remainder of the eggs into dice, add them to ½ a pint of hot white sauce, and when ready for use stir in the grated cheese. Have the rice rolls nicely fried, and the cucumber drained and on the croûtes ready to receive the mixture, which should be pressed lightly in, piled rather high, and garnished with yolk of egg. Dish in 2 close rows, arrange the rice rolls overlapping each other round the base, and serve the remainder of the sauce in a sauceboat.

Time.—Altogether, from 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost. 2s. 9d. to 3s. 3d. Obtainable at any time.

Note.—This dish may be varied by substituting a macédoine of cooked vegetables for the eggs and cheese, or by filling the pieces of cucumber with a purée of any white vegetables, such as celery or artichokes, and garnishing the base with Tomatoes Farcies au Gratin or tomatoes stuffed with macaroni, cheese and white sauce, or tomatoes stuffed with mushrooms.

1502.—CUCUMBERS, FRIED. (Fr.Concombres Frits.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 small cucumbers, pepper and salt to taste, flour, oil or butter.

Method.—Pare the cucumbers and cut them into slices of an equal thickness, commencing to slice from the thick end, and not the stalk end of the cucumber. Wipe the slices dry with a cloth, dredge them with flour, and put them in a pan of boiling oil or butter; keep turning them about till brown, lift them out of the pan, let them drain on a cloth, then season, and serve, piled lightly on a dish.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 2d. to 1s. 6d. Obtainable all the year.

Properties and uses of the Cucumber.—The fruits of the Cucurbitacece, or gourd order, to which the cucumber belongs, have in general a sugary taste, and contain a large percentage of water; hence their value in tropical countries, where they furnish the inhabitants, even in arid deserts and barren islands, with a large portion of their food. The roots of the perennial varieties contain, in addition to fecula, which is their base, a resinous, acrid, and bitter principle. The juice of the cucumber is employed in the preparation of various kinds of soaps, and washes for the skin, its soothing or emollient properties rendering it valuable for such purposes.

Geographical Distribution of Cucumbers.—The family of the Cucurbitaceae is unknown in the frigid zone, is somewhat rare in the temperate zone, but in tropical and warm regions throughout the globe, all the species grow abundantly. Many varieties supply useful articles of consumption, and others possess active medicinal properties.

The Chate.—This variety of cucumber is a native of Egypt and Arabia, and produces a fruit of nearly the same substance as that of the melon. In Egypt the chate is esteemed by the upper class natives, as well as by Europeans, as the most pleasant fruit of its kind.

1503.—CUCUMBER WITH PARSLEY SAUCE. (Fr.Concombre à la Poulette.)

Ingredients. 2 medium-sized cucumbers, ½ a pint of white sauce (see Sauces), 1 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot, or onion, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pare the cucumbers, put them into boiling water, cook for about 10 minutes, then drain well and cut them into slices about 1 inch in thickness. Heat the butter in a stewpan, put in the sliced cucumber, shallot, and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, toss over the fire for a few minutes, then add the white sauce. Just before boiling point is reached add the yolks of eggs and parsley, stir and cook gently until the eggs thicken, then season to taste, and serve.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Obtainable at any time, cheapest in July and August.

The Melon (Fr. mellon).—This is another species of the gourd family, and is highly valued for its rich and delicious fruit, it has from time immemorial been cultivated in hot Eastern countries. It was introduced into England from Jamaica in the sixteenth century, since which period it has been grown in Great Britain. It was formerly called the musk-lemon, which is a variety of the common melon.

1504.—CUCUMBERS, STEWED. (Fr.Concombres au Jus.)

Ingredients.—2 large cucumbers, flour, butter, rather more than ½ a pint of good brown gravy.

Method.—Cut the cucumbers lengthwise, to the size of the dish they are intended to be served in, empty them of the seeds, and put them into boiling water, with a little salt. Let them simmer for 5 minutes, then take them out, place them in another stewpan, with the gravy, and let them boil over a brisk fire until the cucumbers are tender. Should they be bitter, add a lump of sugar; dish them carefully, skim the sauce, strain over the cucumbers, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. each. Obtainable at any time.

1505.—CUCUMBERS, STUFFED. (Fr.Concombres Farcis.)

Ingredients.—2 large cucumbers, ½ a lb. of finely-chopped cold meat (any kind may be used), 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, 2 eggs, or 1 egg and a little milk, as many croûtes of fried or toasted bread as there are pieces of cucumber, ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233), salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare and parboil the cucumber as for Cucumber with Eggs. While they are cooking mix well together, in a stewpan, the meat, breadcrumbs, parsley and herbs, season with salt and pepper, add the eggs, with a little milk or stock if the mixture appears at all dry, and stir briskly over the fire until thoroughly hot. When the cucumbers are tender, drain them well, place each piece on a croûte of bread, fill carefully with the preparation, which should be piled up rather high, and, if liked, garnished with finely-chopped parsley or white of egg. Dish in two close rows, pour the sauce OVER, sprinkle on the garnish, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—Altogether, 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 1s. 10d. Obtainable all the year; cheapest in July and August.

1506.—DANDELION LEAVES, STEWED.

Ingredients.—Dandelion leaves, butter, flour, cream or stock, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash the leaves thoroughly, let them remain in plenty of cold water for 2 or 3 hours, then drain well. Cover with boiling water, add a little salt, boil from 20 to 30 minutes, then strain, press well, and chop finely. To 1 pint of chopped dandelion leaves, allow 1 oz. of butter; melt this in a stewpan, and add 1 teaspoonful of flour. When well mixed, add 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of cream or stock, put in the dandelion leaves, stir the mixture over the fire until it becomes thoroughly hot, then serve.

Time.—20 to 30 minutes. Seasonable in Spring.

1507.—EGG PLANT, BAKED, WITH CHEESE. (Fr.Aubergine au Parmesan.)

Ingredients.—3 aubergines, ⅓ of a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 177), 1 tablespoonful of grated Parmesan, butter, salt and pepper, breadcrumbs.

Method.—Parboil the aubergines, then peel, slice them rather thickly, remove the seeds, and arrange neatly in a baking-dish. Mix the Béchamel sauce and cheese together, season to taste, pour it into the baking-dish, and cover lightly with breadcrumbs. Add a few pieces of butter, bake in a moderately hot oven for about ½ an hour, and serve in the dish.

Time.—To bake the aubergines, from 25 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 4d. each. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from June to November.

1508.—EGG PLANT, FRIED. (Fr.Aubergines Frites.)

Ingredients.—3 aubergines, 1 finely-chopped onion, salad-oil or butter, flour, cayenne, salt and pepper.

Method.—Parboil the aubergines, then remove the peel and seeds, and slice rather thickly. Press out some of the moisture by means of a dry cloth, then coat lightly with flour seasoned with pepper, cayenne and salt. Fry the onion in hot butter until lightly browned, drain, and replace the butter in the pan, keeping the onion hot. Fry the slices of aubergine in the butter until both sides are lightly browned, then drain well. Sprinkle on the onion, and serve.

Time.—To fry the aubergines, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, from 4d. each. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from June to November.

1509.—EGG PLANT, WITH POACHED EGGS. (Fr.Aubergines aux Oeufs Pochés.)

Ingredients.—3 aubergines, 6 small poached eggs, 1 gill of tomato pulp, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped ham, 1 tablespoonful of bread-crumbs, ½ an oz. of butter, salt and pepper, chopped parsley.

Method.—Halve the plants, remove the rind and seeds, boil in slightly-salted water until tender, and drain well. Heat the butter, add the tomato pulp, ham, breadcrumbs, and salt and pepper to taste, stir over the fire for a few minutes, then fill the cavities of the aubergines with the mixture. Sprinkle with parsley, make thoroughly hot in the oven, then place a neatly-trimmed poached egg on each half, and serve garnished with tufts of parsley.

Time.—Altogether, about 1 hour. Average Cost of aubergines, from 4d. each. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from June to November.

1510.—ENDIVE. (Fr.Chicorée.)

This vegetable is generally served as a salad, but may also be served hot, stewed in cream, brown gravy, or butter; but when dressed thus, the sauce it is stewed in should not be very highly seasoned, as that would destroy and overpower the flavour of the vegetable.

Average Cost, from 2d. per head. Seasonable from November to March.

Endive (Fr. chicorée).—This plant was introduced into England in the sixteenth century, and is cultivated for culinary purposes. Its leaves are used, when blanched, for soups and salads. Endive belongs to the same family (Compositae) as chicory.

1511.—ENDIVE, STEWED. (Fr.Purée de Chicorée.)

Ingredients.—6 heads of endive, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and free the endive thoroughly from insects, remove the green parts of the leaves, and put the endive into boiling water, slightly salted. Let it remain for 10 minutes, then take it out, drain, and chop it finely. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, and cook for a few minutes without browning. Put in the stock, stir until boiling, add the endive and lemon-juice, season to taste, simmer until the endive is perfectly tender, then serve.

Time.—Altogether, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, from 2d. per head. Seasonable from November to March.

1512.—GREENS, YOUNG, TO DRESS.

See Brussels Sprouts Boiled, Recipe No. 1461.

1513.—HARICOT BEANS, BOILED. (Fr.Haricots de Soisson, au Beurre.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of white haricot beans, 2 quarts of water, 1 oz. of butter, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Method.—Put the beans into cold water, and let them soak for several hours, according to their age; put them into cold water, salted in the above proportion, bring them to the boil, and let them simmer very slowly until tender. Pour away the water, and let them stand by the side of the fire, with the lid of the saucepan partially off, to allow the beans to dry; then add 1 oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Toss the beans for about 5 minutes, then dish up and serve.

Time.—After the water boils, from 2 to 2½ hours. Average Cost, 4d. per quart. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1514.—HARICOTS À LA BONNE FEMME.

Ingredients.—1 quart of white haricot beans, ¼ of a lb. of butter, ¼ of an oz. of salt, 2 quarts of water, 1 teaspoonful of chopped-parsley, salt and pepper.

Method.—Place the haricot beans in water with the above proportion of salt; let them boil, then draw the saucepan to the corner of the fire, and let them simmer gently until the bean is easily crushed between the thumb and finger, which will be in about 2 hours. Drain them and return them to the saucepan; add the butter, parsley, salt and pepper to taste, and ½ a pint of the liquor in which the beans were boiled. Shake the saucepan over the fire until the butter is melted, and serve very hot.

Time.—2¼ hours. Average Cost, 4d. per quart. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Haricot Bean (Fr. haricot).—This is the haricot blanc of the French, and is also cultivated largely in Great Britain, Germany, and Switzerland. It is highly nutritious, and contains 36 per cent. of starch, and 23 per cent. of the nitrogenous matter called legumen, allied to the caseine of cheese. There is perhaps no vegetable dish so cheap, or so easily cooked, and, at the same time, so agreeable and nourishing. The beans are boiled and then mixed with a little fat or salt butter, and a little milk or water and flour.

1515.—HARICOT BEANS WITH PARSLEY BUTTER. (Fr.Haricots Blancs à la Maître d'Hôtel.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of white haricot beans, ¼ of a lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of ½ a lemon.

Method.—Should the beans be very dry, soak them for 1 or 2 hours in cold water, and boil them until perfectly tender, as in the preceding recipe. Should the water boil away, replenish it with a little more cold, to make the skin of the beans tender. Let them be thoroughly done; drain them well, then add to them the butter, chopped parsley, and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Shake the stewpan gently over the fire; and when the various ingredients are well mixed, squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve very hot.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 4d. per quart. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Haricots and Lentils (Fr. haricots et lentilles).—From their flesh-forming properties these vegetables serve as an excellent substitute for meat, and are largely used in Roman Catholic countries during the season of Lent, and on maigre days. In Egypt, Syria, and other parts of the East, lentils form the chief article of diet. The use of lentils as a food has largely increased in England in recent years, and they are eaten in the form of soups, prepared foods, etc.

1516.—HARICOT BEANS AND MINCED ONIONS. (Fr.Haricots à la Lyonnaise.)

