Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXXIV

DESSERT, DESSERT SWEETS AND SWEETMEATS

 
CHAPTER XXXIV
 

Dessert at the Present Day does not hold the same relationship to the dinner that it held with the ancients—the Romans more especially. On ivory tables they would spread hundreds of different kinds of raw, cooked and preserved fruits, tarts and cakes, as substitutes for the more substantial comestibles with which the guests were satiated. No part of a dinner is governed more by individual tastes and circumstances than the dessert; it may consist of one or more dishes of choice fruits; or a varied display may be provided at a comparatively trifling cost, when the dessert is composed principally of fruits in season and homemade sweets. Pines, melons, grapes, peaches, nectarines, plums, strawberries, cherries, apples, pears, oranges, figs, raisins, walnuts, filberts, crystallized fruits, fancy ices, fancy cakes and biscuits, make up the dessert, together with dainty sweets and bon-bons, with which the present chapter deals.

Dessert Services.—The shape, material and pattern of dessert services is so varied, and depends so much upon taste, that the word "fashion" may hardly be used in reference to them, though it may be said that the services now used are those in which the colours are pale and delicate, and that the stands for fruit are of medium height or quite low. White china now forms some of the prettiest dessert services, and is well calculated to show off the beauty of the fruit, the effect being particularly good when the stands are surrounded by trails of flowers and foliage, or placed upon artistically arranged silk of some delicate hue, contrasting or harmonizing with the flowers. If available, bon-bons are usually served in small silver dishes constructed for the purpose, otherwise they should be daintily arranged in small fancy dishes lined with lace-edged dessert papers, or in tiny ornamental paper cases.

Arrangement of Fruit.—No hard and fast rules can be laid down with reference to this, except that such easily damaged fruits as strawberries should never be mixed with the more solid kinds. In nearly

DESSERT.

 
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1. Spanish Nuts. 2. Pulled Figs. 3. Almonds.

DESSERT.

 
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1. Walnuts. 2. Filberts. 3. Brazils.

all cases the beauty of the fruit may be enhanced by surrounding it with foliage. Keen competitors in public favour are the tender green, delicately trailing smilax, the beautiful feathery asparagus, and the double-edged mallow; strawberry and vine leaves have a pleasing effect; while for winter desserts, the bay, cuba and laurel are sometimes used, holly also being in demand from Christmas Eve to the middle of January.

Dessert Sweets and Sweetmeats.—Until recently the art of sweetmeat making was little understood, and still less practised, by private individuals. Even now there exists a mistaken idea that this artistic branch of cookery presents many difficulties, and that elaborate utensils and implements are essential. Certainly success is more assured when the operations are aided by a saccharometer, marble slab, crystallizing tray etc., but they are not indispensable. By measuring accurately, testing repeatedly, and by taking care to apply the right amount of heat, an amateur should find no difficulty in preparing any of the sweetmeats for which recipes are given on the following pages.

Except when otherwise stated, the lid should be kept on the stewpan while the sugar is being brought to boiling point and during the early stages of the following process, to prevent the sugar crystallizing on the sides of the pan. When this occurs, the particles of sugar adhering to the sides of the stewpan must be removed by means of a brush dipped in water, for if allowed to remain, they may cause the sugar to grain. Cream of tartar is added to the syrup to prevent the sugar granulating, and carbonate of soda serves to whiten the toffee, etc., with which it is mixed.

When cooking over gas it is advisable to have a piece of sheet-iron to place over the gas burners when a very slow continuous application of heat is required, as in making caramels, etc. In boiling treacle and brown sugar a large stewpan should be used, as these ingredients are apt to boil over more quickly than white sugar.

Of the utensils and implements mentioned in the following pages, those absolutely necessary are simple and inexpensive, and comprise a hair sieve; a spatula, which is flat, wooden, with a broad rounded end tapering off to a long narrow handle; a sweet fork and ring, both made of twisted wire; and a candy hook. For this latter implement may be substituted a strong iron larder hook, which should be fixed firmly on a wall about 5 feet from the floor, according to the height of the worker. When a sugar skimmer is not available for testing the sugar as it approaches the "small ball" degree, a piece of wire twisted to form small rings will be found a good substitute. A saccharometer, caramel cutter, crystallizing tray moulds, and a marble slab are indispensable to those who wish to excel in the higher branches of the art of sweet-making, but with few exceptions, all the following recipes require nothing further for their preparation than the few simple appliances enumerated above.

Dessert

2253.—ALMONDS AND RAISINS.

The dish in which these are served should be covered with a lace-edged paper. The fruit should be separated into branches suitable for serving, piled high in the centre of the dish, and the almonds blanched and scattered over. To prepare the almonds, place in cold water, bring to boil, skin and use as required.

2254.—ALMONDS SALTED AND DEVILLED.

These are much appreciated after the sweet course. They are prepared by tossing blanched almonds in hot oil or butter, the process of which is fully described in previous recipe.

2255.—APPLES AND PEARS.

These should be well rubbed with a clean soft cloth, and arranged in a dish, piled high in the centre, with green leaves between the layers. The inferior fruit should form the bottom layer, with the bright-coloured ones on the top. Oranges may be arranged and garnished in the same manner.

2256.—APRICOTS, PEACHES, PLUMS, NECTARINES, OR GREEN FIGS.

The beautiful colouring of these fruits when good and ripe renders anything more than a few green leaves for garnish necessary. These, when possible, should be vine leaves, otherwise the more delicate kinds of ferns are suitable. The fruit looks best when arranged a little from the edge of the stand and piled pyramidically.

2257.—BANANAS.

Bananas look best when mixed with other fruits, and possibly the best effect is produced by arranging them with a series of arches over a single layer of apples or oranges, a fine apple or orange being piled in the centre where the points of the bananas meet.

2258.—CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES.

Red and white currants may be mixed with good effect; they should be be piled in alternate layers to form a pyramid. Gooseberries should also be piled high, but need no other arrangement.

2259.—DATES, FIGS, FRENCH PLUMS.

All these should be daintily arranged on small dishes covered with lace-edged papers, which replace the leaves used with fresh fruit.

Dates.—Dates are imported into Britain, in a dried state, from Barbary and Egypt, and, when in good condition, they are much esteemed. An inferior kind has lately become common, which is dried hard, and has little or no flavour. Dates should be chosen large, soft, not much wrinkled, of a reddish colour on the outside, with a white membrane between the fruit and the stone.

2260.—GRAPES.

These may be mixed or not, according to taste, but the blending of the white and black fruit enhances the beauty of both. Vine leaves, when procurable, should be put round the edge of the dish. Grape scissors must always accompany the grapes, as without them serving is very difficult, fine bunches being easily spoilt.

2261.—NUTS. These are simply arranged piled high in the centre of the dish, with or without leaves round the edge. Filberts or other nuts of this description should always be served with the outer skin or husk on them, and walnuts should be well wiped with a damp cloth, and afterwards with a dry one, to remove the unpleasant sticky feeling the shells frequently have. Chestnuts, when boiled or roasted, should be served on a folded serviette.

