Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 10/Number 2

THE QUARTERLY of the Oregon Historical Society VOLUME X JUNE, 1909 NUMBER 2 CONTENTS FREDERICK V. HOLMAN— Discovery and Exploration of Fraser River 1-15 WILLIAM D. FENTON— Father Wilbur and Hi$ Work - - 16-30 LON L. SWIFT-Land Tenure in Oregon 31-135 NOTES 136-137 PRICE: FIFTY CENTS PER NUMBER, TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR Entered at the post ojffice at Portland, Oregon, as aecond'clasi matter THE QUARTERLY OF THE Oregon Historical Society. Volume X JUNE, 1909 Number 2 [The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to Its pages.]

ADDRESS DELIVERED BY FREDERICK V. HOLMAN, AS PRESIDENT OF THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT PORTLAND, OREGON, DECEMBER 19, 1908.


The Discovery and Exploration of the Fraser River.

The dedication of a monument to Simon Fraser at New Westminster, British Columbia, on the thirtieth of September, 1908, in honor of his exploration of the Fraser River, in 1808, recalls a most daring achievement. It is an historic event of great interest and of importance in the history of British Columbia and of the original Oregon Country. The Fraser and the Columbia are the only rivers which break through that great range of mountains which starts near the Gulf of California, and is known in that State as the Sierra Nevada, and continues through Oregon and Washington as the Cascade Mountains. This range of mountains finally disappears in British Columbia.

Four Important Historical Events.

In historical importance this exploration by Simon Fraser should be considered as one of four notable events in connection with these two great rivers. These events chronologically are as follows:

First. The discovery by Captain Robert Gray, May 11, 1792, of the Columbia River.

Second. The discovery by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, June 17, 1793, of the Tacoutche Tesse, which is now known as the Fraser River.

Third. The Lewis and Clark Expedition, in 1804-1806, to the mouth of the Columbia River.

Fourth. The exploration by Simon Fraser, in the summer of 1808, of the Fraser River to its mouth.

It is the discovery and exploration of the Fraser River of which I shall speak particularly in this address.

As the mouth of the Columbia River was theoretically discovered by Captain Bruno Heceta, of the Spanish Navy, August 15, 1775, who named it Rio de San Roque, so the mouth of the Fraser River was theoretically discovered by Lieutenant Don Francisco Eliza, of the Spanish Navy, in 1791, who named it Boca de Florida Blanca, in honor of the Prime Minister of Spain. Neither of these discoverers entered either of these rivers. But the mouth of each of these rivers was shown on Spanish maps afterwards published.

Failure of Vancouver to Find the Columbia and Fraser Rivers.

It is surprising that Captain George Vancouver did not find the Fraser river. He was an experienced explorer and had been a midshipman in Captain Cook's last voyage, in the years 1776 to 1780, inclusive. But it is no more surprising than Vancouver's failure to find the Columbia River. He was put on his inquiry, if he did not have actual notice, in regard to the existence of each of these rivers. Had he found them, or either of them, his fame would be far greater than it is, although it is still great.

It is not important now to speculate on what might have been the result had Vancouver, as he should have done, discovered and entered the Columbia River prior to Gray. But the inquiry arises nevertheless. The United States, in its official correspondence with Great Britain, strenuously insisted on its right to the portion of the Oregon Country drained by the Columbia River by reason of its discovery by Gray. Although that was only one of the claims urged, it was an important factor in the final adjustment, by the boundary treaty of June 15, 1846, of the rights of the United States to that part of the Oregon Country south of latitude forty-nine.

The mouth of the Fraser River is practically a delta, its several exits running through what is apparently a sand island, as viewed from the Gulf of Georgia. On the twelfth and thirteenth of June, 1792, Captain Vancouver's two vessels were anchored in the Gulf of Georgia a short distance south of this delta. June 12 he started to explore in a yawl. He discovered and named Point Roberts, at the south of the delta. Proceeding along the delta, he came, early on the morning of June 13, to Point Grey, which he named. This is the extreme northern point of the delta and the southern point of English Bay, immediately south of what Vancouver named Burrard's Canal, now known as Burrard's Inlet. This delta Vancouver named Sturgeon Bank. In his Voyage, Vancouver says this delta has the appearance of an island, but he continues: "this, however, is not the case, notwithstanding there are two openings between this point [Point Roberts] and Point Grey. These can only be navigable for canoes, as the shoal continues along the coast to the distance of seven or eight miles from the shore, on which were lodged, and especially before these openings, logs of wood, and stumps of trees innumerable."

Certainly this should have shown Vancouver that there was a large river near and that these openings were connected with it. The spring and summer freshet was on in the Eraser, as it was in the Columbia River, when Vancouver was at the mouth of the Columbia, April 27, 1792. At the mouths of each of these rivers the water was discolored, as is shown in in Vancouver's Voyage, and yet Vancouver did not find either of these rivers!

June 22, 1792, as Vancouver was returning to his ship, he came on two Spanish naval vessels. He showed the Spanish officers the sketch he had made of his last excursion. Vancouver says: "They seemed much surprised that we had not found a river said to exist in the region we had been exploring, and named by one of their officers Rio Blancho in compliment to the then Prime Minister of Spain; which river these gentlemen had sought for thus far to no purpose."

The Journey of Mackenzie to the Pacific Ocean.

In 1789 Alexander Mackenzie, afterwards knighted for his discoveries, discovered the Mackenzie River. He went down that river to where it flows into the Arctic Ocean. In 1791 he went to London and returned to Canada in the spring of 1792. Very soon after he started with an expedition to cross the continent to the Pacific Ocean. October 10, 1792, he and his party arrived at Fort Chippewayan, on the Lake of the Hills, now known as Lake Athabasca. Into this lake flow the waters of Peace River. With his party he ascended Peace River until November i, 1792, when they came to a place to which Mackenzie had sent ahead two men to begin the preparation of winter quarters. On Mackenzie's map it is called Fork Fort. Its latitude is 56 degrees 9 minutes; its longitude, 117 degrees 35 minutes and 15 seconds, as ascertained by observations made by Mackenzie. Here Mackenzie and his party passed the winter. May 9, 1793, they started again on their journey, ascending Peace river. May 31 they came to the junction of Finlay and Parsnip Rivers, which form Peace River. The expedition ascended Parsnip River to its head waters. After making a short portage, it came to a river, named by Mackenzie Bad River. This river was descended to the place where the latter river joins the great river, which Mackenzie called Tacoutche Tesse (Tesse meaning river) being a name given it by a tribe of Indians. This is Fraser River. This discovery of this great river occurred June 17, 1793.

Mackenzie descended the Tacoutche until he was deterred by the hostile attitude of the Indians, the physical difficulties of following the river, and by information given by the Indians of its dangerous character. Mackenzie then ascended the river, going north a distance equal to about one degree of latitude. Here he left the Tacoutche and went overland, westerly, until he came to an arm of the Pacific Ocean, now called Bentinck Inlet, at about latitude fifty-two degrees. On his return trip he arrived at Fort Chippewayan August 24, 1793, where his Journal ends.

It is sometimes said in a loose way by writers that Mackenzie thought the Tacoutche was a part of the Columbia River. This was not the case when he discovered the Tacoutche. He did not then know that the Columbia River had been discovered, nor did he learn of it until after his return from his discovery of the Tacoutche.

