Of Englishe Dogges/Section 4
The fourth Section of this discourse
Dogges of a Course Kind seruing for many Necessary uses, called in Latine Canes Rustici, and first of the shepherds dogge, called in Latine Canis Pastoralis.
|Dogges of the courser sort are||The shepherds dogge
The mastive or Bandogge.
|These two are principall.|
He first kinde, namely the shepherds hounde is very neeessarye and profitable for the auoyding of harmes and inconueniences which may come to men by the means of beastes. The second sort serue to succour against the snares and attemptes of mischiefous men. Our shepherdes dogge is not huge, vaste, and bigge, but of an indifferent stature and growth, because it hath not to deale with the bloudthyrsty wolf, sythence there be none in England, which happy and fortunate benefite is to be ascribed to the puisaunt Prince Edgar, who to thintent ye the whole countrey myght be euacuated and quite clered from wolfes, charged & commaunded the welshemē (who were pestered with these butcherly beastes aboue measure) to paye him yearely tribute which was (note the wisedome of the King) three hundred Wolfes. Some there be which write that Ludwall Prince of Wales paide yeerly to King Edgar three hundred wolves in the name of an exaction (as we haue sayd before.) And that by the meanes hereof, within the compasse and tearme of foure yeares none of those noysome, and pestilent Beastes were left in the coastes of England and Wales. This Edgar wore the Crown royall, and bare the Scepter imperiall of this kingdome, about the yeere of our Lorde nyne hundred fifty, nyne. Synce which time we reede that no Wolfe hath bene seene in England, bred within the bounds and borders of this countrey, mary there have bene diuers brought ouer from beyonde the seas, for greedynesse of gains and to make money, for gasing and gaping, staring, and standing to see them, being a straunge beast, rare, and seldom seene in England. But to returne to our shepherds dogge. This dogge either at the hearing of his masters voyce, or at the wagging and whisteling in his fist, or at his shrill and horse hissing bringeth the wandring weathers and straying sheepe, into the selfe same place where his masters will and wishe, is to haue thē, wherby the shepherd reapeth this benefite, namely, that with litle labour and no toyle or mouing of his feete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his owne desire, either to haue them go forward, or to stand still, or to drawe backward, or to turne this way, or to take that way. For it is not in Englande, as it is in Fraunce, as it is in Flaunders, as it is in Syria, as it in Tartaria, where the sheepe follow the shepherd, for heere in our country the sheepherd followeth the sheepe. And sometimes the straying sheepe, when no dogge runneth before them, nor goeth about & beside them, gather themselues together in a flocke, when they heere the sheepherd whistle in his fist, for feare of the Dogge (as I imagine) remembring this (if vnreasonable creatures may be reported to haue memory) that the Dogge commonly runneth out at his masters warrant which is his whistle. This haue we oftentimes diligently marcked in taking our journey from towne to towne, when wee haue hard a sheepherd whistle we haue rayned in our horse and stoode styll a space, to see the proofe and triall of this matter. Furthermore with this dogge doth the sheepherd take sheepe for ye slaughter, and to be healed if they be sicke, no hurt or harme in the world done to the simple creature.
Of the mastiue or Bandogge called in Latine Villaticus or Cathenarius.