Hazel Nut and Filbert.—The common hazel is the wild, and the filbert the cultivated, variety of the same tree. The hazel is found wild, not only in forests and hedges, in dingles and ravines, but occurs in extensive tracts in the more mountainous parts of the country. It was formerly one of the most abundant of the trees which are indigenous to this island. It is seldom cultivated as a fruit tree, though perhaps its nuts are superior in flavour to the others. The Spanish nuts imported are a superior kind, but they are somewhat oily and rather indigestible. Filberts, both the red and the white, and the cob-nut, are supposed to be merely varieties of the common hazel, which have been produced partly by the superiority of soil and climate, and partly by culture. They were originally brought out of Greece to Italy, whence they have found their way to Holland, and from that country to England. It is supposed that, within a few miles of Maidstone, in Kent, there are more filberts grown than in all England besides; and it is from that district that the London market is supplied. The filbert is longer than the common nut, though of the same thickness, and has a larger kernel. The cob-nut is a still larger variety, and is rounder. Filberts are more esteemed for dessert than common nuts, and are generally eaten with salt. They an very free from oil, and disagree with few persons.

2262.—PINE OR MELON.

Vine leaves should first be placed upon the dish and the fruit stood upon them. If a pine does not stand upright, a slice may be cut off the bottom to level it. A melon should have the stalk showing at the top.

Note.—The melon is frequently served as an hors d'œuvre, eaten with salt and pepper. Prepared this way, it is excellent as a summer luncheon dish. See Melon Cantaloup.

2263.—STRAWBERRIES AND CHERRIES.

These should be arranged in rows in a pyramidal form, with the stalks inwards, so that when the whole is completed, nothing but the red part of the fruit is visible. When strawberries are served with cream, the stalks should be removed.


Dessert Sweets and Sweetmeats

2264—BOILING SUGAR.

Although sugar may be boiled, and the degree approximately gauged by applying certain simple tests, the process is greatly simplified by the use of a saccharometer.

The different degrees to which sugar is boiled are classed is follows:—

I. Small Thread 215° F.
II. Large Thread 217° F.
III. Small Pearl 220° F.
IV. Large Pearl 222° F.
V. Small Blow 230° F.
VI. Large Blow or Feather 233° F.
VII. Small Ball 237° F.
VIII. Large Ball 247° F.
IX. Small Crack 290° F.
X. Large Crack 312° F.
XI. Caramel, 350° Fahrenheit.

2265.—THE SMALL THREAD.

Ingredients.—2 lbs of loaf sugar, 1 pint of water.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, bring to boiling point, and remove the scum. Boil for a few minutes, then dip the tip of the forefinger into the syrup and apply it to the thumb. If, on immediately separating the finger and thumb, the syrup is drawn out into a fine thread which breaks at a short distance, the sugar is boiled to the small thread (215° F).

2266.—THE LARGE THREAD.

Boil the syrup a little longer, and apply the same test; if the thread can be drawn longer without breaking, the syrup is boiled to the large thread (217° F).

2267.—THE SMALL PEARL.

Continue the boiling for a few moments and proceed as before. When the thumb and forefinger may be separated to a little distance without breaking the thread, the sugar is boiled to the small pearl (220° F.).

2268.—THE LARGE PEARL.

After a little further boiling dip the forefinger in again, stretch the thumb and forefinger as far as possible, and if the thread remains unbroken the sugar has been boiled to the large pearl (222° F.).

2269.—THE SMALL BLOW.

Boil a little longer, then take a skimmer, dip it into the syrup, drain it well over the pan, and blow through the holes. If small bubbles appear in the other side of the skimmer, the sugar is boiled to the small blow (230° F.).

2270.—THE LARGE BLOW OR FEATHER.

After a moment's further boiling repeat the test, and when the bubbles appear in much larger quantities and fly off the skimmer when shaken, like small feathers or down, the sugar is boiled to the large blow (233° F.).

2271.—THE SMALL BALL.

Now dip the forefinger into a basin of cold water, then dip it into the sugar, and again quickly into the water. When the sugar can be rolled between the thumb and forefinger into a small ball it has reached the stage known by that name (237° F.).

2272.—THE LARGE BALL.

Continue the boiling and proceed as before; as soon as the sugar can be formed into a larger and harder ball, it is boiled to the large ball (247° F.).

2273.—THE SMALL CRACK.

Boil for a moment longer, then dip in the forefinger, and if the sugar adhering to it breaks with a slight noise, and sticks to the teeth when bitten, it is boiled to the small crack (290° F.).

2274.—THE LARGE CRACK.

Boil a little longer, dip the forefinger into cold water, then into the sugar, and again quickly into the water. If the sugar breaks short and brittle, and does not stick to the teeth when bitten, it is boiled to the large crack (312° F.).

2275.—THE CARAMEL.

If the boiling is prolonged beyond this stage, the sugar soon begins to acquire a little colour, which gradually deepens until brown, and finally black, burnt sugar is obtained.

2276.—TO SPIN SUGAR.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of best loaf sugar, ½ a pint of water, ½ a saltspoonful of cream of tartar.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water in a copper sugar boiler or stewpan, and boil to the "large crack" degree. Add the cream of tartar, draw the pan aside, repeatedly test the consistency of the syrup by means of a tablespoon, and use as soon as it runs in a fine thread from the spoon to the pan. Now take in the left hand a large knife, previously oiled, hold it in a horizontal position, and spin the sugar into fine threads by moving the spoon containing it to and fro over the flat blade of the knife.

To spin sugar successfully it must be done in a dry atmosphere, and the worker must avoid standing in a draught.

2277.—TO CLARIFY SUGAR, FOR SYRUP.

Ingredients.—6 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 quart of water, 2 whites of eggs.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water in a large stewpan, but do not let it become very hot. Beat the whites of eggs, pour the warm syrup on to them, and return to the stewpan. When the syrup boils, add ½ a gill of cold water, repeat 3 times, thus using in all ½ a pint. Now draw the pan aside for about 10 minutes, then strain by means of a jelly bag or fine muslin, and use as required.

2278.—ALMOND ROCK.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of loaf sugar, ¼ of a lb. of almond, ¼ of a lb. of glucose, ½ a pint of water, essence of almonds.

Method.—Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly. Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and boil to the "little crack" degree. Remove the stewpan from the fire, add the almonds, a few drops of essence of almonds, boil until it acquires a golden-brown colour, and pour on to oiled or buttered tins.

2279.—ALMOND ROCK. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of brown moist sugar, 5 ozs. of almonds, 8 ozs. of glucose, ¼ of a pint of water, essence of almonds.

Method.—Blanch the almonds, split them in halves lengthwise, and place them cut side downwards on an oiled or buttered tin. Dissolve

FRUIT.