Mackenzie kept a journal. In it he speaks of the Tacoutche as "the great river," and he also wrote in his journal:

"The more I heard of the river [Tacoutche] the more I was convinced it could not empty itself into the ocean to the North of what is called the River of the West, so that with its windings, the distance must be very great. Such being the discouraging circumstances of my situation, which were now heightened by the discontent of my people, I could not but be alarmed at an idea of attempting to get to the discharge of such a rapid river, especially when I reflected on the tardy progress of my return up it, even if I should meet with no obstruction from the natives."

The Fabled Oregon or River of the West.

In referring to the River of the West, Mackenzie undoubtedly had in mind the fabled river described by Jonathan Carver in his Travels. In 1778 Jonathan Carver published, at London, the first edition of his book, describing his travels in the interior of North America. Carver was a great traveller, and also what I may call a great fabricator or fictionist. In the introduction or preface of his book, Carver says that the greatest part of his discoveries have never been published. He added:

"Particularly the account I give of the Naudowesies, and the situation of the Heads of the four great rivers that take their rise within a few leagues of each other, nearly about the center of this great continent, viz: The River Bourbon, which empties itself into Hudson's Bay; the Waters of Saint Lawrence; the Mississippi, and the River Oregon, or the River of the West, that falls into the Pacific Ocean at the straits of Anian." This is the first time the word Oregon was used or mentioned in print.

In the book Carver further wrote of these rivers, and showed on a map, bound in the book, the Straits of Juan de Fuca between latitudes forty-seven and forty-eight and a part of the fabled "Straits of Anian" running southerly from the Straits of Juan de Fuca into the River of the West sixty or seventy miles east of its mouth, somewhat as though Puget Sound extended southerly to the Columbia River. The mouth of the River of the West he placed at about latitude forty-four. This location of the mouth of this river was evidently used by Carver to carry out his fiction, for on his map he placed opposite the mouth of this river the words "Discovered by Aguilar." In January, 1603, Martin de Aguilar, a Spanish naval officer, made an imaginary discovery of a great river, which he asserted flowed into the Pacific Ocean a short distance north of latitude forty-three. The mouth of de Aguilar's river was afterwards shown on maps. It was easy for Carver to connect the head of his fabled river with the mouth of de Aguilar's imaginary one.

At the time Mackenzie discovered the Tacoutche, he knew that the fabled Straits of Anian, and those of De Fonte did not exist. But he supposed the Oregon or River of the West might exist.

Mackenzie's Knowledge of the Columbia River.

The Columbia River was discovered by Captain Robert Gray, May ii, 1792, about the time Mackenzie left Montreal on his journey to the Pacific Ocean. The discovery of the Columbia River was not known to Mackenzie, probably, until the return of Vancouver to England in 1795, although Mackenzie may have heard of it after his return, in the fall of 1793, to Montreal, from his expedition, for Captain Gray returned to Boston by the way of the Cape of Good Hope in 1793 or 1794. Mackenzie went to England in 1799 and there supervised the publication of his Journal. It was published in 1801.

Captain George Vancouver returned to London in September, 1795, and his Voyage was published in London in 1798. In this book, Vancouver gave a detailed statement of the discovery of the Columbia River, the latitude and longitude of its mouth, and of the exploration of the Columbia by Lieutenant Broughton from its mouth to Point Vancouver, in October, 1792, a distance of about one hundred miles.

Mackenzie's main Journal of his expedition was published, as written by him, subject to editorial supervision. But in the latter part of this volume is a summary, possibly written by his cousin, Roderick Mackenzie, who is said to have revised the manuscript of Alexander Mackenzie. In this summary the Tacoutche is spoken of as being the Columbia River, and a map is bound in the volume showing between dotted lines the Columbia River as being a continuation of the Tacoutche Tesse, as far south as latitude fifty-one, but no further. Vancouver's Voyage is the undoubted source of Mackenzie's knowledge of the Columbia River, as set forth in the summary to Mackenzie's Journal and in said map.

The course of the Columbia River, for more than the one hundred miles above its mouth, as explored by Lieutenant Broughton, was not known until the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1 804- 1 806, and then only from the junction of the Snake with the Columbia River. North of the Snake River the course of the Columbia River was not known until 1811. The first white man who discovered and explored the sources of the Columbia River was David Thompson, one of the partners of the Northwest Company. He was also the first white man to descend the Columbia to its confluence with the Snake River. In 181 1 Thompson, in a light canoe, manned by eight Iroquois and an interpreter, went down the Columbia River, arriving at Astoria July 15, 181 1. This was only a short time after the founding of Astoria. The Tonquin, the ship which brought the Astor expedition, entered the Columbia River March 24, 181 1. April 12 the expedition landed and camped at Astoria to make that place its permanent home.

Alexander Mackenzie was a great and intrepid explorer. He was the first white man to cross the American continent from civilization on the Atlantic slope to the Pacific Ocean, north of latitude forty-two, the northern boundary of California.

The First Settlement in British Columbia by Fraser.

The first permanent settlement on the Tacoutche or Fraser River was made under the leadership of Simon Fraser on behalf of the Northwest Company. This was the first permanent occupation of the continent by white men west of the Rocky Mountains, north of latitude forty-two degrees and south of latitude fifty-four degrees, forty minutes, and being what was subsequently known as the Oregon Country. It was in 1805 that Simon Fraser and his party arrived in that country. I shall not go into details concerning his occupation of this part of the country except to say that he named it New Caledonia and established several trading posts or forts, for this address relates to the discovery and exploration of the Fraser River and not to settlements in the country.

Simon Fraser.

Simon Fraser was a near relative of the noted Baron Simon Fraser Lovat, a Scotchman known as Lord Lovat. The latter was a Jacobite intriguer, who took part in the Scottish rebellion of 1745, which ended in the battle of Culloden. He was executed in 1747. His family is one of the oldest in the Scottish Highlands. Simon Fraser, the explorer of Fraser River, was born in 1776, on his father's farm near Bennington, Vermont. His father, also named Simon Fraser, emigrated from Scotland in 1773. In the American Revolutionary War his father was a British Loyalist or Tory, one of the so-called United Empire Loyalists. He became a captain in the British army. He was captured in the war and died in prison. Young Simon Fraser was taken by his widowed mother to St. Andrews, Ontario, which was his home during his youth, although he attended school at Montreal. In 1792, when he was sixteen years old, he joined the Northwest Company. His promotion was rapid. In 180.2 he became a bourgeois or partner of that company. That he arrived at this position when he was only twenty-six years old is a proof of his ability and of how he was considered by his company. This is also shown from his being sent to, and placed in command of, this new field of operation in New Caledonia.

Fraser's Exploration of the Fraser River.

In the fall of 1807 Simon Fraser received instructions from the Northwest Company to explore the Tacoutche to its mouth. It was then believed that this river was a part of the great Columbia River. This belief was strengthened by the fact that for a long distance, to the point Mackenzie ceased to descend the Tacoutche, its course was almost due south, and the mouth of the Columbia was only about one degree of longitude west of this part of the Tacoutche. There were political reasons for this exploration because the expedition of Lewis and Clark, in 1804- 1806, was a military expedition of the United States Government. There were business reasons to ascertain if furs could be shipped by sea and supplies brought up the river. It was well to spy out the land.

