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Portrait of Charles Gavan Duffy, signed Chas Gavan Daffy 1843


MY LIFE IN
TWO HEMISPHERES


BY

SIR CHARLES GAVAN DUFFY


Author of "Young Ireland," "Life of Thomas Davis,"
"Conversations with Carlyle," &c.


WITH PORTRAIT


VOLUME I.


COLONIAL EDITION


LONDON
T. FISHER UNWIN
PATERNOSTER SQUARE
1898


[All rights reserved.]



CONTENTS



BOOK I.

CHAPTER I.

BOYHOOD AND YOUTH. MONAGHAN.
PAGE
My object in writing this narrative—Family pedigree—Boyish memories—My first school—Condition of Catholic schools in Ulster—Second school—Reception among Protestant schoolfellows—Earliest books and periodicals—Rupture with Mr. Bleckley—Companions: Terence MacManus, Henry MacManus, Mat Trumble—First political ideas—"The Naked Truth"—Charles Hamilton Teeling—First visit to Dublin—T. M. Hughes—Lord Mulgrave in Ulster—Departure from home, never to return 1

CHAPTER II.

A TYRO IN JOURNALISM. DUBLIN.
Dublin journalists in 1836—Introduction to libraries and theatres—Visits to historic places—First impression of O'Connell—Reporters' stories—A tithe funeral—A martyr for conscience sake—First money I earned—Work as sub-editor of the Morning Register—Clarence Mangan: the secret of his life—Thomas Moore—Father Tom Maguire—Sam Gray appointed sub-sheriff—Peremptory intervention of Thomas Drummond—Removal to Belfast—My health in 1838-9—Note 27

CHAPTER III.

A PROVINCIAL CAREER. BELFAST.
My position in Belfast—New friends—James M'Knight—Rev. James Godkin—A bolder policy advised—Derry, Ballybay and Belfast supposed strongholds of Unionism—Muster of Ulster Catholics in nearly a hundred meetings—Effect on O'Connell—He determines to hold a provincial meeting in Belfast—Rage and resistance of the Orangemen—Anxiety of the country on his behalf—He arrives at Belfast, is entertained at a public dinner, and sails for Scotland—Political and social studies—Literature in the Vindicator—Clarence Mangan—National songs—Conference in Dublin with Thomas Davis and John Dillon—the Nation projected—Davis visits Belfast—Conference in Dublin with John Dillon and John O'Hagan—Become a law student and am engaged to be married—Visit to Edinburgh 42

CHAPTER IV.

A NATIONAL JOURNALIST.
Debated with Davis the principles of the new journal, afterwards with Dillon and John O'Hagan—Success of the journal—National poetry in the Nation—Weekly suppers of the contributors, and Sunday excursions—The Father Mathew testimonial and the purpose to which I desired to apply it—Letter from Father Mathew—Relations with O'Connell—Success of the new opinions—Testimony of Isaac Butt, Samuel Ferguson, Carleton, Lefanu, Lever, Lecky, and others—Notable men and women contributors—The "Spirit of the Nation" and its reception—Thackeray's squibs—Letters from Leigh Hunt, Thomas Carlyle, and Dr. M'Knight 61

CHAPTER V.

THE SPRINGTIDE OF NATIONALITY.
O'Connell in 1842—Davis, Dillon, and the early recruits—The Corporation debate and its consequences—Junction of the Catholic Bishops—County meetings summoned which become monster meetings—Peel's menace of Civil War—O'Connell's answer—He places the resistance on the basis of national force—Samuel Ferguson's remonstrance with Peel—O'Callaghan analyses the English army—An unfit instrument for oppressing Ireland—The Times warns Peel of his mistaken policy—Increase and growth of the monster meetings—The Government deprive Lord Ffrench of his Commission of the Peace for attending a Repeal Meeting—Effect of this stroke on the magistracy—Effect on the Bar—Sympathetic meetings in the United States countenanced by the President and eminent statesmen—Appeal from America to France to help Ireland—Important meeting in Paris addressed by Ledru Rollin, Marast, and others—Movement of the Irish Whigs headed by Smith O'Brien—Eight days' debate in the House of Commons—Manifesto of Lord John Russell in the Edinburgh Review—O'Connell's new policy—The Mallow Defiance—The Nation and the army—The Quartermaster-General's department—Sir Charles Trevelyan's description of Ireland in 1843—The education and discipline of the people—The Library of Ireland—The 'Eighty-two Club 80

CHAPTER VI.