Ingredients.—1 pint of white haricot beans, 4 medium-sized onions, ¼ of a pint of good brown gravy No. 164, pepper and salt to taste, a little flour, ½ oz. butter.

Method.—Peel and mince the onions, not too finely, fry them in butter until they acquire a light-brown colour, then dredge over them a little flour, and add the gravy and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Have ready a pint of haricot beans well boiled and drained, put them with the onions and gravy, mix all well together, and serve very hot.

Time.—Altogether, about 2¼ hours. Average Cost, 4d. per quart. Seasonable at any time.

1517.—HERB PANCAKES. (Fr.Crêpes aux Fines Herbes.)

Ingredients.—Any green herbs, such as parsley, chives, thyme, spinach, etc., 2 ozs. of butter, minced ham or bacon, stock, fried pancakes.

Method.—Chop the herbs finely, then put them into a stewpan with the butter, and stew till tender. Keep them moist, mix in ham or bacon, put a thin layer of mince over each pancake, and roll them up. Put the pancakes closely side by side in a stewpan, add just enough stock to keep them from burning, cover closely, and steam for 30 minutes.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 8d.–9d. Seasonable at any time.

1518.—HORSERADISH. (Fr.Raifort.)

Method.—This root, scraped, is served with hot roast beef, and is also used for garnishing cold roast beef and many kinds of boiled fish. Let the horseradish remain in cold water for 1 hour; wash it well, and with a sharp knife scrape it into very thin shreds, commencing from the thick end of the root. Arrange some of it lightly in a small glass dish, and use the remainder for garnishing the joint; it should be placed in tufts round the border of the dish, with 1 or 2 bunches on the meat.

Average Cost.—2d. per stick. Seasonable from October to June.

The Horseradish (Fr. raifort).—This vegetable possesses highly stimulant and exciting stomachic properties. It is valuable as a condiment in promoting the appetite and exciting the organs of digestion. Sulphur is present to the extent of 30 per cent. in the horseradish, and causes the black colour which metal vessels sometimes assume when horseradish is distilled. It is a most powerful antiscorbutic, and forms the basis of various medicinal preparations in the form of wines, tinctures, and syrups.

1519.—KIDNEY BEANS.

See French Beans, Recipe No. 1451.

1520.—KOHL-RABI, STEWED.

Ingredients.—1 large kohl-rabi, or 2 small ones, 2 ozs. of butter, ½ oz. of flour, ½ a pint of milk, nutmeg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pick out the most tender leaves, which put aside to be afterwards boiled, drained, and tossed in ½ an oz. of butter. Peel and quarter the root, cover it with boiling salted water, boil gently until tender, and drain well. Heat the remaining 1½ ozs. of butter, add the flour, cook for 4 or 5 minutes without browning, add the milk, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, add a little nutmeg, put in the quarters of root, and let them remain until thoroughly hot. Serve with the sauce poured over, garnished with the leaves prepared as directed above.

1521.—LEEKS, BOILED. (Fr.Poireaux au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—12 young leeks, salt, vinegar, ¾ of a pint of white sauce (see Sauces, No. 223), toast.

Method.—Trim oft the roots, the outer leaves, and the green ends, and cut the stalks into 6 inch lengths. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add a tablespoonful of vinegar and a dessertspoonful of salt, put in the leeks, previously tied in bundles, and boil gently for about 40 minutes, or until they are perfectly tender. Drain well, serve on toast, and pour the white sauce over them.

Time.—About 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 3d. Obtainable all the year; cheapest in September, October and November.

The Leek (Fr. poireau).—This plant, the Albium porrum, is highly valued for culinary purposes. It is ordinarily sown in Spring, and is ready for use the following Winter. Its flavour is much milder than that of the onion, or any other species of the allium. Leeks, like the onion, are more frequently employed for flavouring purposes than served as a vegetable: but if boiled in 3 or 4 waters, and afterwards stewed in milk, quartered, and served on toast like asparagus, they are nearly, if not quite, as delicate.

1522.—LEEKS WITH POACHED EGGS. (Fr.Poireaux aux Oeufs Pochés.)

Ingredients.—6 or 8 leeks, 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a turnip, 1 bouquet-garni, 1 bay-leaf, 1 blade of mace, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ½ a pint of white stock, ½ a pint of milk, 6 poached eggs, toast, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the onion, carrot and turnip into thin slices, prepare the leeks as in the preceding recipe, put them into cold water, bring to the boil, and strain. Heat 1 oz. of butter in a stewpan, put in the leeks, onion, carrot, turnip, herbs, bay-leaf and mace, and fry slowly for 15 minutes, then add the stock, cover closely, and cook gently for about 1¼ hours. When the cooking is nearly completed, melt the remainder of the butter in another stewpan, add the flour, fry for a few minutes, then put in the milk, and stir until boiling. Take up the leeks, cut them lengthwise into quarters, across into 2 or 3 pieces, keep them hot, and strain what little stock remains into the sauce. Arrange the toast as a long narrow strip down the centre of the dish, pile the pieces of leek high upon it, pour over the sauce, and place the poached eggs round the base.

Time.—From 1½ to 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Obtainable at any time; cheapest in September, October and November.

1523.—LENTILS, BOILED.

Ingredients.—1 pint of lentils, 1 oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, ½ a pint of stock or milk, 1 finely-chopped onion, salt and pepper.

Method.—Soak the lentils overnight in plenty of water, drain, cover them with boiling water, add a little salt, and boil gently until soft but not broken. Fry the onion in the butter until lightly browned, add the flour, and when it has cooked for 2 or 3 minutes, put in the stock or milk, and stir the mixture until it boils. Strain and add the lentils, season to taste, cook gently for a few minutes, then serve. Or soak, boil and drain the lentils as directed above, season to taste with salt and pepper, stir in a little butter, then serve.

Time.—About an hour. Average Cost, 2d. per pint. Seasonable at any time.

1524.—LETTUCES. (Fr.Laitues.)

Method.—These form one of the principal ingredients of summer salads. They are seldom served in any other way, but may be stewed and sent to table in a good brown gravy flavoured with lemon-juice. In preparing them for salad, carefully wash them free of dirt, pick off all the decayed and outer leaves, and dry them thoroughly by shaking them in a cloth. Cut off the stalks, and either halve, or cut the lettuces into small pieces. The manner of cutting them up entirely depends on the salad for which they are intended. In France, the lettuces are sometimes merely wiped with cloth, and not washed, the cooks there declaring that the art of washing them injuriously affects the pleasant crispness of the plant; in this case, scrupulous attention must be paid to each leaf, and the grit thoroughly wiped away.

Average Cost.—From 1d. to 2d. per head. Obtainable all the year.

The Lettuce (Fr. laitue).—In its young state the lettuce forms a well-known and wholesome salad, containing a clear, tasteless, and inodorous liquid, with soothing and cooling properties. When flowering, if the plant be cut or wounded, it discharges a peculiar milky juice, which possesses medicinal properties. From the inspissated juice of the lettuce opium is obtained.

1525.—LIMA BEANS.

Fresh Lima beans may be treated in the same manner as fresh peas, and the dried beans may be prepared and cooked according to the directions given for dressing haricot beans and lentils.

1526.—MACEDOINES, PRESERVED.

See Tinned Peas, to Dress, Recipe No. 1559. Follow the directions given, but omit the mint.

1527.—MAIZE, OR INDIAN CORN. (Fr.Mais.)

Ingredients.—2 young cobs of Indian corn, 3 quarts of water, 3 tablespoonfuls of salt.

Method.—Cut off the stem, throw the green cobs into cold water, with the above proportion of salt, and boil slowly for ¾ of an hour, or until tender. Serve on toast, with melted butter.

Time.—¾ of an hour, after the water boils. Average Cost, from 3d. per cob. Seasonable in August and September.

1528.—MIXED VEGETABLES FOR GARNISH. (Fr.Macédoine de Légumes.)

Ingredients.—Equal quantities of carrots, turnips, peas, salt.

Method.—Wash and scrape the carrots and turnips, shape them round or oval by means of special cutters sold as vegetable scoops. Boil them and the peas separately in salted water until tender, then drain well, and use as required. Asparagus points, flageolets, sprays of cauliflower, French beans, cut into diamonds, all may be used in addition to the above.

1529.—MUSHROOMS, BAKED. (Fr.Champignons au Beurre.)

Ingredients.—16 or 20 cup mushrooms, butter, pepper to taste.

Method.—For this method of cooking, the cup mushrooms are better than the buttons, but should not be too large. Cut off a portion of stalk, peel the top, and put them at once into a baking-dish, with a very small piece of butter placed on each mushroom; sprinkle over a little pepper, and let them bake for about 20 minutes, or longer, should the mushrooms be very large. Have ready a very hot dish, pile the mushrooms high in the centre, pour the gravy round, and send them to table quickly with very hot plates.

Time.—20 minutes; large mushrooms, ½ an hour. Average Cost, from 6d. to 9d. per lb. Seasonable, meadow mushrooms in September and October; cultivated varieties obtainable all the year. Sufficient for 6 or 8 persons.

Varieties of Mushrooms.—The common mushroom found in our pastures is the Agaricus campestris of science; and another edible British species is A. georgii, but A. primulus is affirmed to be the most delicious mushroom. The morel is Morchella esculenta, and Tuber cibarium is the common truffle. Of late years much scientific research has been devoted to fungi of all descriptions, and enthusiasts have put to the test the suitability of mushrooms and fungi for food purposes. The list of edible fungi is a long one, but it requires some study before the more uncommon kinds can be safely ventured upon.

1530.—MUSHROOMS, BROILED. (Fr.Champignons Grillés.)

Ingredients.—Cup mushrooms, pepper and salt, butter, lemon-juice.

Method.—Carefully peel the mushrooms, cut off a portion of the stalk, and season with salt.

Broil them over a clear fire, turning them once, and arrange them on a very hot dish. Put a small piece of butter on each mushroom, season with pepper and salt, and squeeze over them a few drops of lemon-juice.

Time.—About 10 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. per lb. Seasonable in September and October, obtainable all the year.

Localities of the Mushroom.—Mushrooms are to be met with in pastures, woods and marshes, but are very capricious and uncertain in their places of growth, multitudes being obtained in one season where few or none were to be found in the preceding year. They sometimes grow solitary, but more frequently they are gregarious, and rise in a regular circular form. Many species are employed by man as food; but, generally speaking, they are difficult of digestion. Many of them are also of suspicious qualities. Little reliance can be placed either on their taste, smell, or colour, as much depends on the situation on which they vegetate, and even the same plant, it is affirmed, may be innocent when young, but become noxious when advanced in age.

1531.—MUSHROOMS, PRESERVED, WITH BROWN SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 pint tin or bottle of mushrooms, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, stock, salt and pepper.

Method.—Strain the liquor from the tin or bottle, and add to it sufficient stock to make up rather more than ½ a pint. Fry the butter and flour together until well-browned, add the mushroom-liquor, and the mixture until it boils. Season to taste, add the sherry, put in the mushrooms, and, when quite hot, serve as an accompaniment to broiled chicken, steak, etc. They may also be served as a vegetable entremet, in which case the mushrooms should be neatly arranged on hot buttered toast.

Time.—Altogether, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 2d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1532.—MUSHROOMS, STEWED. (Fr.Champignons à la Crême.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of button mushrooms, 2 ozs. of butter, ¼ of a pint of cream or milk, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, the juice of ½ a lemon, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the skins, and cut off the ends of the stalks. Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the mushrooms and lemon-juice, season with salt and pepper, cover closely, and cook gently for about ½ an hour, shaking the pan occasionally. Mix the flour and cream or milk smoothly together, pour the mixture into the stewpan, stir until the contents boil, simmer for 10 minutes to cook the flour, then, if the mushrooms are tender, season to taste, and serve.

Time.—About 40 minutes. Average Cost, from 8d. per lb. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable, meadow mushrooms in September and October, obtainable all the year.