Fraser knew that the mouth of the Columbia was about eight degrees of latitude, a distance of several hundred miles, from where he was to start. He knew only of the route so far as Mackenzie had explored the Tacoutche, from what he had learned by his own experience, and from what the Indians had told him. It is doubtful if he had any exact knowledge, or any knowledge, of what Lewis' and Clark had discovered on the Columbia north of Point Vancouver, for their expedition had not returned to St. Louis, Missouri, until September 23, 1806, and the instructions to Fraser to explore the river must have left Montreal in the spring of 1807.

There could have been no doubt in Fraser's mind that his exploration would be a difficult and dangerous undertaking. Mackenzie had turned back because he had found the river so dangerous to navigate. The Indians along the river below he knew were of a treacherous and warlike character. Fraser had no guide. He made very careful preparations for his journey. The expedition consisted of twenty-one men besides himself, in four canoes. The exact day that the expedition started is in doubt, but it is not material. It probably left Fort George on the Tacoutche, which I shall hereinafter call the Fraser, on May 28, 1808. At the outset one of his canoes was almost wrecked at Fort George Canyon. The next two days were very dangerous navigation. May 30 the expedition arrived at the lowest point on the river reached by Mackenzie, where the latter turned back. But Fraser did not hesitate. In his Journal he says that for two miles there was a strong rapid with high and steep banks which contracted the channel in many places to forty or fifty yards, and that "this immense body of water, passing through this narrow space in a turbulent manner, forming numerous gulfs and cascades, and making a tremendous noise, had an awful and forbidding appearance."

As the passage by land appeared even worse, Fraser resolved to try to have one canoe run the rapid, with a light load and manned by his best five men. The attempt was unsuccessful, the canoe was dashed against a rock, but its crew fortunately saved themselves by climbing up the rock. The rescue of these five men was a perilous act, endangering the lives of all who took part in it. Fraser says in his Journal:

"The bank was extremely high and steep, and we had to plunge our daggers at intervals into the ground to check our speed, as otherwise we were exposed to slide into the river. We cut steps in the declivity, fastened a line tO' the front of the canoe, with which some of the men ascended in order to haul it up, while the others supported it upon their arms. In this manner our situation was most precarious; our lives hung, as it were, upon a thread, as the failure of the line or a false step of one of the men might have hurled the whole of us into eternity."

The Indians advised him to abandon the river and travel overland. Fraser says in his Journal:

"Going to sea by an indirect way was not the object of my undertaking. I therefore would not deviate."

He proceeded on the land a short distance with horses, obtained from the Indians. He then voyaged by the river several days under great perils, at times portaging his goods and canoes over mountains and across canyons and ravines. Sometimes they went over rapids and through river canyons, which it is said never before nor since were attempted.

June 9 the expedition came to a place where "the channel contracted to a width of about forty yards enclosed by two precipices of immense height, which bending over toward each other, make it narrower above than below. The water which rolls down this extraordinary passage in tumultuous waves and with great velocity, had a frightful appearance." It was impossible to carry the canoes overland. The whole party without hesitation and with most desperate daring embarked in their canoes. In his Journal, Fraser says: "Thus skim^ swimming along as fast as lightning, the crews, cool and determined, followed each other in awful silence, and, when we arrived at the end we stood gazing at each other in silent congratulation at our narrow escape from total destruction."

Here the Indians made a map and informed Fraser that it was impossible to proceed further by water, but he continued for the day. Fraser wrote:

"This afternoon the rapids were very bad, two in particular were worse, if possible, than any we had hitherto met with, being a continual series of cascades intercepted with rocks and bounded by precipices and mountains that at times seemed to have no end. I scarcely ever saw anything so dreary and dangerous in any country, and at present, while writing this, whatever way I turn my eyes, mountains upon mountains whose summits are covered with eternal snows, close the gloomy scene."

June tenth he became convinced the party could not continue down the river by water. So he placed his canoes on scaffolds and cached a part of his supplies. The whole party then proceeded on foot, carrying heavy packs, occasionally traveling by water in canoes hired from the Indians. June 26 Fraser wrote in his Journal:

"As for the road by land we could scarcely make our way with even only our guns. I have been for a long period among the Rocky Mountains, but have never seen anything like this country. It is so wild that I cannot find words to describe our situation at times. We had to pass where no human being should venture; yet in those places there is a regular footpath impressed, or rather indented upon the rocks by frequent traveling. Besides this, steps which are formed like a ladder or the shrouds of a ship, by poles hanging to one another and crossed at certain distances with twigs, the whole suspended from the top to the foot of immense precipices and fastened at both extremities to stones and trees, furnish a safe and convenient passage to the natives; but we, who had not had the advantages of their education and experience, were often in imminent danger when obliged to follow their example."

The expedition continued on its journey, sometimes on land, sometimes on water in the canoes of the Indians. July second they arrived at a place where the tide rose about twO' and a half feet. That day they were compelled to take a canoe forcibly in order to continue their journey. July third they arrived at one of the mouths of the Fraser, probably what is called the "North Arm," Although some writers have endeavored to belittle Fraser's achievement and have asserted that he did not reach the mouth of the river, it is now completely established that he did.

In his Journal Fraser says of the location of the mouth of the Fraser River:

"The latitude is 49 degrees, nearly, while that of the entrance of the Columbia is 46 degrees 20 minutes. This river, therefore, is not the Columbia." He then adds: "If I had been convinced of this when I left my canoes, I would certainly have returned."

Dr. George Bryce truly says in his book, "The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company," referring to the latter entry in Fraser's Journal: "How difficult it is to distinguish small from great actions! Flere was a man making fame for all time, and the idea of the greatness of his work had not dawned upon him."

And Simon Fraser's exploring expedition was a great work, not only in its accomplishment but in its effects. It is proper that this river should always bear his name. In exploring a known river he discovered it. While the Fraser River is navigable only a short distance above its mouth, it makes the only water grade possible through almost impassable mountains. The great wagon road and the Canadian Pacific Railway utilize this grade.

Just before and after Fraser arrived at the mouth of the river, the party narrowly escaped being massacred by the swimming</noinclude>Indians. This was prevented largely through the fortitude of Fraser.

Without delay, on July third, the expedition started on its return trip, arriving at Fort George August sixth, without any remarkable experiences on the way. It seems somewhat strange that it took the party a longer time to go to the ocean than to return. Had Fraser known of the conditions he could have made his trip much easier by waiting until later in the season, after the summer freshet was over. But this fact does not in any way detract from, nor change the renown to which this intrepid band of sturdy Nor'westers, and especially its leader, is entitled.

There is no other large river on the Pacific Slope so terrible or so dangerous to follow as the Fraser, unless it be that part of the Snake River between Huntington, Oregon, and Lewiston, Idaho, along which Wilson Price Hunt and his party wandered so helplessly and almost hopelessly in the fall and winter of 1811.

Those interested in this perilous expedition of Fraser should read his Journal, which is printed as a part of a work, in two volumes, written in French by L. R. Masson, entitled "Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest." The Journal of Fraser is printed in English. The first edition was published at Quebec in 1889. Although not an old work, it is now very difficult to obtain.

