Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXXVII

RECIPES FOR PRESERVES, JAMS, PICKLES, ETC.
 
CHAPTER XXXVII
 

Preserves, Jams, Pickles, Store Sauces, etc.


Preserves and Jams.

2493.—APPLE AND BLACKBERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—4 lbs. of apples, 2 lbs. blackberries, 4½ lbs. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Pick the blackberries, put them into a stewjar with 1 lb. of sugar, and let them remain thus for at least 12 hours. When ready, place the jar on the stove or in a cool oven, and stew gently until the juice is extracted. Pare, core and cut the apples into thick slices. Put them into a preserving pan, strain in the juice, add the rest of the sugar, and boil gently from 45 to 50 minutes. Pour into jars, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

Time.—Altogether, about 14 hours. Average Cost, 4d. per lb. Seasonable in October.

2494.—APPLE GINGER.

Ingredients.—5 lbs. of sour cooking apples, 4 lbs. of loaf sugar, 2 ozs. of whole ginger, ¼ of a teaspoonful of cayenne, 3 lemons, 1 pint of cold water.

Method.—Peel, core, and cut the apples into quarters. Dissolve 2 lbs. of sugar in 1 pint of water, bring slowly to boiling point, skim well, and simmer for 8 or 10 minutes. Pour the syrup over the prepared apples, cover, and let it remain thus for 48 hours. When ready, drain off the syrup into a stewpan, add the remaining 2 lbs. of sugar, the strained juice, and finely-grated rinds of the lemons, the ginger bruised and tied in fine muslin, and the cayenne. When boiling, add the apples, simmer very gently until they are soft, but not broken, then turn into jars. Cover at once with ready-prepared paper, or paper brushed over with white of egg, and fasten securely.

Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Seasonable in October.

2495.—APPLE GINGER. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of sour cooking apples, 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, ½ an oz. of extract of ginger, 1½ pints of water.

Method.—Make a syrup of the sugar and water, as directed in the preceding recipe. Meanwhile peel, core, and cut each apple into 8 sections, add them with the extract of ginger to the syrup, and simmer gently until soft, but not broken. Turn into jars, cover as directed in the preceding recipe, and store in a cool dry place.

Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 3d. Seasonable in October.

2496.—APPLE JAM.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit, weighed after being pared, cored and sliced, allow ¾ of a lb. of preserving sugar, the finely grated rind of 1 lemon, the juice of ½ a lemon.

Method.—Choose firm, sound apples of the same kind; peel, core, and cut them into thick slices. Barely cover the bottom of a large stewjar with cold water, add a good layer of sliced apples, cover thickly with sugar, and sprinkle with lemon-rind and lemon- juice. Repeat until all the materials are used, cover the jar closely, place it on the stove or in a moderate oven, in a tin half full of boiling water, and stew gently until the apples are tender. If the preparation appears rather dry it may at once be put into the pots; if not, the lid must be removed, the stewjar taken out of the water and placed on the stove, and the contents boiled and stirred until the greater part of the moisture has evaporated.

Time.—From 2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 4d. per lb. Seasonable in October.

2497.—APPLE JAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—4 lbs. of sour cooking apples, 3 lbs. of preserving sugar, the finely-grated rind and juice of 2 lemons, 1 saltspoonful of ground cinnamon, ¼ of a pint of cold water.

Method.—Pare, core and cut the apples into thick slices. Place them in a preserving-pan, add the sugar, lemon-rind and juice, cinnamon and water, and cook gently until reduced to a pulp. During the first part of the process stir occasionally, but towards the end, when the greater part of the moisture has evaporated, stir more frequently to prevent the preparation sticking to the bottom of the pan. Pour into jars, at once cover closely, and store in a cool dry place. This jam will not keep for so long a time as that made according to the preceding recipe.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 8d.

2498. APPLE JELLY. (Fr.Gelée aux Pommes.)

Ingredients.—10 lbs. of apples, 10 pints of water; to each pint of liquid obtained from these allow 1 lb. of sugar and the juice of 2 lemons.

Method.—Rub the apples well with a dry cloth, but do not pare them. Cut them into quarters, remove the cores, and put them into a preserving pan with the sugar. Simmer until perfectly soft, but not broken, then strain off the liquid without squeezing the pulp. If not clear, pass through a jelly-bag or clean dry cloth, until it becomes so. Add sugar and lemon-juice in the proportion stated above, and simmer gently until a little, poured on a cold plate, almost immediately begins to stiffen. Pour into pots or glasses, cover closely, and store in a cool dry place.

Time.—From 25 to 30 minutes, after straining. Average Cost, from 4s. 6d. to 5s.

Note.—The apple pulp should be sweetened, flavoured with ginger or cinnamon, and made into jam.

2499.—APPLE JELLY. (Another way.)

Ingredients.—To 6 lbs. of apples allow 3 pints of water; to every quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar and the juice of ½ a lemon.

Method.—Pare, core and cut the apples into slices, and put them into a jar, with water in the above proportion. Place them in a cool oven, with the jar well covered, and when the juice is thoroughly drawn and the apples are quite soft, strain them through a jelly-bag. To each quart of juice allow 2 lb. of loaf sugar, which should be crushed to small lumps and put in the preserving-pan with the juice. Boil these together for rather more than ½ an hour, remove the scum as it rises, add the lemon-juice just before it is done, and put the jelly into pots for use.

Time.—To boil after straining, about ½ an hour. Average Cost, 2s. 9d.

2500.—APPLE MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of apples, 4 ozs. of sugar, 1 oz. of butter.

Method.—Peel, core and quarter the apples, place them in a jar with the sugar and butter, and stand the jar in a saucepan containing boiling water, or, when more convenient, in a cool oven. Cook until soft, pass through a fine sieve, and use for filling turnovers, or other kinds of pastry.

Time.—1½ hours. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. per lb. Seasonable at any time.

2501.—APPLES IN QUARTERS, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—8 lbs. of apples, 6 lbs. of sugar, 6 pints of water, the juice of 4 lemons.

Method.—Peel, quarter and core the apples. Place the apple-peeling and cores in the water, add the sugar, simmer gently for 25 minutes, and strain until clear. Replace the syrup in the pan, add the apples and lemon-juice, and simmer gently until the apples are tender, but not broken. Place them in jars or wide-necked bottles, pour the syrup over them, and cover the preparation so as to completely exclude the air. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 50 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 7d.

2502.—APRICOT JAM OR MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—Equal weight of firm, ripe apricots and fine preserving sugar.

Method.—Skin the apricots carefully, break them in halves and remove the stones. Weigh the fruit, and allow an equal amount of sugar. Pile the apricots on a large dish, sprinkle each layer with sugar, let them stand for 12 hours, and meanwhile remove the kernels from the stones and blanch them. When ready, place the fruit, sugar and kernels in a preserving-pan, simmer very gently, skimming meanwhile, and as the pieces of apricot become clear remove them from the syrup and place them at once in the pots. Pour on the syrup and kernels, cover with pieces of paper dipped in salad-oil, and stretch over the tops of the jars tissue paper, brushed over with white of egg. When dry, the cover will be perfectly hard and air-tight.

Time.—12 hours, sprinkled with sugar. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

2503.—APRICOT JELLY. (Fr.Gelee d'Abricot.)

Ingredients.—Ripe apricots. To each lb. of fruit, weighed after the stones and skins are removed, allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar and the juice of 1 lemon.

Method.—Remove the skins, break the apricots in halves, and blanch the kernels. Weigh the fruit, put it into a preserving-pan with an equal amount of sugar, and add the prepared kernels and lemon-juice. Simmer gently, stir frequently until reduced to the consistency of thick marmalade, then pour into small pots. Cover first with paper moistened with salad-oil, and afterwards with tissue paper brushed over with white of egg; store in a dry cool place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

2504.—APRICOTS, TO DRY. (See Greengages, To Preserve Dry, No. 2554.)

2505.—BARBERRIES IN BUNCHES.

Ingredients.—1 pint of syrup, barberries.

Method.—Prepare some small pieces of clean white wood, 3 inches long and ¼ of an inch wide; tie the fruit to these in nice bunches. Have ready some clear syrup, Recipe No. 2599; put in the barberries, and simmer them in it for ½ an hour on two successive days, and covering them each time with the syrup when cold. When the fruit looks perfectly clear it is sufficiently done, and should be stored away in pots, with the syrup poured over. Or, if preferred, the berries may be candied (see Cherries Dried, No. 2517, and Greengages, to Preserve Dry, No. 2554).

Time.—½ an hour to simmer, each day.

2506.—BARBERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—Equal quantities of barberries and preserving sugar.

Method.—Put the sugar and fruit into a preserving-pan and bring slowly to boiling point. Boil gently for about 15 or 20 minutes, skimming well and stirring frequently, pour into small pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 15 to 20 minutes, after boiling point is reached. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2507.—BARBERRY JELLY.

Ingredients.—Equal quantities of ripe barberries and loaf sugar.

Method.—Wash the berries in cold water, and put them into a jar with a close-fitting lid, place the jar on the stove or in a moderate oven, in a tin ½ full of boiling water, and simmer gently for about 2 hours. Strain the juice into a preserving-pan, to each pint add 1 lb. of sugar, and bring to boiling point. Boil for about 10 minutes, removing the scum as it rises, then pour into small pots. Cover at once with paper brushed over with white of egg.

Time.—Altogether about 2 hours. Average Cost, barberries from 4d. to 5d. per pint.

2508.—BEETROOT PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of beetroot allow ½ a lb. of preserving sugar, the juice of ½ a lemon, and the finely grated rind of ¼ of a lemon. Add vanilla pod and stick cinnamon to taste.

Method.—Peel the beetroots, put them into a preserving-pan with water to barely cover them, and boil them gently for about 20 minutes. Add the sugar and flavouring ingredients, continue the cooking until the beetroots are quite tender, then drain them from the syrup, cut them into convenient lengths, and place them in jars of suitable size. Boil the syrup rapidly until it is quite thick, skimming when necessary meanwhile, and pour it into the jars. Cover closely, so as to completely exclude the air, and keep in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 3d. per lb.

2509.—BLACKBERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—Blackberries, half their weight in sugar.

Method.—Boil the blackberries and sugar together for 40 minutes. Cover closely, and keep in a dry, cool place. The jam will be less insipid if a little lemon-juice is added.

Time.—40 minutes. Average cost, blackberries, 3d. to 5d. per lb.

2510.—BLACK CURRANT JAM.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar, and ¼ of a pint of water.

Method.—Remove the fruit, which should be ripe and perfectly dry, from the stalks, put it into a preserving-pan with the water, bring to boiling point, and simmer gently for 20 minutes. Add the sugar, and boil for about ½ an hour from the time the jam re-boils, or until a little almost immediately sets when tested on a cold plate. Towards the end of the process the jam must be stirred almost continuously, to prevent it boiling over or sticking to the bottom of the pan. Pour into pots, at once cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 50 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 4d. or 5d. per lb.

2511.—BLACK CURRANT JAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow ¾ of a lb. of sugar.

Method.—Put the fruit and sugar into a preserving-pan, let it stand by the side of the fire until some of the juice is drawn out of the fruit and the sugar is dissolved, then bring to boiling point, stirring occasionally meanwhile. Boil gently for about 40 minutes, test a little on a plate; if it stiffens pour at once into jars, and cover closely. This jam, if made of sound, dry fruit, and stored in a cool, dry place, will keep for a great length of time.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2512.—BLACK CURRANT JAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—8 lbs. of black currants, 4 lbs. of rhubarb, 8 lbs. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks, pick out the best and finest fruit, place about 6 lb. of it on a large dish between layers of sugar, and let it remain for 24 hours. Put the remainder of the currants into a large jar, add the rhubarb, previously peeled and cut into short lengths, and cook in a slow oven or in a saucepan of boiling water until all the juice is extracted. Of this juice, take not less than 1½ pints and not more than 2 pints, put it into a large earthenware pan or bowl, add the fruit and sugar, and let the whole stand for 24 hours longer. At the end of this time strain the juice into a preserving-pan, bring to boiling point, add more sugar if necessary, and boil for about 10 minutes. Now add the fruit, boil gently for 20 minutes, skimming when necessary, then turn the jam into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 8d. per lb.

2513.—BLACK CURRANT JELLY.

Ingredients.—Black currants, preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks, put the currants into a jar placed in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer until their juice is extracted. Strain the juice into a preserving-pan, to each pint add ¾ of a lb. of sugar, and boil gently until the jelly stiffens, when a little is tested on a cold plate. Pour into small pots, cover with paper brushed over with white of egg, fasten securely so as to exclude the air, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. per lb.

2514.—CARROT AND BEETROOT JAM.

Ingredients.—Equal weights of carrots and beetroot, sugar, lemons.

Method.—Wash the beetroot, scrape the carrots, and boil them separately until tender. Pass through a coarse sieve, measure the purée, and to each pint allow 12 ozs. of sugar and the juice of 2 lemons. Place the whole in a preserving pan, boil gently for ½ an hour, and turn the preparation into pots. If intended to be kept some time, a glass of brandy should be added to each pint of jam before putting it into the pot. Keep closely covered in a dry, cool place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average cost, about 5d. per lb.

2515.—CARROT JAM.

Ingredients.—Young carrots. To each lb. of the prepared pulp allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar, the strained juice of 2 lemons, and the finely grated rind of 1 lemon, 6 finely-chopped bitter almonds, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy.

Method.—Wash and scrape the carrots, cut each one into 3 or 4 pieces, place them in a preserving-pan with barely sufficient water to cover them, and simmer gently till tender. Drain well, pass through a fine sieve, weigh the pulp, and replace it in the preserving-pan with an equal weight of sugar. Bring slowly to boiling point, boil for 5 minutes stirring and skimming frequently. When cool, add the almonds, brandy, lemon-juice and rind, turn into small pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place. If the brandy be omitted the jam will not keep.

Time.—From 50 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, about 5d. per lb.

2516.—CARROT JAM. (Imitation Apricot.)

Ingredients.—Equal weights of carrots and sugar. To each lb. of carrots allow 1½ tablespoonfuls of brandy, the juice of 2 lemons, the thin rind of 1 lemon, 12 sweet almonds blanched and quartered.

Method.—Scrape and slice the carrots, barely cover them with cold water, simmer slowly until tender, then drain well and pass them through a fine sieve. Replace the pan, add the sugar, almonds and lemon-juice, boil up, simmer gently for 15 minutes, and stir in the brandy. Turn into pots, cover with bladder, and store in a dry, cool place. Unless the brandy is added the jam will not keep.

Time.—From 50 to 60 minutes. Average cost, about 5d. per lb.

2517.—CHERRIES DRIED.

Cherries may be put into a slow oven and thoroughly dried before they begin to change colour. They should then be taken out of the oven, tied in bunches, and stored away in a dry place. In the winter they may be cooked with sugar for dessert, the same as Normandy pippins. Particular care must be taken that the oven be not too hot. Another method of drying cherries is to stone them and put them into a preserving-pan, with plenty of loaf sugar strewed among them. They should be simmered till the fruit shrivels, then they should be strained from the juice. The cherries should then be placed in an oven cool enough to dry without baking them. About 5 ozs. of sugar will be required for 1 lb. of cherries, and the same syrup may be used again to do another quantity of fruit.

2518.—CHERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—Sound, ripe cooking cherries, an equal quantity of preserving sugar; to each lb. of fruit allow ¼ of a pint of red-currant juice or water, or the two mixed in any proportions that may be convenient.

Method.—Remove the stones, keeping the cherries as whole as possible, and preserve the kernels. Put the red currant juice or water into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and boil to a syrup. Add the cherries and kernels, and simmer gently until the cherries are tender, but not broken, and the juice jellies almost immediately when a little is poured on a cold plate. Pour into jars, cover with paper dipped in brandy, and stretch over the top tissue paper brushed over with white of egg. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.— About 1 hour. Average Cost, about 8d. per lb.

2519.—CHERRIES, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.— Sound, ripe cooking cherries. To each lb. allow a ½ lb. of preserving sugar and of a ¼ pint of water.