TROUBLED WATERS: CONFLICTS WITH O'CONNELL.
An indiscreet secretary summoned the attendance of Repeal Cavalry at the Clontarf Meeting—A proclamation issued forbidding the Meeting—O'Connell submitted to the proclamation—Effects of his submission—Attitude of the Young Ireland Party—Arrest of O'Connell and seven other Repealers—Their trial and conviction—Juncture and character of Smith O'Brien—Policy of the Repeal Association under Smith O'Brien and Thomas Davis—Writ of error and decision of the House of Lords—Liberation of the State prisoners—Position of Ireland at that time—Visits to O'Connell at Darrynane—His gradual abandonment of Nationality—The Federal controversy—Effect upon public opinion in Ireland—O'Connell repudiates the Federalists and quarrels with France and America—Tait's Magazine on the position—Slanders on Thomas Davis—Peel's Provincial Colleges—Controversy between O'Connell and Davis—Effect of the controversy on public opinion—Tour in the North with O'Hagan, Mitchel, and Martin—Dungannon, Charlemont and battlefield of Ballynahinch visited—Vice-tribunate of John O'Connell—Letters from Mitchel, Martin, and O'Hagan—Visit to Wicklow with T. D. M'Gee—Death of Thomas Davis and my wife within a week—Letter from Father Mathew 92

BOOK II.

CHAPTER I.

THE SECOND YOUNG IRELAND PARTY.
The death of Davis followed by the maladies of Dillon and MacNevin, and absence of John O'Hagan—The original Young Ireland Party being disbanded by death and disease, I recruited a new one—M'Gee, Meagher, Mitchel and Reilly—Position of Smith O'Brien—Peel declares for Free Trade, but fails to form a Government—Lord John Russell sent for, and O'Connell promises him the help of the Irish members—Secret compact with the Whigs—Slanders of the Pilot against the party and against Archbishop Crolly—Opinion of Frederick Lucas on the Pilot—M'Gee becomes a regular contributor to the Nation—I retire to the country to write the Great Popish Rebellion—Interrupted by visits from Frederick Lucas and Thomas Carlyle, and finally by a Government prosecution—O'Connell points out the Nation as guilty of sedition, and forbids any sympathy to be expressed with it in Conciliation Hall—John O'Hagan on the management of the Nation in my absence—"The Railway Article"—My justification of it—Letter from Samuel Ferguson (note)—Speeches of O'Brien and Grattan—I am called to the Bar 125

CHAPTER II.

O'CONNELL RESOLVES TO SUPPRESS THE "NATION."
O'Connell takes measures to destroy the Nation—Whig intrigues the probable cause—Supply of Nations to the Repeal Reading-rooms stopped—Interview with O'Connell on the subject—Letter from Father Kenyon—Costs of the Hawarden Case—Interview with Mr. Potter—O'Brien's committal to prison by the House of Commons—The effect on Irish opinion—Deputation to O'Brien from the 'Eighty-two Club—Letter from John Mitchel—O'Brien's release and O'Connell's proposal to give him a public reception in Ireland—Lord John Russell's disparagement of the Nation—Railway Trial—Robert Holmes' impressive constitutional defence—The 'Eighty-two Club thanks Holmes, and publishes his speech—Before the trial a meeting of Whigs in London attended by O'Connell and his son—Speech imputed to him—Indignation in Ireland—Debate by Meagher and others in Conciliation Hall, followed by letter from O'Connell—J. Reilly's imputations on the Nation 144

CHAPTER III.