 
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1.—Black Grapes. 2.—Muscat Grapes. 3.—Tangerines. 4.—Bananas. 5.—Oranges. 6.—Peaches. 7.—Pears. 8.—Pineapple. 9. and 10.—Apples.

the sugar in the water, add the glucose, flavour to taste, and boil to the "hard crack" degree. Let the preparation cool slightly, then pour slowly and carefully over the almonds. Brown sugar should always be boiled in a rather large stewpan, as it is apt to boil over.

2280.—ALMOND STICKS.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of Jordan almonds, ¾ of a lb. of icing sugar, ¼ of a lb. of vanilla sugar, the whites of 5 eggs, royal icing No. 1736, vanilla essence.

Method.—Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly in a cool oven, then pound them finely in a mortar, adding by degrees the icing sugar and vanilla sugar. When perfectly smooth add the whites of eggs, and when well-mixed turn the whole on to a marble slab. Knead it well, roll it out to about ¼-inch in thickness, and cut it into strips about 2 inches long and ½ an inch wide. Place them on a greased and floured baking-sheet, cover them with royal icing flavoured with vanilla, and bake in a very slow oven for about ½ an hour. These sticks may be served as dessert or handed round with the ices instead of wafers.

2281. ALMOND TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of loaf sugar, 5 ozs. of almonds, ½ a pint of water, a pinch of cream of tartar, almond essence.

Method.—Blanch and skin the almonds, cut them across in halves, and dry them in the oven without browning. Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the cream of tartar, and boil until a deep amber-coloured syrup is obtained. Remove the stewpan from the fire, add the almonds, boil up again, and pour on to a buttered or oiled tin.

2282.—ALMOND TOFFEE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of granulated sugar, ½ a lb. of almonds, ¼ of a lb. of butter.

Method.—Blanch the almonds, split them lengthwise, and dry thoroughly in a cool oven. Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the sugar, and boil to the "ball" degree, then stir in the almonds and continue to the "crack." Pour into an oiled or buttered tin, and, when cold and set, break up into pieces.

2283.—AMERICAN CANDY.

Ingredients.—2 lb. of moist sugar, ½ a pint of water, cream of tartar, tartaric acid, 1 dessertspoonful of golden syrup, saffron-yellow, flavouring essence.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add a good ½ teaspoonful of cream of tartar, and boil to the "large crack" degree. Pour on

to an oiled slab, add a little saffron-yellow or other colouring ingredient, and flavour to taste. Any flavouring substance may be used, but it should agree with the colour of the candy; thus red should be flavoured with raspberry essence, yellow with pineapple, etc. Add also a pinch of tartaric acid and the golden syrup, work well in, fold up, then pull over an oiled hook, and cut into squares.

2284.—BARLEY SUGAR.

Ingredients.—1 pint of clarified syrup No. 2231, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 5 drops of essence of lemon, saffron-yellow.

Method.—Boil the prepared syrup to the "large crack," add the lemon-juice and lemon-essence, and reboil until it acquires a little colour. Now add a few drops of saffron-yellow, and pour at once on to an oiled slab. When cool, cut into drops about 6 inches long and 1 inch wide, and twist them. Keep in air-tight tins.

2285.—BARLEY SUGAR. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of loaf sugar, 1 pint of water, ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a pinch of cream of tartar, essence of lemon, saffron-colouring.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, boil to the "small ball" degree (see No. 2271), and add the lemon-juice. Continue boiling to the "large crack," add a few drops of saffron-yellow, flavour to taste, and turn on to an oiled slab. When cool, cut into narrow strips, twist them into a spiral form, and when perfectly cold store them in air-tight tins or boxes.

2286.—BURNT ALMONDS.

Ingredients.—1¾ lb. of granulated sugar, 1 lb. of almonds, cold water.

Method.—Blanch the almonds and dry them thoroughly in a cool oven. Put 1 lb. of sugar and 1½ gills of water into a stewpan, bring to the boil, then add the almonds, and boil gently by the side of the fire. When the almonds make a slight crackling noise, remove the pan further from the fire, stir until the sugar granulates, then turn the whole on to a coarse sieve. Shake well, put the sugar that passes through the sieve into a stewpan, add to it 1½ gills of water and the remaining ¾ of a lb. of sugar, and let it boil to the "soft ball" degree. Now add the almonds, which should in the meantime have been kept warm, stir until well coated, but at the first inclination they show of sticking together, remove them from the fire, and place them on the sieve as before. The second coating of sugar is frequently coloured and flavoured according to individual taste.

2287.—BURNT ALMONDS. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of Demarara sugar, ½ a lb. of almonds, 1 gill of water.

Method.—Put the sugar and water into a stewpan and stir occasionally until dissolved. As soon as it comes to the boil cease stirring, boil 2 or 3 minutes, and add the almonds. Now stir briskly until the sugar browns slightly and granulates, and has completely coated the almonds, then turn them on to a sieve, separate any that may have stuck together, and let them remain until cold.

2288.—BUTTER SCOTCH.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of loaf sugar, ½ a lb. of butter, a pinch of cream of tartar, ½ a pint of milk.

Method.—Place the sugar and milk in a stewpan, and stir occasionally by the side of the fire until the sugar is dissolved. Now add the cream of tartar and the butter a small piece at a time, and boil the mixture until a little, dropped into cold water, forms a moderately hard ball. Pour on to an oiled or buttered tin, and as soon as it is sufficiently firm, mark off into small oblongs or squares, and when cold, divide the sections thus formed. Wrap each piece first in wax paper, then in tinfoil.

2289.—BUTTER SCOTCH. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of moist sugar, ½ a lb. of butter, ½ a teacupful of cold water, essence of almonds.

Method.—Put the water and sugar into a stewpan, let the mixture stand by the side of the fire until dissolved, then add the butter and boil until the mixture becomes quite thick. Stir occasionally until it begins to thicken, and afterwards continuously, as this preparation is liable to stick to the bottom of the pan. Pour on to an oiled or buttered tin, and mark and divide as directed in the preceding recipe.

2290.—CANDY. (See American Candy, No. 2283, American Molasses Candy, No. 2291, Cocoanut Candy, No. 2312, Candy Twist, No. 2298, Pineapple Snow Candy, No. 2340, Treacle Candy, No. 2352, and Candy Kisses, White Almond, No. 2294.)

2291.—CANDY, AMERICAN MOLASSES.

Ingredients.—3 cups of Demarara sugar, 1 cup of molasses, 1 cup of water, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a teaspoonful of cream of tartar.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the butter and molasses, and when boiling stir in the cream of tartar. Continue the cooking until the syrup reaches the "crack" degree, then turn on to an oiled slab. When cool enough to handle, pull it over an oiled hook, and when firm cut into squares.

2292.—CANDIED CHESTNUTS.

Ingredients.—Chestnuts, loaf sugar.

Method.—Remove the shells of the chestnuts, place them in a stewpan of boiling water, boil for about 10 minutes, then drain and skin them. Replace in the stewpan, cover with boiling water, boil until tender but not broken, and let them cool. Allow ½ a pint of water to each lb. of sugar, boil to the "crack" degree, then dip in the chestnuts one at a time, and place them on an oiled slab.