In preparing this address I have been given interesting and important information, personally, by Judge F. W. Howay, of New Westminster, British Columbia, particularly facts relating to the Spanish discovery of Fraser River. Notwithstanding his judicial duties, he has found time to become a diligent student and a scholarly writer of British Columbia history. I have, so far as possible, examined original sources of information in an endeavor to be accurate in statements of fact.

It may be of interest to add that Simon Fraser continued in the service of the Northwest Company until the coalition of that company with the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1821. April 19, 1862, at the age of eighty-six, he died at St. Andrews, Ontario, where he had lived as a boy.

In recognition of his explorations of the Fraser River, Fraser was offered knighthood, but his limited means prevented his acceptance. It is said, however, that one reason for his refusal was that he believed that he was entitled to be Baron Lovat, as the nearest relative of the noted Lord Lovat, of whom I have spoken.

Simon Fraser was one of the intrepid explorers and hardy pioneers of the Pacific Northwest, men who found the way and showed others where and how to follow. The armies of occupation and of civilization followed slowly on. In a few years he was succeeded by the great leaders and successful furtraders of the Hudson's Bay Company. At the old, the original Vancouver, on the Columbia River, came and ruled. Dr. John McLoughlin, the Father of Oregon, James Douglas, afterwards knighted, and Peter Skene Ogden, all held in grateful memory in Oregon and Washington.

In this one hundred years since Simon Fraser's exploration of the Fraser River, the whole Pacific Northwest has grown Wonderfully in population and in civilization. The days of centennials, beginning with that of Gray's discovery of the Columbia River, show that while the long ago of this part of the continent is comparatively new, its traditions are those of a hardy, a brave, and an intrepid people.

{{c|FATHER WILBUR AND HIS WORK[1]

By Wm. D. Fenton.

James H. Wilbur, familiarly and affectionately known as Father Wilbur, was born on a farm near the village of Lowville, N. Y., September 11, 1811; was married to Lucretia Ann Stevens, March 9, 1831, and died at Walla Walla, Wash,, October 8, 1887, in his 77th year. These three events, as related to his individual life, were the most important, his birth, his marriage and his death. The task of the biographer merges and enlarges itself into the work of the historian. The simple and short narrative common to the lives of most men and women concerns but few, and it is only when a life in its larger development has touched closely the affairs of men and has caused, or been a part of, the times that the narrative becomes historical.

Wilbur was the son of Presbyterian parents, but did not himself become identified with any church until after his marriage, when he and his wife were converted and became members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the village of Lowville, N. Y. At the age of 29 years the presiding elder of his district, William S. Bowdish, granted to him a license as an exhorter, in accordance with the customs and usages of the church at that time, and within two years thereafter Aaron Adams, as presiding elder, granted him the usual license to preach, and in July, 1832, he became a member of the Black River General Conference and entered upon his life work as a Methodist minister. It is recorded that he traveled the circuit of Northern New York until he was called to this then remote field of his future labors, the Oregon Country. George Gary was then superintendent of the Oregon mission, and was a former presiding elder over Mr. Wilbur in the Black River Conference. On September 27, 1846, in company with William Roberts, who had been appointed superintendent of the mission, he sailed from New York on the bark Whitton, coming by way of Cape Horn to the Columbia River, and landed at Oregon City, June 22, 1847.

You will recall that the treaty of Washington was signed June 15, 1846, by which the United States and Great Britain settled the Oregon boundary, and although a provisional government had been established for the government of the then Oregon country, it was not until August 14, 1848, that the Congress of the United States created a territorial government embracing this vast region of country between the 42d and 49th parallels and the Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Rocky Mountains on the east. James K. Polk was President of the United States, and James Buchanan was Secretary of State, and acted as plenipotentiary for the United States, exchanging ratification of the treaty of Washington with Richard Packenham, representing Her Majesty, Queen Victoria. Wilbur and Roberts arrived 13 years after Jason Lee had established the Methodist Mission a few miles north of Salem, but Wilbur and Roberts came, not so much to extend and enlarge the work begun by Lee in an effort to bring religion and civilization to the Indians in this section, but rather to establish the foundation of a Christian civilization in this far-off country by the establishment of missions and churches and schools for our own people, who were then in increasing numbers coming to this section. Some of his co-workers of that early date who have left their impress upon the institutions of the church and of the state, were David Leslie, George Gary, A. F. Waller, Gustavus Hines, William Roberts and T. F. Royal, all of whom have passed away excepting Thomas F. Royal. Wilbur's only daughter was the wife of Rev. St. Michael Fackler, first Episcopal clergyman in the Oregon Country. Mr. Fackler was a native of Staunton, Va. He resided on a farm near Butteville, Marion County, for a time, and conducted services at Champoeg, Butteville, Stringtown, Oregon City, Portland and on the Tualatin Plains. He married Miss Wilbur in 1849, ^^i^ she died in 1850, and was buried in the lot in the rear of where Taylor Street Church now stands. She left an only child and daughter, who survived her but 11 years. Father Wilbur's wife died at Walla Walla, September 13, 1887, in her 76th year, and thus, upon the death of Father Wilbur, no lineal descendant of his family survived. He and his wife were buried in Lee Mission Cemetery, near Salem, Oregon.