HOW THE DECAY OF O'CONNELL'S POPULARITY BEGAN.
The Whigs come into office—Speeches of O'Brien and Grattan on the danger to the National Cause—O'Connell's recent declarations with respect to the Irish elections—His conduct when the ministerial elections arrived Dungarvan abandoned to the Master of the Mint—Public indignation—O'Connell's son refused as a candidate at Dundalk O'Connell's private letter to the Irish Attorney-General—The Peace Resolutions designed to drive the Young Irelanders from the Association—Declarations of Mitchel and Meagher—Smith O'Brien's absence and my remonstrance—My letter on the policy of the Nation in '43 and '46—The false charge of the Pilot refuted—Mr. John O'Connell demands that either his father's friends or the Young Irelanders quit the Association—"The Sword speech"—Secession of Smith O'Brien and the Young Irelanders Dr. Cane's advice The Bishop of Ardagh and the parish priest of Clones on the situation—Letters of the Bishop of Derry, of Grey Porter, and of John Martin—Bishop Blake's remonstrance with O'Connell suppressed—O'Connell denounces the Nation for having committed high treason—The Dublin Remonstrance of 1500 Repealers flung in the gutter—Meeting of the Remonstrance—The Bishop of Elphin's denunciation of the Young Irelanders—First public meeting of the Young Irelanders O'Connell would have them back, but John declines—A deputation to O'Connell—Negotiations and final rupture—Place-begging and its fatal consequences in 1834 and 1846 158

CHAPTER IV.

THE FAMINE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES TILL THE DEATH OF O'CONNELL.
The remedy O'Connell would have proposed in the days of his vigour—The futile remedy he proposed in 1846—Lord Cloncurry's advice—Policy of the Nation—John O'Hagan's advice (note)—Course adopted by Peel's Government—Their fall from Office Indian corn and the British Navy—Arrival of the Macedonian in Dublin with a gift from the United States—Condition of Ireland in 1847—The Irish Councilor Conservatives and Young Irelanders created—Fate of Mitchel's appeal to the Boards of Guardians, and of M'Gee's Native Manufacture movement—Letter from Dr. M' Knight—Advice of the Confederation—Speeches of Mitchel and Duffy—Archbishop Hughes on the famine—Lord George Bentinck's plan vO'Connell's last appearance in the House of Commons—His journey towards Rome—His death—Conduct of the Confederation and the Repeal Association—The General Election of 1847 195

CHAPTER V.

THE EDITOR'S ROOM.
Sketch of David Urquhart—Wallis on Lord Wallscourt and Chisholm Anstey—Letter from Moore Stack—Lady contributors—Street ballads—Daniel Owen Madden proposes a Life of Dr. Doyle and sketches of Irish Philosophers—Letters from William Carleton — His first love—Lord Morpeth's letter on his literary pension — Clarence Mangan—His troubles and repentance—Publication of "Anthologia Germanica"—His shortcomings exaggerated by himself and others—Father Kenyon's proposal of an Appeal by the Catholic Young Irelanders to a National Synod against misrepresentation—A week in London with O'Hagan and Pigot—Proposal to publish Rinuccini 211

CHAPTER VI.

CONFLICTING POLICIES.
Important National Meeting in Belfast—Significant letter from Fintan Lalor proposing a new policy—Doheny visits and describes Lalor — Effect of Lalor's letter on the Confederates—O'Brien's apprehensions—Mitchel objects to the introduction of these opinions into the Confederation—O'Brien authorised to draw up a Report on the best means of repealing the Union—Mitchel's criticism of it — Lalor summons a meeting of farmers, but is defeated by William Connor, the "Farmers' Friend"—Mitchel adopts Lalor's principles, but refuses to apply them immediately—Lalor scoffs at delay, and Mitchel finally declares the new opinions ought to be taught in the Confederation—My Report on the ways and means of establishing an Irish Parliament considered by the Council—Opinion of the Confederate leaders—Its influence down to the present day — Evidence of Mr. Parnell—Mitchel quits the Nation—His parting letter to me—Foundation of the United Irishman—Public Controversy in the Confederation—All the leaders declare against Mitchel's policy, and the meeting condemns it by a decisive majority—He and Reilly retire from the Confederation 233

CHAPTER VII.

