On the Magnet/II-17

On the Iron Cap of a Loadstone, with which
it is armed at the pole (for the sake of the
virtue) and on the efficacy of the same.

Gilbert De Magnete IlloC.jpg
onceive a small round plate, concave in shape, of the breadth of a digit to be applied to the convex polar surface of a loadstone and skilfully attached; or a piece of iron shaped like an acorn, rising from the base into an obtuse cone, hollowed out a little and fitted to the surface of the stone, to be tied to the loadstone. Let the iron be the best steel, smoothed, shining, and even. A loadstone with such an appliance, which before only bore four ounces of iron, will now raise twelve. But the greatest force of a combining or rather united nature is seen [ 87 ] when two loadstones, armed with iron caps, are so joined by their concurrent (commonly called contrary) ends, that they mutually * attract and raise one another. In this way a weight of twenty ounces is raised, when either stone unarmed would only allure four ounces of iron. Iron unites to an armed loadstone more firmly than to a loadstone; and on that account raises greater weights, because the pieces of iron stick more pertinaciously to one that is armed. For by the near presence of the magnet they are cemented together, and since the armature[173] conceives a magnetick vigour from its presence and the other conjoined piece of iron is at the same time endued with vigour from the presence of the loadstone, they are firmly bound together. Therefore by the mutual contact of strong pieces of iron, the cohesion is strong. Which thing is also made clear and is exhibited by means of rods sticking together, Bk. 3, chap 4[174]; and also when the question of the concretion of iron dust into a united body was discussed. For this reason a piece of iron set near a loadstone draws away any suitable piece of iron from the loadstone, if only it touch the iron; otherwise it does not snatch it away, though in closest proximity. For magnetick pieces of iron within the orbe of virtue, or near a loadstone, do not rush together with a greater endeavour[175] than the iron and the magnet; but joined they are united more strongly and, as it were, cemented together, though the substance remain the same with the same forces acting.

The page and line references given in these notes are in all cases first to the Latin edition of 1600, and secondly to the English edition of 1900.

173 ^  Page 87, line 7. Page 87, line 9. armatura.—Here this means the cap or snout of iron with which the loadstone was armed. This is apparently the first use of the term in this sense.

In the Dialogues of Galileo (p. 369 of Salusbury's Mathematical Collections, Dialogue iii.), Sagredus and Salviatus discuss the arming of the loadstone, and the increased lifting power conferred by adding an iron cap. Salviatus mentions a loadstone in the Florentine Academy which, unarmed, weighed six ounces, lifting only two ounces, but which when armed took up 160 ounces. Whereupon Galileo makes Salviatus say: "I extreamly praise, admire, and envy this Authour, for that a conceit so stupendious should come into his minde. ... I think him [i.e., Gilbert] moreover worthy of extraordinary applause for the many new and true Observations that he made, to the disgrace of so many fabulous Authours, that write not only what they do not know, but whatever they hear spoken by the foolish vulgar, never seeking to assure themselves of the same by experience, perhaps, because they are unwilling to diminish the bulk of their Books."

174 ^  Page 87, line 12. Page 87, line 15. The reference to lib. 3 is a misprint for lib. 2. It is corrected in the edition of 1633, but not in that of 1628.

175 ^  Page 87, line 17. Page 87, line 21. conactu.—The editions of 1628 and 1633 read conatu.