Method.—Remove the stones carefully, keeping the fruit as whole as possible. Boil the sugar and water to a syrup, add the cherries, simmer them gently for 15 minutes, then turn both fruit and syrup into a large basin, and put aside until the following day. Strain the syrup into a preserving-pan; to each pint add from 4 to 6 ozs. of sugar, according to taste, bring to boiling point, skim well, then put in the fruit and simmer gently for about 10 minutes. Pour into jars, cover at once with paper dipped in brandy, stretch tissue paper brushed over with white of egg on the top, and fasten down securely. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, about 26 hours. Average Cost, 8d. or 9d. per lb.

Note.—The flavour may be considerably improved by substituting the juice of either red or white currants for the water.

2520.—CITRON MARMALADE. (See Lemon Marmalade, No. 2555.)

2521.—CRABAPPLE JELLY.

Ingredients.—4 lbs. of crabapples (Siberian crabs), 4 pints of water, 6 cloves, 1 inch of ginger, 1 lb. of sugar to each pint of strained liquid.

Method.—Halve the crabapples with a silver knife. Place them in the water, add the cloves and ginger, simmer until tender, then drain well, but do not squeeze the apples. Replace the drained liquid in the pan, add the sugar, boil until the syrup jellies quickly when tested on a cold plate, then pour into small jars or glasses. Cover securely with parchment, and store in a cool, dry place.

2522.—CURRANT AND RASPBERRY JAM. (See Raspberry Jam, No. 2588.)

2523.—CURRANTS, BOTTLED. (See Damsons, Bottled, No. 2526, and Gooseberries, Bottled, No. 2539.)

2524.—CURRANTS, SPICED. (See Plums Spiced, No. 2582.)

2525.—DAMSONS, BAKED, FOR KEEPING.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow ½ a lb. of sugar, mutton suet.

Method.—Fruit for preserving in this manner should be perfectly sound, and not over-ripe. Remove the stalks, but not the stones; place the fruit and sugar in a large stewjar in alternate layers, cover closely, and bake in a very cool oven until the plums are tender. Pack the plums closely in large jars, pour the syrup over, and when quite cold cover with white paper cut to the size of the jar. Have ready some mutton suet melted, but on the point of setting, pour it into the jars to the depth of about ½ an inch, stretch pieces of bladder or paper brushed over with white of egg over the jars, and fasten them securely. If stored in a cool, dry place the fruit will keep good for 3 or 4 months.

Time.—From 4 to 5 hours. Average Cost, 4d. per lb.

2526.—DAMSONS, BOTTLED.

Ingredients.—Damsons, sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks but not the stones, place the fruit in wide-necked glass bottles, and tie a piece of bladder securely over the top of each one. Cover the bottom of a large boiling pot with a thin layer of straw, stand the bottles side by side on the top of it, and surround them with cold water. Bring slowly to boiling point, then remove the boiling-pot from the fire, but let the bottles remain in it until the contents are perfectly cold. Before storing them remove the bladder, fill the mouths of the bottles with sugar, and cork with tight-fitting corks. Cover with melted wax, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, about 12 hours. Average Cost, 4d. per lb.

2527.—DAMSON CHEESE.

Ingredients.—Damsons, preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks and put the fruit into a large jar or stew-pot. Cover closely, cook in a very slow oven until perfectly soft, then rub through a fine sieve. Measure the pulp, and put it into a preserving-pan with the addition of 12 or 16 ozs. of sugar to each pint of pulp, according to individual taste. Boil until the greater part of the syrup has evaporated and the pulp has become rather stiff, stirring frequently at first and almost continuously towards the end of the process. Turn into small jars, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place. If liked, the stones may be cracked and the kernels added to the purée with the sugar.

Time.—From 6 to 7 hours. Average Cost, 8d. per lb.

2528.—DAMSON CHEESE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Damsons, preserving sugar.

Method.—After removing the stalks, put the fruit into a large jar placed in a boiling-pot of cold water, and cook until perfectly soft. Now take away the stones, pour off some of the juice, which should afterwards be converted into damson jelly, and add from 6 to 8 ozs. of sugar to each lb. of fruit. Continue the slow cooking for 2 hours longer, then turn the whole into a preserving-pan, and boil rapidly for about ½ an hour, meanwhile stirring continuously. Turn into small pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 6 to 7 hours. Average Cost, 7d. to 8d. per lb.

2529.—DAMSON JAM.

Ingredients.— To each lb. of fruit allow from ¾ lb. to 1 lb. of preserving sugar, according to taste.

Method.—Remove the stalks, put the fruit and sugar into a preserving-pan, let it stand by the side of the fire until some of the juice is extracted, then bring slowly to boiling-point, occasionally stirring meanwhile. Boil gently for about 45 minutes, or until the syrup, when tested on a cold plate, stiffens readily. Pour into pots. Cover with paper brushed over with white of egg.

Time.— About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2530.—DAMSON JAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks, put the fruit into a preserving-pan, let it stand by the side of the fire until a little of the juice is extracted, then boil them for ½ an hour. Now add the sugar gradually, and boil for 20 minutes longer, reckoning from the time the jam re-boils. It must be frequently stirred, and, if preferred, some or all the stones may be removed before turning the jam into the pots. Cover closely with paper brushed over with white of egg.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, from 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2531.—DAMSON JELLY.

Ingredients.—Damsons, preserving sugar.

Method.—The fruit must be firm, dry and ripe. Remove the stalks, put the fruit into a large jar or stewpot, cover closely, place it in a boiling-pot of cold water, and cook very slowly until the plums are perfectly tender. Strain the juice through a jelly-bag, or fine cloth into a preserving-pan, add from 8 to 10 ozs. of sugar to each pint of juice, and boil until the jelly sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. Pour into pots, cover closely with paper brushed over with white of egg, and fasten securely so as to exclude the air. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, from 6 to 7 hours. Average Cost, 9d. to 10d. per lb.

Note.—The fruit from which the juice has been extracted may be converted into damson cheese (see No. 2527 and following recipes).

2532.—DAMSON PRESERVE. (See Damson Jam, No. 2530.)

2533.—DAMSONS (OR ANY PLUMS), TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—Damsons, or other plums, suet.

Method.—Let the fruit be dry and sound. Place it in wide-necked jars, cover completely with boiling water, and pour over a good layer of melted mutton suet. Cover with parchment, to completely exclude the air. The fruit will keep a considerable time, and when required for use, the water should be poured off, and the jelly at the bottom of the jar used to improve the flavour of the fruit.

2534.—DAMSONS, PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow ½ a lb. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Fruit for preserving in this manner should be dry, perfectly sound and ripe. Remove the stalks, place the fruit and sugar in layers in a large jar, stand the jar in a large boiling-pot of cold water, and simmer until the plums are quite tender but not broken. Cool slightly, then drain the juice into a preserving-pan or large stewpan, and boil rapidly for 20 minutes. Meanwhile place the fruit in pots, and when ready, pour the syrup over them. Cover with paper brushed over with white of egg, fasten down securely so as to completely exclude the air, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 4d. or 5d. per lb.

2535.—FIGS, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—Green figs. To each lb. allow 1 lb. of sugar and ½ a pint of water, brine that will float an egg.

Method.—Make a slit across the top of each fig, cover them with brine, and let them remain for 8 days. Drain well, boil gently in a little water until quite tender, then drain again and cover with cold water. Change the water daily for 3 days, and on the third day have ready a syrup made of the sugar and water in the proportions given above. Boil the figs in the syrup for 10 minutes, repeat the process daily for 3 or 4 days, until the figs are tender and green. Place them in jars or bottles, add the syrup, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

2536.—FRESH FRUIT, TO BOTTLE. (See Damsons, Bottled, No. 2526, and Gooseberries, Bottled, No. 2539.)

2537.—FRESH FRUIT, TO BOTTLE, WITH SUGAR.

Allow 4 ozs. of preserving sugar to each quart of fruit, and follow the directions given under Damsons, Bottled, No. 2526, and Gooseberries, Bottled, No. 2539.

2538.—GINGER, IMITATION OF.

Ingredients.—24 sticks of well-grown rhubarb or a corresponding quantity of stalks of lettuce going to seed, sugar, ginger.

Method.—Remove the outside stringy part, and cut the stalks into 2-inch lengths. Put them into a preserving-pan with 4 pints of cold water, 1 lb. of preserving sugar, and 1 heaped tablespoonful of ground ginger. Bring slowly to boiling point, simmer for 20 minutes, then turn the whole into an earthenware vessel. On the following day drain the juice into the preserving-pan, when boiling, add the stalks, and simmer gently for ½ an hour. Repeat this process on the two following days, then drain the stalks and weigh them. To each lb. allow 1½ ozs. of ground ginger, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, and 1½ pints of cold water. Boil these together to the "large thread" degree (see No. 2266), and pour the syrup over the stalks. When cold, put the preparation into jars, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place for about 3 weeks, when it will be ready for use.

Time.—Altogether, 3 days. Average Cost, 3d. or 4d. per lb.

2539.—GOOSEBERRIES, BOTTLED.

Ingredients.—Firm, sound, unripe green gooseberries.

Method.—Head and tail the gooseberries, put them into wide-necked glass bottles, and wrap a little hay or straw round each bottle. Put a thin layer of the same on the bottom of a large boiling-pot, stand the bottles on the top of it, and surround them to at least ¾ of their depth with cold water. Bring the water slowly to boiling point, then remove the pan from the fire, but allow the bottles to remain in it until the gooseberries begin to rise in them. Now add to each one a little boiling water, cork with new corks, and cover the bottles with bladder. Place them on their sides in a cool, dry place. When using the fruit, sugar or syrup must be added according to taste.

Time.—Altogether, about 1 hour. Average Cost, 2d. per pint.

2540.—GOOSEBERRIES, BOTTLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Firm, sound, green gooseberries. To each lb. allow 1 lb. of loaf or granulated sugar and ½ a pint of water.

Method.—Head and tail the gooseberries, cover them with cold water, simmer slowly until tender, but unbroken, then drain well, and put them into cold water. Dissolve the sugar in the water, boil to a syrup, then let it become quite cold. Drain the gooseberries well, put them into the cold syrup, bring to boiling point, boil gently for 10 minutes, then turn the whole into an earthenware bowl. Next day drain the syrup into a preserving-pan or large stewpan, boil it to the "large thread" degree (see No. 2266), then put in the fruit and boil gently for 10 minutes. Turn into hot, dry bottles, cork securely with new corks, and cover the tops of them with bladder. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 4d. per lb.

2541.—GOOSEBERRY AND CURRANT JAM.

Ingredients.—6 lbs. of red hairy gooseberries, 4 lbs. of preserving sugar, ½ pint of currant juice (see Red Currant Jelly, No. 2591).

Method.—Head and tail the gooseberries, put them into a preserving-pan, and allow them to stand by the side of the fire until some of the juice is extracted. Bring to boiling point; when the gooseberries have boiled for 10 minutes add the sugar gradually, put in the red currant juice, and boil until the jam sets when tested on a cold plate. The scum must be removed as it rises, and the jam should be well stirred towards the end of the boiling process. When ready pour into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 1¾ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 5d. to 6d. per lb.

2542.—GOOSEBERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—Equal weights of green gooseberries and preserving sugar. To 7 lbs. of fruit allow 1 pint of cold water.

Method.—Head and tail the gooseberries. Put the sugar and water into a preserving-pan, let it stand by the side of the fire until the sugar is dissolved, then add the fruit. Bring slowly to boiling point, stirring occasionally, then boil slowly until the syrup readily stiffens when tested on a cold plate; this will be when the jam has boiled for about 40 minutes. Pour the jam into jars, cover it at once with paper brushed over with white of egg, and keep it in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 4d. per lb.

2543.—GOOSEBERRY JAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow ¾ of a lb. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Put the sugar into a tin or dish, and let it get quite hot in the oven. Head and tail the gooseberries, put them into a preserving-pan, allow them to stand by the side of the fire until some of the juice is extracted, then bring to boiling point and boil for 15 minutes. Now add the sugar gradually, and boil for 10 minutes longer, from the time it re-boils. Test on a cold plate; if the juice stiffens, pour the jam into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 4d. per lb.

2544.—GOOSEBERRY JAM. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar, and ½ a pint of cold water.

Method.—Top and tail the gooseberries. Dissolve the sugar in the cold water, boil up, simmer for about 15 minutes, and remove the scum as it rises. Now put in the fruit, boil gently from 35 to 40 minutes, or until the jam sets readily when tested on a cold plate. Pour into pots, cover at once with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2545.—GOOSEBERRY JELLY.

Ingredients.—To each pint of gooseberries allow ½ pint of water; to each pint of juice obtained from these add 1 lb. of either loaf or preserving sugar.

Method.—Put the fruit and water into a preserving pan, and boil slowly until reduced to a pulp. Strain through a jelly-bag of fine cloth until clear, then put it into the preserving-pan with the sugar, and boil until it will set when a little is poured on a cold plate. Turn into small pots, cover with paper brushed over with white of egg, fasten securely down so as to completely exclude the air, and store the jelly in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 7d. or 8d. per lb.

2546.—GRAPE JAM.

Ingredients.—Firm, sound, unripe grapes. To each lb. allow ½ a lb. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Place the fruit and sugar in layers in a preserving-pan, allow it to stand by the side of the fire until the whole mass is thoroughly hot and some of the juice is extracted, then bring slowly to boiling point. Boil until the juice sets quickly when tested on a cold plate, pour it into small pots, cover closely, and keep the jelly in a cool, dry place.

Time. About 1 hour. Average Cost, 8d. per lb.

Note.—In France, about ¼ of a lb. of apples are added to each lb. of grapes.

2547.—GRATED MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—12 large Seville oranges, 2 lemons, sugar.

Method.—Grate the rinds of 6 oranges, remove all the white pith, and throw it away. Remove and throw away both rind and pith of the remaining 6 oranges. Weigh the oranges, and to each lb. allow 1 lb. of sugar. Divide into sections, scrape out the pulp, and soak the pips and pith in a little cold water. Place the sugar, juice of the 2 lemons, orange rind, pulp and juice in a preserving pan, add the water strained from the pips and pith, and boil gently until the marmalade jellies quickly when tested on a cold plate. Cover the jars closely, and store them in a dry, cool place.

2548.—GREEN GINGER, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—Green ginger, sugar, water.

Method.—Put the ginger regularly every night and morning for a fortnight into fresh boiling water. Remove the outside skin with a sharp knife, boil it in water until it is quite soft, and slice it in thin slices. Make ready a syrup of 1 lb. of loaf sugar to ½ a pint of water, clarify it, and put the ginger into it. Boil until it is clear.

Time.— 14 days. Average Cost, 1s. per lb.

2549.—GREENGAGE MARMALADE. (See Greengage Jam, No. 2552.)

2550.—GRAPE JELLY.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit add a ¼ of a pint of cold water. To each pint of juice obtained from these add 1 lb. of either loaf or preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks, put the fruit and the water into a preserving-pan, and simmer very gently until the grapes are soft. Strain the juice through a jelly-bag or fine cloth until clear, replace it in the pan, and boil rapidly for ½ an hour. Add the sugar and continue the boiling until the jelly sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. As the scum rises it should be carefully removed. When ready pour the jelly into small pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

2551.—GRAPE MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—Grapes, preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks, put the fruit into a preserving-pan, barely cover with boiling water, and simmer gently until perfectly soft, but the grapes must not be allowed to break. Drain well, pass through a fine sieve, and return the pulp to the pan. To each pint add from 12 to 16 ozs. of sugar, according to degree of sweetness required, and boil from 20 to 25 minutes, reckoning from the time the entire mass reaches boiling point. Turn into jars, cover at once with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 2d. to 1s. 3d. per lb.

2552.—GREENGAGE JAM.

Ingredients.—Firm, sound greengages. To each lb. allow ¾ of a lb. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks and stones, crack a few of the latter, and put the kernels aside. Cover the bottom of a preserving-pan to the depth of ½ an inch with cold water, put in the fruit and kernels, bring slowly to boiling point, and boil gently for 15 minutes. Meanwhile, the sugar should have been placed in the oven in a deep tin or dish, and allowed to become thoroughly hot. It may now be added gradually to the fruit, and the boiling must be continued until the jam sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. Pour into pots, cover with paper brushed over with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 8d. per lb.

2553.—GREENGAGES PRESERVED IN SYRUP.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of either loaf or preserving sugar, and ¼ of a pint of water.

Method.—Proceed exactly as in the preceding recipe, with the exception of removing the stones before putting the fruit into the syrup. Boil the fruit for 10 minutes on 3 consecutive days, adding on the last day half the kernels, which should be previously blanched. Throughout the whole process the scum must be carefully removed as it rises, otherwise the syrup will not be clear.