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES IN IRELAND.
First meeting of the Confederation after the French Revolution—Smith O'Brien's speech at second meeting—Proposal to obtain arms and officers from France and America postponed—Union of Irish parties recommended—Dillon and Duffy's conference with Mitchel—He declares for a Republic—Deputation to Paris—O'Brien's fear of Anarchists—Samuel Ferguson's policy—Lord Clarendon's enmity to me—Dr. Evory Kennedy and Pierce Mahony—Dillon and O'Hagan on the policy of the Confederation—Prosecution of O'Brien, Meagher, and Mitchel for sedition—The Chartist discontent—Their great petition and its fate—French and Irish types of revolutionists—Continental tourists in Ireland—Arrest of Doheny M'Gee, and Meagher—Proceedings at Waterford—The Limerick soirée—O'Brien's threatened retirement—Treason Felony Act passed—The Creed of the Nation—O'Brien's letter on the subject—Arrest of Mitchel for treason felony—His trial and conviction—A rescue considered impossible—Father Kenyon and T. B. MacManus appeal to me—Delegates sent to Paris and the United States—Conference between Young and Old Ireland—Resolved to dissolve the existing associations and found a new one—Mr. John O'Connell at the last moment deserts—The Government determines to arrest the leaders, suppress the clubs, and suspend the Habeas Corpus Act 257

CHAPTER VIII.

MY IMPRISONMENT IN NEWGATE.
My arrest—Proposed rescue, which I forbade—John Martin in prison—Conferences with O'Brien and Dillon—Articles written in prison and Parliamentary explanation of the same—Conference of Confederate leaders in Newgate—First meeting of the Irish League—Proclamation against the possession of arms—Habeas Corpus Act suspended—M'Gee despatched to Scotland—Meagher and Dillon join O'Brien in the South—Jacta Alca Est and The Tocsin of Ireland—Seizure of the Nation—Defeat and arrest of O'Brien—Martin's trial—O'Doherty's Williams'—Clonmel Trials and the conviction of O'Brien, Meagher, and their associates—Richard Barrett's disgraceful slander published in the Daily News—Correspondence of John O'Donaghue and John Flannedy on the subject—My letter found in O'Brien's portmanteau and Solicitor-General's misrepresentation of it—John O'Connell and the State prisoners 281

CHAPTER IX.

STRUGGLE WITH LORD CLARENDON FOR LIFE AND LIBERTY.
Malice of the Government Press—Letters of an Irish Priest—Official notice to the Attorney-General and to the Sheriff against jury-packing—The brothers Moran—"Creed of the Nation" suppressed—Determined to baffle and defeat the State prosecution—Policy of my counsel—Trenchant address to the Lord-Lieutenant against jury-packing—His reply dissected by the Irish Priest—Letter to Richard Sheil—Letter to T. B. Macaulay—Martin Burke and Mrs. Martin Burke—John Martin's opinion of my defence—My refusal to sanction Father Mathew's Defence Fund—The Irishman started as a pseudo-Nation—Tranquillity in Newgate — Letter from John O'Hagan to John Dillon on the conditions and prospects of Ireland in 1849—Isaac Butt's design to enter Parliament—Meet Lalor for the first time—His policy—His release from prison—Subsequent letter from him Letter from William Pagan on the intentions of Lord Clarendon 299

CHAPTER X.