When Wilbur arrived in Portland in June, 1847, there were 13 houses in a dense forest, where now stands a city of nearly 250,000 people, and at that time Salem and Oregon City were the chief centers of business and population and influence. Salem was but a missionary point in a country inhabited chiefly by Indians; Oregon City was a trading post with a few hundred population, and Portland did not exist as a municipality. In 1849 Wilbur was appointed to the circuit embracing Oregon City and Portland, and in 1850 built the first church in this city. It is estimated that the parsonage and church so constructed cost $5,000; mechanics received $12 per day, and lumber was $120 per thousand. The first sermon was preached in this city by William Roberts, then living at Oregon City, and the services were held in a cooper shop on the west side of First street, between Morrison and Yamhill. This was on the first Sunday in November, 1847. It is recorded that on the preceding Sunday Rev. C. O. Hosford rode to a point on the east side of the river, and was ferried across the stream by James B. Stephens, in an Indian canoe, and landed at what is now the foot of Stark street; that he clambered up the muddy bank and entered a dense forest of fir, and looking southward, entered an opening in the woods, crawling under and climbing over newly cut logs. At that time this pioneer preacher, who had been sent by Superintendent Roberts to arrange a religious service, found scattered about 14 log cabins and a few families. This was on the last Sunday of October, 1847, the succeeding Sunday William Father Wilbur and His Work. 19 Roberts held the first religious services and preached the first sermon in what is now the city of Portland, and James H. Wilbur preached the first sermon in Taylor Street Church in the spring of 1850. Until the General Conference of 1848, Oregon had been considered a foreign mission, but during the session of that body in May of that year, in Pittsburg, Pa., the Board of Bishops were charged to organize during the quadrennium, what was to be called the "Oregon and California Mission Conference," and the territory to be embraced therein was to include all that portion of the United States west of the Rocky Mountains. California, as a result of the war with Mexico in 1846, had been added to the territorial possessions of the United States. The Oregon country, comprising now the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, the western half of Montana and a portion of Wyoming, had been acquired by the United States by right of prior discovery and occupation as well as by purchase, and its chief importance lay in the fact that the United States had claimed this vast section of country from the discovery of the Columbia River by Captain Gray, May 11, 1792, more than a half century prior to our acquisition of California, and its pioneer missions and settlers were chiefly from the United States. In the spring of 1849 Bishop Waugh, to whom the Board of Bishops entrusted the details of organization of the "Oregon and California Mission Conference," gave explicit instructions to William Roberts, then superintendent of the Oregon Mis- sion, directing its organization, and accordingly the first con- ference was held in the chapel of the Oregon Institute in Salem on September 5, 1849. There were present as partici- pants, William Roberts, of the New Jersey Conference ; David Leslie, of the Providence Conference; A. F. Waller, of the Tennessee Conference; James H. Wilbur, of the Black River Conference ; James Owen, of the Indiana Conference, and William Taylor, of the Baltimore Conference — six men, two from California and four from Oregon, charged with founda20 Wm. D. Fenton tion work for the great church of which they were official representatives. Owen and Taylor, of California, were not present ; Roberts was elected chairman, and Wilbur secretary ; William Helm, an elder from the Kentucky Conference, was readmitted, and J. L. Parrish, who had been received on trial in the Genessee Conference in 1848, was recognized as a pro- bationer in the Oregon and California Mission Conference, and J. E. Parrot, John McKinney and James O. Raynor were admitted on trial. It will be interesting as indicating that they were in the days of small beginnings to note the record of membership at that time. Oregon City reported 30 members and six probationers ; Salem circuit 109 members and 25 pro- bationers ; Clatsop, eight members and one probationer ; an aggregate of 348 members and six probationers; there were fourteen local preachers ,and only three churches, one at Oregon City, one at Salem, and one on the Yamhill circuit; there were nine Sabbath schools, with 261 scholars. At this conference William Roberts was appointed superin- tendent, and James H. Wilbur and J. L. Parrish were assigned to Oregon City and Portland. For the Salem circuit, William Helm, J. O. Raynor and David Leslie; Yamhill circuit, John McKinney and C O. Hosford; Mary's River, A. F. Waller and J. E. Parrot; Astoria and Clatsop were to be supplied. The Oregon and California mission conference met one year later, in Oregon City, on September 4, 1850, and there was a reported increase of only 47 members and 20 probationers. James H. Wilbur was appointed to Oregon City and the Columbia River. The third meeeting of the conference was held in the Oregon Institute on September 3, 185 1, and at that time there were 475 members and 170 probationers. The last and final meeting of the Mission Conference was held at Portland on September 2, 1852, and thereafter, by order of the General Conference held in Boston in May, 1852, Cali- fornia and Oregon were separated, and each state given a separate conference. Wilbur was a strong man mentally and physically, and he Father Wilbur and His Work. 21 was not only a forceful preacher, but a great executive. In- ured to the hardships and privations of pioneer life, he worked as a common workman in the construction of old Taylor Street Church and in the buildinng of Portland Academy, of which he was the founder. One of the earliest cares of the Metho- dist Episcopal Church in the Oregon country was the estab- lishment of educational institutions, the oldest one being the Oregon Institute, now Willamette University. It was in the mind of Wilbur to feed the university by the establishment of academies and schools in different parts of the state. With this end in view, and to serve its immediate constituents, he established the Portland Academy from a fund arising from the donation of three blocks of land in this city, one of which was used as a building site, and the other two of which were to constitute an endowment. The Portland Academy was opened in 1851, in charge of Calvin S. Kingsley. Father Wilbur also founded the Umpqua Academy at the town of Wilbur, in Douglas County, Oregon. In September, 1851, Chapman, Coffin and Lownsdale were the proprietors of the townsite of the city of Portland, and, recognizing the demands for the establishment of educa- tional institutions, donated block 205, upon which the Portland Academy was first built, and block 224, immediately west of this, for this purpose, the deed to which was made to Father Wilbur "in trust to build a male and female seminary thereon and therewith," and it was intended that this should be held in trust for the Methodist Episcopal Church, of the state of Oregon. At that time these blocks were covered with heavy fir timber, and it is recorded that Father Wilbur personally cleared the ground and hewed out of the native fir the timbers for the frame of the building, and assisted in its erection. He solicited subscriptions, advanced and borrowed on his own credit, about $5,000, and the building was completed Novem- ber 17, 185 1. In June, 1854, the Territorial Legislature incor- porated the school, with a board of trustees, of which Wilbur was president ; T. J. Dryer, vice-president ; C. S. Kingsley, secretary, and W. S. Ladd, treasurer. 22 Wm. D. Fenton Many of the children of the pioneer men and women of those early days were students and graduates of this institu- tion, called Portland Academy and Female Seminary. The building was constructed at the corner of West Park and Jefferson streets, and stood there a monument of the devotion and zeal of these early settlers until within recent years. The Willamette University was incorporated by act of the Territorial Legislature January 12, 1853, Wilbur was one of the first trustees. You will recall that the Territorial Legislative Assembly, in 1851, passed an act incorporating the City of Portland, and that the first election was held on April 7, 1 85 1, Hugh D. O'Bryant being elected Mayor by a majority of 4 over J. S. Smith. In June, 185 1, the territorial election for Delegate to Congress took place, and as an indication of the population of the city at that time, it may be noted that Joseph Lane received 162 votes, and W. H. Willson 60 votes, or a total of 222 votes. Taylor Street Church was incorporated under the laws of the territory by special act of the Legislative Assembly on January 26, 1853, although the church had been organized before that time, and the building constructed. The original structure was a frame building fronting on Taylor street, near Third street, and the present brick structure was erected in 1868. It will be remembered that the first Protestant Church erected on the Pacific Coast, from Cape Horn to Bering Strait, was the Methodist Church in Oregon City, begun in 1842, by Waller, was completed in 1844 by Gustavus Hines, and that Bishop E. R. Ames, who visited Portland in March, 1853, was the first bishop who presided over an Oregon con- ference, held at Salem, March 17 of that year. The superin- tendents of the Oregon mission were: Jason Lee, 1834-1844; George Gary, 1844-1847; William Roberts, 1847-1849, when the Oregon mission was succeeded by what was called the Ore- gon and California Mission Conference, under the strong and intelligent hand of William Roberts, who conducted the work of the Oregon and California Mission Conference until it was Father Wilbur and His Work. 23 merged in the Oregon Conference, in 1853. 