To procure mushrooms at all seasons gardeners provide themselves with what is called spawn from those whose business it is to propagate it. When thus procured it is usually made up for sale in quadrils consisting of numerous white, fibrous roots, having a strong smell of mushrooms. The spawn is planted in rows, in a carefully-made bed, formed of seasoned farm-yard compost of sifted loam, beaten hard, and placed in a dry situation, and carefully attended to for five or six weeks, when the bed begins to produce, and continues to do so for several months. Cellars are often utilized for this purpose. In Paris most of the mushrooms are grown on artificially-formed beds in dark, disused quarries.

1533.—MUSHROOMS, TINNED, WITH CREAM SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 pint bottle or tin of mushrooms, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, milk, salt and pepper.

Method.—Strain off the liquor, add to it sufficient milk to make up rather more than ½ a pint. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook for a few minutes without browning, then put in the mushroom liquor. Stir until boiling, season to taste, put in the mushrooms, and when thoroughly hot stir in the cream, and serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 2d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1534.—MUSHROOMS, TO KEEP TEMPORARILY.

Ingredients.—1 quart of mushrooms, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel, wash and thoroughly dry the mushrooms. Heat the butter in a LARGE stewpan, put in the mushrooms, season lightly with salt and pepper, and add the lemon-juice. Leave the pan uncovered, and cook the mushrooms very slowly until they become quite dry. They will keep good for several days, and when required for use should be re-heated and drained free from butter. They may also be kept for some time if closely packed in a shallow piedish, and covered with clarified butter.

1535.—MUSHROOMS, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—To each quart of mushrooms allow 3 ozs. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of 1 lemon, clarified butter.

Method.—Peel the mushrooms, put them into cold water, with a little lemon-juice; let them remain for 10 minutes, then dry them very carefully in a cloth. Put the butter into a stewpan capable of holding the mushrooms; when it is melted, add the mushrooms, lemon-juice, and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Draw them down over a slow fire, and let them remain until their liquor is boiled away, and they have become quite dry, but they must not stick to the bottom of the stewpan. When done, put the mushrooms into pots, and over the top pour clarified butter. If not wanted for immediate use, they will keep good a few days without being covered over. To re-warm them, put the mushrooms into a stewpan, strain the butter from them, and they will be ready for use.

Average Cost.—From 8d. per lb. Seasonable, meadow mushrooms in September and October, obtainable all the year.

1536.—MUSHROOMS, STUFFED. (Fr.Champignons Farcis au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—6 medium-sized mushrooms, 6 round croûtes of fried or toasted bread, slightly larger than the mushrooms, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped cooked ham, ½ a tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, a teaspoonful of grated Parmesan cheese, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 very small onion finely chopped, ½ an oz. of butter, salt and pepper, browned breadcrumbs, brown sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Remove the stalks and skins, trim the mushrooms to a uniform shape with a round cutter, and use the trimmings for the mixture. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, add to it all the above ingredients, except the butter, brown breadcrumbs, and brown sauce, season well with salt and pepper, stir briskly over the fire until well mixed, adding by degrees as much brown sauce as is necessary to slightly moisten the whole. Pile the preparation on the mushrooms, sprinkle with browned breadcrumbs, add a small piece of butter, and bake from 10 to 15 minutes in a moderate oven.

Time.—From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 8d. per lb. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable, meadow mushrooms in September and October.

1537.—MUSHROOMS ON TOAST. (Fr.Champignons sur Croûtes.)

Ingredients.—An equal number of medium-sized mushrooms and slightly larger rounds of well buttered toast, butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel the mushrooms, cut off a portion of the stalks, season well with salt and pepper, brush over with warm butter, and grill over a clear fire, or fry in a pan in a little hot butter. Arrange neatly on the croûtes, and serve as hot as possible.

Time.—12 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, from 8d. per lb. Allow 1 or 2 to each person. Seasonable, procurable at any time.

1538.—OKRA.

This plant is a native of the West Indies, although now largely cultivated in India and America. The young green pods are times pickled, and the older pods are preserved in tins for export. Those imported resemble gherkins in size, but their ends form a sharper point; their colour is lighter and less vivid in tone, and their pods contain seeds not unlike pearl barley. Okra has a peculiar flavour, often disagreeable to an unaccustomed palate, and it is exceedingly mucilaginous, the pods in the tin being surrounded by a substance of greater viscidity than gum.

1539.—OKRA, TO BOIL.

Ingredients.—24 fresh okras, 2 tablespoonfuls of oiled butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash the okras in cold water, drain them well, and trim both ends. Place them in a saucepan containing boiling salted water, boil gently for 15 minutes, or until tender, and drain well. Make the butter and cream hot in a stewpan, put in the okras, sprinkle liberally with pepper, add a little salt, shake them over the fire for a few minutes, then serve.

Time, ½ an hour. Average Cost, uncertain.

1540.—OKRAS AND TOMATOES, SCALLOPED.

Ingredients.—¼ of a tin of okras, 4 tomatoes sliced, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, ¾ of an oz. of butter, ¾ of an oz. of flour, ½ a pint of milk, salt and pepper, browned breadcrumbs or cracker crumbs, butter.

Method.—Cut the okras into small pieces, halve or quarter the slices of tomatoes, mix the two together, and add the breadcrumbs. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook the mixture for a few minutes, then put in the milk, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, and simmer gently for 5 minutes. Place the mixture of okras and tomato in well-buttered scallop shells, sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper, and add a little sauce. Cover lightly with browned breadcrumbs or cracker crumbs, add 2 or 3 small pieces of butter, and bake in a moderately-hot oven from 10 to 15 minutes. Serve hot.

Time.—To bake the scallops, from 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. Allow 1 scallop to each person. Seasonable at any time.

1541.—OKRAS, TINNED, TO SERVE AS A VEGETABLE.

Ingredients.—1 tin of okras, salt and pepper.

Method.—Turn the contents of the tin into a steel stewpan, make thoroughly hot, then drain, season with salt and pepper, and serve.

Time.—To re-heat, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1542.—ONIONS.

Directions given for preparing and cooking Spanish onions are equally applicable to other varieties less mild in character. When their stronger flavour is disliked, it may be partially removed by blanching them, and still more effectually by changing the water two or three times.

1543.—ONIONS, BURNT, FOR GRAVIES.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of onions coarsely-chopped, ½ a lb. of moist sugar, ½ a pint of water, ¾ of a pint of vinegar.

Method.—Place the onions and water in a steel stewpan, let them boil for 5 or 6 minutes, then add the sugar, and simmer gently until the preparation becomes nearly black. Have the vinegar ready boiling, pour it into the stewpan, stir until well mixed, then strain, and when cold, bottle for use. This browning must be used very sparingly, or it will impart a disagreeable taste. When colouring alone is required, it is safer to use caramel, recipes for which will be found under that name.

1544.—ONION PIE.

See Chapter XLIII, "Vegetarian Cookery."

1545.—ONIONS, ROASTED. (Fr.Oignons rôtis.)

Ingredients.—Onions, either red or yellow.

Method.—Top and tail the onions, but do not skin them. Put them into a saucepan containing sufficient boiling salted water to cover them, boil gently until nearly done, then drain and dry thoroughly. Place the onions in a tin, or in a Dutch oven, in front of a clear fire, and roast them for 15 or 20 minutes, turning them frequently. Serve as a garnish to roast fowl.

Time.—To boil the onions, about 1 hour. Average Cost, 2d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1546.—ONIONS, SPANISH, BAKED. (Fr.Oignons.)

Ingredients.—4 or 5 Spanish onions, salt and water.

Method.—Put the onions, with their skins on, into a saucepan of boiling water, slightly salted, and let them boil quickly for 1 hour. Then take them out, wipe them thoroughly, wrap each one in a piece of buttered paper, and bake them in a moderate oven for 2 hours, or longer, should the onions be very large. They may be served in their skins, and eaten with a piece of cold butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt; or they may be peeled, and a good brown gravy poured over them.

Time.—From 1 to 1½ hours to boil; 2 hours to bake. Average Cost, 2d. per lb. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from October to April.

Properties of the Onion.—The onion is possessed of a white, acrid, volatile oil, holding sulphur in solution, albumen, a quantity of uncrystallizable sugar, and mucilage, phosphoric acid, both free and combined lime, acetic acid, citrate of lime, and lignine. Of all the species of allium, the onion has the volatile principle in the greatest degree; and hence it is impossible to separate the scales of the root without the eyes being affected. The juice is sensibly acid, and is capable of being, by fermentation converted into vinegar, and mixed with water or dregs of beer yields by distillation an alcoholic liquor. Although used as a common esculent, onions are not suited to all stomachs; some persons cannot eat them either fried or roasted, whilst others prefer them boiled, which is the best way of using them, as by the process they then undergo they are deprived of their essential oil. Many people who cannot eat onions in a pie or stew, when they are put in raw, find them quite digestible if they are first scalded for a quarter of an hour. Anaemic persons, and those of a consumptive tendency, frequently evince a great liking for onions, and they prove a most useful food for such invalids.

1547.—ONIONS, SPANISH, BAKED (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Spanish onions, brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233), butter or fat, salt.

Method.—Peel the onions, put them into cold water, add a teaspoonful of salt, boil gently for ½ an hour, then strain. Have ready in a baking-dish some hot butter or hot fat, baste the onions well, place them in a moderate oven, and bake for 1½ hours, basting frequently. When done they should be well browned. Serve in a hot vegetable-dish with the sauce poured over them.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, from 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to April.

1548.—ONIONS, SPANISH, BOILED. (Fr.Oignons d'Espagne bouillis.)

Ingredients.—Spanish onions, white sauce (see Sauces, No. 223), salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel the onions, put them into cold water, bring to the boil, and strain. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add to it a teaspoonful of salt, put in the onions, and boil gently from 1½ to 2 hours, according to size. Or they may be steamed, in which case about ½ an hour longer must be allowed. Serve with the white sauce poured over them.

Time.—From 1¾ to 2¼ hours. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to April.

1549.—ONIONS, SPANISH, STEWED. (Fr.Oignons au Jus.)

Ingredients.—4 or 5 medium-sized Spanish onions, 1 pint of brown stock or gravy.

Method.—Peel and trim the onions, cover them with cold water, bring to the boil, and strain. Select a stewpan large enough to allow the onions to stand side by side, put in the stock, cover closely, and simmer gently from 1 to 1½ hours. Serve in a hot vegetable dish with the gravy poured round.

Time.—From 1½ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to April.

1550.—ONIONS, SPANISH, STEWED. (Fr.Oignons au Jus.) (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—4 or 5 medium-sized Spanish onions, 3 ozs. of butter.

Method.—Blanch the onions as in the preceding recipe. Heat the butter in a stewpan, stand the onions side by side, cover closely, and cook very gently at the side of the stove for about 2 hours, basting frequently. Serve with the butter poured over.

Time.—From 2 to 2¼ hours. Average Cost, from 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable from October to April.

1551.—ONIONS, SPANISH, STUFFED. (Fr.Oignons Farcis.)

Ingredients.—6 or 8 rather small Spanish onions, 4 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped liver or raw meat (cooked meat of any kind may be used instead), 1 tablespoonful of parboiled finely-chopped onion, 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered sage or mixed herbs, 1 egg, salt and pepper, ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233.)

Method.—Skin and parboil the onions, then with a round cutter or small knife remove the centre part. Mix all the ingredients, except the brown sauce, together, fill the onions with the preparation, baste them well with hot butter or dripping, and bake in a moderate oven from 30 to 40 minutes, basting frequently. Serve with the sauce poured over.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 2d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable from October to April.

See also Chapter on American Cookery.

1552.—PARSNIPS, BOILED. (Fr.Panais au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—Parsnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Method.—Wash the parsnips, scrape them thoroughly, and with the point of the knife remove any black specks about them, and should they be very large, cut the thick part into quarters. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, boil them rapidly until tender, which may be ascertained by piercing them with a fork or skewer, take them up, drain them, and serve in a vegetable-dish. This vegetable is usually served with salt fish, boiled pork or boiled beef; when sent to table with the latter, a few should be placed alternately with carrots round the dish, as a garnish.

Time.—Large parsnips, 1 to 1½ hours; small ones, ½ to 1 hour. Average Cost, 2d. per lb. Seasonable from October to May.