HOW DID GAVAN DUFFY ESCAPE CONVICTION?
My letter to the Earl of Clarendon disclosing how I escaped at the First Commission, at the Second, at the Third, and at the Fourth 320


volume 2


CONTENTS



BOOK III.

CHAPTER I.

THE REVIVAL OF THE "NATION."
PAGE
Conflicting advice—John Dillon—D'Arcy M'Gee—Thomas Meagher—"Wanted, a few Workmen"—Communications from Carlyle, Dr. Smiles, Maurice Leyne, John George MacCarthy, William Shaw, Edward Butler, Cashel Hoey, John George Adair, William Jennings, Edward Whitty, Julia Kavanagh, Thomas Wallis on the situation—Letters from Speranza—The tirailleurs of Nationality—Weekly suppers—Projects of the day—The Small Proprietor Society—Result of a year's work—John Sadleir and disaster—The National Bank—Revival of Conciliation Hall—T. D. M'Gee invited to return to Ireland—The Irish State prisoners—Letter from T. B. MacManus—The Catholic University and Dr. Newman—Henry Wilberforce and Dr. Quinn 1

CHAPTER II.

THE LEAGUE WITH ULSTER.
Dr. M' Knight consents to induce his friends among the Presbyterian ministers of Ulster to attend a National Convention in Dublin—Character and constitution of the Convention—Resolutions adopted—Establishment of the Tenant League—Meetings of the League in North and South—Constituencies pledged to elect League members, and funds liberally supplied—Lord John Russell's Durham letter and the No-Popery meetings—Dr. Culien founds a Catholic Defence Association—Attempt of the Irish landlords to excite bigotry—Courageous conduct of the Presbyterian clergy—The General Election—New Ross—Letter to Sir Thomas Reddington—Meath, Kilkenny, and Wexford elections—Conference of upwards of forty of the newly-elected members pledged to the principles of Independent Opposition 29

CHAPTER III.

IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.
The Irish Party in London—Sergeant Shee, William Keogh, Frederick Lucas, George Henry Moore—Public dinner in London—Leaders in the House of Commons—Mr. Disraeli—Characteristic anecdotes—Lord John Russell, Mr. Gladstone, Lord Palmerston—Tête-à-tête with Sir Joshua Walmsley—Mr. Roebuck—Dinner at Richard Cobden's—Conversation with Bright and Sharman Crawford—Vigilance of the Irish Party—Their Bill read a second time—Petition against my qualification—The evidence of Mr. O'Hara—Decision in my favour—Vote of Want of Confidence formulated—Negotiations between the Government and the League Party—Lord Derby declares in Parliament that he will never accept the principles of Crawford's Bill—The Leaguers consequently vote against him, and the Government falls—The Aberdeen Government gives office to John Sadleir and William Keogh—Indignation in Ireland—Sadleir loses his seat—When Parliament reassembled seventeen members of the Irish Party deserted to the Government—Diary—A love poem—Select Committee on the Land Bills—Sharman Crawford deserts his own Bill 46

CHAPTER IV.

CONTROVERSY WITH JOHN MITCHEL.
His Mis-statements and Slanders; their Refutation 67

CHAPTER V.

THE ROUT OF THE IRISH PARTY.
Dr. Cullen and his policy—Mr. Gladstone's Budget and the Income Tax in Ireland My contest with the House of Commons—Disastrous consequences of the Budget—Its effect on the Irish Land Bills—Election of John Sadleir—Death of Maurice Leyne—Address of American Dissenting Ministers on John Mitchel's pro-slavery opinions—Sheridan Knowles and his reminiscences of Hazlitt and Lawless—His sermon at a Baptist Chapel—Position of the League at this time Notes from Edward Whitty—Experiments at the Malvern Water Cure—Tour in Belgium and France—Letter from Lucas on my return to Ireland—The Callan meeting—The Thurles meeting—Lucas' mission to Rome—His condition on returning to Parliament—The Australian Constitutions before Parliament—Policy of Robert Lowe—Conference with Lucas on our position—Farewell address to my constituents—Letter from Archdeacon Fitzgerald—Last letter from Lucas—Visit from D'Arcy M'Gee—Evening with Sam Lover—His stories about Sheridan Knowles—Speranza and Mr. Bohn. 82

BOOK IV.