3,11 of this work, Wilbur was an active participant ; his duty led him into close contact with public affairs, and his activities were not confined entirely to the immediate work of the Christian ministry. On September 11, 1863, a joint convention of the Legisla- tive Assembly of the State of Oregon was held at Salem, Or., to elect a successor to Benjamin Stark, whose senatorial term would expire March 4, 1864, and Benjamin F. Harding, of Marion County, was chosen. James H. Wilbur was nominated as a candidate before that convention. He was appointed superintendent of teaching at the Yakima Indian Reservation in i860, and was continuously in the Indian service for about 20 years. From the position of superintendent of teaching he was promoted by President Lincoln to the position of Indian Agent. It will be remembered that the Yakima Indian Reser- vation was established near old Fort Simcoe, an abandoned military fort, and that the Indians there assembled were from various tribes of Western Washington, but chiefly the Yakimas on the north bank of the Columbia River. Wilbur had the confidence of the authorities at Washington, and in 1873, during the Modoc Indian war, he was appointed peace commissioner with A. B. Meacham and T. B. Odeneal, charged with the duty of attempting to negotiate a treaty of peace with the Modoc Indians. They were to meet at Link- ville, February 15, 1873, but Meacham declined to serve with Odeneal or Wilbur, or either of them, and Jesse Applegate and Samuel Case were appointed in their stead. At that time Wilbur was Indian Agent at Fort Simcoe. Applegate ac- cepted his commission, but subsequently resigned, and he characterized the peace commission as "an expensive blunder." It is enough to say that it failed in its mission, and there are those who believe that if Wilbur had been allowed to serve with Meacham, his knowledge of Indian character would have enabled him to negotiate the peace treaty, and would have avoided the subsequent treachery of the Modocs and the mur- der of General Edward R. S. Canby. 24 Wm. D. Fenton Wilbur devoted himself to the Indian service for about 20 years, and as it seems to me, made a sacrifice which not only did him an injustice, but deprived the commonwealth of a larger service which he might have rendered if he had con- tinued in his work as a great preacher and constructive builder of Christian civilization among his own people. At this dis- tance, and from this point of view, missionary efforts of the early churches, both Protestant and Catholic, seem to have been devoid of permanent results. Jason Lee and his associates, as early as 1834, were inspired with the purpose to convert to Christianity the Indians in this great, unsettled and undevel- oped region. The Methodist Church for a generation devoted its great energy to this work. A like ambition inspired the mission of Dr. Whitman, Father DeSmet, Archbishop Blanchet and other devoted men, both Protestant and Catholic. It may be that their work in some measure acted as a bridge over which the early pioneers could pass to a riper and better civili- zation. These missionaries to the Indians, in anticipation of the probable failure of their work in that direction, turned their energies toward the establishment of educational institu- tions and of local churches for the development of our own people, and in this work Wilbur was a pioneer builder of strength and character. The foundations laid by him in this city in the building of Taylor Street Church were broad and deep, and the influence of what he did in the early '50s, in the work of his hands here, far outreaches any work that he did or could have done in his self-immolation in the service of a passing and perishing race. The American Indian, while un- civilized, was not entirely without religion. While it is true that he had no special knowledge of religion as we understand it, and especially of the Christian religion, he was not barren of all religious instincts and traditions, and was not entirely without guidance. The work done in his behalf has been tran- sitory and without permanent efifect. This, perhaps, could not be foreseen, and yet, as civilization has extended its influence over that vast Indian territory which at one time embraced the Father Wilbur and His Work. 25 entire United States, it will be seen that the Indian race itself has vanished, and that but a fragment here and there now re- mains. Wilbur, when he retired from work among his own people and devoted himself exclusively to the Indian service, was in the prime of a vigorous manhood, and had not yet reached the age of 50 years. If he had remained in the work of Christian education and in the work of the ministry among his own people, it is impossible now to say what might have been the record of his successful life. There are men and women still living, here and elsewhere, who were co-workers with him, and who testify to the sterling qualities with which he was endowed. He was a type of man devoted to the min- istry of the church, that has in large measure passed away. In his day he had much tO' do of detail, of preparation, of con- trol, that could not now and ought not to be done by his suc- cessors. These men were forerunners of a different era, and did the work which times and conditions required them to do. They were all men of strong natures, vigorous in thought, forceful in debate, aggressive along all lines, and unused to the gentler methods and diplomacy of the modern pulpit. The work which was here to be done required such men, it was foundation work, under trying and unfavorable conditions, and they had the time and opportunity which does not come to men of the present day. But few of their illustrious num- ber survive the cares and marks of time. Among that num- ber are Thomas F. Royal and John Flinn, and there may be others. Father Flinn — hale and hearty at the age of more than 90 years — still goes in and out among us in mental and physical vigor. You will recall that the Taylor Street Church was organized in 1848, and the building was constructed in 1850. Father Flinn delivered the second discourse in the old church building. He came from the Maine Conference, and as early as September 3, 185 1, became a member of the Oregon and California Mission Conference. Among the contemporaries of Father Wilbur and Father Flinn in these earlier days were T. H. Pearne, Isaac Dillon, 26 Wm. D. Fenton J. S. Smith, John W. Miller and N. Boane, all of whom were men of power and influence and of the same general type. These were the days when an empire was in process of build- ing. The Oregon territory originally was divided into four districts or counties — Tuality, Yamhill, Champoeg and Clack- amas. Tuality County was first established July 5, 1843, comprised at that time all of the territory west of the Willam- ette and north of the Yamhill River, extending to the Pacific Ocean on the west and as far north as the north boundary fine of the United States, which President Polk and his party claimed was 54:40. On September 4, 1849, name was change from Tuality to Washington County, and Portland, which was founded by A. L. Love joy and F. W. Pettygrove, in 1845, was first incorporated in January, 185 1, and remained within the limits of Washington County until the organization of Multnomah County, on December 22, 1854. At that time there was no newspaper or other publication in what is now Multnomah County, and it was not until December 4, 1850, that Thomas J. Dryer published the first newspaper adn named it The Weekly Oregonian. The Daily Oregonian was not pub- lished until February 4, 1861, and The Sunday Oregonian was first published on the 4th day of December, 1881. The first school of public instruction in this city was opened in a little frame building on Front street, at the corner of Taylor, and was constructed by Job McNamee, the father of Mrs. E. J. Northrup, who, with her family, were at one time members of Taylor Street Church. The first school teacher was Dr. Ralph Wilcox, of New