THis kinde of Dogge called a mastyue or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly, and eager, of a heuy and burthenous body, and therefore but of litle swiftnesse, terrible, and frightfull to beholde, and more fearce and fell then any Arcadian curre (notwithstading they are sayd to haue their generation of the violent Lion.) They are called Villatici, because they are appoynted to watche and keepe farme places and coūtry cotages sequestred from commō recourse, and not abutting vpon other houses by reason of distaunce, when there is any feare conceaued of theefes, robbers, spoylers, and night wanderers. They are seruiceable against the Foxe and the Badger, to drive wilde and tame swyne out of Medowes, pastures, glebelandes and places planted with fruite, to bayte and take the bull by the eare, when occasion so requireth. One dogge or two at the vttermost, sufficient for that purpose be the bull neuer so monsterous, neuer so fearce, neuer so furious, neuer so stearne, neuer so vntameable. For it is a kinde of dogge capeable of courage, violent and valiaunt, striking could feare into the harts of men, but standing in feare of no man, in so much that no weapons will make him shrincke, nor abridge his boldnes. Our Englishe men (to th' intent that theyr dogges might be the more fell and fearce) assist nature with arte, vse, and custome, for they teach theyr dogges to baite the Beare, to baite the Bull and other such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appointing an ouerseer of the game) without any collar to defend theyr throtes, and oftentimes they traine them vp in fighting and wrestling with a man hauing for the safegarde of his lyfe, eyther a Pikestaffe, a clubbe, or a sworde and by vsing them to such exercises as these, theyr dogges become more sturdy and strong. The force which is in them surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde which they take with their teeth exceedeth all credit, three of them against a Beare, fowre against a Lyon are sufficient, both to try masteryes with them and vtterly to ouermatch them. Which Henry the seuenth of that name, King of England (a Prince both politique & warlike) perceauing on a certaine time (as the report runneth) commaunded all such dogges (how many soeuer they were in number) should be hanged, beyng deepely displeased, and conceauing great disdaine that an yll faured rascall curre should with such violent villany, assault the valiaunt Lyon king of all beastes. An example for all subiects worthy remembraunce, to admonishe them that it is no aduantage to them to rebell against ye regiment of their ruler, but to keepe them within the limits of Loyaltie. I reede an history aunswerable to this of the selfe same Henry, who hauing a notable and an excellent fayre Falcon, it fortuned that the kings Falconers, in the presence and hearing of his grace, highly commended his Maiesties Falcon, saying that it feared not to intermeddle with an Eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so mighty, which when the King harde, he charged that the Falcon should be killed without delay, for the selfe same reason (as it may seeme) which was rehersed in the cōclusion of the former history concerning the same king. This dogge is called, in like maner, Cathenarius, a Cathena, of the chaine wherwith he is tyed at the gates, in ye daytime, least beyng lose he should doe much mischiefe and yet might giue occasion of feare and terror by his bigge barcking. And albeit Cicero in his oration had Pro. S. Ross, be of this opinion, that such Dogges as barcke in the broade day light shoulde haue their legges broken, yet our countrymen, on this side the seas for their carelessnes of lyfe setting all at cinque and sice, are of a contrary iudgement. For theefes roge vp and down in euery corner, no place is free from them, no not ye prince's pallace, nor the country mans cotage. In the day time they practise pilfering, picking, open robbing, and priuy stealing, and what legerdemaine lacke they: not fearing the shamefull and horrible death of hanging. The cause of which inconuenience doth not onely issue from nipping neede & wringing want, for all ye steale, are not pinched with pouerty, but som steale to maintaine their excessive and prodigall expences in apparell, their lewdnes of lyfe, their hautines of hart, theyr wantonnes of maners, theyr wilfull ydlenes, their ambitious brauery, and the pryde of the sawcy Salacones' μεγαλορροῦτον vaine glorious and arrogant in behauiour, whose delight dependeth wholly to mount nimbly on horsebacke, to make them leape lustely, spryng and praunce, galloppe and amble, to runne a race, to wynde in compasse, and so forthe, lining all together vpon the fatnesse of the spoyle. Other som ther be which steale, being thereto prouoked by penury & neede, like masterlesse mē applying themselues to no honest trade, but raunging vp and downe impudently begging, and complayning of bodily weakenesse where is no want of abilitie. But valiaunt Valentine th'emperour, by holsome lawes prouided that suche as hauing no corporall sicknesse, solde themselues to begging, pleded pouerty wyth pretended infirmitie, & cloaked their ydle and slouthfull life with colourable shifts and cloudy cossening, should be a perpetuall slaue and drudge to him, by whom their impudent ydlenes was bewrayed, and layed against them in publique place, least the insufferable slouthfullnes of such vagabondes should be burthenous to the people, or being so hatefull and odious, should growe into an example. Alfredus likewise in the gouernment of his commonwealth, procured such increase of credite to iustice and upright dealing by his prudent actes and statutes, that if a mā trauailing by the hygh way of the countrey vnder his dominion, chaunced to lose a budget full of gold, or his capease farsed with things of great value, late in the euening, he shoulde find it where he lost it, safe, sound, and vntouched the next morning, yea (which is a wonder) at any time for a whole monethes space if he sought for it, as Ingulphus Croyladensis in his Hystory recordeth. But in this our vnhappy age, in these (I say) our deuelishe dayes nothing can scape the clawes of the spoyler, though it be kept neuer so sure within the house, albeit the doores bee lockt and boulted round about. This dogge in like maner of Grecians is called οἰκουρος
Of the latinists Canis Cultos, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.