CHAPTER I.

MAKING READY FOR AUSTRALIA.
I determine to quit Ireland—Edward Whitty's opinion—Inquiries as to the climate of Australia—Counsel of William and Mary Howitt, Mr. Woolner, Robert and Mrs. Lowe, Mr. Latrobe—Work before quitting Parliament—Smith O'Brien's case—Conversation with Mr. Disraeli—Letter from Sir Denham Norreys—Visit to Smith O'Brien at Brussels—The Belgian deputy and the widow MacCormack—Visit to M. de Potter, member of the Provisional Government of 1830—The Maynooth College inquiry—Letter from the Maynooth Professor—The Catholic University and Dr. Newman—Application for the Chiltern Hundreds—Alderman Plunkett's consternation—Invitations to public dinners in London and Dublin—Proposed testimonial declined—Generous help proffered by Arthur Geheoghan and Mrs. Anderson—Breakfast with Richard and Henry Doyle—Lindsey and the Civil Service Reform Movement—Louis Blanc, Julia Kavanagh—Sir Emerson Tennant and the Crimean War—Last look at the House of Lords—Death of Frederick Lucas—I decline the public dinners in consequence—Letters from Thackeray and Lord Brougham—Farewell to my friends in Dublin and London—Conversation with Stuart Mill—Dr. Madden and his "Life of Lady Blessington"—Gough the teetotal lecturer—Dr. Hughes, Archbishop of New York—Sir William Molesworth—Mr. Godley, founder of the Canterbury settlement—Letters from Rev. Charles Kingsley, Mary Howitt, and Sir Emerson Tennant 106

CHAPTER II.

MY RECEPTION IN THE NEW COUNTRY.
Sailed in the Ocean Chief—Religious equality established on board—Arrival at Melbourne—Deputation of eighty gentlemen come on board to welcome me—My statement of opinions—Public dinner in Melbourne—The "Backbone and Spinal Marrow" Speech—Melbourne in 1855—Public Library—University and Parliament House—Visit to the Legislative Assembly—Mr. Fellow's Bill—Public dinner in Geelong—Letter from Edward Butler—Condition of the Irish in Victoria—Letter from Orion Horne—Visit and reception at Sydney—Henry Parkes, James Martin, John Hubert Plunkett, W. B. Dalley, and Edward Butler—Public dinner—Declaration of Henry Parkes—John Macnamara—Rev. Mr. West concerning the visit—Parkes' description of all I lost by leaving Sydney—Letter from Rev. J. D. Lang—Letter from Edward Wilson—His Australian projects—Property Qualification—Villiers and Heytesbury Election—Visit to the village of Killarney—Speech of George Johnson—State of the poll John Mooney's proposal—Letter from Edward Whitty Letter to William Carleton—Condition of Victoria in 1856 130

CHAPTER III.

IN THE NEW PARLIAMENT.
New Year's Day Levée Opening of Parliament—The method in which the Governor should communicate with Parliament determined—Bill abolishing Property Qualification carried—Select Committee on Federation of the Colonies Its proposal successful everywhere but in New South Wales—Controversy on the orderly conduct of Parliamentary business—Six cases cited—Errors in building the Victorian Parliament House—Motion respecting Cross Benches—Establishment of Municipal Franchise—Mr. Childers and Mr. Stawell appointed to permanent offices—Fall of the Haines Government—Mr. O'Shanassy commissioned to form an Administration—How the new Government was constituted 159

CHAPTER IV.