Time.—Altogether, 3 days. Average Cost, about 6d. to 8d. per lb.

2554.—GREENGAGES, TO PRESERVE DRY.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of sugar, ¼ a of a pint of water.

Method.—For this purpose the fruit must be used before it is quite ripe, and part of the stalk must be left on. Weigh the fruit, rejecting all that is in the least degree blemished, and put it into a lined saucepan with the sugar and water, which should have been previously boiled together to a syrup. Boil the fruit in this for 10 minutes, remove it from the fire, and drain the greengages. The next day boil up the syrup, put in the fruit again, let it simmer for 3 minutes, then drain the syrup away. Continue this process for 5 or 6 days, and the last time place the greengages, when drained, on a hair sieve, and put them in an oven to dry. Keep them in a box, with paper between each layer, in a place free from damp.

Time.—Altogether 6 days. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. per lb.

2555.—LEMON MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—Lemons, loaf sugar.

Method.—Place the lemons in a preserving-pan, cover them with cold water, and boil them gently for 2 hours, during which time the water must be drained off and replaced by fresh boiling water at least 3 times. Let them cool slightly, slice thinly, remove all the pips, and weigh the fruit. To each lb. allow 2 lb. of sugar and 1 pint of the water the lemons were last boiled in, and boil these together until a thin syrup is obtained. Then add the prepared fruit, and boil until the marmalade jellies when tested on a cold plate. Cover closely with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 3 to 3½ hours. Average Cost, from 6d. to 9d. per lb.

2556.—LEMON MARMALADE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Lemons, apples, sugar, whole ginger.

Method.—Prepare the lemons as directed in the preceding recipe, then weigh them. Take an equal weight of sour cooking apples, pare, core, slice them, and stew them gently until reduced to a pulp. Add the weight of the apple pulp to that of the sliced lemons; to each lb. allow 2 lb. of preserving sugar, and 1 pint of the water the lemons were last boiled in. Boil the sugar and water to a thin syrup, add the fruit, and boil gently until the marmalade sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. Pour into pots, cover at once with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 3 hours. Average Cost, from 7d. to 8d. per lb.

2557.—MANGOES, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—Mangoes, syrup (see To Clarify Sugar for Syrup, No. 2599), lime water.

Method.—Let the mangoes lie for a few hours in cold water, then peel them thinly and remove the stones. Cover with weak lime water, and at the end of 1 hour drain well and place them in a preserving pan. Barely cover with cold water, boil gently for 10 minutes, and drain well. Replace the mangoes in the pan, cover with syrup, boil gently until the sugar begins to crystallise, and, when cool, transfer carefully into jars or wide-necked bottles. During the first month the syrup must be examined from time to time, and if it appears at all thin it should be reboiled. It may be necessary to repeat this process two or three times before finally corking down.

2558.—MANGOES, TO PRESERVE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Green mangoes, pounded ginger, turmeric, cayenne, salt.

Method.—Peel and quarter the mangoes, and sprinkle them well with salt. Let them dry in the sun until they begin to curl up, then rub them with a mixture of salt, turmeric and cayenne. As soon as the mangoes are completely dried up, place them in bottles, and cork securely.

2559.—MORELLA CHERRIES, TO PRESERVE. (See Cherries, To Preserve, No. 2519, and Cherries, Dried, No. 2517.)

2560.—MULBERRIES PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—Ripe mulberries, preserving sugar.

Method.—Put half the fruit into a jar, cover closely, place it on the stove in a large saucepan of cold water, and cook slowly until the juice is extracted. Strain, measure the juice, and put it into a preserving-pan or large stewpan with the addition of 2 lbs. of sugar to each pint of juice. Bring to boiling point, skim well, add the remainder of the fruit, and boil until it is half cooked. Turn the whole into an earthenware vessel, unless the preserving-pan be lined with enamel, in which case they may remain in the pan. On the following day boil until the juice sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. Turn into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, uncertain, as this fruit is rarely offered for sale.

Mulberry.—Mulberries are esteemed for their highly aromatic flavour and their sub-acid nature. They are considered as cooling, laxative and generally wholesome. This fruit was very highly appreciated by the Romans, who appear to have preferred it to every other. The mulberry tree is stated to have been introduced into this country in 1548, being first planted at Sion House, where the original trees still thrive. The planting of mulberry trees was much encouraged by King James I, about 1605; and considerable attempts were made at that time to rear silkworms on a large scale, for the purpose of making silk; but these endeavours have always failed, the climate not being sufficiently warm.

2561.—NECTARINES PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—Nectarines, preserving sugar.

Method.—Split the nectarines in halves, remove the stones, crack them and put the kernels aside. Weigh the fruit, put an equal amount of sugar into the preserving-pan, add a ¼ of a pint of water to each lb. of sugar, and boil to a syrup. Now put in the fruit, boil very gently until it is quite tender, but not broken, then lift it out carefully with a spoon and put it into pots. Boil the syrup rapidly until it sets quickly when tested on a cold plate, pour it over the fruit, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. per lb.

2562.—ORANGE MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—12 Seville oranges, 2 lemons, preserving sugar.

Method.—Slice the fruit thinly, removing inner pith and pips. Weigh it, and to each lb. add 3 pints of cold water. Let the whole remain covered in an earthenware vessel for 3 days, then turn the preparation into a preserving-pan and boil gently until quite tender. Let it cool, weigh again, and to each lb. of fruit add 1 lb. of sugar. Bring to boiling point, skim well, and cook gently until the syrup stiffens quickly when tested on a cold plate. Turn into pots, cover with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 4 days. Average Cost, about 2d. per lb.

2563.—ORANGE MARMALADE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—12 Seville oranges, 9 sweet oranges, 2 lemons, the weight of the fruit in preserving sugar.

Method.—Divide the rinds of the oranges into quarters, remove them carefully, put them into a preserving-pan with as much cold water as will cover them, and boil gently until quite tender. Meanwhile divide the fruit into sections, scrape out the pulp, put the pips and fibrous skin into a basin, cover with cold water, and let them soak until required. When the rinds are tender drain them well and shred them finely. Strain 2 pints of the liquid in which they were boiled, and add to it the water in which the pips and skins were soaked. Put the sugar and water into a preserving-pan, boil to a syrup, then put in the shredded rinds and pulp, and boil gently until the marmalade jellies when tested on a cold plate. Pour the marmalade into pots, and cover down with paper brushed over with white of egg.

Time.—About 3 hours, exclusive of the time required for shredding the rinds. Average Cost, 3d. per lb.

2564.—ORANGE MARMALADE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—24 Seville oranges, their weight in preserving sugar, 2 pints of cold water.

Method.—Take off the rinds of the oranges, divide the pulp into small pieces, and remove the pips. Boil the rinds in water for 2 hours, changing it 2 or 3 times to reduce the bitter flavour; when quite tender, drain well, and shred them finely. Boil the sugar and water to a syrup, skimming well meanwhile, then add the pulp and shredded rinds. Boil gently for about ½ an hour, or until the marmalade sets quickly when tested on a cold plate, then pour into pots and cover down with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg. Keep the marmalade in a cool, dry place.

Time.—5 or 6 hours altogether. Average Cost, 3d. per lb.

2565.—ORANGE MARMALADE (TRANSPARENT).

Ingredients.—4 lbs. of Seville oranges, 8 lbs. of preserving sugar, 6 pints of water, 2 or 3 whites of eggs.

Method.—Remove the rinds of the oranges, and scrape away the white pith. Shred the rind finely, cover with water, boil gently until tender, then strain and preserve the liquid. Strip every particle of pith from the oranges, slice them, and remove the pips, and soak these in a little cold water. Simmer the remainder of the water and the sliced oranges for 2 hours, then drain through a fine hair sieve or cloth, but do not squeeze the pulp. Replace the liquid in the pan, add the liquid in which the rind was cooked and the strained water from the pips, bring nearly to boiling point, and clarify with white of eggs (see Aspic Jelly, No. 1980). Strain until clear, replace in the pan, add the sugar, boil gently until the syrup jellies when tested on a cold plate, and add the orange rind. Simmer gently for 10 minutes longer, then turn into pots, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

Time.—About 1 day. Average Cost, 6d. per lb.

2566.—ORANGE MARMALADE MADE WITH HONEY.

Ingredients.—Oranges, honey.

Method.—Boil the rinds until tender, then shred them finely. Remove the pith and pips, measure the pulp, and to each pint allow 1 lb. of honey and ½ a lb. of the prepared rinds. Simmer gently for about 40 minutes, stirring frequently, then turn the marmalade into jars or glasses, and cover these with parchment. Store in a cool, dry place.

2567.—ORANGES AND LEMONS, TO PRESERVE WHOLE.

Ingredients.—Oranges or lemons. To 1 lb. of oranges allow 2 lbs. of sugar and 1 pint of water; to lemons add 3 lbs. of sugar and 1½ pints of water.

Method.—At one end of each orange make a hole sufficiently large to admit a small spoon, and scoop out the pulp and juice. Cover the rinds with cold water, and let them remain for 3 days, changing the water 2 or 3 times daily. Drain, place them in the preserving pan with sufficient cold water to cover them, simmer gently until tender, and drain well. Boil the sugar and water to a syrup, add the juice and pulp, boil gently for 15 minutes, and pour the whole over the oranges. When quite cold, replace in the pan, simmer very gently for ½ an hour, then turn into an earthenware vessel. On the following day boil up the syrup and pour it over the oranges; this process should be repeated on 2 or 3 consecutive days until the rinds are quite clear. Fill the oranges with syrup, place them in wide-necked jars, pour the remainder of the syrup over them, and cover closely. Store in a cool, dry place.

2568.—ORANGES, TO PRESERVE. (See Oranges and Lemons, To Preserve Whole, No. 2567.)

2569.—PEACH MARMALADE. (See Apple Marmalade, No. 2500, and Rhubarb Marmalade, No. 2594.)

2570.—PEACHES PRESERVED IN BRANDY.

Ingredients.—6 lbs. of peaches, 3 lbs. of castor or powdered loaf sugar, 3 pints of brandy.

Method.—Peaches intended for preserving should be firm, sound, and not over-ripe. Remove the stones, taking care to keep the fruit as whole as possible, place the fruit in a large jar, and cover each layer thickly with sugar. Add the brandy, cover closely, place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and cook gently until the brandy is on the point of boiling. Remove the fruit carefully to hot, dry, small pots, add to each an equal share of the hot brandy, and cover closely with paper brushed over with white of egg. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 2d. each.

Peach and Nectarine.—At Montreuil, a village near Paris, almost the whole population is employed in the cultivation of peaches. This occupation has maintained the inhabitants for ages, and in consequence they raise better peaches than anywhere else in France. In Maryland and Virginia peaches grow nearly wild, in orchards resembling forests; but the fruit is of very little value for the table, being employed only in fattening hogs and for the distillation of peach brandy. In California large groves of peaches and apricots are grown, the finest being exported, packed in baskets half ripe, in the form of "evaporated" or oven-dried peaches, and as canned fruit. On the east side of the Andes, peaches grow wild among the cornfields and in the mountains, and are dried as an article of food. The young leaves of the peach are sometimes used in cookery, for their agreeable flavour; and a liqueur resembling the fine noyeau of Martinique may be made by steeping them in brandy sweetened with sugar and fined with milk; gin may also be flavoured in the same manner. The kernels of the fruit have the same flavour. The nectarine is said to have received its name from Nectar, the wine of the gods. It belongs to the same species as the peach, differing from it in having a smoother rind and pulp. The nectarine is, by some, considered the superior fruit.

2571.—PEARS, PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—Firm, sound, not over-ripe pears, an equal weight of loaf sugar.

Method.—Pare, halve, and core the pears. Put half the sugar into a preserving pan, to each lb. add 2 pints of water, and boil to a thin syrup. Let it cool, put in the prepared fruit, and simmer very gently until half cooked. Turn the whole into an earthenware bowl, cover, and allow them to remain for 2 days. When ready, drain the syrup into a preserving-pan, add the remainder of the sugar and a tablespoonful of lemon-juice to each pint of liquid, and boil gently for 15 minutes, skimming well meanwhile. Now put in the fruit, simmer very gently until quite tender, then transfer them carefully to jars, and pour over the syrup. Cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 1d. each.

Pear.—The pear, like the apple, is indigenous in this country, but the wild pear is a very unsatisfactory fruit. The best varieties were brought from the East by the Romans, who cultivated them with care, and probably introduced some of their best sorts into this island, to which others were added by the inhabitants of the monasteries. The Dutch and Flemings, as well as the French, have excelled in the cultivation of the pear, and most of the large varieties introduced are from France and Flanders. The pear is a hardy tree, and lives for a longer period than the apple; it has been known to exist for centuries. There are now about 150 varieties of this fruit. Though perfectly wholesome when ripe, the pear is not so when green, but in this state it is fit for stewing. An agreeable beverage, called perry, is made from pears, and the varieties which are least fit for eating make the best perry.

2572.—PEARS, PRESERVED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—8 lbs. of firm, sound pears, 6 lbs. of preserving sugar, the finely-grated rind and juice of 3 lemons, 2 inches of whole ginger.

Method.—Select a stewjar with a close-fitting lid, cover the bottom to the depth of 1 inch with cold water, put in the fruit and sugar in layers, and add the ginger, lemon-rind and lemon-juice. Cover closely, place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and cook slowly until the pears are quite tender, but not broken. Put them carefully into jars, strain the syrup over them, and cover with papers brushed over on both sides with white of egg. The pears will keep good for 3 or 4 months if stored in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 5 to 6 hours. Average Cost, 1d. each.

The Bon Chretien Pear.—This valuable variety of pear, which comes to our table in winter, either raw or cooked, received its name through the following incident: Louis XI, King of France had sent for St. François de Paule from the lower part of Calabria, in the hopes of recovering his health through his intercession. The saint brought with him the seeds of this pear; and as he was called at court Le Bon Chrétien, this fruit obtained its name from the introducer of this variety of pear into France.

2573.—PINEAPPLE CHIPS. (See Pineapple, Preserved, No. 2576.)

2574.—PICKLED PEARS, SWEET.

Ingredients.—Firm pears. To each lb. allow ½ a lb. of brown sugar, and ¼ of a pint of malt vinegar; cloves, cinnamon, allspice.

PRESERVES AND TINNED FRUIT.

 
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Maple Syrup, Samoa Brand Syrup, Glebe Golden Syrup. Raspberry and Currant Jam. Keiller's Marmalade, Damson Jam, Golden Shred Marmalade, Royal Tablet Marmalade, Black Currant Jam.

Tomatoes, Morella Cherries, Table Fruit, Figs, Guavas, Pine Chunks, Peaches, Apricots.

PRESERVED FOODS: PICKLES, STORE SAUCES, ETC.

 
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1. Oxtail Soup, Gravy Soup, Turtle Soup, Julienne Soup, Hare Soup, Truffles, Heinz's Sauce, Cocks' Combs, Mixed Pickles, Walnuts, Girkins, Financière. 2. Malt Vinegar, Madras Chutney, Harvey's Sauce, Lucca Oil, French Wine Vinegar, Worcestershire Sauce, Coleman's Mustard, Worcestershire Sauce, Mustard, Mushroom Catsup, Keen's Mustard, Bloater Paste, Essence of Anchovies, Anchovy Paste.

Method.—Peel the pears and tie the spices in muslin. Place the vinegar, sugar and spices in a preserving pan; when boiling add the pears, and cook them gently until tender. Remove the pears to a bowl or large basin, boil the syrup for 10 minutes longer, then pour it over the fruit. On the following day boil up the syrup, and repeat the process the two following days. On the third day place the pears in jars or wide-necked bottles, and remove the spices before adding the vinegar to the fruit. Store in a dry, cool place.

Time.—3 days. Average Cost, 1d. each.

2575.—PINEAPPLE MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—Pineapple pulp. To each lb. add 14 ozs. of loaf sugar.

Method.—Peel, core and slice the pineapples, and either pound or grate them finely, preferably the latter. Boil the pulp and sugar together until thick and clear, then turn into pots, cover first with brandied paper, and afterward with parchment. Store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—2 to 3 hours. Average Cost, from 2s. each.

2576.—PINEAPPLE, PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—Pineapples, pounded loaf or castor sugar.