The Parsnip (Fr. panais).—This vegetable is found wild in meadows all over Europe, and in England is met with very frequently on dry banks in a chalky soil. In its wild state the root is white, mucilaginous, aromatic and sweet. The cultivated parsnip is much used, and is a highly nutritious vegetable. In times of scarcity, an excellent bread has been made of its roots, and they also furnish an excellent wine, resembling the malmsey of Madeira and the Canaries; a spirit is also obtained from them in as great quantities as from carrots. The composition of the parsnip-root has been found to be in 100 parts, 79.4 of water, 6.9 starch and fibre, 6.1 gum, 5.5 sugar, and 2.1 of albumen.

1553.—PARSNIPS, FRIED. (Fr.Panais Frits.)

Ingredients.—Parsnips, salt and pepper, egg and breadcrumbs, or frying-batter.

Method.—Boil the parsnips as in the preceding recipe (cold ones may be used), cut them into slices, about ½ an inch in thickness, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and either coat them with egg and breadcrumbs, or dip them into batter. In either case, they must be fried until golden-brown in hot fat.

Average Cost,—2d. per lb. Seasonable from October to May.

1554.—PARSNIPS, MASHED. See Turnips, Mashed, Recipe No. 1627.

1555.—PEAS, GREEN. (Fr.Petit Pois Verts.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of cooked green peas, 2 ozs. of lean cooked ham cut into dice, 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of good stock, 1 teaspoonful of flour, ½ a small onion finely-chopped, a pinch of castor sugar, a pinch of grated nutmeg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Fry the onion until lightly browned in the butter, add the flour and ham, stir over the fire for a minute or two, then put in the peas, stock, sugar, and nutmeg. Season to taste, simmer for 10 minutes, stirring occasionally, then serve.

Time.—About 1 hour, altogether. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from May to September.

1556.—PEAS, GREEN, BOILED. (Fr.Petits Pois verts à l'Anglaise.)

Ingredients.—Green peas, mint, butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Shell the peas, put them into boiling water, add a little salt and a sprig of mint, and boil, with the saucepan uncovered, from 10 to 25 minutes, according to age and variety. Drain well, put them into a hot vegetable dish, season with pepper, add a small piece of butter, and serve.

Time.—From 10 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. per peck. Seasonable from May to September; most plentiful in July and August.

Origin of the Pea.—All the varieties of garden peas which are cultivated have originated from the Pisum sativum, a native of the south of Europe; and field peas are varieties of Pisum aravense. The everlasting pea is Lathyrus latifolius, an old favourite of flower gardens. It is said to yield an abundance of honey to bees, who are remarkably fond of it. In this country the pea has been grown from time immemorial, but its culture seems to have diminished since the more general introduction of herbage, plants and roots.

1557.—PEAS, FRENCH STYLE. (Fr.Petits Pois à la Française.)

Ingredients.—1½ pints of shelled peas, 1 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, mint, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the peas as in the preceding recipe, drain off the water, and shake the saucepan over the fire until the greater part of the moisture has evaporated. Then put in the butter and parsley, season pepper, toss over the fire for a few minutes, and serve.

Time.—From 20 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 6d. per peck. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from May to September.

Varieties of the Pea.—The varieties of the pea are numerous; but they may be divided into two classes—those grown for the ripened seed, and those grown for gathering in a green state. The culture of the latter is chiefly confined to the neighbourhoods of large towns, and may be considered as in part rather to belong to the operations of the market gardener than to those of the agriculturist. The grey varieties are the early grey, the late grey, and the purple grey, to which some add the Marlborough grey and the horn grey. The white varieties grown in fields are the pearl, early Charlton, golden hotspur, the common white, or Suffolk, and other Suffolk varieties.

1558.—PEAS, GREEN, STEWED. (Fr.Petits Pois à la Française.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of peas, 1 lettuce, 2 ozs. of butter, pepper and salt to taste, 1 egg, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered sugar.

Method.—Shell the peas, and slice the onions and cut lettuces, into fine shreds; put these into a stewpan with the butter, pepper and salt, but no more water than that which hangs round the lettuce after washing it. Stew the whole very gently for rather more than 1 hour, then stir into the mixture a well-beaten egg, and about ½ a teaspoonful of powdered sugar. When the peas, etc., are nicely blended, serve, but after the egg is added, do not allow them to re-boil.

Time.—1¼ hours. Average Cost from 6d. per peck. Seasonable from May to September. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

The Sweet Pea, and the Heath or Wood Pea.—The well-known sweet pea form a handsome covering to a trellis, or lattice-work in a flower garden. Its gay and fragrant flowers, with its rambling habits, render it peculiarly adapted for such purposes. The wood pea or heath pea, is found in the heaths of Scotland, and the Highlanders of that country are extremely partial to them. The peas have a sweet taste, somewhat like the root of liquorice, and when boiled have an agreeable flavour, and are nutritive. In times of scarcity they have served as an article of food. When well boiled a fork will pass through them; and slightly dried, they are roasted, and in Holland and Flanders served up like chestnuts.

1559.—PEAS, TINNED, TO DRESS.

Ingredients.—1 pint of preserved peas, butter, mint, sugar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Strain the liquor from the peas, and wash and drain them well. Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, add 2 or 3 sprigs of mint, and when they have infused for 5 minutes, put in the peas, together with a little salt and a good pinch of sugar. Let the peas remain in the water for a few minutes, then drain them well, sprinkle them with pepper, and add a little cold butter. Or, instead of serving them plainly, dress them as directed under the heading Peas. When fresh mint is not procurable, serve the peas sprinkled with powdered mint.

Time.—To heat the peas, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, 9d. to 10d. Seasonable at any time.

1560.—PEASE PUDDING.

Ingredients.—1½ pints of split peas, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 eggs, pepper and salt to taste.

Method.—Put the peas to soak over night in water, and float off any that may be worm-eaten or discoloured. Tie them loosely in a clean cloth, leaving a little room for them to swell, and put them on to boil in cold rain-water, allowing 2½ hours after the water has simmered up. When the peas are tender, well rub them through a colander with a wooden spoon, and add the butter, eggs, pepper and salt. Beat all well together for a few minutes, until the ingredients are well incorporated, then tie them tightly in a floured cloth, and boil the pudding for another hour. Turn it on to the dish, and serve very hot.

Time.—Altogether, about 3½ hours. Average Cost, 7d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1561.—POTATOES, BAKED (Fr.Pommes de Terre.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes.

Method.—Choose large potatoes, as much of a size as possible; wash them in lukewarm water, and scrub them well, for the brown skin of a baked potato is by many persons considered the better part of it. Put them in a moderate oven, and bake them for about 2 hours, turning them 3 or 4 times while they are cooking. Serve them in a napkin immediately they are done, for, if they are kept a long time in the oven they will have a shrivelled appearance. Potatoes may also be roasted before the fire in an American oven; but when thus cooked, they must be done very slowly.

Time.—From 1 to 2 hours, according to size. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable all the year.

1562.—POTATO BALLS. (Fr.Croquettes de Pommes de Terre.)

Ingredients.—Mashed Potatoes, salt and pepper to taste; when liked, a very little minced parsley, egg and breadcrumbs.

Method.—Boil and mash the potatoes (see Potatoes, Mashed, Recipe No. 1575), add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and, when liked, a little minced parsley. Roll the potatoes into small balls, cover them with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot oil or dripping until light-brown. Let them drain on a cloth or paper, dish them on a napkin, and serve.

Time.—10 minutes to fry the balls. Seasonable at any time.

The potato.—The potato belongs to the family of the Solanaceae, the greater number of which grow in the tropics, and the remainder are distributed over the temperate regions of both hemispheres, but do not extend to the Arctic and Antarctic zones. The whole of the family possess valuable qualities; some species are narcotic, as the tobacco-plant, and others, as the henbane and nightshade, are deleterious. The roots partake of the properties of the plants, and are sometimes even more active. The tubers of such as produce them are amylaceous and nutritive, as in those of the potato. The leaves are generally narcotic, but they lose this principle in boiling, as in the case with the solanum nigrum, which is used as a vegetable when cooked.

1563.—POTATO CHIPS.

See Potatoes, Fried, Recipe No. 1569.

1564.—POTATO CROQUETTES.

See Potato Balls, Recipe No. 1562.

1565.—POTATOES, BOILED. (Fr.Pommes de Terre au Naturel.)

Ingredients—Potatoes, salt.

Method.—Choose potatoes of equal size, scrub them, peel them thinly, wash them in clean cold water, but do not let them remain in it for more than 10 minutes. Put them into a saucepan, with sufficient BOILING water to cover them, add a teaspoonful of salt to each quart of water, and boil GENTLY from 20 to 40 minutes, according to age and size. Ascertain when they are done by trying one with a skewer; if soft, drain off the water, put the saucepan by the side of the fire with the lid tilted, to allow the steam to escape, let them remain for about 10 minutes, then serve.

Time.—From 20 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

Note.—Opinions are divided as to whether potatoes should be put into cold or boiling water. Those who adopt the former method can give no reason for so doing, save that of its being an old custom, whereas many who have made a scientific study of the culinary treatment of this vegetable, assert, and with good reason, that the darker layer of potato immediately under the skin is composed almost entirely of gluten, a substance which, like albumen, when subject to the temperature of boiling water, at once hardens, forming an impervious layer that prevents the water reaching the inner starchy part of the potato. Consequently, the potatoes are more dry and floury than they would otherwise be. Potatoes may be kept hot for some time, without spoiling, if covered with a folded cloth to absorb the moisture, and the saucepan itself uncovered, to allow the steam to escape.

Potato-Sugar.—This sugar substance, found in the tubers of potatoes, is obtained in the form of syrup or treacle. It resembles grape-sugar, is not crystallizable, and is less sweet than cane-sugar. It is used to make sweetmeats and as a substitute for honey. 60 lb. of potatoes, yielding 8 lb. of dry starch, will produce 7½ lb. of sugar. In Russia it is extensively made, and is as good, though of less consistency, than the treacle obtained from cane-sugar. A cheap and common spirit is also distilled from the tubers, which resembles brandy, but is milder, and has a flavour resembling the odour of violets or raspberries. In France this manufacture is carried on somewhat extensively, and 500 lb. of the tubers will produce 12 lb. of the spirits, the pulp being utilized for feeding cattle.

1566.—POTATOES, COLD, TO USE.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of cold potatoes, 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, milk, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pass the potatoes through a sieve, or beat them smooth with a fork. Add the butter, onion, and sufficient milk to moisten them, season to taste with salt and pepper, and press the mixture into a well-greased mould or basin. Bake in a moderate oven for about ½ an hour, then turn the potatoes out and serve. For other methods of utilising cold potatoes, see Bubble and Squeak, Potato Balls, Potatoes, Mashed and Baked, and Potatoes with Maître d'Hôtel Sauce.

Time.—To bake the mould, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, 2d. to 2½d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1567.—POTATOES, CRISP.

See Potatoes, Fried, Recipe No. 1569.

1568.—POTATOES WITH CHEESE. (Fr.Soufflé de Pommes de Terre au Fromage.)

Ingredients.—3 medium-sized potatoes, 2 whites of eggs, 1 yolk of egg, 1 heaped tablespoonful of grated cheese, 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper

Method.—Scrub the potatoes and bake them in their skins. When ready, cut in halves, empty the skins into a small stewpan, add the cheese, butter, yolk of egg, milk and parsley, season with salt and pepper, and mix well over the fire. Beat the whites stiffly, stir them lightly in, then fill the potato skins with the mixture, piling it somewhat high. Brush over with a little yolk of egg, and bake in a moderate oven for about 15 minutes.

Time.—From 1½ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 6d. Seasonable at any time. Sufficient for 6 persons.

Note.—This mixture can also be baked in scallop shells or patty-pans, which should be previously well buttered and covered with breadcrumbs.