2293.—CANDY KISSES, BROWN ALMOND.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of Demerara sugar, 4 ozs. of glucose, 2 ozs. of almonds, 1 oz. of butter, ¼ of a pint of water, caramel essence.

Method.—Blanch and chop the almonds coarsely, then bake them in the oven until golden-brown. Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the butter and glucose, and boil to the "large ball" degree. Remove the stewpan from the fire, stir in caramel essence to taste, press the syrup against the sides of the pan by means of a spatula or wooden spoon, to give the candy a grained appearance, and when it becomes cloudy stir in the prepared almonds. When sufficiently firm, pile small portions on an oiled slab, using a teaspoon for the purpose. Chopped hazel nuts or cocoanut may be substituted for the almonds.

2294.—CANDY KISSES, WHITE ALMOND.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of loaf sugar, 4 ozs. of glucose, 2 ozs. of almonds, 1 oz. of butter, ¼ of a pint of water, vanilla essence.

Method.—Blanch and chop the almonds and dry them thoroughly. Prepare the syrup as directed in the preceding recipe, substituting vanilla essence for the caramel flavouring.

2295.—CANDIED PEEL.

There are three kinds of candied peel, viz. citron, lemon, and orange, the mode of preparation being in all cases practically the same. The rinds of sound young fruit are cut lengthwise in halves, freed from pulp, boiled in water until soft, and afterwards suspended in strong cold syrup until they become semi-transparent. Finally, they are slowly dried in a stove or in a current of hot air.

2296.—CANDIED POPCORN.

Ingredients.—1 quart of popped corn, ½ a lb. of castor sugar, 1 oz. of butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of water.

Method.—To prepare the popped corn, put the Indian maize into a wire sieve and shake it gently over a slow fire until it pops. Place the sugar, butter and water in a stewpan, boil to the "small ball" degree, add the prepared corn, and stir briskly until the corn is completely coated. Remove the pan from the fire, and continue stirring until cool, to prevent the corn sticking together.

2297.—CANDY, OR THREAD SUGAR. (See Boiling Sugar, No. 2264.)

2298.—CANDY TWIST.

Ingredients.—1½ lb. of Demerara sugar, ½ a pint of water, caramel colouring, almond essence.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, boil to the "crack" degree, then colour and flavour to taste. Pour the syrup on to an oiled slab, and as the edges cool fold them over. When the whole is cool enough to handle pull it over the candy-hook, cut it into 6-inch lengths, and twist them into a spiral form. If preferred, white granulated sugar may be substituted, and the candy flavoured with vanilla, or it may be coloured red and flavoured with raspberry.

2299.—CARAMELS, CHOCOLATE.

Ingredients.—3 ozs. of finely-grated vanilla chocolate, 1 lb. of best loaf sugar, ½ a pint of cream, ½ a pint of milk.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the milk, add the cream and bring slowly to boiling point. Dissolve the chocolate in the smallest possible quantity of hot water, stir it into the syrup, and boil very gently until a little, dropped into cold water, at once hardens and snaps easily. Pour it on to an oiled slab into a square formed by bars, or, failing these, into an oiled tin. When cold, cut into squares with a caramel cutter, or a buttered knife, and wrap each piece in wax paper.

2300.—CARAMELS, CHOCOLATE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of loaf sugar, 2 ozs. of grated chocolate, 2 ozs. of glucose, 1 oz. of butter, ¼ of a gill of cream, acetic acid.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and boil to 280°. Stir in the cream, butter and chocolate, replace on the fire, and reboil to the same temperature. Remove from the fire, stir in 2 drops of acetic acid, and pour into a well-oiled tin. When cold, mark with a caramel cutter, and cut into squares.

2301.—CARAMELS, CHOCOLATE, AMERICAN.

Ingredients.—1 teaspoonful of golden syrup, 1 teacupful of finely-grated chocolate, 1 teacupful of brown sugar, 1 teacupful of milk, 1 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of glycerine, ½ a teaspoonful of vanilla essence.

Method.—Place the syrup, butter, sugar and milk in a stewpan, bring to boiling point, and add the glycerine. Boil rapidly for about 10 minutes, then stir in the chocolate, replace the stewpan on the fire, and continue the boiling until, when a little is dropped into cold water, a hard ball is immediately formed. Turn into well-buttered or oiled tins, allow the preparation to remain until cold, then mark with a caramel cutter, and cut into squares.

2302.—CARAMELS, CREAM.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of sugar, ¼ of a lb. of glucose, 1 oz. of butter, 1½ gills of water, 1 gill of cream, caramel essence.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and boil to 265°. Then add the butter and cream, and stir until the mixture again registers 265°. Remove from the fire, flavour to taste, and pour on to a well-oiled tin. When sufficiently firm mark with a caramel cutter, and when cold cut into squares, and wrap them in wax paper.

2303.—CARAMELS, RASPBERRY.

Ingredients.—2 lb. of granulated sugar, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a pint of cream, ½ a pint of water, 3 tablespoonfuls of glucose, raspberry essence, cherry-red colouring or carmine.

Method.—Put the sugar with the water into a stewpan; when dissolved stir in the glucose, and boil to the "ball" degree. Add the cream and the butter in small pieces, stir and boil until the syrup reaches the "crack" degree, then transfer the stewpan at once to a bowl of cold water, to arrest further cooking. Colour and flavour to taste, pour between bars on an oiled slab or into an oiled tin, and when sufficiently cool, cut into small squares by means of a caramel cutter or a slightly buttered knife, and wrap each caramel in wax paper.

2304.—CARAMELS STRAWBERRY.

Ingredients.—2 lb. of best lump sugar, 2 ozs. of honey, ¼ of an oz. of butter, ⅓ of a pint of cream, ¼ of a pint of water, strawberry essence, cherry-red colouring or carmine.

Method.—Place the sugar in a copper sugar boiler or stewpan, add the water, and when dissolved stir in the honey, cream and butter. Boil to the "crack," then stir in the flavouring essence and colouring ingredient, and pour on to an oiled slab. When set, cut into small

DESSERT.

 
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1. Bananas, Nectarines and Cherries. 2. Grapes, Apple and Strawberries.

A SUPPER TABLE FOR TWO PERSONS.

 
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square, by means of a caramel cutter or buttered knife, and wrap each caramel in wax paper.

2305.—CARAMELS, WRAPPED.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 oz. of butter, 4 ozs. of glucose, ¼ of a pint of water, ½ a gill of cream, acetic acid, vanilla essence.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and boil to 280°. Stir in the cream and butter, re-heat to the same temperature, then remove the stewpan from the fire, and add 2 drops of acetic acid and vanilla essence to taste. Turn into an oiled tin; when sufficiently firm mark with a caramel cutter, and when cold cut into squares. Wrap them in wax paper.

2306.—CHOCOLATE ALMONDS.

Ingredients.—Almonds blanched and dried, chocolate, vanilla essence.