Method.—Pare and slice the fruit thinly, pile it on a large dish, and sprinkle each layer liberally with sugar. Keep it in a hot closet, or put it daily for 7 or 8 days into a cool oven, turning it frequently. When quite dry, bake a few slices at a time, in a moderately hot oven. When quite cold, pack them in air-tight boxes with paper between each layer.

Time.—About 8 days. Average Cost, from 2s. each.

2577.—PINEAPPLE, PRESERVED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit, weighed after being pared, allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar and ¼ of a pint of water.

Method.—Pare the pines thinly, and cut them into thick slices. Put the water into a preserving-pan, add the sugar gradually, and when quite dissolved boil and skim well. Add the fruit, simmer gently for about ½ an hour, then transfer carefully to a large jar, and pour the syrup over.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, from 2s. each.

2578.—PINEAPPLE, TO PRESERVE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Pineapples, castor or loaf sugar.

Method.—Cut the pines into slices ¼ of an inch in thickness, trim off the edges, and remove the hard centre part. Put these trimmings into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and simmer them gently for ½ an hour. Strain, return to the stewpan, add the sliced pines, sugar to taste, and simmer gently for about ½ an hour, skimming occasionally meanwhile. Pines thus preserved will keep but a very short time.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, from 2s. each.

2579.—PLUM JAM.

Ingredients.—Plums, sugar.

Method.—To each lb. of fruit allow from 12 to 16 ozs. of sugar, according to the degree of sweetness required, and the amount of acidity contained in the plums. Divide the plums, take out the stones, or, if preferred, cut them across, and remove the stones as they rise in the pan. Pile the fruit on a large dish with the sugar spread thickly between each layer, allow them to remain thus until the following day, then put the whole into a preserving-pan, and heat slowly by the side of the fire, stirring occasionally meanwhile. Boil gently until the jam sets quickly when tested on a cold plate, then turn it into pots, cover closely, and keep it in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 26 hours. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d. per lb.

Plums.—The Damson, or Damascene, plum takes its name from Damascus, where it grows in great quantities, and from whence it was brought into Italy about 114 b.c. The Orleans plum is from France. The greengage is called after the Gage family, who first brought it into England from the monastery of the Chartreuse, at Paris, where it still bears the name of Reine Claude. The Magnum-bonum is our largest plum, and is greatly esteemed for preserves and culinary purposes. The best sort of plums are agreeable for dessert, and, when perfectly ripe, are wholesome; but some are too astringent, while others, when thoroughly ripe, are rather laxative. Plums lose much of their bad qualities by cooking, but they should be eaten in moderation by those whose digestive organs are not over-strong.

2580.—PLUMS, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of plums allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar and ½ a pint of water.

Method.—Put the water and sugar into a preserving-pan, and boil to a thin syrup. Remove the stalks from the plums, prick them slightly to prevent them breaking, pour over them the prepared syrup, and allow them to remain thus for 2 days. Turn the whole into a preserving-pan, boil very gently until the plums are tender, then lift them carefully into pots. Boil the syrup to the "large thread" degree, pour it over the plums, cover closely, and store them in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 3d. to 6d. per lb.

2581.—PLUMS, TO PRESERVE DRY.

Ingredients.—An equal weight of plums and loaf sugar.

Method.—Put half the sugar into a preserving-pan with the addition of ½ a pint of cold water to each lb. of sugar, and boil to a thin syrup. Divide the plums, remove the stones, and put the fruit into the prepared syrup. Simmer gently until half cooked, then turn the whole into an earthenware bowl, cover, and let it remain thus until the following day. Strain the syrup into a preserving-pan, add the rest of the sugar, and boil to the "large pearl" degree (see No. 2266). Allow it to cool slightly, put in the plums, simmer very gently until tender, then remove them very carefully to a deep dish and strain the syrup over them. Let the plums remain covered for 48 hours, drain well, spread them on large dishes in single layers, and when quite dry pack them in air-tight tins with wax paper between the layers.

Time.—Altogether, 3 days. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per lb.

2582.—PLUMS, SPICED.

Ingredients.—Firm plums, sugar, vinegar, cinnamon, cloves, shredded orange-rind.

Method.—Prick the plums well with a fork, place them in a large jar with cinnamon, cloves and orange-rind between each layer. Cover with vinegar, and, on the following day, strain off and boil for 10 minutes. Let it cool, pour it over the fruit, and at the end of 24 hours again strain and measure it. To each pint add 3 ozs. of sugar, boil the two together for 10 minutes, pour it over the plums, and, when cold, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

Time.—3 days. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per lb.

2583.—PUMPKIN, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of pumpkin allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, the finely-grated rind of 1 lemon, and ½ a teaspoonful of ground ginger.

Method.—Pare and halve the pumpkin, remove the seeds, and slice thinly. Lay the slices on a large dish, covering each layer thickly with sugar, add the lemon-juice, and let it remain for 3 days. Turn the whole into a preserving-pan, add the lemon-rind and ginger, and ½ a pint of cold water to 3 lbs. of fruit, bring slowly to boiling point, and continue the cooking until the slices of pumpkin are quite tender, but not broken. Transfer carefully to an earthenware bowl, let it remain covered for 7 days, then lift the slices of pumpkin carefully into jars, and strain the syrup into a preserving-pan. Boil the syrup to the "large pearl" degree (see No. 2266), pour it over the pumpkin, cover closely, and, when cold, put the jars into a cool, dry place.

Time.—10 days. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2584.—QUINCE AND APPLE MARMALADE. (See Quince Marmalade, No. 2586.)

Use equal parts of quince and apple purée.

2585.—QUINCE JELLY.

Ingredients.—To every pint of juice allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar.

Method.—Pare and slice the quinces, and put them into a preserving-pan with sufficient water to float them. Boil them until the fruit is reduced to a pulp. Strain off the clear juice, and to each pint allow the above proportion of loaf sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for about ¾ of an hour, remove all the scum as it rises, and when the jelly appears firm upon a little being poured on a plate, pour into small pots. The residue left on the sieve will answer to make a common marmalade for immediate use, by boiling it with ½ a lb. of common sugar to every lb. of pulp.

Time.—4 hours altogether. Average Cost, 10d. per lb.

2586.—QUINCE MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of quince pulp allow ¾ of a lb. of loaf or preserving sugar.

Method.—Pare the fruit, put it into a preserving-pan with as much water as will just cover the bottom of the pan, and stew gently until reduced to a pulp. Pass through a hair sieve, weigh the pulp, replace it in the pan, add the sugar, and cook very gently until the marmalade sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. Turn into pots, cover with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 4 hours. Average Cost, 10d. per lb.

2587.—QUINCES, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—Quinces, loaf sugar.

Method.—Pare, quarter, core the quinces, and preserve the skins and cores. Put the fruit into the preserving-pan with barely enough water to cover them, and simmer until soft, but not broken. Place the quinces singly on large dishes, add the cores and parings to the water in which the quinces were cooked, and simmer gently for 1 hour. Strain through a jelly-bag until quite clear, return it to the pan with the addition of 1 lb. of sugar for each lb. of fruit, bring to boiling point, and skim well. Put in the quinces, boil for 15 minutes, then turn the whole carefully into an earthenware bowl, and let the preparation remain until the following day. Drain the syrup once more into the pan; when boiling add the fruit, cook gently for 15 minutes, then lift the quinces carefully into small jars, which they should ¾ fill. Continue boiling the syrup until it forms a thick jelly when tested on a cold plate, pour it over the fruit, cover the jars closely with paper brushed over on each side with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 10d. per lb.

2588.—RASPBERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—To every lb. of raspberries allow 1 lb. of sugar, ¼ of a pint of red-currant juice.

Method.—Let the fruit for this preserve be gathered in fine weather, and used as soon after it is picked as possible. Take off the stalks, put the raspberries into a preserving-pan, break them well with a wooden spoon, and let them boil for ¼ of an hour, keeping them well stirred. Add the currant-juice and sugar, and boil again for ½ an hour. Skim the jam well after the sugar is added, or the preserve will not be clear. The addition of the currant-juice is a very great improvment to this preserve, as it gives it the piquant taste which the flavour of the raspberries seems to require.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 7d. to 8d. per lb.

2589.—RASPBERRY JELLY.

Ingredients.—To each pint of juice allow ¾ of a lb. of loaf sugar.

Method.—Let the raspberries be freshly gathered, quite ripe, and picked from the stalks; put them into a large jar, after breaking the fruit a little with a wooden spoon, and place the jar, covered, in a saucepan of boiling water. When the juice is well drawn, which will be from ¾ to 1 hour, strain the fruit through a fine hair sieve or cloth, measure the juice, and to each pint allow the above proportion of loaf sugar. Put the juice and sugar into a preserving-pan, place it over the fire, and boil gently until the jelly thickens upon a little being poured on a cold plate; carefully remove all the scum as it rises, pour the jelly into small pots, cover down, and keep in a dry place. This jelly answers for making raspberry cream, and for flavouring various sweet dishes, when the fresh fruit is not obtainable.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 10d. to 1s. per lb.

2590.—RED CURRANT JAM.

Ingredients.—Red currants, preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks, put the fruit into a preserving-pan, and to each lb. allow ¾ of a lb. of preserving sugar. Stir occasionally until the fruit is nearly boiling, and afterwards almost continuously. Boil gently for about 40 minutes, or until a little will set when poured on to a cold plate. Turn into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, about 6d. per lb.

2591.—RED CURRANT JELLY.

Ingredients.—Red currants, preserving sugar.

Method.—Strip the currants from the stalks, put them into a jar placed in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer gently until the juice is extracted, then strain the juice through a jelly-bag or fine cloth into a preserving-pan. To each pint add from ¾ to 1 lb. of sugar, and boil gently until a little of the jelly, when tested on a cold plate, almost immediately sets. Pour into small pots, cover closely, and keep in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 3d. per lb.

2592.—RHUBARB JAM.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of rhubarb allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar, ½ a teaspoonful of ground ginger, and the finely-grated rind of ½ a lemon.

Method.—Remove the outer stringy part of the rhubarb, cut it into short lengths, and weigh it. Put it into a preserving-pan with sugar, ginger, and lemon-rind in the above proportions, place the pan by the side of the fire, and let the contents come very slowly to boiling point, stirring occasionally meanwhile. Boil until the jam sets quickly, when tested on a cold plate. Pour it into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 1 to 1½ hours, according to the age of the rhubarb. Average Cost, 4d. per lb.

2593.—RHUBARB AND ORANGE JAM.

Ingredients.—1 quart of finely-cut rhubarb, 6 oranges, 1½ lbs. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Cut the rinds of the oranges into sections, remove them and scrape off as much of the white pith as possible. Free the pulp from fibrous skin and pips, put it into a preserving pan, with the sugar, rhubarb and orange-rinds, previously finely-shredded. Bring slowly to boiling point, skim well, and boil until the jam stiffens when tested on a cold plate. Cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2594.—RHUBARB MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—Rhubarb. To each lb. allow 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar and ¼ teaspoonful of ground ginger.

Method.—Wipe, string, and cut the rhubarb into short lengths. Put the rhubarb, sugar and ginger in a jar, place the jar in a rather cool oven, or in a saucepan containing boiling water, and cook until soft. Pass through a fine sieve, and use for filling turnovers and similar kinds of pastry.

Time.—1½ hours. Average Cost, 1d. to 2d. per lb. Seasonable, January to July.

2595.—STRAWBERRY JAM.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow from 12 to 16 ozs. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Remove the stalks from the fruit, put it into a preserving-pan, covering each layer thickly with sugar. Place the pan by the side of the fire, bring the contents slowly to boiling point, and stir occasionally. Skim well, boil gently until the jam sets when tested on a cold plate, taking care in stirring to keep the fruit as whole as possible. Pour into pots, cover with paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and keep in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb.

2596.—STRAWBERRIES, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—An equal weight of fruit and loaf sugar.

Method.—Strawberries for preserving must be very dry, otherwise they will not keep; the stalks must be removed, and any unsound fruit rejected. Put the sugar into a preserving-pan; to each lb. add ½ a pint of cold water and a small pinch of cream of tartar, and boil to the "small ball" degree (see No. 2271). Now put in the prepared fruit, cover the pan, allow it to remain on the stove, but as far away from the fire as possible, for about 1 hour, then bring the contents to boiling point and skim well. Boil gently for 5 minutes, then turn into jars, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, from 6d. to 8d. per lb.

2597.—STRAWBERRIES, TO PRESERVE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—To each lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar and ¼ of a pint of red-currant juice (see Red Currant Jelly, No. 2591).

Method.—Pick the strawberries, pile them on a large dish, sprinkle on them half the sugar, and let them remain thus until the following day. Prepare the red-currant juice as directed, put it into a preserving-pan with the rest of the sugar, and boil to a thin syrup. Turn the fruit and syrup into the juice, and boil gently until the syrup sets quickly when tested on a cold plate. Pour gently into pots, cover with paper coated on both sides with white of egg, and keep until required in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. per lb.

2598.—TANGERINE MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—30 tangerines, double their weight in loaf or preserving sugar, 6 lemons, enough cold water to float the tangerines.

Method.—Wash the tangerines in water and wipe them. Place them in a preserving pan with enough cold water to float them, and let them boil till the rinds are soft. Drain off the water. Cut each tangerine in quarters, remove the pips, place in a basin containing a pint of cold water, and let them soak for twelve hours. Remove all the pulp from the rind, and mash it well, slice the peel as thinly as possible. Put the sugar in a preserving pan with the water from the pips, and the juice of the lemons. Reduce this to the consistency of thick syrup, then add the tangerine pulp and rinds, and boil for about half an hour. Fill into dry jars, and when cold cover them with parchment.

Note.—Before removing the marmalade from the fire, pour a little on a plate which should set like jelly when cold, if not, reduce it a little longer.

2599.—TO CLARIFY SUGAR FOR SYRUP.

Ingredients.—To 2 lb. of loaf sugar allow 1 pint of water and the white of 1 egg.

Method.—Put the sugar, white of egg and water into a stewpan; when the sugar is dissolved place the stewpan by the side of the fire, and bring the contents slowly to boiling point. When quite boiling add a teacupful of cold water, and again bring to boiling point. Now draw the pan aside, simmer gently for a few minutes, skimming meanwhile, and when quite clear use as required.

2600.—TOMATO JAM. (See Tomato Marmalade, No. 2601, and Tomatoes, Preserve of, No. 2602.)

2601.—TOMATO MARMALADE.

Ingredients.—7 lbs. of ripe tomatoes, 8 lbs. of loaf sugar, 6 lemons, 1 pint of water.

Method.—Blanch and skin the tomatoes and cut them in halves. Remove the rinds and all the white pith of the lemons, and slice the fruit thinly. Boil the sugar and water to a thin syrup, add the prepared tomatoes and lemons, and bring to boiling point. Stir and skim frequently, and continue to boil gently until the marmalade quickly jellies when tested on a cold plate. Pour into pots or glasses, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 6d. to 8d. per lb.

2602.—TOMATOES, PRESERVE OF.

Ingredients.—7 lbs. of firm ripe tomatoes, 3½ lbs. of sugar, 1 oz. each of cloves, allspice and cinnamon, 1 pint of vinegar.

Method.—Scald, drain and peel the tomatoes. Tie the spices in muslin, boil them for 5 minutes with the sugar in the vinegar, then add the tomatoes, and simmer very gently for ½ an hour. Keep closely covered in a dry, cool place.

Time.—To cook the tomatoes, ½ an hour. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per lb. Seasonable in August, September and October.

2603.—VEGETABLE MARROW, TO PRESERVE.

Ingredients.—To each lb. of marrow allow 1 lb. of preserving sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, the finely-grated rind of 1 lemon, and ½ a teaspoonful of ground ginger.

Method.—Pare and halve the marrow, remove the seeds, and slice thinly. Lay the slices on a large dish, covering each layer thickly with sugar, add the lemon-juice, and let the whole remain thus for 3 days. At the end of the time turn the preparation into a preserving-pan, add the lemon-rind and ginger, and ½ a pint of cold water to 3 lbs. of fruit, bring slowly to boiling point, continue the cooking until the slices of marrow are quite tender but not broken. Transfer carefully to an earthenware bowl, let it remain covered for 3 days, then lift the slices of marrow carefully into jars, and strain the syrup into a preserving-pan. Boil it to the "large pearl" degree (see No. 2268), pour it over the marrow, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

Time.—Altogether, 6 days. Average Cost, 5d. per lb.