Analysis of the Potato.—Next to the seeds of the cereals, the potato is the most valuable plant for the production of human food. Its tubers, according to analysis, contain the following ingredients: 75.52 starch, 0.55 dextrine, 3.3 of impure saccharine matter, and 3.25 of fibre with coagulated albumen. In a dried state the tuber contains 64.2 per cent. of starch 2.25 of dextrine, 13.47 of impure saccharine matter, 5.13 of caseine, gluten and albumen, 1 of fatty matter, and 13.31 of fibre and coagulated albumen.

1569.—POTATOES, FRIED. (Fr.Pommes de Terre Frites.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, hot oil or clarified dripping, salt.

Method.—Peel and cut the potatoes into thin slices, as nearly the same size as possible, parboil them, and dry them in a cloth. Make some oil or dripping quite hot in a saucepan, put in the potatoes, and fry to a nice brown. When they are crisp and done take them up, drain them on paper before the fire, and serve very hot, after sprinkling them with salt. These are delicious with rump-steak, and in France are frequently served as a breakfast dish. The remains of cold potatoes may be sliced and fried by the above recipe, but the slices must be cut a little thicker.

Time.—Sliced raw potatoes, 25 minutes; cooked potatoes, 15 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

Uses of the Potato.—Potatoes boiled and beaten with sour milk form a sort of cheese which is made in Saxony, and when kept in close vessels may be preserved for several years. Potatoes which have been exposed to the air and become green are very unwholesome. It it asserted that potatoes will clean linen as well as soap; and it is well known that the berries of Solanum saponaceum are used in Peru for the same purpose.

1570.—POTATOES, FRIED. (Fr.Pommes de Terre Frites.) (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—6 potatoes, ½ a lb. of butter, salt.

Method.—Peel the potatoes very evenly, cut them into slices as thin as possible. Place the butter in a frying-pan, and as soon as it is boiling add the sliced potatoes, and fry them of a bright gold colour, shaking them so as to cook them equally. Drain on sheets of paper before the fire, powder with salt, and serve very hot. Serve with game.

Time.—10 to 12 minutes to fry. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Sufficient for 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Note.Potato Bread.—The adhesive tendency of the flour of the potato prevents its being baked or kneaded without being mixed with wheaten flour or meal; it may however be made into cakes in the following manner: A small wooden frame, nearly square, is laid on a pan like a frying pan, and is grooved and so constructed that, by means of a presser or lid introduced into the groove, the cake is at once fashioned, according to the dimensions of the mould. The frame containing the farina may be almost immediately withdrawn after the mould is formed upon the pan, because from the consistency imparted to the incipient cake by the heat, it will speedily admit of being safely handled; it must not, however, be fried too hastily. It will then eat very palatably, and might from time to time be soaked for puddings, like tapioca, or be used like the casada-cake, for, when well buttered and toasted, it is excellent for breakfast.

1571.—POTATOES, IRISH WAY TO BOIL. (Fr.Pommes de Terre à l'Irlandaise.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, water.

Method.—Wash and scrub the potatoes, but do not peel them. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water, boil slowly until they can be easily pierced with a fork, then immediately add sufficient cold water to reduce the temperature several degrees below boiling point. Let them remain for 2 or 3 minutes, then pour off the water, cover the potatoes with a folded cloth, and allow them to stand by the side of the fire until the steam has evaporated. Peel them quickly, and send them to table in an open dish, in order that the steam may escape, otherwise the potatoes may be watery.

Time.—To boil the potatoes, from 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1572.—POTATO RIBBONS, FRIED. (Fr.Pommes de Terre Frites.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, frying-fat.

Method.—Peel the potatoes, throw them into cold water for 10 minutes, dry with a clean cloth, and peel them into ribbons, ½ an inch wide, with a small sharp knife, cutting round and round. Divide these into 6-inch lengths, tie into knots, fry in a frying-basket in a deep pan of hot fat until golden-brown, then drain well on a paper, and serve.

Time.—From 5 to 6 minutes to fry. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

Preserving Potatoes.—In general, potatoes are stored or preserved in pits, cellars, pies or camps; but, whatever method is adopted, it is essential that the tubers are perfectly dry, otherwise they will surely rot; and a few rotten potatoes will contaminate a whole mass. The pie, as it is called, consists of a trench, lined and covered with straw, the potatoes in it being piled in the shape of a house roof, to the height of about three feet. The camps are shallow pits, filled and ridged up in a similar manner, covered up with the excavated mould of the pit. In Russia and Canada, the potato is preserved in boxes, in houses or cellars, heated, when necessary, by stoves to a temperature of one or two degrees above the freezing-point. To keep potatoes for a considerable time, the best way is to place them in thin layers on a platform suspended in an ice-cellar; there the temperature being always below that of active vegetation, they will not sprout; while, not being above one or two degrees below freezing point, the tubers will not be frost-bitten. Another method is to scoop out the eyes, with a very small scoop, and keep the roots buried in earth; a third method is to destroy the vital principle, by kiln-drying, steaming, or scalding; a fourth is to bury them so deep in dry soil, that no change of temperature will reach them, and thus, being without air, they will remain upwards of a year without vegetating.

1573.—POTATOES, GERMAN METHOD OF COOKING. (Fr.Pommes de Terre à l'Allemande.)

Ingredients.—8 or 9 medium-sized potatoes, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, ½ a pint of stock, salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel and slice the potatoes thinly. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, and, when lightly browned, stir in the stock and vinegar. Bring to the boil, season to taste, put in the sliced potatoes, and simmer very gently until tender.

Time.—About 25 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1574.—POTATOES, LYONNAISE STYLE. (Fr.Pommes de Terre à la Lyonnaise.)

Ingredients.—6 or 8 boiled potatoes sliced, 3 rather small onions, 1½ ozs. of butter, finely-chopped parsley, salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel the onions, cut them ACROSS into slices, fry these brown in butter, and keep them hot. Strain and return the butter to the sauté-pan, put in the sliced potato and try until well-browned, keeping the slices unbroken. Season with salt and pepper, serve on a hot dish garnished with the fried slices of onion, and sprinkle lightly with parsley.

Time.—To cook the onions, from 5 to 6 minutes; to sauté the potatoes, 10 minutes. Average Cost, 5d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1575.—POTATOES, MASHED. (Fr.Purée de Pommes de Terre.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of potatoes, 1 oz. of butter, 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, salt.

Method.—Peel and steam the potatoes over a saucepan of boiling water, or boil them in their skins, and afterwards peel them. In either case, pass the potatoes through a wire sieve, or mash them well with a fork. Heat the butter in a stewpan, add the milk, stir in the potato, and season to taste with salt. Beat well with a wooden spoon, pile lightly in a hot dish, then serve. See Potato Rice, Potato, and Potato Vermicelli.

Time.—To steam the potatoes, from 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Sufficient for 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1576.—POTATOES, MASHED AND BAKED. (Fr.Pommes de Terre à la Duchesse.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of cold mashed potato, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 heaped tablespoonful of grated cheese, preferably Parmesan, 1 tablespoonful of milk (about), the yolk of 1 egg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the potatoes, and rub them through a sieve whilst hot. Mix all the ingredients well together in a stewpan over the fire, then spread it on a floured board, and shape into rolls about 2½ inches long, and rather less than 1 inch in width. Or, cut into triangular or diamond-shaped pieces, place on a greased baking-tin, brush over with egg, and bake them in a moderately hot oven until nicely browned. Before serving, brush over with warm butter, and sprinkle with finely-chopped parsley. The potatoes may be served as a separate dish, or used as a garnish for many entrées and "dressed vegetables."

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, about 6d. Seasonable at any time.

1577.—POTATO NESTS.

See Potatoes with Cheese. (Recipe No. 1568). The cheese is usually, but not necessarily, omitted in Potato Nests.

1578.—POTATO PUFF.

See Potato Soufflé, Recipe No. 1586. When small puffs are required, force the mixture on to a greased baking-tin in small rounds, and cook in a moderately-hot oven until lightly-browned.

1579.—POTATOES, PARISIAN. (Fr.Pommes Parisienne.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, 2 or 3 ozs. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, salt.

Method.—With a large round vegetable scoop prepare as many potatoes as may be required. To 1 pint allow the above proportions of butter and parsley. Heat the butter in a sauté-pan, fry the potatoes over the fire until well browned, then cook more slowly in the oven until tender. Drain off the butter, season with salt, sprinkle with parsley, and serve.

Time.—About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1580.—POTATOES WITH JACKETS.

See Potatoes, Irish Way to Boil, Recipe No. 1571.

1581.—POTATOES, ROASTED.

See Potatoes, Baked, Recipe No. 1561.

1582.—POTATO RISSOLES.

See Potato Balls, Recipe No. 1562.

1583.—POTATOES WITH MAÎTRE D'HÔTEL SAUCE. (Fr.Pommes de Terre à la Maître d'Hôtel.)

Ingredients.—Cold boiled potatoes, ½ a pint of stock or milk, the yolk of 1 egg, 1 oz. of butter, a dessertspoonful of flour, ½ tablespoonful of chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the potatoes into thick slices. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the stock or milk, and boil well from 10 to 15 minutes. Season to taste, put in the slices of potatoes, let them become thoroughly hot, then draw the stewpan aside, put in the lemon-juice and parsley, add the yolk of egg, and stir gently until it thickens. The egg may be omitted, in which case a level tablespoonful of flour must be substituted for the smaller quantity given above.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. Seasonable at any time.

1584.—POTATOES, SAUTÉ OR TOSSED. (Fr.Pommes de Terre Sautées.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, salt and pepper. To 5 or 6 allow 1 oz. of butter.

Method.—Choose rather waxy and even-sized potatoes, wash and boil them in their skins until three parts cooked, let them dry thoroughly, then peel and slice them rather thinly. Heat the butter in a sauté-or frying-pan, put in the potatoes, and season with salt and pepper. Toss them over the fire until they acquire a little colour, then serve.

Time.—To sauté the potatoes, from 4 to 5 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1585.—POTATO STRAWS. (Fr.Pommes Pailles.)

Ingredients.—5 or 6 medium-sized potatoes, frying-fat, salt.

Method.—Peel and slice the potatoes thinly, cut them into strips about 1½ inches long, then wash and drain them well, and dry them on a cloth. Have ready a deep pan of hot fat, fry the straws in a basket until crisp, drain free from fat, sprinkle with salt, and serve.

Time.—To fry the straws, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1586.—POTATO SOUFFLÉ. (Fr.Soufflé de Pommes de Terre.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of mealy potatoes, 1 oz. of butter, 1 gill of cream, 3 eggs, salt and pepper, nutmeg.

Method.—As soon as the potatoes are cooked, drain and dry them carefully, and rub them through a fine wire sieve. Put them into a basin, and add salt, pepper, and a grating of nutmeg to season. Melt the butter, and stir in, one by one, the yolks of eggs, and the cream, lastly add the whites of eggs, previously whisked to a stiff froth. Put the mixture into a buttered pie-dish, or into small buttered china or paper soufflé cases. Bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes. Small cases will take rather less time.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 10d. Seasonable at any time.

1587.—POTATO RICE. (Fr.Pommes de Terre au Riz.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, salt and butter.

Method.—Choose white potatoes, boil them until tender, and mash them. Press them through a large colander on to a hot dish before a fire, shaking the colander lightly every other minute to cause the potatoes to fall off in short grains like rice; serve very hot.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1588.—POTATO SNOW. (Fr.Pommes de Terre au Neige.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes, salt and water.

Method.—Choose white potatoes, as free from spots as possible, boil them in their skins in salt and water until perfectly tender, drain and dry them thoroughly by the side of the fire, and peel them. Put a hot dish before the fire, rub the potatoes through a coarse sieve on to this dish; do not touch them afterwards, or the flakes will fall; serve as hot as possible.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1589.—POTATO VERMICELLI.

Ingredients.—Potatoes, salt and water.

Method.—Prepare and cook the potatoes as in either of the two preceding recipes, then press them through a metal potato masher into a hot vegetable dish.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1590.—POTATOES, TO BOIL NEW. (Fr.Pommes de Terre.)

Ingredients.—Potatoes; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, a few sprigs of mint.