Method.—Dissolve the chocolate in the smallest possible quantity of hot water, and flavour it to taste with vanilla essence. Dip each almond in separately, and place them on an oiled slab or plates to set.

2307.—CHOCOLATE PRALINES.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of icing sugar, ¼ of a lb. of almonds or Barcelona kernels, chocolate, chocolate coating.

Method.—Blanch and bake the almonds until brown, or, when using Barcelona kernels, remove the shells, bake the nuts until the insides are brown, and take away the skins. Whichever are used, they must be coarsely chopped and finely-pounded in a mortar. Place the sugar in a copper sugar boiler or stewpan, WITHOUT WATER, cook over the fire until lightly browned, stir in the almonds, and pour the whole one to an oiled slab. When cold pound to a powder, mix with it sufficient chocolate dissolved in warm water to form a paste, and turn it into a tin. When cold cut into small squares, and coat with dissolved chocolate.

2308.—CHOCOLATE STICKS.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of almonds, blanched and chopped, 10 ozs. of castor sugar, 2 ozs. of finely grated chocolate, the whites of 2 small eggs, royal icing.

Method.—Pass the sugar through a fine sieve and pound finely any coarse particles there may be. Dry the almonds thoroughly in a cool oven, pound them to a paste, adding the sugar gradually, then add the chocolate and whites of eggs. When well-mixed, turn on to a board or slab, knead well, roll out to about ¼ of an inch in thickness, and cut into strips about 2 inches long and ¼ an inch wide. Place them on a buttered and floured baking sheet, cover with royal icing, and bake in a very slow oven for about half an hour.

2309.—CLOVE DROPS.

Ingredients.—Essence of cloves, a few drops of acetic acid, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, ½ a pint of water.

Method.—Boil the sugar and water to the ball degree, add a few drops of acetic acid, and clove essence to taste. Grain the syrup by pressing it against the sides of the pan with the back of the spoon, let it cool slightly, then turn it on to an oiled sheet. Mark it in small squares with the back of a knife, and separate them when cold.

2310.—COCOANUT BARS.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of freshly grated or desiccated cocoanut, 3 lbs. of loaf sugar, ¾ of a lb. of glucose, 1½ pints of water, vanilla essence, raspberry essence, cherry-red colouring or carmine.

Method.—Cut grease-proof paper to fit the sides and bottom of a shallow box, or tin with straight sides, and arrange it carefully. Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and boil to the "ball" degree. Pour half the syrup into another stewpan, and keep it warm. Flavour the remainder to taste with the raspberry essence, and add colouring drop by drop until a pale pink colour is obtained. Grain this pink syrup by working it against the sides of the pan; when cloudy, stir in half the cocoanut and pour the mixture into the prepared box or tin. Flavour the other portion with vanilla essence, grain it in the same manner as the pink syrup, and when cloudy add the remainder of the cocoanut and pour it on the top of the pink ice. When quite cold and set, turn out of the box, and cut into slices.

2311.—COCOANUT BARS. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—3 lbs. of best loaf sugar, ½ a lb. of freshly-grated or desiccated cocoanut, ½ a pint of water, vanilla essence, carmine or cochineal.

Method.—Line a shallow tin with grease-proof paper. Boil the sugar and water to the "small ball" degree, remove the pan from the fire, add the cocoanut, and flavour to taste. Let it cool a little, then pour ½ into the prepared tin, and stand the vessel containing the remainder in hot water, to prevent it setting. As soon as the portion in the tin is set, add a few drops of carmine or cochineal to the preparation in the stewpan, and pour it over the ice in the tin. When cold turn out and cut into bars.

2312.—COCOANUT CANDY.

Ingredients. 1½ lb. of Demarara sugar, ¾ of a pint of water, 1 medium-sized cocoanut.

Method.—Remove the shell and rind from the cocoanut, and slice it thinly. Dissolve the sugar in the water, boil to the "large ball" degree, then remove the pan from the fire, and grain the syrup by rubbing it with the spatula against the sides of the stewpan. As soon as the mixture begins to grow cloudy add the sliced cocoanut, stir until quite thick, then pour on to an oiled tin. When sufficiently firm mark into squares or oblongs, and when perfectly cold and firm divide into sections. White candy may be made by substituting white sugar for the Demarara.

2313.—COCOANUT MÉRINGUE ROCKS.

Ingredients.—½ lb. of castor sugar, 2 ozs. of desiccated cocoanut, 4 whites of eggs, vanilla essence.

Method.—Pass the sugar through a fine sieve. Put the whites of eggs with a good pinch of salt into a copper bowl or large basin, and whip them to a very stiff froth. Now stir in as lightly as possible the sugar and cocoanut. and add a few drops of vanilla essence. Have ready a baking-tin, buttered and dredged lightly with flour, and upon it pile the mixture in dessertspoonfuls, about 1 inch apart. Sprinkle ½ of them with finely-chopped pistachios, and the remainder with coarse granulated sugar. Bake in a slow oven from 30 to 40 minutes.

2314.—COCOANUT TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—¾ of a lb. of granulated sugar, ½ a lb. of Demerara sugar, ¼ of a lb. of desiccated cocoanut, ¼ of a lb. of glucose, 1½ gills of water, flavouring essence.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, and boil to the "little crack" degree. Remove the stewpan from the fire, stir in the cocoanut, and boil to the "large crack." Add a few drops of flavouring essence, and pour on to oiled or buttered tins.

2315.—COLOURING FOR CONFECTIONERY, JELLIES, ETC.

The principal colourings used in cookery and confectionery are red, green and yellow, which can be bought ready prepared. Harmless vegetable extracts should always be employed, and they may be easily prepared by following the directions in subjoined recipes.

Red Colouring.—Boil ½ a pint of water and 1 lb. of loaf sugar to a syrup and let it cool. Pound ½ an oz. of carmine until smooth, stir it into the syrup, simmer gently for 10 minutes, and strain. When cold add ½ a teaspoon of sal-ammoniac, bottle the mixture, and cork securely.

Green Colouring.—Wash and thoroughly dry some spinach, pound it until smooth, and squeeze it dry in a cloth. Place the spinach in a copper stewpan, cook over the fire until the liquid that flows from it becomes curdled, then strain through a hair seive. Remove the purée from the sieve, and use as required.

Yellow Colouring.—Simmer ¼ of a pint of water, 3 ozs. of loaf sugar, ¼ of an oz. of alum, and ¼ of an oz. of Turkish saffron for 15 minutes, then strain until clear. When cold, add rather more than ⅛ of a pint of spirits of wine, and bottle the mixture for use.

2316.—EVERTON TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of Demarara sugar, 4 ozs. of butter, ¼ of a pint of water, a good pinch of cream of tartar.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the cream of tartar, and boil to the "hard ball" degree. Remove the stewpan from the fire, add the butter in small pieces, then boil to the "crack" degree. Pour on to buttered or oiled tins; when sufficiently set, mark into squares or oblongs, and when quite cold divide and wrap each piece first in wax paper and afterwards in tin foil.