York, and he had under his charge about a dozen pupils. He was also the first physician coming to this city, and it will be remembered that for many years he was Clerk of the United States Circuit Court for this district and Speaker of the House of Representatives in. the Territorial Legislature of 1848. Recurring to the statement that Wilbur was nominated in the joint convention of the Legislative Assembly, September II, 1863, as one of the candidates for the office of United Father Wilbur and His Work. 27 States Senator, it is worthy of historical record that in the early political history of this state there were strong and influential men identified with the Methodist Church who were more or less active in the political forces of the state. In this same Joint Assembly Thomas H. Peame, who was a distin- guished editor of the Pacific Christian Advocate, was also mentioned as a candidate for the Senate, and had the support of Addison C. Gibbs, who, on the preceding day, had been inaugurated as Governor of the state, and who was also a mem- ber of the Methodist Church; J. S. Smith, who was elected to Congress as a Democrat in June, 1868, was a preacher in the Methodist Church under the mission conference presided over by William Roberts, and was admitted to that conference in 185 1-2. He also was a co-worker with Wilbur in all the activities of the church in this section. George Abernethy, the first Governor of Oregon, was a member of the Methodist Church at Oregon City, and assisted in building the first Protestant Church erected on the Pacific Coast, which is still standing at Oregon City. William Roberts was the adminis- trative ofiicer and active member of the Methodist Episcopal Church in this jurisdiction for many years during these pioneer times. He was an ideal executive and a fit co-worker with James H. Wilbur. The one was skillful to plan, the other strong to execute, and to these two men, in large measure, is due the successful issue of the preliminary work entrusted to their care. The contemporaries of Wilbur profoundly admired the man, and in this regard he had the love and affection of men of all classes. In his zeal and constructive ability he has been re- garded as the Jesuit of Methodism in the Northwest. If he had lived in the days of Ignatius Loyola, the Spanish soldier and prelate, he would have taken the three vows of that great order founded by him, and devoted himself to a life of poverty, chastity and obedience in the service of his Master. H. K. Hines, for some time editor of the Pacific Christian Advocate, who delivered a memorial discourse at the funeral of Father 28 Wm. D. Fenton Wilbur at Taylor Street Church, October 30, 1887, speaking of him, said : "So long had he been a chief, if not the chief, figure in our Methodism on this coast, that it is not at all strange that his loss is so widely felt and unusually mourned His place in our church work was unique; and perhaps it might be said there was place for but one Father Wilbur in our work. His was a history and a work that can never be repeated, nor even imitated on this coast. He was essentially and by nature a pioneer." Summarizing what Dr. Hines has so well said of the man whom he knew, it may be said that Father Wilbur as an ad- ministrative and executive officer had rare discernment and force. His address was familiar, his carriage imposing, and his presence indicative of great will force. He was benevo^ lent to a fault, and for many years prior to his death it is said that he disbursed about $3,000 a year in benevolences, al- though he was a man of small fortune. By his will he be- queathed $10,000 to the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, $10,000 to the Church Extension Society, and $10,000 to the Freedman's Aid Society, and the remainder of his estate, amounting to about $17,000, over and above these specific bequests, was bequeathed to Willamette University. Speaking of his work among the Indians, Dr. Hines said : "Twenty-two years of the life of James H. Wilbur were breathed out into what was such a moral desolation when he and his companions went there: Lost some would say, in the all-absorbing and unresponsive soul of paganism." And, while Dr. Flines dissents from this estimate of the sacrifice which Wilbur had made, it is debatable whether such a man should have made so great a sacrifice. A sense of natural justice and desire to bring light to a race in spiritual darkness, would prompt such men as Wilbur to give the best of their lives to such work. It is not true, as Dr. Hines has said, that "very much that was greatest in the character and most widely in- fluential in the life and reputation of Mr. Wilbur himself, was the fruit and growth of that work and these years of conseFather Wilbur and His Work. 29 cration to the redemption of the Indian race." This may in part be conceded to be true, and yet the biographer and his- torian who not only narrates events but seeks to discover the philosophy and purposes of the acts of men and their influence beyond their times, must regret that the labors of sO' great a man should have been so long and so exclusively devoted to a race that he could not help into a permanent and enduring civilization. Here and there a remnant of that race yet re- mains, and its untamed blood lives its nature and instinct, in a few strong members, but the severe chronicler of the times must attest the truth of history that in large degree the work of evangelism among the native races has not measured up to the expectation of the brave men and women who have sacrificed so much of life and of treasure and labor in their behalf. And the chief distinction that will be noted in the life and work of James H. Wilbur will be that upon virgin soil, in the unbroken forests of the Oregon country, with his own hands, he laid the foundation of Taylor Street Methodist Church, and like institutions and influences in other sections of this then new country, and that he here began a work which, in the circle of its influence and in the effectiveness of its power, will be eternal. What he did here and elsewhere along these lines was done with no thought of distinction or enduring fame. Longfellow says that "the talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well, without a thought of fame," and true greatness takes no notice of what the future may have in store for those who achieve, and is not troubled about the memorial tablet. Wilbur lived a life of usefulness and struggle, but in and through it all there was purpose and achievement. Daniel Deronda, at the end of that tragic story so well portrayed by George Eliot, says : "What makes life dreary is the want of motive; but once beginning to act with that penitential, loving purpose you have in your mind, there will be unexpected satisfactions — there will be newly-opening needs continually coming to carry you on from day to day. You will find your life growing like a 30 Wm. D. Fenton plant." And so it is that these early pioneer preachers, of whom Wilbur was a distinguished type, were placed in the way of empire building, and the motive which most strongly impelled them to action was that they might establish a Chris- tian civilization in this distant and remote section of their country, and that they might set in motion forces that would endure forever. They were men without fortune, and inured to the hardships and privations of a new country; they were poorly compensated in money, and at times overwhelmed by apparently insurmountable difficulties. A mark of a great mind is the renewal of effort at each succeeding failure, and so it was in the case of Wilbur and men of his type, although they met with difficulties and oftentimes failed to accomplish results desired, each failure quickened their ambition to a higher and better effort. Confucius says : "Our greatest glory is not, in never falling, but in rising every time we fall." This is, indeed, pagan phil- osophy, but none the less Christian, for such has been the mainspring of that effort which has extended the religion of Jesus of Nazareth from a Roman province to the conquest of the world. LAND TENURE IN OREGON * Including the topography, disposition of public lands, landlordism, mortgages, farm output, and practical workings of tenant farming of the state, together with tables and copies of land leases. By Lon. L. Swift. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1 — The United States Census Reports, for 1880, 1890 and 1900. 2 — "Public Land Commissioner's Report, 1904-1905," Sen- ate Documents, Vol. 4. 3 — "The Resources of the State of Oregon, 1890," Collated and Prepared by the State Board of Agriculture. 4 — "Agricultural Economics," by Prof. Henry C. Taylor. 5 — ."Farm Tenancy a Problem in American Agriculture," by H. C. Price — Popular Science Monthly, Jan., 1908. 6 — "Farm Ownership in the United States," by Ernest Ludlow Bogart — The Journal of Political Economy, April, 1908. 7 — Reports from prominent landowners throughout the State on the practical workings of tenant farming and on the agricultural credit system of the State.