Method.—Have the potatoes as fresh as possible, for they are never good when they have been some time out of the ground. Well wash them, rub or scrape off the skins, and put them and the mint into boiling water salted in the above proportion. Let them boil until tender; try them with a fork, and, when done, pour away the water. Allow them to stand by the side of the fire with the lid of the saucepan partially removed, and when they are thoroughly dry, put them in a hot vegetable dish, with a piece of butter the size of a walnut. If they are old, boil them in their jackets: drain, peel, and serve them as above, placing a piece of butter in the centre. Parsley chopped and mixed with the butter is an improvement.

Time.—¼ to ½ an hour, according to the size. Average Cost, in full season 1½d. per lb. Sufficient, 3 lb. for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in May and June, but may be had forced in March and April.

Potato Starch.—This fecula has a beautiful white crystalline appearance, and is inodorous, soft to the touch, insoluble in cold, but readily soluble in boiling, water. It is on this starch that the nutritive properties of the tubers depend. As an aliment, it is well adapted for invalids and persons of delicate constitutions. It may be prepared as arrowroot, and eaten with milk or sugar. For pastry of all kinds, it is lighter and easier of digestion than that made with the flour of wheat. In confectionery it serves to form creams and jellies, and in cookery may be used to thicken soups and sauces. It accommodates itself to the stomachs of children, for whom it is well adapted, and it is an ailment that cannot be too generally used, as much on account of its wholesomeness as its cheapness and the ease with which it is kept. These qualities render it equal, if not superior, to tapioca, sago and arrowroot.

1591.—POTATOES, TO STEAM.

Ingredients.—Potatoes, boiling water.

Method.—This method of cooking potatoes is now much in vogue, from its convenience when large quantities are required. Pare the potatoes, throw them into cold water as they are peeled, then put them in a steamer. Place the steamer over a saucepan of boiling water, and steam the potatoes from 30 to 40 minutes, according to the size and sort. When the fork goes easily through the potatoes they are done; then take them up, dish, had serve very quickly.

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

1592.—PUMPKIN, FRIED.

See Vegetable Marrow, Fried, Recipe No. 1631.

1593.—PUMPKIN, MASHED.

See Vegetable Marrow, Mashed, Recipe No. 1633.

1594.—PUMPKIN PIE.

Ingredients.—1 pumpkin, 5 eggs, milk, castor sugar, ¼ of a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, 1 pinch each of cinnamon and ginger, short-crust paste, salt.

Method.—Peel and slice the pumpkin, remove the seeds, boil it in slightly-salted water until tender, and pass it through a fine sieve. Beat and add the eggs, sweeten to taste, put in the lemon-rind, cinnamon and ginger, and stir in gradually sufficient milk to reduce the consistency to that of thick batter. Turn the mixture into a piedish lined with short crust paste, cover and bake in a moderately hot oven from 40 to 45 minutes. Serve hot.

Time.—To bake the pie, from 40 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable in summer.

1595.—PUMPKIN AND APPLE PIE.

Ingredients.—Pumpkin, apples, sugar, ground allspice, paste.

Method.—Remove the rind, seeds and puffy centre part of the pumpkin, and slice the rest thinly. Fill a piedish with alternate layers of apple and pumpkin, sprinkling each layer with sugar and a pinch of allspice. Add 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of water, cover with paste, and bake in a moderately-hot oven from 45 to 60 minutes. Serve hot.

Time.—To bake, from 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable in summer.

1596.—SALSIFY, BOILED. (Fr.Salsifis bouillis, Sauce Blanche.)

Ingredients.—Salsify: to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 oz. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.

Method.—Scrape the roots gently, so as to strip them only of their outside peel; cut them into pieces about 4 inches long, and, as they are peeled, throw them into water mixed with a little lemon-juice, to prevent their discolouring. Put them into boiling water with salt, butter and lemon-juice in the above proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender; try them with a fork, and, when it penetrates easily, the roots are done. Drain the salsify, and serve with good white sauce.

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes. Seasonable from December to March.

Note.—Salsify may also be cooked according to any of the recipes given for dressing celery.

Salsify (Fr. salsifis), or purple goat's beard, is a plant indigenous to England, belonging to the same tribe as chicory or lettuce. It is less often eaten in England than on the Continent and in America, where it is known from its peculiar taste as the "oyster plant." The root is long and tapering, similar to the parsnip.

1597.—SCALLOPED OYSTER PLANT. (Fr.Salsifis.)

Ingredients.—1½ lb. of stewed oyster plant (salsify), 3 ozs. of butter, ½ a gill of milk, salt to taste, a pinch of cayenne pepper.

Method.—When the oyster plant is boiled tender, rub it through a sieve; add part of the butter and all the other ingredients, mix well, put in a baking-dish, cover the top with grated breadcrumbs and the rest of the butter, Bake it a delicate brown, and serve hot.

Time.—15 minutes. Cost 1s. to 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in winter.

1598.—SUCCOTASH.

Ingredients.—1 pint of shelled beans, 12 ears of fresh corn, 1 gill of cream or milk, 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash the beans, and cook them till almost tender in salted water. Drain them, and add the cream or milk and a gill of the liquor, also the corn, and simmer for about 15 minutes. At this stage put in the butter, and season slightly with salt and pepper. Serve hot.

Time.—45 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 2d. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable August to October.

1599.—SWEET POTATOES, TO COOK, DRIED.

Method.—Pour boiling water over the potatoes the night before they are wanted. The next day drain and peel, boil, and dress with butter.

Varieties of the Potato.—These are very numerous. "They differ," says an authority, "in their leaves and bulk of haulm; in the colour of the skin of the tubers; in the colour of the interior, compared with that of the skin; in the time of ripening; in being farinaceous, glutinous, or watery; in tasting agreeably or disagreeably; in cooking readily or tediously; in the length of the subterraneous stolens to which the tubers are attached; in blossoming or not blossoming; and, finally, in the soil which they prefer." The earliest varieties grown in fields are—the early kidney, the Nonsuch, the earl Shaw, and the early Champion. The last is the most generally cultivated round London; it is both mealy and hardy. The sweet potato is but rarely eaten in Britain; but in America it is often served at table, and is there very highly esteemed.

1600.—SWEET POTATOES, ROAST.

Method.—Lay the potatoes in a Dutch oven in front of the fire or in a hot oven, turning them occasionally until cooked. Scrape off the outer skin, and cut into pieces, or mash the butter, season, and serve hot.

1601.—SWEET POTATO FRITTERS.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of sweet potatoes, 2 tablespoonfuls of warm butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 2 eggs and a little salt, frying-fat, egg and breadcrumbs.

Method.—Prepare, boil, and mash the potatoes; add to them the butter, flour, and 2 eggs, and season with salt. Form the mixture into small round flat cakes, coat them carefully with egg and bread crumbs, fry in hot fat until nicely browned, then drain well, and serve as a sweet with sugar and ground cinnamon.

Time.—To fry the fritters, 4 or 5 minutes. Average Cost, 8d. or 9d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1602.—SAVOY, TO DRESS.

See recipes for Cooking Cabbage, on pages 822-5.

1603.—SEA-KALE, BOILED. (Fr.Choux Marins.)

Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Method.—Well wash the kale, cut away any worm eaten pieces, and tie it into small bunches. Put it into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let it boil quickly until tender. Take it out, drain, untie the bunches, and serve with plain melted butter or white sauce, a little of which may be poured over the kale. Sea-kale may also be parboiled and stewed in good brown gravy; it will then take about ½ an hour altogether.

Time.—25 minutes. When liked very thoroughly done, allow an extra 5 minutes. Average Cost, in full season, 9d. per basket. Sufficient, 12 heads for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from February to June.

Sea-Kale (Fr. chou marins).—This plant belongs to the asparagus tribe, and grows on sea shores especially in the west of England, and in the neighbourhood of Dublin. Although it is now in very general use, it did not come into repute till 1794. It is easily cultivated, and is esteemed as one of the most valuable esculents indigenous to Britain. As a vegetable, it is stimulating to the appetite, easily digestible, and nutritious. It is so light that the most delicate organizations may readily eat it. The flowers form a favourite resort for bees, as their petals contain a great amount of saccharine matter.

1604.—SORREL, PUREE OF. (Fr.Purée d'Oiselle.)

Ingredients.—3 lbs. of sorrel, 1 oz. of butter, 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of either gravy or cream, flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pick the sorrel, remove the stalks, then wash it well, changing the water frequently. Put it into a saucepan with as much water as will barely cover the bottom of the pan, sprinkle with salt, and cook gently for about 20 minutes, turning it over, and pressing it down repeatedly with a spoon, in order to equalize the cooking. Drain well, rub through a fine sieve, put the purée into a stewpan, add the butter, cream or gravy, season well with salt and pepper, and stir over the fire for 8 or 10 minutes, dredging in gradually a little flour until the purée acquires the desired consistence, then serve.

Time.—About 45 minutes. Average Cost, 3d. per lb. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable, in best condition from May to October.

1605.—SPANISH SALAD. (Fr.Salade Espagnole.)

Method.—Peel a large Spanish onion, cut it into very thin slices; with this mix a finely-sliced cucumber and 6 firm but ripe tomatoes, also cut into slices. Season with salt, pepper, oil and vinegar, and sprinkle some finely-grated Parmesan cheese between each layer. Garnish with stoned Spanish olives, and serve.

Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Seasonable at any time.

1606.—SPINACH, BOILED. (Fr.Purée d'Epinards.)

Ingredients.—3 lb. of spinach, 1 oz. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, salt and pepper.

Method—Pick off the stalks, and wash the spinach in cold water until free from grit. Then put it into a saucepan with about a level tablespoonful of salt and just sufficient water to cover the bottom of the pan. Boil uncovered from 15 to 25 minutes, occasionally pressing it down, and turning it over with a wooden spoon. When done, rub it through a fine sieve; put it into a stewpan with the butter, season well with pepper, sprinkle in the flour, and stir over the fire for 5 or 6 minutes. Serve on a hot dish garnished with croûtons of fried or toasted bread, or fleurons of puff-paste.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. per lb. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable, spring spinach from March to July; winter spinach from November to March.

Spinach (Fr. epinards).—A genus of plant belonging to the natural order Chenopodiacae. Its leaves are shaped like worms, and of a succulent kind. In its geographical distribution spinach is commonly found in extra-tropical and temperate regions, where it grows as a weed in waste places and among rubbish, and in marshes by the sea shore. In the tropics the genus is rarely found. Many of the species are used as pot-herbs, and some of them are emetic and vermifuge in their medicinal properties. Spinach has been cultivated in our gardens since the end of the seventeenth century. It is not very nutritious, but it is wholesome and easily digested. It is very light and laxative. Wonderful properties have been ascribed to spinach. It is an excellent vegetable, used sometimes in salads, but more usually eaten cooked.

1607.—SPINACH WITH BROWN GRAVY. (Fr.Epinards au Jus.)

Ingredients.—4 lbs. of spinach, 4 tablespoonfuls of brown gravy, 1 tablespoonful of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare and cook the spinach as in the preceding recipe. Rub it through a fine sieve, put it into a stewpan with the butter, gravy, and a little pepper, sprinkle in the flour, and stir over the fire until the puréeacquires a thick creamy consistency. The spinach may be piled on croûtons of fried bread, and garnished with leaves, or other small designs of puff-paste, or white of egg.

Time.—From 20 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. per lb. Sufficient for 4 to 5 persons. Seasonable from November to July.

1608.—SPINACH WITH CREAM. (Fr.Epinards à la Crême.)

This recipe differs from the preceding one, Epinards au Jus, only in having 4 tablespoonfuls of cream substituted for the brown gravy.

Varieties of Spinach.—These comprise the strawberry spinach, which, under that name, was wont to be grown in our flower-gardens; the Good King Harry, the Orach or Garden Spinach, the Prickly-fruited and the Smooth-fruited, are the varieties commonly used. The Orach is a hardy sort, much esteemed in France, and is a native of Tartary, introduced in 1548. The common spinach has its leaves round, and is softer and more succulent than any of the Brassica tribe.

1609.—SPINACH WITH POACHED EGGS. (Fr.Epinards aux Oeufs Pochés.)