2317.—FONDANT CREAM.

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of loaf or granulated cane sugar, 1 dessertspoonful of glucose, 1½ gills of water, flavourings, colourings.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the glucose, bring to the boil quickly, and boil until the syrup registers 240° ("small ball"). Pour on to an oiled or wetted slab, let it cool slightly (for if worked at its greatest heat it will grain), and work it with a spatula, keeping the mass as much as possible together with a scraper held in the left hand. When the paste has become sufficiently cool, knead it well with the hands. When perfectly smooth, divide into 2 or 3 portions, colour, flavour, and knead again separately, and use as required.

2318.—FONDANT CREAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—3 lbs. of loaf sugar, 1 pint of cold water, ¼ of a teaspoonful of cream of tartar, colouring and flavouring ingredients.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, add the cream of tartar, and boil to the "small ball" degree. Pour the syrup into a basin, let it remain until lukewarm, then stir well with a spatula until white and slightly hardened. Now turn the paste on to a slab or large dish, and knead it with the hands until perfectly smooth. Flavour and colour to taste, and use as required.

2319.—FONDANT CREAM SQUARES.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of fondant cream, carmine, sap green colouring, essence of pineapple, raspberry and vanilla.

Method.—Make the fondant according to either of the preceding recipes, and divide it into 3 equal portions. Colour 1 portion green, and flavour it with vanilla; add a few drops of carmine to the second portion, and flavour it with raspberry; flavour the remaining portion with pineapple. Roll out into 3 squares of uniform size and thickness, place them one above the other, and press lightly together with a rolling pin. Let the paste stand for at least 12 hours, then cut up into small squares. Roll in finely-chopped dried almonds or desiccated cocoanut, or coat with chocolate. If preferred, they may be crystallized by dipping in syrup prepared as below.

2320.—FONDANTS, LIQUID.

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of cane loaf sugar, 1½ gills of water, 1 dessertspoonful of glucose, colouring and flavouring to taste.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, bring to boiling point, add the glucose, and boil to the "soft ball" degree. Turn on to a marble slab, work well with a spatula until white, then knead with the hands until perfectly smooth. Colour and flavour to taste, put a small portion into a cup, stand the cup in a tin of boiling water, and stir until the fondant has the appearance of thick cream. Any kind of fruit or nuts may one by one be dipped into the liquid fondant; care should be taken to coat them thoroughly; cherries, grapes, etc., may be held by the stem, but nuts must be immersed and lifted out with a ring fork. During the process the fondant must be kept warm to prevent it hardening.

2321.—FONDANTS, SYRUP FOR CRYSTALLISING.

Ingredients.—3 lbs. of loaf sugar, 1 pint of cold water.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, then boil it to the "small thread" degree. Pour the syrup into a basin, cover with a damp cloth, and let it remain until perfectly cold. Place the prepared fondant in a crystallizing tray or drainer, pour the syrup over, cover the whole with a damp cloth, and let it stand in a rather warm dry place from 9 to 10 hours. Drain off the syrup, let the fondants dry thoroughly, and pack in air-tight boxes.

2322.—FONDANTS, WALNUT.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of fondant cream, 18 dried walnuts, green colouring, pineapple essence.

Method.—Make the fondant cream as directed, colour it pale green, and flavour it to taste with pineapple essence. Divide into 18 equal portions, form them first into balls, then press them into oval cakes, the same shape and size as the walnuts. Place the cakes between 2 halves of walnuts, press firmly together, and let them harden in a dry and fairly warm place.

2323.—GINGER TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of Demerara sugar, 1 oz. of ground ginger, ½ a pint of water.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, bring gently to boiling point, stirring occasionally in the early part of the process, and continuously when nearing boiling point. When the syrup has reached the "ball" degree, add the ginger, replace on the fire, stir until it begins to thicken, then pour into a tin lined with well-buttered paper. When cold, cut into diamonds and squares.

2324.—HARD GLAZE.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of the best loaf sugar, ½ a gill of water, fresh or candied fruit.

Method.—Fresh fruit must be dried thoroughly; candied fruit must be washed free from sugar and afterwards dried. Dissolve the sugar in the water, add a few drops of lemon-juice, and boil to the "small crack" degree. Plunge the stewpan into cold water, to prevent the preparation becoming overcooked, and at once dip in the prepared fruit one by one. Place them on an oiled tin until cold, then transfer to sheets of white paper.

2325.—ICED FRUIT. (See No. 2200, Ices, Chapter XXXIII.)

2326.—LEMON AND ACID DROPS.

Ingredients.—1½ lbs. of loaf sugar, ½ a pint of water, ½ a teaspoonful of cream of tartar, essence of lemon, 1 dessertspoonful of tartaric acid.

Method.—Boil the sugar, water, and cream of tartar together until the mixture acquires a pale yellow tinge, add essence of lemon to taste, and turn the preparation on to an oiled slab. Sprinkle on the tartaric acid, work it well in, and, as soon as it is cool enough to handle, form into thin rolls, cut off short pieces with the scissors, and roll into shape under the hand. Coat with sifted sugar, dry well, and afterwards store in an airtight tin.

2327.—MACAROONS.

Ingredients.—½ lb. of almonds, blanched and coarsely-chopped, 1 lb. of castor sugar, 5 or 6 whites of eggs, the finely-grated rind of 1 lemon.

Method.—Dry the almonds thoroughly in a cool oven, and pound them finely, adding the whites of eggs gradually. When perfectly smooth add the sugar and lemon-rind, turn the mixture into a stewpan, and stir it over a moderate fire until lukewarm. Have ready a baking-tin covered with wafer paper, arrange the mixture quickly in small round portions, and bake in a moderate oven.

2328.—MACAROONS. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—9 ozs. of castor sugar, 8 ozs. of almonds, blanched and coarsely-chopped, 1½ ozs. of fine flour, the whites of 3 eggs, orange-flower water.

Method.—Dry the almonds in a cool oven, pound them to a paste, adding the whites of eggs gradually. When quite smooth, add the flour, sugar and a few drops of orange-flower water. Turn the preparation into a bag or paper cornet, and force out very small round portions on to a tin covered with wafer paper. Bake in a moderate oven.

2329.—MARASCHINO CREAM BON-BONS.

Ingredients.—For the centres: 2 ozs. of gum arabic, 2 tablespoonfuls of Maraschino, icing sugar, 1 gill of hot water. For coating: 1½ lbs. of icing sugar (about), 2 whites of eggs, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, coffee essence, caramel.

Method.—Pass the sugar through a fine hair sieve. Soak the gum arabic in the gill of hot water, strain, add the Maraschino and as much icing sugar as will form a paste firm enough to be cut yet sufficiently moist to pass readily through the forcer, and work until elastic. Put it into a paper cornet or forcing-bag, and as it is pressed out, cut it into small pieces, and let them drop on to a paper liberally dredged with icing sugar. Allow these centres to remain in a warm place until they harden slightly. Add the lemon-juice and whites of eggs gradually to about ¾ of a lb. of icing sugar, work until perfectly smooth, then flavour to taste with coffee essence, and colour nut-brown with caramel. Dip in the centres one by one, and let them remain on a wire tray until dry.