2604.—VEGETABLE MARROW, TO PRESERVE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—An equal weight of marrow and sugar. To each lb. of marrow allow ¼ of an oz. of whole ginger, and the grated rind and juice of ½ a lemon.

Method.—Prepare the marrow as in the preceding recipe, pile the slices on a large dish, with the sugar spread in layers, and allow it to remain thus until the following day. Then turn the whole into a preserving-pan, add the lemon-rind and lemon-juice, the ginger cut into small pieces, and boil very gently until the greater part of the moisture is absorbed. Turn into pots, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 4d. to 5d. per lb.

2605.—WHITE CURRANT JELLY.

Ingredients.—White currants. To each pint of juice allow ¾ of a lb. of preserving sugar.

Method.—Pick the currants from the stalk, and put them into a jar. Place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, simmer gently until the juice is extracted, then strain through a jelly-bag or fine cloth into a preserving-pan. To each pint allow from ¾ to 1 lb. of sugar, according to taste, and boil gently until the jelly quickly sets, when a little is poured on a cold plate. Turn into small pots, cover with tissue paper brushed over with white of egg, fasten securely, and keep the jelly in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, from 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. per lb.


Pickles

2606.—APPLE CHUTNEY.

Ingredients.—2¼ lbs. of thickly sliced apples, 1 lb. of brown sugar, ¾ of a lb. of sultanas, 2 ozs. of salt, ½ an oz. of mustard seeds, ½ an oz. of ground ginger, ¼ of an oz. of garlic bruised, ⅛ of an oz. of cayenne, 1 pint of good vinegar.

Method.—Simmer the vinegar, sugar and apples gently until reduced to a pulp, stir in the remaining ingredients, and, when well mixed, turn the whole into a basin. Cover, stir 2 or 3 times daily for 1 week, then bottle, cork securely, and store for use.

2607.—ARTICHOKES, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Globe artichokes, spiced vinegar (see recipe for Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704), salad-oil, salt.

Method.—Make a strong brine; when boiling put in the artichokes, boil gently for 10 or 15 minutes, and drain well. Remove and put aside the chokes, place the artichokes in jars, and cover them with boiling spiced vinegar. When cold, fill the jars with salad-oil, cover closely, and store for use.

2608.—BEETROOT PICKLE.

Ingredients.—6 medium-sized beetroots, 1 quart of malt vinegar, ½ an oz. of whole black pepper, ½ an oz. of allspice, 1 small horseradish grated, salt to taste.

Method.—Wash the beetroots well, taking care not to break the skins, and bake them in a moderate oven for 1½ hours. When cool enough to handle remove the skins, cut the beetroots into ½-inch slices, and place them in jars. Meanwhile boil the vinegar, horseradish, pepper and spice together, let the mixture become quite cold, then pour in over the beetroot. Cover the jars closely with parchment paper coated on both sides with white of egg, and store until required in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 2 to 3 hours. Average Cost, 1s. 4d.

2609.—BEETROOT PICKLE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—6 beetroots, 1 quart of vinegar, ½ an oz. of whole pepper, ½ an oz. of allspice.

Method.—Wash the beetroots well, but take care to keep the skins intact, or they will lose some of their colouring matter. Put them into boiling water, cook gently for 1½ hours, until they are three-quarters cooked, then drain them, and let them cool. Boil the spice, pepper and vinegar together, and put these aside until quite cold, meanwhile peel the beetroots, cut them into ½ inch slices, and place them in jars. Pour the cold prepared vinegar over them, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place. The pickle will be ready for use in 1 week.

Time.—About 2½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 4d.

2610.—BLUEBERRIES, OR BILBERRIES, PICKLED. (See Currants, Spiced, No. 2524, and Cherries, Pickled, No. 2618.)

2611.—CABBAGE, PICKLED RED.

Ingredients.—1 good, firm red cabbage, 1 quart of vinegar, ½ an oz. of whole pepper, ½ an oz. of allspice.

Method.—Remove the outer leaves of the cabbage, quarter it, remove the centre stalk, and cut each section across into very fine strips. Pile the shredded cabbage on a large dish, sprinkle it liberally with salt, and let it remain thus until the following day. Meanwhile boil the vinegar, pepper and spice together, the latter being tied together in a piece of muslin, and allow the preparation to become quite cold. Turn the cabbage into an earthenware or enamelled colander, and when well drained put it into a large jar, and pour in the vinegar. It will be fit for use in 3 or 4 days; if kept for any length of time it loses the crispness and colour which are its chief recommendations.

Time.—Altogether, 2 days. Average Cost, 9d. to 10d.

Red Cabbage.—This plant, in its growth, is similar in form to that of the white cabbage, but is of a bluish-purple colour, which, however, turns red on the application of acid, as is the case with all vegetable blues. It is principally from the white vegetable that the Germans make their sauer kraut—a dish held in such high estimation with the inhabitants of Germany, but which requires, generally speaking with strangers, a long acquaintance in order to become sufficiently impressed with its numerous merits. The large red Dutch is the kind generally recommended for pickling.

2612.—CABBAGE, PICKLED RED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 good cabbage, 1 quart of malt vinegar, ½ an oz. of black peppercorns, ½ an oz. of allspice.

Method.—Remove the outer leaves of the cabbage, quarter it, cut away the stalk from the centre, and shred the sections across as finely as possible. Put the prepared cabbage into a large jar, sprinkle each layer with salt, and press the whole lightly down. Boil the pepper and spice in the vinegar; when cold, pour it over the jars, and cover them closely. The pickle will be ready for use in 3 or 4 days; it may be kept for a considerable time, but after being pickled for 2 or 3 weeks it loses much of its crispness and colour.

Time.—To prepare, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 9d. to 10d.

2613.—CAPSICUM, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Capsicums, vinegar. To each quart of vinegar allow 1 teaspoonful of salt, and ½ a teaspoonful of mace and nutmeg mixed in equal proportions.

Method.—If the capsicums can be obtained from the garden, they should be gathered when they are just at the point of turning red. Slit them at the side, take out the seeds, put the capsicums into a jar, and sprinkle over them the salt, mace and nutmeg. Boil the vinegar, pour it at once upon the pods, and, when cold, cover closely with parchment paper or bladder. They will be ready for use in 4 or 5 weeks.

Average Cost.—From 4s. 6d. to 5s. 6d. per hundred.

2614.—CAPSICUMS, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Young green capsicums, vinegar. To each quart allow 1 teaspoonful of salt and ½ a teaspoonful of ground mace.

Method.—Remove the stalks, scald the capsicums, and let them remain under pressure for 24 hours, to extract some of their bitter water. Pack the capsicums closely in a jar, pour over them boiling vinegar seasoned with salt and mace, and, when quite cold, cover closely. They will be ready for use in 5 or 6 weeks.

2615.—CAULIFLOWERS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Firm white cauliflowers, vinegar to cover them; to each quart of which allow 1 teaspoonful of peppercorns, 1 teaspoonful of allspice, 6 cloves.

Method.—Break the cauliflowers into small sprays, place them on a dish, sprinkle them liberally with salt, and let them remain thus for 6 hours. Meanwhile tie the seasoning ingredients in muslin, boil them in the vinegar for ½ an hour, and allow it to become quite cold. Drain the cauliflowers well from the salt, place them in wide-necked bottles or unglazed jars, and pour the prepared vinegar over them. Cover closely, store in a cool, dry place for about 1 month, and they will then be ready for use.

Time.—1 month. Average Cost, cauliflowers, 3s. 6d. to 4s. per doz.

2616.—CAULIFLOWER, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Firm white cauliflowers, vinegar to cover them. To each quart of vinegar allow 1 teapsoonful of peppercorns, 1 teaspoonful of allspice.

Method.—Tie the peppercorns and allspice in muslin, simmer these very gently in the vinegar for about 20 minutes, and put aside until quite cold. Have ready a saucepan of boiling, highly-salted water, break the cauliflowers into small sprays, throw them into the water, boil for 5 minutes, and drain well. When quite cold put them into wide- necked bottles or unglazed jars, with a few peppercorns and a little allspice, cover with the prepared vinegar, and cover closely. They should be ready for use in 3 or 4 weeks.

Time.—From 3 to 4 weeks. Average Cost, Cauliflowers, 3s. 6d. to 4s. per dozen.

2617.—CAULIFLOWERS PICKLED, WITH ONIONS.

Ingredients.—An equal weight of cauliflower sprays and silver-onions, vinegar to cover. To each quart of vinegar allow 1 level teaspoonful of peppercorns, 1 level teaspoonful of allspice, 1 level teaspoonful of black pepper, 1 blade of mace, 1 oz. of turmeric, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 tablespoonful of dry mustard, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of raw lime-juice.

Method.—Put as much water as will cover the sprays of cauliflower into a large saucepan; to each quart add 4 ozs. of salt, boil for 10 minutes, and allow it to become quite cold. Break the cauliflowers into sprays, cover them with the cold brine, let them remain immersed for 3 days, then drain well. Peel the onions, place them in jars or wide-necked bottles in layers alternating with sprays of cauliflower; sprinkle each layer with a little allspice, a few peppercorns, and 1 or 2 pieces of mace. Mix the black pepper, turmeric, curry-powder, mustard and salt, lemon-juice and lime-juice, to a smooth paste, add the vinegar gradually, and pour the whole over the cauliflowers and onions. Cover closely and store in a cool dry place. The pickle will be ready for use in 3 or 4 weeks.

Time.—From 3 to 4 weeks. Average Cost, cauliflowers, from 3s. 6d. to 4s. per doz. Silver onions, 2d. to 3d. per lb.

2618.—CHERRIES, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Sound, not over-ripe Kentish cherries; French vinegar to cover them. To each pint of vinegar allow ½ a lb. of sugar, and to the whole add cayenne to taste. A few drops of cochineal or carmine.

Method.—Pick the cherries carefully, rejecting those which are not quite sound, leave about 1 inch of their stalks, and put the fruit into jars. Boil the vinegar, add to it the sugar and cayenne, skim well, let it boil for a few minutes, the turn into an earthenware vessel. When cold, add a few drops of carmine or cochineal, pour it over the cherries, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—From 3 to 4 hours. Average Cost, 4d. to 6d. per lb.

2619.—CHERRIES, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Sound, not over-ripe Kentish cherries, good vinegar to cover them, to each quart of vinegar allow 1 lb. of sugar.

Method.—Leave 1 inch of the stalks on the cherries, and pack them lightly in jars. Boil the vinegar and sugar together, pour it whilst hot over the fruit, and when cold tie paper over the jars. Let them stand in a cool place for 1 week, then drain off the vinegar, boil and skim well, and again pour while hot over the fruit. When cold cover closely, and keep in a cool, dry place.

Time.—7 days. Average Cost, from 4d. to 6d. per lb.

2620.—CHUTNEY, ENGLISH.

Ingredients.—3 dozen sour apples, 3 lbs. of coarse brown sugar, ½ a lb. of salt, 2 lbs of sultana raisins, ½ a lb. of green ginger, 6 oz. of bird's eye chillies, 2 ozs. of mustard-seed, 5 medium-sized Spanish onions, 6 shallots, 3 quarts of good malt vinegar.

Method.—Dissolve the salt and sugar in the vinegar, strain, and return it to the stewpan. Add the apples, onions and ginger, all thinly sliced, the sultanas cleaned and picked, also the rest of the ingredients, and cook very gently until the apples and onions are quite tender. Pour into small jars or wide-necked bottles; when cold, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

2621.—CHUTNEY, INDIAN.

Ingredients.—1 quart of malt vinegar, 1 lb. of sour apples, peeled, cored and sliced, ½ a lb. of onions, peeled and coarsely chopped, 1 lb. of moist sugar, ½ a lb. of raisins stoned and quartered, 4 ozs. of salt, 4 ozs. of ground ginger, 2 ozs. of dry mustard, ¼ of an oz. of cayenne, 4 cloves of garlic finely-chopped.

Method.—Cook the apples, onions and garlic with the salt, sugar and vinegar, until quite soft, and pass them through a fine hair sieve. Add the raisins, ginger, cayenne and mustard, mix well together, turn into a jar, and stand it in a warm, but not hot, place until the following day. Have ready some perfectly dry, wide-necked small bottles or jars, fill them with chutney, and cover closely so as to exclude the air. This chutney may be kept for a year or two.

2622.—CHUTNEY MANGO.

Ingredients.—50 green mangoes, 6 pints of vinegar, 3 lbs. of sugar, 2 lbs. of tamarinds stoned, 1 lb. of raisins stoned, 1 lb. of green ginger sliced, 1 good teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, 1 level teaspoonful of nutmeg, 1 lb. of salt.

Method.—Peel and slice the mangoes thinly, sprinkle over them the salt, let them remain for 36 hours, then drain well. Make a syrup by boiling together 3 pints of vinegar and the sugar. Put the remainder of the vinegar into a preserving pan, add the mangoes, boil up, simmer gently for 10 minutes, then add the tamarinds, raisins, ginger, cinnamon and nutmeg. Cook very slowly for an hour, adding the syrup gradually during the last 10 minutes. Stir and boil the mixture until the greater part of the syrup is absorbed, then turn into bottles, cork securely, and store in a dry place.

Time.—About 1½ hours to cook. Average Cost, 5s., exclusive of the mangoes.

2623.—CHUTNEY SAUCE, INDIAN.

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of sour apples, pared, cored and sliced, 4 ozs. of tomatoes sliced, 4 ozs. of salt, 4 ozs. of brown sugar, 4 ozs. of raisins stoned, 2 ozs. of cayenne, 2 ozs. of ground ginger, 1 oz. of shallots, ¼ of an oz. of garlic, 3 pints of malt vinegar, 1 pint of lemon-juice.

Method.—Mix all the ingredients together in a jar. Cover, keep in a moderately warm place for 1 month, and stir 2 or 3 times daily. At the end of the time strain off the liquor, let the residue drain well, but do not squeeze it. Pour into small bottles, and cork tightly.

2624.—CHUTNEY, TOMATO.

Ingredients.—6 lbs. of ripe tomatoes, 3 lbs. of sour cooking apples, 4 ozs. of salt, 8 ozs. of brown sugar, 3 pints of vinegar, 6 cloves of garlic, 6 ozs. of ground ginger, 1 oz. of mustard-seed.

Method.—Scald the tomatoes, remove the skin, cut them into slices, and put them into an earthenware cooking-pot with the vinegar, salt and apples, previously peeled, cored and chopped finely. When the fruit is soft, rub the whole through a sieve, add the sugar, ginger and mustard-seed, also the garlic (chopped finely), and boil the whole gently from ½ to ¾ of an hour. Pour the contents of the cooking-pot into a jar, cover it, and let it stand in a warm place for about 3 days. Bottle the chutney for use, cork up tightly, and exclude the air. Sultanas or preserved ginger are sometimes added to the above.

2625.—COCKLES, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Large cockles, vinegar to cover them, peppercorns, allspice, salt.

Method.—The large cockles found on the north-east coast are the best for this purpose. Wash them in several waters to remove the grit; when quite free from it cover the cockles with cold water, add a good handful each of salt and oatmeal, and let them remain until the following day. To each quart of cockles allow a small ½ teaspoonful of allspice, and the same quantity of peppercorns. Tie these spices in muslin and boil them in the vinegar for 20 minutes. Put the cockles into a steamer, or, failing this, a large iron saucepan with 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of water to protect the bottom of the pan, cover them first with a wet kitchen-cloth, then the lid, and cook the cockles slowly until their shells may be easily opened with the point of a knife. Put the cockles into the prepared cold vinegar, and the liquor contained in the shells into a basin, and as soon as it is quite cold strain it into the vinegar. Cockles or oysters pickled in this way may be kept some days.

Time.—To steam the cockles, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, cockles 6d. per quart.

2626.—CUCUMBERS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Cucumbers, good vinegar to cover them. To each pint of vinegar allow ½ an oz. of peppercorns, ½ an oz. of allspice, ½ a teaspoonful of salt.