Borrowing his name of his seruice, for he doth not onely keepe fanners houses, but also merchaunts maisons, wherin great wealth, riches, substaunce and costly stuffe is reposed. And therfore were certain dogges founde and maintained at the common costes and charges of the Citizens of Rome in the place called Capitolium, to giue warning of theefes comming. This kind of dogge, is also called,
In latine Canis Lantarius in Englishe the Butchers Dogge
So called for the necessity of his vse, for his seruice affoordeth great benefite to the Butcher as well in following as in taking his cattell when neede constraineth, vrgeth, and requireth. This kinde of dogge is likewise called,
In latine Molosscicus or Molossus.
After the name of a countrey in Epirus called Molossia, which harboureth many stoute, stronge, and sturdy Dogges of this sort, for the dogges of that countrey are good in deede, or else there is no trust to be had in the testimonie of writers. This dogge is also called,
In latine Canis Mandatarius a Dogge messinger or Carrier.
Upon substanciall consideration, because at his masters voyce and commaundement, he carrieth letters from place to place, wrapped vp cunningly in his lether collar, fastened thereto, or sowed close therin, who, least he should be hindered in his passage vseth these helpes very skilfully, namely resistaunce in fighting if he be not onermatched, or else swiftnesse & readinesse in running away, if he be vnable to buckle with the dogge that would faine have a snatch at his skinne This kinde of dogge is also called,
In latine Canis Lunarius, in Englishe the Mooner.
Because he doth nothing else but watch and warde at an ynche, wasting the wearisome night season without slombering or sleeping, bawing & wawing at the Moone (that I may vse the word of Nonius) a qualitie in mine opinion straunge to consider. This kinde of dogge is also called,
In latine Aquarius in Englishe a water drawer.
And these be of the greater and the waighter sort drawing water out of wells and deepe pittes, by a wheele which they turne rounde about by the mouing of their burthenous bodies. This kinde of dogge is called in like maner.
Canis Sarcinarius in Latine, and may aptly be englished a Tynckers Curre.
Because with maruellous pacience they beare bigge budgettes fraught with Tinckers tooles, and mettall meete to mend kettles, porrige pottes, skellets, and chafers, and other such like trumpery requisite for their occupacion and loytering trade, easing him of a great burthen which otherwise he himselfe should carry vpon his shoulders, which condition hath challenged vnto them the foresaid name. Besides the qualities which we haue already recounted, this kind of dogges hath this principall propertie ingrafted in them, that they loue their masters liberally, and hate straungers despightfully, wherevpon it followeth that they are to their masters, in traueiling a singular safgard, defending them forceably, from the inuasion of villons and theefes, preseruing their lyfes from losse, and their health from hassard, theyr fleshe from hacking and hewing with such like desperate daungers, For which consideration they are meritoriously tearmed,
In Latine Canes defensores defending dogges in our mother toungue.
If it chaunce that the master bee oppressed, either by a multitude, or by the greater violence & so be beaten downe that he lye groueling on the grounde, (it is proued true by experience) that this Dogge forsaketh not his master, no not when he is starcke deade: But induring the force of famishment and the outrageous tempestes of the weather, most vigilantly watcheth and carefully keepeth the deade carkasse many dayes, endeuouring, furthermore, to kil the murtherer of his master, if he may get any advantage. Or else by barcking, by howling, by furious iarring, snarring, and such like meanes betrayeth the malefactour as desirous to haue the death of his aforesayde Master rigorouslye reuenged. And example hereof fortuned within the compasse of my memory. The Dogge of a certaine wayefaring man trauailing from the Citie of London directly to the Towne of Kingstone (most famous and renowned by reason of the triumphant coronation of eight seuerall Kings) passing ouer a good portion of his iourney was assaulted and set vpon by certaine confederate theefes laying in waight for the spoyle in Comeparcke, a perillous bottom, compassed about wyth woddes to well knowne for the manyfolde murders & mischiefeous robberies theyr committed. Into whose handes this passinger chaunced to fall, so that his ill lucke cost him the price of his lyfe. And that Dogge whose syer was Englishe (which Blondus registreth to haue bene within the banckes of his remēbrance) manifestly perceauyng that his Master was murthered (this chaunced not farre from Paris, by the handes of one which was a suiter to the same womā, whom he was a wooer unto, dyd