IN OFFICE.
Why I became a Minister—Remonstrance of the goldfield members against some of the Ministers—Conspiracy among the civil servants—The "No Popery" rumours—Debate, and fall of the Ministry—Letter from Edward Butler—The second Haines Government and their policy—Representation of minorities—Fall of the Government—Second O'Shanassy Government—Principles of Responsible Government insisted on—Letter from the Chief Secretary, New South Wales—New Reform Bill amended and read unanimously a third time in the Assembly—The measure rejected in the Upper House—Letter from Mr. Bright on the independence of colonies—Mr. Disraeli on the same subject—Industrial projects—Letter from W. K. Sullivan—The New South Wales elections—Dalley and Deniehy—Henry Parkes invited to settle in Victoria—Letters from John Dillon, Edward Whitty, Cashel Hoey, Chief Justice Stawell, Archbishop MacHale, and T. B. MacManus—Lord Palmerston and Mr. O'K Edward—Whitty's arrival in Australia—Letter from B. C. Aspinall—Death of Whitty—The Land Convention and Land League—Cabinet quarrel on the Governor's speech—My serious illness—Departmental reforms—Resigned office—Misrepresentations, letter to the Argus—Generous conduct of the electors at Villiers and Heytesbury—Letter to Mr. O'Hagan—Debate on my resignation in the new Parliament—Mr. Nicholson authorised to form an Administration offers me a place in it, which I do not accept 171

CHAPTER V.

IN OPPOSITION.
Position of the defeated Government—"The Corner"—Organisation of the Opposition—New opinions and desires—Distribution of the business of the party Political badinage The Chinese invasion—Land Bill of new Government—Slow progress—Two Ministers retire—Proposed squatting government—How this project was defeated—Mr. Heales sent for by the Governor, and asks me to take the lead and become Prime Minister—The difficulty about a dissolution—The Nicholson Government remain—Are; again defeated, and the Heales Government is formed by the aid of the squatters—Proposal to me to become Speaker declined—The Occupation Licenses—My exposure of their weakness and futility—Mr. Loader's resignation—Dissolution of Parliament—Success of the Government on the goldfields—My election and the elections in the western district—Rally of the new Opposition—Haines and O'Shanassy—Defeat of the Heales Government—Letters from Richard Cobden, Sir Emerson Tennant, John Henry Newman, Sir Arthur Helps, Henry Parkes—Letter from the professors of the Melbourne University 202

CHAPTER VI.

A STRONG GOVERNMENT AND LARGE PROJECTS.
Character and composition of the new Government—Foundation of the National Gallery—Complicated libel on the Land Department—My answer—Curious discovery after the debate—The Land Bill of 1862—Its main purpose and provisions—Southern industries—Tenure of the squatters—The Argus' estimate of the measure—How it was baffled and evaded—The drafting of the Bill—Its breakdown on legal provisions alone—Decision of the Supreme Court against the phraseology of the Bill—Measures taken by me to check the conspirators—A new Bill amending the measure introduced—Ill supported by the Government—A premature division demanded by the Attorney-General, and the Bill lost by a considerable majority—Letter of Mr. Higinbotham on the conduct of the Government—Intrigues to reorganise the Government fail—Letters from Mr. Childers, Robert Lowe, the widow of Colonel Byrne, Mr. Arthur Geoghegan, Sir James Martin—A Coalition Government of squatters and democrats is formed under Mr. McCulloch—I supported them in amending the Land Act—My late colleagues opposing them—Dissolution of Parliament—Project a visit to Europe—Letter to John O'Hagan—Letter from John Dillon Death of Smith O'Brien—Letters from Childers, Henry Parkes, Cashel Hoey, Mrs. Charles Kean—Resistance to convictism—Bold stroke of Edward Wilson puts an end to the practice 225

BOOK V

CHAPTER I.