Method.—Peel the cucumbers, cut them into ½-inch slices, sprinkle them liberally with salt, and let them remain until the following day. Let the cucumber drain for at least 2 hours on a hair sieve, then place in wide-necked glass bottles. Boil the vinegar, salt, peppercorns and spice together, pour it while hot over the cucumber, and cover closely. If stored in a cool, dry place this pickle will keep good for some time, but as it is liable to become mouldy the bottles should be frequently examined. When the first speck of mould appears re-boil the vinegar, immerse the slices of cucumber in it for 1 minute, then put them into a clean dry bottle, and pour the boiling vinegar over them.

Time.—2 days. Average Cost, 6d. each.

2627.—CUCUMBERS, PRESERVED.

Ingredients.—Cucumbers, salt.

Method.—Pare and slice the cucumbers thinly, sprinkle liberally with salt, and let them remain until the following day. Drain off the liquor, pack the slices closely in jars, sprinkling each layer thickly with salt, and cover with parchment paper, or paper coated on both sides with white of egg. When wanted for use, wash well in cold water, drain well, and dress with pepper, vinegar and oil.

Time.—24 hours. Average Cost, 6d.

2628.—DAMSONS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—7 lbs. of sound, dry damson plums, 4 lbs. of good preserving sugar, ¾ of an oz. of stick cinnamon, ¾ of an oz. of cloves, vinegar to cover.

Method.—Remove the stalks but not the stems of the fruit, place them in layers in a large jar, sprinkle each layer with sugar, cinnamon and cloves. Cover the whole with vinegar, place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, cook gently until the juice flows freely, then put the jar aside until the contents are quite cold. Then drain the syrup into a stewpan, bring to boiling point, and pour it over the fruit. Repeat this process for 7 or 8 days, when the skins should be hard and the plums have a clear appearance. After the last boiling let the plums remain in the large jar for 7 days, then transfer them to smaller jars. Boil the syrup, pour it over the plums, and when cold cover with a bladder or paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg. Cherries may be pickled in this way. If stored in a dry, moderately cool place, they may be kept for years.

Time.—From 14 to 15 days. Average Cost, damsons from 2d. to 6d. per lb.

2629.—EGGS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—16 hard-boiled eggs, 1 quart of good vinegar, ½ an oz. of black peppercorns, ½ an oz. of allspice, ½ an oz. of ginger.

Method.—Remove the shells, and arrange the eggs compactly in wide-necked jars. Boil the peppercorns, spice, and ginger in the vinegar until some of their flavour is extracted, and pour it whilst boiling hot over the eggs. When cold, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 2s.

Ginger (Fr. gingembre).—The ginger-plant, known to naturalists as zingiber officinale, is a native of the East and West Indies. It grows somewhat like the lily of the valley, but its height is about 3 feet. In Jamaica it flowers about August or September, fading about the end of the year. The fleshy creeping roots, which form the ginger of commerce, are in a proper state to be dug when the stalks are entirely withered. This operation is usually performed in January and February. When the roots are taken out of the earth, each one is picked, scraped, separately washed, and afterwards very carefully dried. Ginger is generally considered as less pungent and heating to the system than might be expected from its effects on the organs of taste, and it is frequently used, with considerable effect, as an anti-spasmodic and carminative.

2630.—EXCELLENT PICKLE (For Immediate Use).

Ingredients.—Equal quantities of sliced onion, cucumber and sour apple, salt and cayenne to taste. To ½ a pint of vinegar add 1 wine-glassful each of sherry and soy.

Method.—Place the onion, cucumber and apple in a dish in alternate layers, add salt and cayenne to taste, and pour over the vinegar, etc. Let the pickle stand for a few hours before serving.

2631.—FRENCH BEANS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Young French beans, spiced vinegar (see Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704), some vine leaves, and salt.

Method.Cover the beans with strong salt and water, let them remain for three days, then drain. Place them in a saucepan with vine leaves under and over, cover with boiling salted water, cook gently for a few minutes, then drain and pack loosely in jars. Cover with boiling spiced vinegar, drain it off, and reboil on two following days. The pickled beans should be kept closely covered in a cool, dry place.

2632.—GHERKINS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Gherkins, vinegar to cover. To each quart of vinegar allow ¼ of an oz. of allspice, ¼ of an oz. of black peppercorns, 4 cloves, 2 blades of mace.

Method.—Cover the gherkins with salt and water, and let them remain in the brine for 3 days. At the end of the time drain them well, dry them with a cloth, and pack them compactly in a jar of suitable size. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with peppercorns and spices in the above proportions, for 10 minutes, and pour the liquid over the gherkins. Cover closely, let the jar stand in a warm place until the following day, then drain off the vinegar into a saucepan. Boil up, pour the vinegar at once over the gherkins, and let them remain covered until the following day. This process must be repeated daily until the gherkins are sufficiently green; they should then be put into wide-necked glass bottles, covered completely with vinegar, for which purpose it may be necessary to supplement that already used. They should be tightly corked before being stored away.

Time.—5 or 6 days. Average Cost, uncertain, as they are rarely sold.

2633.—HORSERADISH, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Horseradish, vinegar.

Method.—Scrape the outer skin off the horseradish, cut it into ½-inch lengths, and place them in wide-necked bottles or small unglazed jars. Cover with good malt vinegar, cork the bottles tightly or fasten parchment paper securely over the tops of the jars. Keep the pickle in a cool, dry place.

Average Cost.—Horseradish, 2d. to 3d. per stick.

2634.—INDIAN MAIZE, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Green corn, spiced vinegar (see recipe for Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704), salt.

Method.—Boil the corn in salt and water, drain well, and cover with spiced vinegar. When cold, fasten down securely, and store in a dry, cool place.

2635.—INDIAN PICKLE.

Ingredients.—To each gallon of vinegar allow 6 cloves of garlic, 12 shallots, 2 sticks of sliced horseradish, ¼ of a lb. of bruised ginger, 2 ozs. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of allspice, 12 cloves, ¼ of an oz. of cayenne, 2 ozs. of mustard seed, ¼ of a lb. of mustard, 1 oz. of turmeric, a white cabbage, cauliflowers, radish pods, French beans, gherkins, small round pickling onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chillies, etc.

Method.—Cut the cabbage, which must be hard and white, into slices, and the cauliflowers into small branches; sprinkle salt over them in a large dish, and let them remain for 2 days. Then dry the vegetables, and put them into a very large jar, with garlic, shallots, horseradish, ginger, pepper, allspice, and cloves in the above proportions. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover the ingredients, and pour it over them, and, when cold, cover closely. As the other materials for the pickle ripen at different times, they may be added as they are ready; these will be radish pods, French beans, gherkins, small onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chillies, etc., etc. As these are procured they must, first of all, be washed in a little cold vinegar, wiped, and then simply added to the other ingredients in the large jar, only taking care that they are covered by the vinegar. If it should be necessary to add more vinegar to the pickle, do not omit to boil it before adding it to the rest. When all the things required are collected, turn all out into a large pan, thoroughly mix them, put the mixed vegetables into smaller jars, without any of the vinegar, then boil the vinegar again, adding as much more as will be required to fill the different jars, also cayenne, mustard-seed, turmeric, and mustard, which must be well mixed with a little cold vinegar, allowing the quantities named above to each gallon of vinegar. Pour the vinegar, boiling hot, over the pickle, and, when cold, tie down with a bladder. If the pickle is wanted for immediate use, the vinegar should be boiled twice more, but the better plan is to make it during one season for use during the next. This pickle will keep for years, if care is taken that the vegetables are quite covered by the vinegar.

2636.—LEMON PICKLE.

Ingredients.—12 lemons, 1 lb. of baysalt, 4 ozs. of mustard-seed (tied in muslin), 2 ozs. of garlic peeled, ½ an oz. of grated nutmeg, ½ an oz. of ground mace, ¼ of an oz. of ground cloves, 1 quart of white-wine vinegar.

Method.—Remove the rinds of the lemons in thin slices, and put them aside to be afterwards dried and used for flavouring purposes. Leave all the pith on the lemons, cut them lengthwise and across, thus forming 4 quarters, sprinkle over them the salt, and place them singly on a large dish. Let the dish remain near the fire until all the juice of the lemons has dried into the pith, then put them into a large jar. Add the rest of the ingredients, cover closely, and let it stand near the fire, but not on the stove, for 5 days. At the end of the time, cover the lid with parchment paper or bladder, and put the jar in a cool, dry place. At the end of 3 months strain off the vinegar through a hair sieve, and press the fruit well to extract as much moisture as possible. Strain 2 or 3 times, and, when quite clear, bottle for use.

Average Cost.—2s. 4d.

2637.—LEMONS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—12 lemons, vinegar to cover them. To each quart of vinegar allow 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 oz. of whole ginger, ½ an oz. of peppercorns, ½ an oz. of cloves, ¼ of an oz. of mace, ¼ of an oz. of chillies.

Method.—Make a brine strong enough to float an egg, put in the lemons, allow them to remain immersed for 6 days, stirring them 2 or 3 times daily. At the end of this time, put the lemons into a saucepan of boiling water, boil steadily for 15 minutes, then drain well, allow them to become quite cold, and put them into jars. Boil the vinegar, spices, etc., together until sufficiently seasoned and flavoured, then pour the mixture, boiling hot, over the lemons, and cover closely. They will be ready for use in 6 months, and should in the meantime be kept in a cool, dry place. Average Cost.—Lemons, from 1s. to 1s. 6d.

2638.—LEMONS, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—12 lemons, salt, vinegar to cover. To each quart of vinegar allow 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 oz. of whole ginger, ½ an oz. of peppercorns, ½ an oz. of cloves, ¼ of an oz. of mace, ¼ of an oz. of chillies.

Method.—Peel the lemons, slit each one lengthwise in 3 or 4 places, and sprinkle the cut surfaces thickly with salt. Place them in an earthenware pan, sprinkle them liberally with salt, and turn them daily for a week. At the end of this time, place the lemons singly on a large dish, let them remain near the fire until quite dry, and put them into jars. Boil the vinegar, peppercorns, etc., together as in the preceding recipe, pour while boiling over the lemons, and cover closely. Store in a cool, dry place for about 6 months, when they should be ready for use.

2639.—LIMES, PICKLED. (See Lemons, Pickled, No. 2636.)

2640.—MANGOES, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Mangoes, green ginger sliced, mustard seed, garlic bruised, spiced vinegar (see recipe for Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704).

Method.—Halve and stone the mangoes, stuff them with a mixture of ginger, mustard seed and garlic, replace the halves, and fasten them securely with strong cotton. Cover the mangoes with boiling spiced vinegar. On the following day strain off the vinegar, reboil, and repeat the process on the two following days, four times in all. When cold, turn the preparation into jars, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

2641.—MELONS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Small melons, small French beans, grated horseradish, cloves, ground nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, vinegar, and to each quart add 1 teaspoonful each of cloves, allspice and black peppercorns.

Method.—Cut off one end, scoop out the inside of each melon, then replace and secure the end. Cover the melons with strong brine, let them remain undisturbed for 4 days, then drain and dry well. Sprinkle the inside of each melon liberally with cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg and pepper, and stuff them with well-seasoned French beans and horseradish. Replace, and tie on the ends, and pack the melons in a large jar, keeping the cut ends uppermost. Boil the vinegar and spices together for 10 minutes, and, when cold, pour the liquid over the melons. On three consecutive days reboil the vinegar, and pour it boiling over the melons. When cold, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

2642.—MIXED PICKLES.

Ingredients.—To each gallon of vinegar allow ¼ of a lb. of bruised ginger, ¼ of a lb. of mustard, ¼ of a lb. of salt, 2 ozs. of mustard-seed, 1½ ozs. of turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, ¼ of an oz. of cayenne, cauliflowers, onions, celery, gherkins, French beans, nasturtiums, capsicums.

Method.—Have a large jar, with a tight-fitting lid, in which put as much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the various powders to a smooth paste. Put into a basin the mustard, turmeric, pepper and cayenne; mix them with vinegar, and stir well until no lumps remain; add all the ingredients to the vinegar, and mix well. Keep this liquor in a warm place, and thoroughly stir it every morning for 1 month with a wooden spoon, when it will be ready for the different vegetables to be added to it. As these come in season, have them gathered on a dry day, and after merely wiping them with a cloth, to free them from moisture, put them into the pickle. The cauliflowers must be divided into small bunches. Put all these into the pickle raw, and at the end of the season, when as many of the vegetables as could be procured have been added, store the pickle away in jars, and tie over with bladder. This old-fashioned method of preserving vegetables is largely employed by those who live in the country. The pickle should be kept for at least 3 months in a cool, dry place before being used.

2643.—MIXED PICKLES.

Ingredients.—An equal weight of small mild onions, sour apples and cucumbers, vinegar to cover. To each pint of vinegar add 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1 teaspoonful of salt, ½ a teaspoonful of pepper, a good pinch of cayenne.

Method.—Peel and slice the onions, apples and cucumbers thinly, put them into wide-necked bottles, add the seasoning and sherry, cover with vinegar, and cork closely. This pickle may be used the following day, and should not be kept for any length of time.

2644.—MIXED PICKLES. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of onions, 1 lb. of apples, ¼ of a lb. of chillies, 1½ pints of white-wine vinegar, 1 good tablespoonful of salt.

Method.—Chop the onions and apples coarsely, and the chillies finely. Boil the vinegar, add the salt, and when dissolved pour over the prepared ingredients. Turn into small jars, and, when cold, cover closely.

Average Cost.—1s. 10d.

2645.—MUSHROOMS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—1 quart of button mushrooms, 1 quart of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised whole ginger, ½ an oz. of white peppercorns, 3 blades of mace, salt to taste.

Method.—Wash, dry, and peel the mushrooms, and cut off the tops of the stalks. Place them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, shake them over the fire until the liquor flows, and keep them on the stove uncovered until the greater part of the moisture has evaporated. Then add the vinegar, peppercorns, etc., bring to the boil, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. Turn into jars, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Average Cost.—1s. 10d. to 2s. 6d.

2646.—MUSHROOMS, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of button mushrooms, 1 quart of vinegar, 1 oz. of whole ginger, ½ an oz. of white peppercorns, a good pinch of cayenne.

Method.—Cut off the tips of the stalks, rub off the outer skin with a piece of new flannel occasionally dipped in salt, rinse the mushrooms in salt and water, and dry them well. Boil the vinegar, pepper and spices together until pleasantly seasoned and flavoured, then put in the mushrooms and simmer them gently for 10 minutes. Put into jars; when cold cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

Average Cost.—1s. 10d. to 2s. 6d.

2647.—NASTURTIUM SEEDS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Nasturtium seeds, vinegar to cover them. To each pint of vinegar add ½ an oz. of salt, 6 peppercorns.

Method.—Boil the vinegar, salt and peppercorns together, and, when cold, strain it into a wide-necked bottle. Gather the seeds on a dry day, put them into the vinegar, and cork closely. These pickled seeds form an excellent substitute for capers. They are ready for use in about 3 months, but may be kept for a much longer time.

Nasturtiums. The elegant nasturtium-plant, called by botanists Tropaeolum, and which sometimes goes by the name of Indian cress—an American climbing annual with bright orange-coloured flowers—came originally from Peru, but was easily acclimatized in these islands. Its young leaves and flowers are of a slightly hot nature, and many consider them a good adjunct to salads, to which they certainly add a pretty appearance. When the beautiful blossoms, which may be employed with great effect in garnishing dishes, are off, then the fruit is used as described in the above recipe.

2648.—ONIONS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—1 gallon of pickling onions, salt and water, milk. To each ½ gallon of vinegar add 1 oz. of bruised ginger, ¼ of a teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black popper, ¼ of an oz. of whole nutmeg bruised, and cloves, ¼ of an oz. of mace.

Method.—Gather the onions, which should not be too small, when they are quite dry and ripe; wipe off the dirt, but do not pare them. Make a strong solution of salt and water, into which put the onions, change the brine morning and night, for 3 days, and save the last brine the onions are put in. Then take off the outside skin, and put them into a tin saucepan capable of holding them all, as they are always better if pickled together. Now take equal quantities of milk and the last salt and water the onions were in, and pour this on to them. To this liquid add 2 large spoonfuls of salt, put the onions over the fire and watch them very attentively. Keep constantly turning the onions about with a wooden skimmer, those at the bottom to the top, and vice versa, and let the milk and water run through the holes of the skimmer. Remember the onions must never BOIL, otherwise they will be useless; and they should be quite transparent. Keep the onions stirred for a few minutes, and, in stirring, be particular not to break them. Then have ready a pan with a colander, into which turn the onions to drain, covering with a cloth to keep in the steam. Place on a table an old cloth folded 2 or 3 times; put the onions on it when quite hot, and cover them closely over with an old piece of blanket to keep in the steam. Let the onions remain until the next day, when they will be quite cold, and look yellow and shrivelled; take off the shrivelled skins, when they should be as white as snow. Put them in a pan, make a pickle of vinegar and the remaining ingredients boil all up together, and pour the hot mixture over the onions in the pan. Cover very closely to keep in all the steam, and let them stand until the following day, when they will be quite cold. Put them into jars or boil a tablespoonful of the best olive-oil on the top of each bottle or jar. Tie the onions down with bladder, and let them stand in a cool place for a month or 6 weeks, when they will be fit for use. They should be beautifully white and eat crisp, without the least softness, and will keep good many months.