both bewraye the bloudy butcher, and attempted to teare out the villons throate if he had not sought meanes to auoyde the reuenging rage of the Dogge. In fyers also which fortune in the silence and dead time of the night, or in stormy weather of the sayde season, the older dogges barcke, ball, howle, and yell (yea notwithstandyng they bee roughly rated) neyther will they stay their tounges till the householde seruauntes awake, ryse, search, and see the burning of the fyre, which beyng perceaued they vse voluntary silence, and cease from yolping This hath bene, and is founde true by tryall, in sundry partes of England. There was no faynting faith in that Dogge, which when his Master by a mischaunce in hunting stumbled and fell toppling downe a deepe dytche beyng vnable to recouer of himselfe, the Dogge signifying his masters mishappe, reskue came, and he was hayled up by a rope, whom the Dogge seeying almost drawne up to the edge of the dytche, cheerefully saluted, leaping and skipping ypon his master as though he woulde haue imbraced hym, beyng glad of his presence, whose longer absence he was lothe to lacke. Some Dogges there be, which will not suffer fyery coales to lye skattered about the hearthe, but with their pawes wil rake up the burnyng coales, musying and studying fyrst with themselues how it might be conueniently be done. And if so bee that the coales caste to great a heate then will they buyry them in ashes and so remoue them forwarde to a fyt place wyth theyr noses. Other Dogges bee there which esequute the office of a Farmer in the nyghte tyme. For when his master goeth to bedde to take his naturall sleepe, And when,
A hundred barres of brasse and yron boltes,
Make all things safe from startes and from reuoltes.
VVhen Ianus keepes the gate with Argos eye.
That daungers none approch, ne mischiefes nye.
As Virgill vaunteth in his verses, Then if his master byddeth him go abroade, he lingereth not, but raungeth ouer all his lands lying there about, more diligently, I wys, then any farmer himselfe. And if he finde anything their that is straunge and pertaining to other persons besides his master, whether it be man, woman, or beast, he driueth them out of the ground, not meddling with any thing which doth belong to the possession and vse of his master, But how much faythfulnes, so much diuersitie there is in their natures,
|For there be some,||Which barcke only with free and open throate but will not bite,
Which doe both barcke and byte,
Which bite bitterly before they barcke,
The first are not greatly to be feared, because they themselues are fearefull, and fearefull dogges (as the prouerbe importeth) barcke most vehemently.
The second are daungerous, it is wisedome to take heede of them because they sounde, as it were, an Alarum of an afterclappe, and these dogges must not be ouer much moued or prouoked, for then they take on outragiously as if they were madde, watching to set the print of their teeth in the fleshe. And these kinde of dogges are fearce and eager by nature.
The thirde are deadly, for they flye upon a man, without vtteraunce of voyce, snatch at him, and catche him by the throate, and most cruelly byte out colloppes of fleashe. Feare these kind of Curres (if thou bee wise and circumspect about thine owne safetie) for they be stoute and stubborne dogges, and set vpon a man at a sodden vnwares. By these signes and tokens, by these notes and arguementes our men discerne the cowardly curre from the couragious dogge the bolde from the fearefull, the butcherly from the gentle and tractable, Moreouer they coniecture that a whelpe of an yll kinde is not worthe the keeping and that no dogge can serue the sundry vses of men so aptly and so conueniently as this sort of whom we haue so largely written already. For if any be disposed to drawe the aboue named seruices into a table, what mā more clearely, and with more vehemency of voyce giveth warning eyther of a wastefull beaste, or of a spoiling theefe than this? who by his barcking (as good as a burning beacon) foreshoweth hassards at hand? What maner of beast stronger? what seruaūt to his master more louing? what companion more trustie? what watchman more vigilant? what reuenger more constant? what messinger more speedie? what water bearer more painefull? Finally what packhorse more patient? And thus much concerning English Dogges, first of the gentle kinde, secondly of the courser kinde. Nowe it remaineth that we deliuer vnto you the Dogges of a mungrell or a currishe kinde, and then will wee perfourme our taske.
¶ A Diall pertaining to the fourth Section.
|Dogs comprehended in ye fourth secion are these||The shepherdsdogge
The Mastiue of Bandogge
|which hath sundry names deriued frō sundry circumstaunces as||The keeper or watchman
The butchers dogge
The messinger or carrier
The water drawer
The Tinckers curr
|called in Latine Canes Rustici.|