Ingredients.—2 or 3 lb. of spinach purée, 6 poached eggs, fleurons of puff-paste, croûtons of fried bread.

Method.—Prepare the purée according to directions given in any of the preceding three recipes. Poach the eggs in as plump a form as possible, and trim them to a nice round shape. Serve the spinach on a hot dish, place the eggs on the top, and garnish the base with the fleurons or croûtons.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from November to July.

1610.—SQUASH, TO DRESS.

See American Cookery.

1611.—TOMATOES, BAKED. (Fr.Tomates au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—8 to 10 tomatoes, pepper and salt to taste, 2 ozs. of butter, breadcrumbs.

Method.—Take the stalks off the tomatoes, cut them in halves, and put them into a deep baking-dish with a seasoning of pepper and salt and butter in the above proportion. Cover the whole with breadcrumbs; drop over these a little clarified butter, bake in a moderate oven from 20 minutes to ½ an hour, and serve very hot. This vegetable, dressed as above, is an exceedingly nice accompaniment to all kinds of roast meats. The tomatoes, instead of being cut in half, may be baked whole, but they will take rather longer time to cook.

Time.—20 to 30 minutes. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in August, September and October, but may be obtained all the year round.

The Tomato, or Love Apple.—This vegetable is a native of Mexico and South America, but is also found in the East Indies, where it is supposed to have been introduced by the Spaniards. In this country it is much more cultivated than it formerly was, and the more the community becomes acquainted with the many agreeable forms in which the fruit can be prepared, the more widely will its cultivation be extended. For ketchup, soups, and sauces, it is equally applicable, and the unripe fruit makes one of the best pickles. In Italy and Provence tomatoes are cut in halves, and dried in the sun; they are then very slightly sprinkled with pepper and salt, and packed securely for winter use in soups and stews.

1612.—TOMATOES, DEVILLED. (Fr.Tomates à la Diable.)

Ingredients.—5 or 6 firm tomatoes, 2 ozs. of butter, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, ½ a teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1 saltspoonful of sugar, a good pinch of cayenne, 2 raw eggs, butter for frying.

Method.—Slice the tomatoes, place them in a sauté-pan containing a little hot butter, and let them cook very slowly for a few minutes. Mix the hard-boiled yolks and 2 ozs. of butter together, stir in the vinegar, add the mustard, salt, sugar and cayenne, and turn the whole into a small stewpan. When thoroughly hot, beat and add the eggs, and stir until the mixture thickens. Place the tomatoes on a hot dish, pour the sauce over, and serve.

Time.—About ½ an hour. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1613.—TOMATOES, SCALLOPED. (Fr.Tomates en Coquille.)

Ingredients.—½ a pint of tomato pulp, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, ½ an oz of butter, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, salt and pepper, sugar, nutmeg, browned breadcrumbs, butter.

Method.—Obtain the pulp by passing tomatoes through a fine sieve, or use preserved pulp. Heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the onion until lightly-browned, and add half the tomato pulp and white breadcrumbs gradually until the mixture has the consistency of very thick cream. Add a pinch each of sugar and nutmeg, season to taste with salt and pepper, and pour the mixture into will-buttered scallop shells. Cover lightly with browned breadcrumbs, add 2 or 3 small pieces of butter, bake in a moderately-hot oven from 10 to 15 minutes, then serve.

Time.—To bake the scallops, from 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. to 7d. when preserved pulp is used. Sufficient for 6 or 8 shells. Seasonable at any time.

1614.—TOMATO SALAD. (Fr.Salade de Tomates.)

Scald, drain and peel the tomatoes, and, when quite cold, slice them rather thinly. Arrange them neatly on a dish, sprinkle them lightly with salt and pepper, and moisten slightly with salad-oil and vinegar. Or after preparing the tomatoes, as directed above, cut them across in halves, season with salt, pepper, and a little celery salt, adding a few drops of tarragon vinegar. Put them aside for ½ an hour, then serve.

1615.—TOMATOES AND SPINACH. (Fr.Tomates aux Epinards.)

Ingredients.—Tomatoes, spinach purée, croûtes of fried bread, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove some of the pulp and juice from the tomatoes, fill the cavities with spinach purée highly seasoned with salt and peeper, and bake in a moderately-hot oven until the tomatoes are soft. Serve on the croûtes.

Time.—To bake the tomatoes, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 2½d. each. Seasonable at any time.

1616.—TOMATOES, STEWED. (Fr.Tomates au Jus.)

Ingredients.—8 tomatoes, about ½ a pint of good gravy, thickening of butter and flour, cayenne and salt to taste.

Method.—Take out the stalks of the tomatoes, put them into a wide stewpan, pour over them the above proportion of good brown gravy, and stew gently until they are tender, OCCASIONALLY carefully turning them, that they may be equally done. Thicken the gravy with a little butter and flour worked together on a plate, let it boil for 10 minutes after the thickening is added, then serve.

Time.—From 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, from 4d. per lb. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable, all the year.

Analysis of the Tomato.—The fruit of the love-apple is the only part used as an esculent, and it has been found to contain a particular acid, a volatile oil, a brown very fragrant extract of resinous matter, a vegeto-mineral matter, mucho-saccharine, some salts and, in all probability, an alkaloid. The whole plant has a disagreeable odour, and its juice, subjected to the action of the fire, emits a vapour so powerful as to cause vertigo.

1617.—TOMATOES, STUFFED. (Fr.Tomates Farcies au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—6 medium-sized tomatoes, 6 croûtons of fried or toasted bread, 1 heaped tablespoonful of finely-chopped lean cooked ham, ½ a tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, 1 small teaspoonful of grated cheese preferably Parmesan, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped mushrooms, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 very small onion finely-chopped, ½ an oz. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of brown sauce (about), browned breadcrumbs, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the stalks of the tomatoes, and scoop out a little of the pulp. Mix together all the above ingredients, except the brown sauce and browned breadcrumbs, in a small stewpan over the fire, adding gradually sufficient brown sauce to slightly moisten the whole. Season to taste, fill the tomatoes with the preparation, sprinkle on the top of each a few browned breadcrumbs, and bake them in a moderate oven for about 15 minutes. Serve on the croûtes, which should be round, and slightly larger than the tomatoes.

Time.—Altogether, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1618.—TOMATOES, STUFFED, WITH MUSHROOMS. (Fr.Tomates Farcies aux Champignons.)

Ingredients.—6 medium-sized tomatoes, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped mushrooms, 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 very small onion finely-chopped, 6 croûtons of fried or toasted bread, browned breadcrumbs, 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the stalks of the tomatoes, and scoop out a little of the pulp. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, add to it all the ingredients except the browned breadcrumbs, and stir over the fire until thoroughly mixed. Fill the tomatoes with the preparation, sprinkle on a few browned breadcrumbs, bake in a moderate oven for 10 or 15 minutes, and serve on the croûtons.

Time.—Altogether, 30 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 1s. 9d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1619.—TRUFFLES. (Fr.Truffes au Natural.)

Ingredients.—Truffles, buttered paper.

Method.—Select some fine truffles, and wash and brush them in several waters, until not a particle of sand or grit remains. Wrap each truffle in buttered paper, and bake in a hot oven for quite 1 hour; take off the paper, wipe the truffles, and serve.

Time.—To bake the truffles, 1 hour. Average Cost, 6s. to 10s. per lb. Seasonable from November to March.

The Common Truffle (Fr. truffe.)—This is the Tuber cibarium of science, and belongs to that numerous class of esculent fungi distinguished from other vegetables, not only by the singularity of their forms, but by their chemical composition. Upon analysis, they are found not only to contain the usual components of the vegetable kingdom, such as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, but likewise a large proportion of nitrogen, from which they approach more nearly to the nature of animal flesh. It was long ago observed by Dr. Darwin that all the mushrooms cooked at our tables, as well as those used for ketchup, possessed an animal flavour; and soup enriched with mushrooms only has sometimes been supposed to contain meat. It is certain that the truffle must possess, equally with other plants, organs of reproduction, yet, notwithstanding all the efforts of art and science, it has been impossible to subject it to a regular culture. Truffles grow at a considerable depth under the earth, never appearing on the surface. They are found in many parts of France; those of Périgord and Magny are the most esteemed for their flavour. There are three varieties of the species, the black, the red and white; the latter are of little value. The red are very rare, and their use is restricted. The black has the highest repute, and its consumption is enormous. When the peasantry go to gather truffles, they take a pig with them to scent out the spot where they grow. When that is found, the pig turns up the surface with his snout, and the men then dig until they find the truffles. Good truffles are easily distinguished by their agreeable perfume; they should be light in proportion to their size, and elastic when pressed by the finger. To have them in perfection, they should be quite fresh, as their aroma is considerably diminished by any conserving process. Truffles are stimulating and heating. Weak stomachs digest them with difficulty. Some of the culinary uses to which they are subjected render them more digestible, but they should always be eaten sparingly. Their chief use is in seasoning and garnitures. In short, a professor has said: "Meats with truffles are the most distinguished dishes that opulence can offer to the epicure." The truffle grows in clusters, some inches below the surface of the soil, and is of an irregular globular form. Those which grow wild in England are about the size of a hen's egg, and have no roots. As there is nothing to distinguish the places where they are, dogs have been trained to discriminate their scent, by which they are discovered. Hogs are very fond of them, and frequently lead to their being found, from their rutting up the ground in search of them.

1620.—TRUFFLES SERVED ON A SERVIETTE. (Fr.Truffes à la Serviette.)

Ingredients.—Large truffles, equal quantities of white wine and veal or chicken stock, slices of ham or bacon, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf).

Method.—Fresh truffles must be well washed and scrubbed to free them from dirt, and afterwards very carefully peeled. Line a stewpan with slices of ham or bacon, put in the truffles and herbs, barely cover them with equal parts of wine and stock, lay a buttered paper on top, and put on a close-fitting lid. Stew gently from 1 to 1½ hours, according to size, and add more wine and stock as that in the stewpan becomes reduced. When ready, drain and dry thoroughly, and serve as hot as possible in a folded serviette.

Time.—From 1 to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 6s. to 10s. per lb. Allow 1 to each person. Seasonable from November to March.

Note.—Preserved truffles may be enclosed separately in buttered paper, heated in the oven, and after being well dried on a cloth, served in a folded serviette.

1621.—TRUFFLES, ITALIAN METHOD OF DRESSING. (Fr.Truffes à l'Italienne.)

Ingredients.—10 truffles, ¼ of a pint of salad-oil, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, a very little finely minced garlic or shallot, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice.

Method.—After cleansing and brushing the truffles, cut them into thin slices, and put them into a baking-dish, with a seasoning of oil, pepper, salt, parsley, garlic, and mace in the above proportion. Bake them for nearly 1 hour, and just before serving add the lemon-juice. Send the truffles to table very hot.

Time.—Nearly 1 hour. Average Cost, 6s. to 10s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 persons. Seasonable, fresh truffles from November to March.

Where Truffles are Found.—In this country, the common truffle is found on the downs of Hampshire, Wiltshire and Kent; and they abound in dry light soils, and more especially in oak and chestnut forests. In France they are plentiful, and many are imported from the south of that country and Italy, where they are much larger and in greater perfection; they lose, however, much of their flavour by drying. In England the artificial propagation of truffles has been tried, but without success.

1622.—TRUFFLES WITH ITALIAN SAUCE. (Fr.Truffes à l'Italienne.)

Ingredients.—10 fresh truffles, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 minced shallot, salt and pepper to taste, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of good brown gravy, the juice of ½ a lemon, cayenne to taste.

Method.—Wash the truffles, cut them into slices about the size of a penny piece, then put them in a sauté-pan, with the parsley, shallot, salt, pepper, and 1 oz. of butter. Stir them over the fire, that they may all be equally done (about 10 minutes will suffice), then add 2 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, the juice of ½ a lemon, and a little cayenne. Stir over the fire until the whole is on the point of boiling, then serve.

Time.—Altogether, 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6s. to 10s. per lb. Sufficient for 5 persons. Seasonable from November to March.