Average Cost.—2s. 6d. to 3s.

2649.—ONIONS, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Pickling onions; quart of vinegar add 2 teaspoonfuls of allspice; 2 teaspoonfuls of whole black pepper.

Method.—Have the onions gathered when quite dry and ripe, and, with the fingers, take off the thin outside skin, then with a silver knife (steel should not be used, as it spoils the colour of the onions), remove one more skin, the onions will look quite clear. Have ready some very dry bottles or jars, and as fast as the onions are peeled put them in. Pour over sufficient cold vinegar to cover them, with pepper and allspice in the above proportions, taking care that each jar has its share of the latter ingredients. Tie down with the bladder, and put them in a dry place, and in a fortnight they will be ready for use.

2650.—ONIONS, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Silver onions, white wine vinegar to cover.

Method.—Remove the skins, throw the onions a few at a time into a saucepan of boiling water, taking care to have no more than will form a single layer floating on the surface of the water. As soon as the onions look clear on the outside take them up as quickly as possible with a slice, fold them in a clean dry cloth, so as to keep in the steam, and allow them to remain closely covered until the whole have been scalded. Let the onions be until quite cold, then put them into bottles or jars, and pour over them the vinegar, which should previously have been boiled and allowed to cool slightly. When cold, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

2651.—OYSTERS, PICKLED.

Blanch the oysters in their own liquor, but in other details follow directions for Cockles, Pickled, No. 2625.

2652.—PICCALILLI.

Ingredients.—Cauliflowers, onions, gherkins, French beans, capsicums, spiced vinegar (see recipe for Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704), mustard, turmeric, curry powder.

Method.—Divide the vegetables into convenient pieces, throw them into boiling brine sufficiently strong to float an egg, and cook for 3 minutes. Drain well, spread them on large dishes, and let them remain in the sun until perfectly dry. Prepare the vinegar as directed and add ½ an oz. each of turmeric and curry powder to each quart of vinegar. Also allow to each quart of vinegar 1 oz. of mustard, which must be mixed smoothly with a little cold vinegar, and afterwards stirred into the boiling vinegar, but not allowed to boil. Place the prepared vegetables in jars, cover them completely with vinegar, and, when quite cold, cover closely.

2653.—RADISH-PODS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Young radish pods, spiced vinegar (see recipe for Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704), grated horseradish.

Method.—Cover the pods with strong brine, let them remain for 12 hours, then drain the brine into a saucepan, and boil up. Pour the boiling brine over the pods, cover closely with a close-fitting lid or plate, let them remain undisturbed for 48 hours, then repeat the boiling process. Repeat again and again until the pods are perfectly green, then drain until they are quite dry, and pack them loosely in jars. Add 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish to the prepared vinegar, pour it boiling over the pods, and cover closely. On the following day strain, boil and replace the vinegar, and, when quite cold, tie down securely and store in a dry, cool place.

2654.—SPANISH ONIONS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Medium sized onions, vinegar, salt, cayenne.

Method.—Peel the onions, slice them thinly, place them in a large jar, and sprinkle each layer liberally with salt, and lightly with cayenne pepper. Cover the whole with vinegar, exclude the air by means of a bladder, or paper brushed over on both sides with white of egg, and store in a cool, dry place. The pickle will be ready for use in 10 or 14 days.

2655.—TOMATOES, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Small firm tomatoes, spiced vinegar (see recipe for Vinegar, Spiced, No. 2704), moist sugar.

Method.—Prepare the vinegar as directed, and to each quart add 1 dessertspoonful of sugar. Pack the tomatoes loosely in a large jar, cover them with boiling vinegar, and put on a close-fitting lid or plate to keep in the steam. Tie down to completely exclude the air. This pickle will only keep for a short time.

2656.—TOMATOES AND ONIONS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—An equal weight of firm tomatoes and medium-sized Spanish onions, vinegar to cover. To each pint of vinegar allow 1 teaspoonful of peppercorns, ½ a teaspoonful of allspice, ½ a teaspoonful of salt.

Method.—Peel the onions, place them, with the tomatoes, compactly in a stewpan, add the salt, allspice and peppercorns, tied together in muslin, cover with vinegar, and simmer very gently for 5 or 6 hours. Turn into wide-necked bottles or jars, when cold cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

2657.—VEGETABLE MARROWS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Vegetable marrows, vinegar to cover. To each quart of vinegar add 4 ozs. of sugar, 1½ ozs. of ginger broken into small pieces, 1¼ ozs. of dry mustard, ½ an oz. of turmeric, 6 chillies, 1 clove of garlic finely chopped.

Method.—Boil the vinegar with the seasoning and flavouring ingredients until some of their strength and flavour is extracted. Meanwhile pare the marrows, cut them into 2-inch pieces, and remove the seeds. Add them to the boiling vinegar, cook gently for about 10 minutes, and turn into a large basin or earthenware pan. When quite cold lift the pieces of marrow carefully into wide-necked bottles or unglazed jars, pour in the vinegar, and cover closely. The pickle will be ready in 2 or 3 weeks, and should be kept in a cool, dry atmosphere.

2658.—WALNUTS, PICKLED.

Ingredients.—Green walnuts, vinegar to cover them. To each quart of vinegar allow 1 oz. of peppercorns, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 teaspoonful of salt.

Method.—Prick the walnuts well with a steel fork or large darning needle, put them into an earthenware bowl or pan, and cover them with strong cold brine, previously made by boiling the necessary quantity of water with the addition of 4 ozs. of salt to each quart of water. Stir the walnuts 2 or 3 times daily for 6 days, then drain them and cover with fresh brine. Let them remain 3 days, then again drain them, spread them on large dishes, and place them in the sun until quite black. Have ready some wide-necked bottles or unglazed jars, and three-quarters fill these with walnuts. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with peppercorns, allspice and salt as stated above, for 15 minutes, and when quite cold pour the mixture over the walnuts. If closely covered, and stored in a dry, cool place, they may be kept for months.

2659.—WALNUTS, PICKLED. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—Green walnuts, vinegar. To 3 pints of vinegar allow 1 oz. of salt and ½ an oz. each of allspice, peppercorns, cloves and whole ginger.

Method.—Wipe the walnuts with a dry cloth, put them into wide-necked bottles, or unglazed jars, and cover them with cold vinegar. Cover closely, let them stand in a cool, dry place for 4 months, then drain off the vinegar. Boil as much fresh vinegar as will cover them, with the seasonings as stated above, and pour it, while boiling hot, over the walnuts. Cover closely, and store for 3 weeks in a cool, dry place, the walnuts will then be ready for use.


Store Sauces, etc.

2660.—ANCHOVIES, ESSENCE OF.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of anchovies, 1 pint of cold water, ¼ of a pint of good vinegar, 1 saltspoonful of ground mace, 1 saltspoonful of cayenne.

Method.—Pound the anchovies in a mortar until smooth, and pass them through a fine sieve. Put the parts that will not pass through the sieve into a stewpan, add any liquor there may be in the bottles from which the anchovies were taken, the mace, cayenne, and water, simmer gently for ½ an hour, then strain, and mix it with the anchovy purée. Return the mixture to the stewpan, bring to boiling point, add the vinegar, simmer very gently for 10 minutes longer, and when quite cold pour into small bottles. Cork securely, cover the corks with melted wax, and store for use in a cool, dry place.

2661.—ANCHOVY KETCHUP.

Ingredients.—1 quart of good ale, ¼ of a lb. of anchovies, 3 finely-chopped shallots, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, ½ a teaspoonful of castor sugar, ½ a teaspoonful of ground ginger, ¼ of a teaspoonful of ground mace, 2 cloves.

Method.—Put all these ingredients into a stewpan, simmer very gently for about 1 hour, and strain. When quite cold, pour the ketchup into small bottles, cork them tightly, and store in a cool, dry place.

2662.—CARRACK SAUCE. (For Cold Meat.)

Ingredients.—1 quart of vinegar, 5 dessertspoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 5 dessertspoonfuls of soy, 8 dessertspoonfuls of coarsely chopped pickled walnuts, 3 dessertspoonfuls of coarsely chopped mango pickle, ½ an oz. of garlic bruised, 15 anchovies finely chopped.

Method.—Mix all the ingredients together in a bottle, let it remain in a warm place, and shake it daily for a month, when it will be ready for use.

2663.—CAMP VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—1 head of garlic, ½ an oz. of cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of soy, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar, cochineal to colour.

Method.—Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients, into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for 1 month, then strain it off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles, well sealed to exclude the air.

2664.—CELERY VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of finely shredded celery, or ½ an oz. of celery seed, 1 pint of good pickling vinegar, 1 level teaspoonful of salt.

Method.—Boil the vinegar, dissolve the salt in it, and pour the mixture over the celery or celery seed. When cold, cover and let it remain undisturbed for 3 weeks, then strain into small bottles, cork securely, and store for use. Average Cost, 7d.

2665.—CRESS VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—½ an oz. of cress seed, 1 quart of vinegar.

Method.—Bruise the seed in a mortar, and put it into the vinegar, previously boiled and allowed to grow cold. Let it infuse for a fortnight, then strain and bottle for use.

2666.—CHEROKEE.

Ingredients.—1 quart of best malt vinegar, 8 tablespoonfuls of walnut ketchup, 4 tablespoonfuls of soy, 1 oz. of cayenne, 3 cloves of garlic finely-minced.

Method.—Put these ingredients into a large bottle, cork tightly, and let them remain undisturbed for 1 month. At the end of this time, strain the liquid into small bottles, keep them well corked, and store in a dry, cool place.

2667.—CHILLI VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—50 fresh chillies, 1 pint of good pickling vinegar.

Method.—Cut the chillies in halves. Boil the vinegar, let it become quite cold, then pour it over the chilies. Cork closely, and store for use. Average Cost, 1s. 4d. per quart.

2668.—CUCUMBER KETCHUP.

Ingredients.—Cucumbers, salt, peppercorns.

Method.—Pare the cucumbers, slice them as thinly as possible into a basin, and sprinkle them liberally with salt. Let them remain closely covered until the following day, then strain the liquor from the cucumbers into a stewpan, add 1 teaspoonful of peppercorns to each pint, and simmer gently for about ½ an hour. When cold, strain into bottles, cork tightly, and store in a cool, dry place. This ketchup imparts an agreeable flavour to sweetbreads, calf's brains, chicken mixtures, and other delicate preparations.

2669.—CUCUMBER VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—Cucumbers, vinegar to cover them. To each pint of vinegar allow 2 shallots, 1 clove of garlic, 1 teaspoonful of white peppercorns, 1 teaspoonful of salt.

Method.—Boil the vinegar, salt and peppercorns together, for 20 minutes, and allow the mixture to become quite cold. Slice the cucumbers without paring them, into a wide-necked bottle or jar, add the shallots and garlic, and the vinegar when cold. Let the preparation remain closely covered for 14 days, then strain off into smaller bottles, cork tightly, and store in a cool, dry place.

2670.—ESCAVEEKE SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 quart of French white-wine vinegar, the finely-grated rinds of 2 lemons, 12 shallots, 4 cloves of garlic, 2 tablespoonfuls of coriander seed, 1 teaspoonful of ground ginger, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 level teaspoonful of cayenne.

Method.—Pound all the dry ingredients well together, and put them into an earthenware vessel. Boil the vinegar, and add it, boiling hot, to the pounded preparation. When quite cold, pour into small bottles, cork tightly, and store for use.

2671.—GARLIC VINEGAR. (See Shallot Vinegar, No. 2691.)

2672.—HARVEY SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 quart of good vinegar, 3 anchovies, 1 tablespoonful of soy, 1 tablespoonful of walnut ketchup, 1 finely-chopped shallot, 1 finely-chopped clove of garlic, ¼ of an oz. of cayenne, a few drops of cochineal.

Method.—Cut each anchovy into 3 or 4 pieces, place them in a wide-necked bottle or unglazed jar, add the shallots, garlic, and the rest of the ingredients, and cover closely. Let the jar stand for 14 days, during which time the contents must be either shaken or stirred at least once a day. At the end of this time strain into small bottles, cork them securely, and store the sauce in a cool, dry place.

2673.—HERB POWDER. (See To Dry Herbs for Winter Use, No. 2695.)

2674.—HERB SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 stick of horseradish, 2 finely-chopped shallots, a few sprigs each of winter savory, basil, marjoram, thyme, tarragon, 6 cloves, the finely-pared rind and juice of 1 lemon, 2 tablespoonfuls of good vinegar, 1 pint of water.

Method.—Wash and scrape the horseradish, and remove the stalks of the herbs. Put all the ingredients together in a stewpan, simmer gently for 20 minutes, then strain, and, when quite cold, pour into small bottles. Cork securely and store for use.

2675.—HORSERADISH VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—8 ozs. of grated horseradish, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped shallots, 1 heaped teaspoonful of salt, ½ a teaspoonful of cayenne, 4 pints of good malt vinegar.

Method.—Mix the horseradish, shallots, salt and cayenne together, boil the vinegar and pour it over them, cover closely, and allow the vessel to stand in a warm, but not hot, place for 10 days. Strain the vinegar into a stewpan, bring to boiling point, let it cool, then pour into small bottles, cork closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

2676.—INDIAN CURRY POWDER.

Ingredients.—¼ of a lb. of coriander seed, ¼ of a lb. of turmeric, 2 ozs. of cinnamon seed, ½ an oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. of mustard, 1 oz. of ground ginger, ½ an oz. of allspice, 2 ozs. of fenugreek-seed.

Method.—Put all the ingredients in a cool oven, where they should remain for 1 night. Then pound them in a mortar, rub them through a sieve, and mix thoroughly together. Keep the powder in a bottle, from which the air should be completely excluded.

2677.—INDIAN MUSTARD.

Ingredients.—¼ of a lb. of mustard, ¼ of a lb. of flour, ½ an oz. of salt, 4 shallots chopped, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of anchovy sauce.

Method.—Put the mustard, flour and salt into a basin, and mix them into a smooth paste with hot water. Boil the shallots with the vinegar, ketchup and anchovy sauce for 10 minutes, then add the blended flour, etc., and stir and simmer gently for 2 or 3 minutes. When quite cold pour the preparation into small bottles, cork them tightly, and store in a cool, dry place.

2678.—KETCHUP. (See Mushroom Ketchup, No. 2682, and Walnut Ketchup, No. 2705.)

2679.—KETCHUP, PONTAC.

Ingredients.—Ripe elderberries, anchovies, shallots, vinegar, cloves, mace, peppercorns.

Method.—Remove the stalks, place the berries in a jar, cover them with vinegar, cook in a moderately hot oven for 3 hours, then strain and measure the vinegar. To each quart add ½ a lb. of coarsely chopped anchovies, 1 oz. of chopped shallots, 6 cloves, 1 blade of mace, and 24 peppercorns. Simmer gently for 1 hour, then strain and bottle for use.

Time.—About 4 hours. Average Cost, 2s. per quart, exclusive of the elderberries.

2680.—LEAMINGTON SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 pint of walnut juice (see No. 2705), 3 pints of good vinegar, ½ a pint of soy, 1 oz. of finely-chopped shallots, ½ an oz. of cayenne, ½ an oz. of garlic, ¼ of a pint of port.

Method.—Extract the juice from the walnuts as described in Recipe No. 2705. Pound the shallots, garlic and cayenne well together, add them to the walnut-juice with the rest of the ingredients, and mix all well together. Pour into small bottles, cork tightly, and store for use.

2681.—MINT VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—Vinegar, mint.