Note.—Curaçoa or any other liqueur, orange-flower water, and many flavouring essences, may be substituted for Maraschino, the bon-bons of course taking their name from the flavouring ingredient used.

2330.—MARSH MALLOWS.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of icing sugar, ¼ of a lb. of gum arabic, 3 whites of eggs, ½ a pint of water, caramel essence.

Method.—Soak the gum arabic in the water until soft, then heat gently until dissolved, and strain it through fine muslin. Return to the stewpan, add the sugar, and when dissolved, stir in the whites of eggs, and whisk until the mixture is quite stiff. Flavour to taste, sugar, and let it remain for about 10 hours. When ready, cut into small squares, and dredge them liberally with icing sugar.

2331.—MARZIPAN.

Ingredients—1 lb. of loaf sugar, 12 ozs. of ground almonds, 3 ozs. of sifted icing sugar, 2 whites of eggs, 1½ gills of water.

Method.—Boil the sugar and water to 240° F., then draw the sugar boiler or pan aside, and when the syrup has cooled slightly add the almonds and whites of eggs. Stir by the side of the fire for a few minutes, then turn on to a slab, stir in the icing sugar, and work with a spatula until the preparation is cool enough to handle. Knead until perfectly smooth, add flavouring to taste, and mould into desired shapes.

2332.—MARZIPAN, GERMAN.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of almonds, ¾ of a lb. of castor sugar, ½ a lb. of sifted icing sugar, ¼ of a gill of orange flower water.

Method.—Blanch and shred the almonds finely, and pound them to a paste with the orange flower water. Put the castor sugar and pounded almonds into a stewpan placed in a tin of boiling water, and stir until the preparation, when touched, does not stick to the fingers. Turn on to a slab, add the icing sugar, work with a spatula until cool enough to handle, then knead until perfectly smooth. Colour and flavour to taste, and use as required.

2333.—MARZIPAN SLICES.

Ingredients.—Marzipan No. 2331, Vanilla, raspberry and coffee essences, brown, red and green colouring substances.

Method.—Divide the marzipan into 3 equal portions, and colour them brown, red and green. Flavour the brown with coffee essence, the red with raspberry, and the green with vanilla. Roll the 3 pieces out to a uniform shape, and about ⅓ of an inch in thickness. Brush the red piece over with water, cover with the green piece, brush lightly over with water, and lay the brown marzipan on the top. Press firmly with the rolling pin to make the parts adhere, brush the brown surface lightly over with water, cover with wafer paper, and roll gently until it becomes firmly attached. Turn the marzipan over, moisten and cover with paper, and roll as before until the paper adheres. When dry and set, cut the marzipan into narrow strips, and each strip into diamonds or squares.

2334.—NOUGAT.

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of icing sugar, 4 ozs. of honey, 8 ozs. of almonds, 2 whites of eggs, wafer paper.

Method.—Blanch and dry the almonds thoroughly. Line a box of suitable size first with white paper and then with wafer paper, both of which must be cut to fit exactly. Put the sugar, honey and whites of eggs into a copper sugar boiler or pan, and stir by the side of the fire until the mixture becomes thick and white. Drop a little into cold water; if it at once hardens, remove the pan from the fire, and stir in the almonds. Dredge the slab with icing sugar, torn on to it the nougat, and form into a ball. Press into the prepared box, cover with paper, let it remain under pressure until cold, then cut up into squares.

2335.—NOUGAT. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—¾ of a lb. of best castor sugar, ½ a lb. of almonds, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice.

Method.—Blanch and chop the almonds coarsely, dry them thoroughly in the oven, but do not let them brown. Place the sugar and lemon-juice in a copper sugar boiler or stewpan, stir with a spatula or wooden spoon until it acquires a pale brown colour, and add the prepared almonds. Turn on to an oiled slab, press it out with a hot wet knife, mark into small squares, and when cold break them apart.

2336.—NOUGAT BASKET.

Ingredients—¾ of a lb. of best castor sugar, ½ a lb. of almonds, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice.

Method.—Prepare the nougat as in the preceding recipe, and keep it warm. Take a small quantity at a time, knead and roll it out thinly, mould it into the desired shape, and trim the edges with a pair of scissors. Handles may be made of fine strips of nougat; they should be moulded on a round ruler, a rolling-pin, or anything of suitable size and shape, but whatever is used, it should first be covered with oiled or buttered paper. The ends, when slightly warmed, are easily attached to the baskets. This nougat may also be used for lining moulds, which should be previously oiled.

2337.—ORANGE BISCUITS.

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of loaf sugar, 4 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of candied orange peel finely shredded, 2 oz. of flour, 4 eggs, 2 or 3 oranges, castor sugar.

Method.—Rub the sugar on the rind of the orange, and afterwards pound it finely. Cream the butter, add first the sugar, then the yolks of eggs, and when well mixed, stir in lightly the candied orange peel, flour, and stiffly-whisked whites of eggs. Turn the mixture into well buttered biscuit moulds, sprinkle with castor sugar, and bake slowly until set.

Time.—To bake, from 7 to 10 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. Sufficient for 1 large dish.

2338.—ORANGE DROPS.

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of loaf sugar, 1 pint of water, 3 or 4 oranges, saffron.

Method.—Rub some of the sugar on the oranges to obtain the zest. Boil all the sugar and the water to the "small crack" and add a little saffron. Cool slightly, then pour on to an oiled slab, mark off into small squares, and break them asunder when cold. Or, use a sugar boiler with a spout, and drop the preparation in small pieces: this process may be aided by using an oiled wire or knife. Let the drops remain in a drying closet for about 2 hours, and afterwards store them in an airtight box.

2339.—ORANGES, ICED. (See Ices, Chapter XXXIII.)

2340.—PINEAPPLE SNOW CANDY.

Ingredients.—1 pint of clarified syrup No. 2231, 1 white of egg, pineapple essence, saffron-yellow colouring, 1 tablespoonful of castor sugar.

Method.—Boil the prepared syrup to the "crack" degree, and add a few drops of saffron-yellow. Meanwhile whip the white of egg stiffly and add to it the castor sugar and a few drops of pineapple essence. Line some moulds or small tins with oiled paper, and sprinkle the bottom and sides of them liberally with icing or castor sugar. As soon as the syrup is sufficiently boiled, plunge the stewpan into cold water to arrest further cooking, and let it cool slightly, then pour it on the white of egg and sugar preparation, and stir briskly to a froth. When ready, pour into the prepared moulds, and turn out when perfectly set. The flavour and colour may be varied as desired, the candy of course taking its name from the flavouring ingredient.

2341.—RASPBERRY CREAM BON-BONS.