FIRST VISIT TO EUROPE.
Edward Neale's estimate of David Urquhart—Invitations from John Brady and Richard Swift—Letters from friends in Ireland, from Mrs. Carlyle—Blake's enjoyment of "a little society"—The O'Donaghue—Pope Hennessy—Rambles with Carlyle—Dinner with Robert Browning at John Forster's—A dinner at St. James' Hall—The Times and Robert Lowe—Letter from Edward Wilson—Visit to Lowe—Visit to Dublin and colloquies with old friends—Public dinner—Isaac Butt, George Henry Moore and John Dillon—Conference with political friends—Public dinner in my native town—Design to write on Responsible Government in Australia—Letter from George Higinbotham—Visit to Mr. Disraeli—Letter from Stuart Mill—Five months in Rome—Lecture before the Society of Arts in London—Letter from B. C. Aspinall—Debate on the Reform Bill—Louis Napoleon in 1867—Letters from Father Prout and Madame Montalembert—Counsel respecting Protection from Carlyle and Stuart Mill—Letter from Thos. Howard Fellows 250

CHAPTER II.

THE McCULLOCH RÉGIME.
The Governor's salary—Government action during my absence—And afterwards Mr. Ireland's malafides—And my repudiation of it—The "Darling Trouble"—Removal of the Governor Higinbotham's Education Bill—It is withdrawn—I am elected for Dalhousie—Death of Sir Charles Darling—McCulloch's system—The McPherson Ministry, and its policy—Immigration stories—Fall of the McCulloch Ministry—I am authorised to form a Cabinet—Letters and news from Dublin—Letters from McCulloch and Parkes—Protection—Opinions of Carlyle, Mill, and Bright 285

CHAPTER III.

PRIME MINISTER.
Policy of the Duffy Government—Southern industries—Land policy—Designs to adorn Melbourne—Spectators estimate of the new Government—Judge Bindon's report on the reception of the new policy by friends and enemies—Convention of Australian Governments at Melbourne—Contest with Sir James Martin and its consequences—Vote of want of confidence, and its reception in Parliament—Comments on my defence by Wilberforce Stephen and others—Protection adopted, and why—Social reforms and impediments to them—Letter from John O'Hagan (note)—Banquets to the Government in great towns and goldfields—Dangerous banter—Appointment of Mr. Childers as Agent-General—National Gallery—Letter from Mr. Verdon—Letter from Thomas Carlyle—Reassembly of Parliament—Vote of want of confidence—How it was carried—Mr. O'Shanassy's interposition and its consequences—Proposed dissolution of Parliament—Conduct of the Governor, and comment of the Spectator on it—Letters from John Forster and the Bishop of Kerry—My use of power—The Chief Justiceship of New South Wales 321

CHAPTER IV.

SECOND VISIT TO EUROPE.
Death of John Martin—Meath election—Forged telegrams and their consequences—Butt and Independent Opposition—News of old friends—Letters to my wife—Archbishop Manning—John Forster—Letter from William Allingham—Orion Home's literary claims—An offer of the Elixir vitæ—Negotiations for re-entering Parliament—Why I declined—Lord Emley—Morell Mackenzie—The O'Connell Centenary—I decline the Lord Mayor's political projects—Lord O'Hagan's centenary oration—Farewell visit of Lord O'Hagan at Monaco—I return to Australia 347

CHAPTER V.

SPEAKER.

My election for Gippsland, the "New Province"—Unanimously chosen as Speaker—The functions of a Speaker—Questions in Parliament—Payment of members—Opposed by the Council—Counter coup—Wholesale reduction of officers—My remonstrance—Letter from Mary Howitt—Personal leisure—K.C.M.G.—Literary criticism—Incidents—"Young Ireland" begun—Correspondence with Pope Hennessy—Lord O'Hagan and MacDermott of Coolavin—Futile appeal by the Colony to the Colonial Office—Re-appointment of Cashel Hoey—Loss of my wife—Death of Edward Butler and John Dillon—Rinuccini—Farewell to Australia—The main reason influencing me—Letter from Archbishop of Sydney—The two last decades of my life 370



Photograph of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy in the regalia of a Knight, and Speaker of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, signed C Gavan Duffy, Jan 5 1880

This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.