Method.—The mint for this purpose must be young and fresh. Pick the leaves from the stalks, and fill a bottle or jar with them. Cover with cold vinegar, cover closely, and let the mint infuse for 14 days. Then strain the liquor into small bottles, cork securely, and store for use.

2682.—MUSHROOM KETCHUP.

Ingredients.—7 lbs. of flap mushrooms, ½ a lb. of salt. To 1 quart of mushroom liquor add ½ an oz. of allspice, ½ an oz. of ground ginger, ¼ of a teaspoonful of pounded mace, of a teaspoonful of cayenne.

Method.—Mushrooms intended for this purpose should be gathered on a dry day. otherwise the ketchup will not keep. Trim the tips of the stalks, but do not wash nor peel the mushrooms; simply rub any part not quite clean with a little salt. Place them in a large jar, sprinkling each layer liberally with salt. Let them remain for 3 days, stirring them at least 3 times daily. At the end of that time, cook them very gently either on the stove or in a cool oven, until the juice flows freely, then strain the mushrooms through a clean cloth, and drain well, but do not squeeze them.

Replace the liquor in the jar, add allspice, ginger, cayenne and mace as stated above, place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and cook very gently for 3 hours. Strain 2 or 3 times through fine muslin when quite cold, pour into small bottles, cork securely, and store for use.

How to Distinguish Mushrooms from Toadstools.—The cultivated mushroom, known as Agaricus campestris, may be distinguished from the poisonous kinds of fungi by its having pink or flesh-coloured gills, or under side, and by its having invariably an agreeable smell, which the toadstool has not. Mushrooms are like a small round button, both the stalk and head being white. As they grow larger they expand their heads by degrees into a flat form, the gills underneath being first of a pale flesh colour, but becoming, as they stand longer, dark-brown or blackish. Nearly all the poisonous kinds are brown, and have in general a rank and putrid smell. Edible mushrooms are found in closely fed pastures, but seldom grow in woods, where most of the poisonous sorts flourish.

2683.—MUSHROOM POWDER.

Ingredients.— ½ a peck of large mushrooms, 2 onions, 12 cloves, ¼ of an oz. of pounded mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of white pepper.

Method.—Peel the mushrooms, wipe them perfectly free from grit, remove the black fur, and reject all those that are at all worm-eaten. Put them into a stewpan with the above ingredients, but without water; shake them over a clear fire until all the liquor is dried up, but be careful not to let them burn. Arrange them on tins, dry them in a slow oven, pound them to a fine powder, which put into small, dry bottles, and cork well. Seal the corks, and keep it in a dry place. In using this powder, add it to the gravy just before serving, when it will merely require to be boiled up.

2684.—MUSTAPHA, OR LIVER KETCHUP.

Ingredients.—1 beef liver, 1 gallon of water, 1 oz. of ginger, 1 oz. of allspice, 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 2 lbs. of salt.

Method.—Roll the salt, rub it well into a very fresh beef liver, and place it in a vessel without crushing. Turn and rub it thoroughly daily for 10 days. Mince it into small dice, and boil in a gallon of water, closely covered until reduced to three quarts. Strain through a sieve, put it aside until the following day, then add the pepper, allspice, and ginger, and boil slowly until reduced to three pints. When cold, bottle, and keep well corked.

2685.—PIQUANT SAUCE.

Ingredients.—100 green walnuts, 5 or 6 lbs. of flap mushrooms, vinegar. To each pint of vinegar allow ½ a glass of port, 1 glass of claret, 1 teaspoonful of soy, 6 shallots, 1 clove of garlic, ½ a teaspoonful of ground ginger, ½ a teaspoonful of mustard-seed, ¼ of a teaspoonful of allspice, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, ¼ of a saltspoonful of cayenne.

Method.—Place the mushrooms and walnuts in separate earthenware bowls or pans, bruise them well with a pestle or wooden potato-masher, or, failing these, a heavy wooden spoon, and sprinkle them lightly with salt. Let them lie for a week. Turn and bruise them daily, then drain off the liquor, and squeeze the pulp as dry as possible. As a rule the quantity of juice thus obtained from the walnuts and mushrooms is nearly equal. Mix the two together, and boil gently until the scum, which must be carefully removed, ceases to rise. Measure the liquid, return it to the pan with an equal quantity of vinegar, and shallots, garlic, ginger, mustard-seed, allspice, cloves, mace, and cayenne in the above-stated proportions. Simmer gently for about ½ an hour, skimming well meanwhile, then turn the liquid into an earthenware vessel, and add the port, claret and soy. When quite cold, pour the sauce into small bottles, cork closely, and store in a dry, cool place,

2686.—RASPBERRY VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—Raspberries, white wine, vinegar, sugar.

Method.—Cover the raspberries with vinegar, let them remain undisturbed for 4 days, then strain through a fine hair sieve, but do not press the fruit. Pour the vinegar over a fresh lot of raspberries and proceed as before. Repeat this process two or three times, taking care to drain each lot thoroughly. Measure the vinegar, to each pint add from 12 to 16 ozs. of sugar, simmer gently for 10 minutes, skimming well meanwhile. When quite cold, bottle for use. Or, put equal measures of raspberries and vinegar into a large jar, stir the mixture 2 or 3 times daily for 10 days, then strain off the vinegar. Measure it, adding 12 ozs. of sugar to each pint, boil up, skim well, and, when cold, bottle for use. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. per quart.

2687.—READING SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 quart of walnut pickle, 1 quart of cold water, ½ a pint of soy, 1½ ozs. of shallots, ½ an oz. of whole ginger bruised, ½ an oz. of capsicums, 1 oz. of mustard seed, ½ an oz. of cayenne, ¼ of an oz. of bay-leaves, 1 tablespoonful essence of anchovy.

Method.—Peel the shallots, chop them finely, place them in a fireproof jar with the liquor strained from the walnuts, and simmer gently until considerably reduced. In another fireproof jar put the water, soy, ginger, capsicums, mustard-seed, cayenne, and essence of anchovy, bring to the boil, and simmer gently for 1 hour. Now mix the contents of the two jars together, and continue the slow cooking for ½ an hour longer. Let the jar remain closely covered in a cool place until the following day, then add the bay-leaves, replace the cover, and allow the jar to remain undisturbed for 7 days. At the end of this time, strain off the liquor into small bottles, and store for use.

2688.—SHALLOT OR GARLIC PICKLE.

Ingredients.—2 quarts of the best white wine vinegar, ½ a lb. of shallots or garlic, 2 ozs. of whole ginger, 2 ozs. of chillies, 4 ozs. of mustard seed, 2 ozs. of turmeric.

Method.—Cover the ginger with strong brine made by boiling together 1 pint of water and 6 ozs. of salt, let it remain for 5 days, then slice it thinly, and dry it in the sun. Peel the shallots or garlic, sprinkle liberally with salt, and let them remain thus for 3 days. Place the ginger, shallots, chillies, mustard seed and turmeric in a wide-necked bottle, pour in the vinegar, cover closely, and store in a dry, cool place.

2689.—SHALLOT SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 pint of sherry, 4 ozs. of shallots.

Method.—Skin the shallots, chop them finely, and put them into a wide-necked bottle. Pour over them the sherry, let them remain closely corked for 14 days, then strain off the liquor into small bottles. Cork lightly, and store for use.

2690.—SHALLOT SAUCE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 pint of sherry, 6 ozs. of shallots, ¼ of a teaspoonful of cayenne.

Method.—Skin 4 ozs. of shallots, chop them finely, put them into a bottle, and add the wine. Keep the bottle well corked for 10 days, then strain the liquid, replace it in the bottle, add the remaining 2 ozs. of shallots, peeled, but whole, and the cayenne. Cork securely, store in a cool, dry place for 6 weeks, then strain the liquid into small bottles, and store for future use.

2691.—SHALLOT VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—1 quart of good vinegar, 4 ozs. of shallots.

Method.—Remove the skins, chop the shallots finely, and put them into a wide-necked bottle. Pour in the vinegar, cork securely, and put the bottle aside for 10 days, during which time it must be shaken at least once a day. At the end of this time strain the vinegar through fine muslin, put it into small bottles, cork closely, and store for use.

2692.—SOY, INDIAN.

This sauce is usually bought ready prepared. It is imported from China and Japan, where it is made from a small bean, the produce of Dolichos Soja. Japanese soy is usually preferred to that of China, because it is free from the sweet treacly flavour which distinguishes the latter. When well made it has a good brown colour, thick consistence, and is clear.

2693.—SOY, JAPANESE.

Ingredients.—An equal weight of beans, coarse barley meal, and salt.

Method.—Wash the beans well, boil them in water until tender, and pound them in a mortar, adding the barley meal gradually. Put the mass into an earthenware bowl, cover with a cloth, and let it stand in a warm place for several days, until it is sufficiently fermented, but not mouldy. To each lb. of salt add 4 pints of water, stir until the salt is dissolved, then stir it into the fermented mass. Keep the bowl or pan closely covered for 3 months, during which time it must be daily stirred for at least 1 hour. At the end of this time strain through fine cloths, pressing the insoluble portion well, in order to extract as much of the moisture as possible. Let it stand again until quite clear, then drain off, and bottle for use.

In making Chinese soy, the liquid extracted is boiled and re-boiled with a varying amount of sugar, mace, ginger and pepper, until it acquires the desired consistency.

2694.—TARRAGON VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—Tarragon, vinegar.

Method.—Tarragon leaves intended for this purpose should be gathered on a dry day about the end of July, just before the plant begins to bloom. Remove the stalks, bruise the leaves slightly, put them into a wide-necked bottle, and cover them with vinegar. Cover closely so as to completely exclude the air, and let the bottle stand in a cool, dry place for 7 or 8 weeks. Now strain the liquid through fine muslin until it is quite clear, put it into small bottles, cork tightly, and store them in a cool, dry place.

2695.—TO DRY HERBS FOR WINTER USE.

Gather the herbs on a dry day, just before they begin to flower. Dry them quickly before or near the fire, then strip the leaves from the stalks, put them in a moderately-hot oven on baking-tins until crisp, then rub them between the palms of the hands until reduced to a powder. Pass through a fine sieve to remove the small stalks, put into hot, perfectly dry bottles, cork tightly, and store for use. Herbs are sometimes dried and put into paper bags, but this method is not to be recommended, for they not only lose much of their flavour, but they are less easily powdered than when freshly dried.

2696.—TO DRY MUSHROOMS.

Method.—Wipe them with a dry cloth, take away the brown part, and peel off the skin. Lay them in a cool oven on sheets of paper to dry, when they will shrivel considerably. Keep them in paper bags which hang in a dry place. When wanted for use, put them into cold gravy, bring them gradually to simmer, and it will be found that they will regain nearly their natural size.

The Mushroom.—The cultivated or garden mushroom is a species of fungus which, in England, is considered the best, and is there usually eaten. The tribe, however, is numerous, and a large proportion are poisonous; hence it is always dangerous to make use of mushrooms gathered in their natural state. In some parts of Europe, as in Germany, Russia and Poland, many species grow wild, and are used as food; but in Britain, two species only are generally eaten. These are mostly employed for the flavouring of dishes, and are also dried and pickled. Catsup, or ketchup, is made from mushrooms by mixing spices and salt with their juice. The young, called buttons, are the best for pickling when in the globular form.

2697.—TO PRESERVE PARSLEY.

Method.—Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping, wash it perfectly free from grit and dirt, put it into boiling water which has been slightly salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3 minutes. Take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of the fire, when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it away in a very dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use, pour over it a little warm water, and let it stand for about 5 minutes.

2698.—TO PRESERVE WALNUTS.

Ingredients.—To every pint of water allow 1 teaspoonful of salt. Walnuts.

Method.—Place the walnuts in the salt and water for at least 24 hours, then take them out and rub them dry. Old nuts may be freshened in this manner; or walnuts, when first picked, may be put into an earthen pan with salt sprinkled amongst them, and with damped hay placed on the top and then covered down with a lid. The walnuts must be well wiped before they are put on the table.

2699.—TOMATO CHOW CHOW.

Ingredients.—6 large tomatoes, 1 Spanish onion, 1 green capsicum, 2 tablespoonfuls of brown sugar, 1 tablespoonful of salt, ½ a pint of vinegar.

Method.—Peel and chop the onion coarsely. Blanch the tomatoes, remove the skins, and slice them finely. Place the onion and tomatoes in a stewjar, add the capsicum finely-chopped, the sugar, salt and vinegar, and cook in a slow oven until the onion is quite tender. When cold turn into small jars or wide-necked bottles, cover closely, and store in a cool, dry place.

2700.—TOMATO SAUCE.

Ingredients.—To each quart of tomato pulp allow 1 pint of chilli vinegar, ¼ of a pint of soy, 1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence, 2 finely-chopped shallots, 1 finely-chopped clove of garlic, salt to taste.

Method.—Bake the tomatoes in a slow oven until tender, rub them through a fine sieve, and measure the pulp. Put it into a stewpan, add the rest of the ingredients, simmer until the shallots and garlic are quite tender, and pass the whole through a tammy or fine hair sieve. Store in air-tight bottles.

2701.—TOMATO SAUCE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—12 large tomatoes, 2 Spanish onions, 1 oz. of salt, ½ a teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 pint of vinegar.

Method.—Peel the onions, slice them thinly, place them in a stewjar with the tomatoes, and cook in a slow oven until tender. Pass the pulp through a fine hair sieve, put it into a stewpan with the vinegar, salt and cayenne, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. Store for use in small air-tight bottles.

2702.—TOMATO SAUCE. (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—12 large tomatoes, 2 tablespoonfuls of malt vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful of salt, 1 dessertspoonful of ground ginger, 1 saltspoonful of cayenne, 1 finely-chopped clove of garlic.

Method.—Put the tomatoes into a stewjar, add the salt and garlic, cook until tender, and rub through a fine hair sieve. Add the rest of the ingredients; when well mixed, turn into small bottles, cork tightly, and store them in a cool, dry place.

2703.—TOMATO VINEGAR.

Ingredients.—18 sound tomatoes, 3 or 4 ozs. of salt, 1 quart of good vinegar, ¼ of a pint of mustard seed, mace, cloves, nutmeg.

Method.—Cut each tomato across into quarters, but without separating them at the bottom. Place them in a large jar, sprinkling each layer with salt, and cook them in a very slow oven for 12 hours. Add the mustard seed and spices to taste, boil and add the vinegar, and cover closely. Let the jar stand by the side of the fire for 5 or 6 days, and either stir or shake it several times daily. When ready strain into small bottles, cork them securely, and store for use. Average Cost, 1s. 8d. per quart.

2704.—VINEGAR, SPICED.

Ingredients.—1 pint of good vinegar, 1 oz. of black peppercorns, ½ an oz. of whole ginger, ½ an oz. of salt, ¼ of an oz. of allspice, ½ an oz. of finely chopped shallots, 2 cloves of garlic bruised, 2 bay-leaves.

Method.—Pound or crush the peppercorns, ginger and allspice, put all into a jar, add the rest of the ingredients, and cover closely. Let the jar remain in a warm place for 1 week, then place it in a saucepan containing boiling water, and cook gently for 1 hour. When cold, cover closely, and store for use.

Time.—To cook, 1 hour. Average Cost, 10d.

2705.—WALNUT KETCHUP.

Ingredients.—100 green walnuts, 1 quart of good vinegar, 3 ozs. of salt, 4 ozs. of anchovies, 12 finely-chopped shallots, ½ a stick of finely-grated horseradish, ½ a teaspoonful each of mace, nutmeg, ground ginger, ground cloves and pepper, 1 pint of port.

Method.—The walnuts must be very young and tender. Bruise them slightly, put them into a jar with the salt and vinegar, and let them remain for 8 days, stirring them daily. Drain the liquor from them into a stewpan, add to it the rest of the ingredients, simmer very gently for 40 minutes, and when quite cold, strain the preparation into small bottles. Cork them closely, cover with melted wax, and store in a cool, dry place.

2706.—WORCESTER SAUCE.

Ingredients.—1 quart of best brown vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of walnut ketchup, 5 tablespoonfuls of essence of anchovy, 4 tablespoonfuls of soy, ½ a teaspoonful of cayenne, 4 very finely-chopped shallots, salt to taste.

Method.—Put all these ingredients into a large bottle, and cork it closely. Shake it well 3 or 4 times daily for about 14 days, then strain the sauce into small bottles, cork them tightly, and store in a cool, dry place.