Uses of the Truffles.—Like the morel, truffles are seldom eaten alone, but are much used in gravies, soups, and ragoûts. They are likewise dried for the winter months, and, when reduced to powder, form a useful culinary ingredient; they, however, have many virtues attributed to them which they do not possess. Their wholesomeness is perhaps questionable, and they should be eaten in moderation.

VEGETABLES.

 
Mrs Beeton (55).jpg

1. Spinach Crôutes. 2. Vegetable Marrow with Sauce. 3. Globe Artichokes.

VEGETABLES.

 
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1. Butter Beans. 2. Sweet Corn. 3. Flagolets.

1623.—TRUFFLES IN CRUST. (Fr.Truffes en Croûtes, or en Cassolettes.)

Ingredients.—Truffles, butter, brown sauce, 1 glass of Marsala, or Madeira wine, stale bread.

Method.—Prepare as many rounds of bread, 1 inch thick, as will be required; they should be free from crust. Fry them in clarified fat until lightly-browned, drain, and with a sharp knife cut out a hollow space in the centre of each. Slice some truffles, allowing 1 small one for each casolette. Heat them in a little butter, and add a glass of Marsala or Maderia wine. To this add enough brown sauce to bind the truffles. When thoroughly hot fill the cassolettes with them, dish up, and serve hot.

Time.—From 35 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. for a dish of 8 cassolettes. Sufficient for 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1624.—TURNIPS, BOILED. (Fr.Navets au Naturel.)

Ingredients.—Turnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.

Method.—Pare the turnips, and, should they be very large, divide them into quarters; but if they are small, let them be cooked whole. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion, and let them boil gently until tender. Try them with a fork, and, when done, take them up in a colander, let them thoroughly drain, and serve. Boiled turnips are usually sent to table with boiled mutton, but are infinitely nicer when mashed than served whole; unless nice and young, they are scarcely worth the trouble of dressing plainly as above.

Time.—Old turnips, ¾ to 1¼ hours; young ones, about 18 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, one dish, 3d. Seasonable at any time.

The Turnip (Fr. navet).—This vegetable is the Brassica kapa of science, and grows wild in England. The turnip is said to have been originally introduced from Hanover, and forms an excellent culinary vegetable, much used all over Europe, where it is either eaten alone or mashed and cooked in soups and stews. They do not thrive in a hot climate, for in India turnips, and many more of our garden vegetables, lose their flavour and become comparatively tasteless. The swede is the largest variety, but it is considered too coarse for the table, although in Scotland and on the Continent quite young swedes are often cooked as delicacies.

1625.—TURNIPS AU GRATIN. (Fr.Navets au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—6 or 8 medium-sized young turnips, 3 ozs. of butter, Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178), stock, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel thinly 6 to 8 medium-sized young turnips, cut them into slices, wash and drain them. Melt 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan, when hot put in the turnips, and stir over a brisk fire, season with pepper and salt, moisten with a little stock, cook till tender, then drain thoroughly. Arrange the slices or the purée in a well-buttered gratin or pie-dish, sauce over with a well-reduced Béchamel sauce, sprinkle the surface with fine breadcrumbs, and add a few tiny bits of butter. Bake in a sharp oven for about 10 minutes, to brown the top.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 9d. to 1s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The French Navet.—This is a variety of the turnip, but, instead of being globular, has more the shape of the carrot. Its flavour being excellent, it is much esteemed on the Continent for soups and made-dishes. Two or three of them will impart as much flavour as a dozen of the common turnips will. Accordingly, when stewed in gravy, they are greatly relished. The flavour is found in the rind which is not cut off, but scraped. This variety was once grown in England, but now it is rarely found in our gardens, though highly deserving of a place there. It is of a yellowish-white colour, and is sometimes imported in the London market.

1626.—TURNIPS, GLAZED.

See Carrots, Glazed, Recipe No. 1476.

1627.—TURNIPS, MASHED (Fr.Purée de Navets.)

Ingredients.—10 or 12 large turnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, 2 ozs. of butter, cayenne or white pepper to taste.

Method.—Pare the turnips, put them into boiling water, salted in the above proportion, boil them until tender, then drain them in a colander, and squeeze them as dry as possible by pressing them with the back of a large plate. When quite free from water, rub the turnips with a wooden spoon through a sieve, put them into a saucepan, add the butter, white pepper, or cayenne, and, if necessary, a little salt. Keep stirring them over the fire until the butter is well incorporated, and the turnips are thoroughly hot, then dish and serve. A little cream or milk added after the turnips are pressed through the sieve is an improvement to both the colour and flavour of this vegetable.

Time.—From 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Cabbage, Turnip-Tops, and Greens.—All the cabbage tribe, which comprises coleworts, brocoli, cauliflower, sprouts and turnip-tops, in order to be delicate, should be dressed young, when they have a rapid growth; but if they have stood the summer, to render them tender, they should be allowed to have a touch of frost. The cabbage contains much vegetable albumen, and several parts of sulphur and nitrate of potash. Cabbage is less digestible than some other vegetables, and is more suited for robust and active persons than the sedentary or delicate. Cabbage may be prepared in a variety of ways: it serves as a garniture to several recherché dishes, partridge and cabbage for example. Bacon and cabbage is a very favourite dish, but requires a strong digestion.

1628.—TURNIP-GREENS, BOILED.

Ingredients.—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt, turnip-greens.

Method.—Wash the greens well in 2 or 3 waters, pick off all the decayed and dead leaves, tie them in small bunches, and put them into plenty of boiling water, salted in the above proportion. Keep them boiling quickly with the saucepan uncovered, and, when tender, pour them into a colander; let them drain, arrange them in a vegetable-dish, remove the string that the greens were tied with, and serve.

Time.—15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 6d. for 1 dish. Seasonable in March, April and May.

1629.—VEGETABLES, GARNISH OF, FOR SOUPS, AND ENTRÉES.

Vegetables for garnishing simple soups and plain entrées may be cut into dice or matches, but for more elaborate dishes they should either be turned into small balls with a round scoop (see Chapter on Utensils), or cut into thin slices and afterwards stamped out by means of a fancy cutter. Carrot and turnip should either be boiled separately, or the former should be slightly cooked before adding the turnip, which requires longer cooking.

1630.—VEGETABLE MARROWS, BOILED. (Fr.Courge bouillie, Sauce Blanche.)

Ingredients.—2 medium-sized vegetable marrows, toast, ¾ of a pint of white sauce (see Sauces, No. 223).

Method.—Peel the marrows, quarter them, and remove the seeds. Boil them in salt and water from 15 to 20 minutes, or until tender. Drain well, dish on the toast, pour over the white sauce, and serve.

Time.—15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. each. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable in July, August and September.

The Vegetable Marrow.—This vegetable is now extensively used, and belongs to the Cucurbitaceae. It is the C. ovi fersacada of science, and like the melon, gourd, cucumber and squash, is widely diffused in the tropical or warmer regions of the globe. Of the nature of this family we have already spoken when treating of the cucumber.

1631.—VEGETABLE MARROW, FRIED. (Fr.Courge Frite.)

Ingredients.—1 or 2 medium-sized vegetable marrows, egg and breadcrumbs frying-fat, salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel and boil the marrows in salt and water until tender, then drain well, cut them into quarters, and remove the seeds. Coat each piece with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat until nicely browned. Drain, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes, altogether. Average Cost, from 2d. each. Sufficient for 3 or 5 persons. Seasonable from July to September.

1632.—VEGETABLE MARROW FRITTERS.

See Vegetable Marrow, Fried, Recipe No. 1631. If preferred the marrow may be coated with frying-batter instead of egg and breadcrumbs.

1633.—VEGETABLE MARROWS, MASHED. (Fr.Purée de Courge.)

Ingredients.—2 medium-sized marrows, 1 oz. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of cream, flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the marrows in salt and water until tender, and rub them through a fine sieve. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the purée, cream, and a little pepper, and stir over the fire for 5 or 6 minutes, dredging in a little flour until the purée acquires the desired consistence.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 2d. each. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable in July, August and September.

1634.—VEGETABLE MARROW, STUFFED. (Fr.Courge Farcie.)

Ingredients.—1 medium-sized marrow, 3 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped raw or cooked meat, 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, 1 egg, ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 234), salt and pepper.

Method.—Peel the marrow, cut it in two lengthwise, and remove the seeds. Boil in salt and water for about 10 minutes, until the marrow is half cooked, then drain well. Mix together all the above ingredients except the brown sauce, and fill the cavities of the marrow with the preparation. Put the 2 halves together in their original form, fasten securely with string, baste well with hot fat, dredge lightly with flour, and bake in a moderate oven until well browned. Or brush it over with egg, and coat with browned breadcrumbs before baking. Serve the brown sauce separately.

Time.—From 35 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons. Seasonable in July, August and September.

1635.—VEGETABLES, COLD, TO REHEAT.

Vegetables may be reheated in a basin placed in a steamer over a saucepan of boiling water, or they may be fried in a little hot butter or fat. See also Cold Potatoes to Warm, Recipe No. 1566.

1636.—VEGETABLES, CURRY OF. (Fr.Légumes en Kari.)

Ingredients.—1 small cauliflower, ½ a pint of shelled peas, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, 2 or 3 raw potatoes, 1 onion, a few strips of celery, 1½ ozs. of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder,

1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 or 2 tomatoes, 1 pint of stock, 6 ozs. of boiled rice, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the cauliflower into small sprays, and cut the carrot, turnip, potatoes, onion, and celery into dice. In boiling the vegetables it is as well to use 2 or 3 small stewpans, and divide them according to the time respectively required. Onion and celery would cook together, also the carrot and turnip, provided the former were given a few extra minutes. They must be drained from the water when about ¾ cooked, otherwise they are apt to break and spoil the appearance of the curry. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour and curry-powder, fry slowly for not less than 10 minutes, then put in the sliced tomatoes and stock, and stir until boiling. Simmer gently for 15 minutes, then rub through a tammy or fine hair sieve, and replace in the stewpan. Season to taste, add the lemon-juice and cooked vegetables, and when thoroughly hot serve in a border of nicely-cooked rice.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1637.—VEGETABLE RAGÔUT. (Fr.Ragôut de Légumes.)

Ingredients.—Vegetables as in the preceding recipe, 1 pint of good brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 223).

Method.—Prepare and cook the vegetables according to directions given for Curry of Vegetables. When cooked and well drained, add them to the brown sauce, in which the sliced tomatoes should already have been simmered for about 10 minutes; allow them to remain in the sauce until thoroughly hot, then serve garnished with croûtons of fried bread, or small shapes of mashed potato, see Potatoes, Mashed and Baked (Recipe No. 1576).

Time.—From 30 to 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. Seasonable at any time.

1638.—VEGETABLES, TINNED.

See Peas, Tinned, to Dress, Recipe No. 1559. Follow the directions given, but omit the mint.

1639.—VEGETABLES, TO BLANCH.

See General Instructions for Cooking Vegetables, page 812.

1640.—VEGETABLES, TO RENDER CRISP.

Lettuce, parsley and other stale green vegetables may be made less limp by pouring over them a considerable quantity of boiling water. After 2 or 3 minutes' immersion they should be well washed in cold water, and served immediately.

1641.—WHEAT OR MAIZE, ITALIAN, TO BOIL.

See Maize or Indian Corn, Recipe No. 1527.

1642.—WHEAT, INDIAN.

See Maize or Indian Corn, Recipe No. 1527.

1643.—YAMS, BAKED.

Ingredients.—Yams, butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and dry the yams, bake them in a moderately hot oven until soft, and serve on a folded napkin. Butter, salt and pepper are the usual accompaniments.

1644.—YAMS, BOILED.

Ingredients.—Yams, salt.

Method.—Wash and peel the yams, and let them remain in cold water for ½ an hour. Cover them with hot water, add a little salt, boil gently until tender, then drain and serve.

Yams may also be steamed, stewed, fried, mashed, curried, baked "au gratin" (see Cauliflower Baked with Cheese, Recipe No. 1477), made into rissoles (see Potato Balls), soup, purée, or salad.