Ingredients.—For the centres: 2 ozs. of gum arabic, icing sugar, carmine, essence of raspberry. For coating: 4 ozs. of unsweetened, finely-grated chocolate, 2 whites of eggs, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1½ lbs. of best icing sugar (about).

Method.—Pass the sugar through a fine hair sieve. Soak the gum arabic in 1 gill of hot water, strain, colour and flavour to taste, stir in gradually as much icing sugar as will form a paste firm enough to be cut, yet moist enough to pass readily through the piping tube, and work it well. Have ready a paper cornet with a tube attached, fill with the preparation, press out, cut off into small pieces, and let them fall on to a paper covered thickly with icing sugar. Let the bon-bons remain in a warm place while the coating is being prepared, in order that they may slightly harden. Put about ¾ of a lb. of icing sugar into a basin, add the lemon-juice and whites of eggs gradually, and work until perfectly smooth. Put the chocolate with a tablespoonful of warm water into a basin, place it over a small saucepan of boiling water, and stir until dissolved, and when cool, add it to the white of egg and sugar preparation. Mix thoroughly, dip in the bon-bons one by one, place on a wire tray, and allow them to dry.

2342.—ROUT CAKES OR PETITS FOURS.

Ingredients.—1 lb of almonds, 1 lb. of castor sugar, orange-flower water.

Method.—Blanch, dry and pound the almonds finely, adding gradually a little orange-flower water. When reduced to a fine paste, put it into the stewpan with the sugar, and stir over the fire until dry and when touched does not adhere to the finger. Form into small fancifully shaped biscuits, and bake in a moderately cool oven.

2343.—SPUN SUGAR TRIFLE. (See To Spin Sugar, No. 2276.)

The spun sugar may be used to mask or garnish ices, creams, trifles and other cold sweets.

2344.—STRAWBERRY DROPS. (See Clove Drops, No. 2309.)

Substitute strawberry essence for clove essence.

2345.—STRAWBERRIES. (See Strawberries and Cherries, No. 2263.)

2346.—TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of loaf sugar, ¼ of a pint of water, a pinch of cream of tartar, lemon essence or other flavouring.

Method.—Put the water and sugar into a sugar boiler or stewpan, stir occasionally until dissolved, bring to the boiling point, and add the cream of tartar. Boil to the "little crack" degree (310°), pour into an oiled tin, allow it to cool slightly, then mark off into diamonds or squares with a knife, and when cold divide into sections thus formed.

2347.—TOFFEE, FRENCH.

Ingredients.—1 pint of golden syrup, ¾ of a lb. of granulated sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of cocoanut, 2 tablespoonfuls of almonds, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 egg.

Method.—Put the golden syrup and sugar into a copper sugar boiler or pan, and boil to the "large crack" degree (see p. 1071). Add the almonds previously blanched and chopped coarsely, the cocoanut vinegar, lemon-juice, and the well-beaten egg. Replace on the fire, bring to boiling point, and pour on to wet tins.

2348.—TOFFEE, LEMON.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of granulated sugar, 4 ozs. of butter, the juice of 1 lemon, essence of lemon.

Method.—Melt the butter in a stewpan, add the sugar, boil up slowly, stir and boil for a few minutes, and add 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, continue boiling to the "crack" degree, add the rest of the lemon-juice and a few drops of essence of lemon, and pour at once on to a buttered or oiled tin.

2349.—TOFFEE, RASPBERRY.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of sugar, 1 gill of cold water, a few drops of cochineal, a few drops of raspberry essence, a pinch of cream of tartar.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the water, then add the cream of tartar, bring to boiling point, skim carefully, and boil to the "large crack." Remove the stewpan from the fire, stir in the cochineal and raspberry essence, and pour into an oiled or buttered tin. Let it harden stiffly, then mark off into sections, and divide them when cold.

2350.—TOFFEE, RUSSIAN.

Ingredients.—¾ of a lb. of loaf sugar, ¾ of a pint of cream, flavouring essence.

Method.—Dissolve the sugar in the cream, stand the stewpan in a bain-marie or tin of boiling water, and stir and cook until the mixture thickens and leaves the sides of the pan. Remove from the fire, stir in the flavouring essence, pour on to oiled or buttered tins, and when cold cut into squares.

2351.—TOFFEE, RUSSIAN. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of loaf sugar, ¼ of a lb. of butter, ¼ of a pint of cream, 1 tablespoonful of red-currant jelly, vanilla or other flavouring essence.

Method.—Place the sugar, butter and cream in a stewpan, and stir by the side of the fire until the mixture thickens and leaves the sides of the pan clean. Flavour to taste, pour on to an oiled or buttered tin, and when cold, cut into squares.

2352.—TREACLE CANDY.

Ingredients.—1 pint of treacle, ¾ of a lb. of brown sugar, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda.

Method.—Place the treacle, sugar, butter and vinegar in a large stewpan, boil until a few drops will harden immediately when dropped into cold water, then stir in the carbonate of soda, previously dissolved in a little hot water. Pour at once into an oiled or buttered tin, turn the edges in as they cool, and as soon as the whole can be handled pull it until white, draw it into sticks, and cut into short lengths.

2353.—TREACLE TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—1 pint of treacle, 2 ozs. of brown sugar, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a gill of vinegar, ½ a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, essence of almonds.

Method.—Place the sugar in a sugar-boiler or stewpan, pour on the vinegar, and when dissolved add the treacle and boil to the "large ball" degree. Remove the pan from the fire, add the soda dissolved in a little hot water, the butter, almond essence to taste, boil to the "little crack" degree, and pour into an oiled or buttered tin. When partially set, mark into bars or squares, and when quite firm break into sections.

2354.—TURKISH DELIGHT.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of icing sugar, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 1 oz, of leaf gelatine, 2 ozs. of almonds or pistachios, 1 orange, 1 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of rum, 1 gill of water.

Method.—Put the gelatine to soak in cold water. Blanch the almonds or pistachios, and chop them coarsely. Remove the rinds of the orange and lemon in thin fine strips, place them in a copper sugar boiler or stewpan with the loaf sugar, water, and the strained juice of the orange and lemon. When boiling add the gelatine, simmer until dissolved, then strain into a basin and add the rum. Let the mixture remain until on the point of setting, then stir in the almonds or pistachios, and pour at once into a wetted round tin. When perfectly set turn the jelly out, cut it into 1-inch square pieces, and roll them in icing sugar.

2355.—WALNUT TOFFEE.

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of golden syrup, 1 lb. of walnuts, 1 tablespoonful of glucose, a good pinch of carbonate of soda.

Method.—Blanch the walnuts, break them into small pieces or chop them coarsely, and dissolve the carbonate of soda in a small quantity of hot water. Bring the syrup slowly to boiling point, add the glucose and boil to the "little crack" degree. Now draw the stewpan aside, stir in the prepared walnuts and carbonate of soda, and at once pour on to an oiled or buttered tin. When sufficiently set, mark into sections, and when perfectly cold, divide and wrap each piece in wax paper.