  • Prepared at University of Oregon, 1907-8, in partial fulfillment of requirements

for the Master's degree. Acknowledgment is made of assistance received from the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the preparation of this study. 32 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER 1. Introduction. Agricultural efficiency is determined largely by the system of land tenure under which farming is conducted. In Oregon, as in the United States as a whole, the percentage of tenancy has been increasing since 1880, the year in which the first data was collected on this subject. The proportion of rented farms in Oregon in 1880 was 14. i per cent of the total number of farms in the State; by 1900 this percentage had increased to 17.8. The increase of tenant farming in the United States during the same period was much greater than in Oregon, rising from 25.5 per cent in 1880 to 35.3 per cent in 1900. As soon as the desirable government land that is available for homestead entry or desert entry is all taken up, as is already practically the case, tenant farming will increase rapidly. The high price of land will make it impossible for the farmer of small means to secure a farm of his own and an ever increas- ing number will endeavor to rent. No argument is required to prove that tenant farming is undesirable. Landowners universally acknowledge that the farmer should own the land he tills. A tenant, who is merely concerned with gaining returns from a tract of land for one or five years, has little interest in improving the soil and pro- viding for its future efficiency. Farming requires interest of the farmer in the welfare of the farm to insure the best re- sults both for present and future; and contract or agreement, no matter how strict and specific, can not take the place of direct personal interest. Tenants are seldom found who' have the same concern in preserving and increasing the productivity of a rented farm that men do in a farm of their own. Life leases or personal contact of owners and tenants may slightly alleviate difficulties that would otherwise arise, but no system Land Tenure in Oregon. 33 of renting yet discovered proves as satisfactory, both tO' the farmer himself and to the community as a whole, as operation of farms by landowning farmers. If tenant farming continues to increase, agricultural effi- ciency will not be as great as it would be under a system of farming where land is tilled by owners. The soil will become less productive because it is being constantly "skinned" by tenant farmers. It has been aptly said that the nation which tills the soil so as to leave it worse than they found it is doomed tO' decay and degradation. Tracts of land have ac- tually been abandoned in the states along the Atlantic Seaboard because the soil has become too unproductive to support both landlord and tenant. Tenant farming naturally seeks the most fertile lands be- cause they yield the largest returns for the labor of cultivating and harvesting. Poor grades of land will scarcely pay a tenant for his work after the owner receives his share of the produce; consequently, tenants devastate our best, most pro- ductive lands, the garden spots of the United States, which should receive the greatest care and attention. Many reasons can be given to show that tenant farming is employed mostly on fertile and valuable lands. Owners of the best farms ac- quire a competency sooner than their less favored neighbors, and are enabled to retire from active work and rent their farms. Capitalists invest their money in the better grades of land because it yields the surest and largest returns for the sum invested. Tenants, as a rule, are men of limited means, who have not the capital to conduct farming on an extensive scale such as is necessary to make a success of farming on poor grades of land where the margin of profit is small. More risk is involved in farming poor land because the outlay is necessarily greater in proportion to the amount of returns and crops are more uncertain. Diversified farming is espe- cially adapted to fertile land, and this kind of farming can be conducted largely by the farmers' own personal labor. These 34 LoN L. Swift facts make it evident that tenant farming is preying on the better lands and is gradually reducing their productivity. One wholesome condition in our present system of tenant farming is the lack of landlordism. A large proportion of the owners of rented farms in the United States, and especially in Oregon, rent only one farm; and most of these landowners reside in the same county in which their farms are located. They are in no sense the great landlords like England sup- ports, for they maintain a close personal contact with their tenants. In 1900, more than two-thirds of the owners of rented farms resided in the same county in which their farms were located, and 94 per cent of the owners of rented farms, rented only one farm. The figures for the United States do not show such a favorable condition, but the proportion of landlordism is small. As tenant farming is increasing rapidly in this country, and as cash tenancy, which is the system gen- erally employed by the wealthy landlord, is increasing more rapidly than share tenancy, it appears very doubtful whether the small proportion of landlordism existing at the present time will long be maintained. Short leases tend to increase the evils of tenant farming by making the renter more transitory and less interested in the welfare of the land. A very large proportion of leasing in Oregon is conducted by one year contracts, and farms are seldom rented in this State for more than two or three years under definite agreement. This short system of leasing may be due largely to the newness of the State, but it produces very unsatisfactory results. The tenant farmer in Oregon generally has the name of being a land skinner and shiftless farmer. The best results of tenant farming are said to be produced by cash tenancy rather than by share tenancy, and by long leases rather than by short leases. The object of this paper is to show the conditions and ten- dencies of land tenure in Oregon and the progress and results of farming. The practical workings of the systems of renting Land Tenure in Oregon. 35 employed in Oregon at the present time are discussed as re- ported by prominent landowners throughout the State. After a brief outUne of the topography of the State and of the dis- position of public lands, a somewhat detailed discussion will be given of tenancy in Oregon, of residents of landowners who rent their farms, and of the agricultural credit system of the State. Attention will also be given to the number, size and productivity of the farms in the different sections and counties of Oregon. The census reports for 1900 give the latest figures bearing on tenancy and farm output that have been obtained, which is a disadvantage, making it impossible to bring the figures up to the present time. Perhaps the most vital chapter is that dealing with the systems of tenant farm- ing employed in Oregon as explained from the reports of prominent landowners throughout the State. Owing to the lack of data or other information on the agricultural credit system of the State, this part of the investigation is incom- plete and unsatisfactory. The appendix contains copies of some model leases according to which leading landowners in different parts of the State have rented and are renting their farms. 36 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER II. Topography. Oregon is nearly an exact parallelogram, being in extent approximately 275 miles from north to south and 350 miles from east to west. The Cascade mountains running parallel with the coast about no miles inland, divide the State into Eastern and Western Oregon, which differ greatly in cli- mate, elevation, and productivity. The Willamette Valley, the most productive portion of the State, lies between the Cascade mountains and the Coast Range. It is drained by the Willamette River and its tributaries. The rainfall is be- tween 40 and 50 inches annually; but, owing to almost total absence of precipitation during the summer months and to the present methods of farming, the farm output can, doubt- less, be greatly increased by means of proper fertilizing and irrigation. The soil is fertile and farming so diversified that almost every kind of agricultural activity attempted in any country in the latitude of Oregon is pursued. The counties lying in this section of the State are Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas, Yamhill, Marion, Polk, Linn, Benton and Lane. Southwestern Oregon is hilly and mountainous but contains many fertile valleys. This part of the State is especially adapted to the raising of fruit. This section includes, in all, five counties: Douglas, Jackson, Josephine, Curry and Coos. Curry and Coos are on the coast and not well adapted to orchards. The other coast counties are Lincoln, Tillamook and Clatsop. Columbia lies immediately east of Clatsop along the Columbia River, and the two counties have similar cli- matic and agricultural conditions. These counties have a very heavy rainfall and are lined with timbered hills and moun- tains. The principal farming industry is dairying. Eastern Oregon is cut off by the Cascade Mountains from the rainfall enjoyed by the western part of the State, and conLand Tenure in Oregon. 3; sequently is a semi-arid region. The kinds of farming en- gaged in are principally stock-raising and the production of wheat. Umatilla county is especially adapted for wheat farm- ing. The greater part of Eastern Oregon is very sparsely populated, Baker, Union and Umatilla comprising the more thickly settled portion. In these three counties, as well as in Wallowa, farming is somewhat diversified. In the counties along the Columbia River, Morrow, Gilliam, Sherman and Wasco, the principal industry is wheat raising; but Wasco produces a large quantity of excellent fruit. Stock-raising is the principal industry in the other seven counties, which are Crook, Wheeler, Grant, Malheur, Harney, Lake and Klamath. None of these counties are favored with a railroad except Malheur, Klamath and Grant; but the last two named have only a branch line extending into their territory. 38 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER III. Disposition of Public Lands. Oregon has a total area of 61,976,520 acres or 96,838 square miles, which is one thirty-third of the area of the United States. Of the total in Oregon, 698,880 acres, or 1,092 square miles, is water surface, leaving 61,277,440 acres, or 95,746 square miles, of land area. The approximate area of timber land is 18,459,520 acres, or 28,843 square miles; agricultural land, 42,817,920 acres, or 66,903 square miles. The area appro- priated is 26,208,219 acres, or 40,950 square miles; area re- served, 14,894,967 acres, or 23,274 square miles ; area unap- propriated and unreserved, 20,174,254 acres, or 31,522 square miles. The actual area included in farms in 1900 was 10,071,- 328 acres, or 15,736 square miles, being nearly one-sixth of the total area of the State. The area of land granted under the various acts up to June 30, 1904, may be classified as follows: Confirmed donation land claims, 2,614,082.24 acres. Wagon-road construction land grants, 2,453,932.32 acres : including Oregon Central and Military road, 845,536 acres; Corvallis and Yaquina Bay road, 90,240 acres ; Willamette Valley and Cascade Mountain wagon road, 861,504 acres; Dalles Military road, 556,832.67 acres ; Coos Bay and wagon road, 99,819.35 acres. Railroad construction land grants, 4,812,298.64 acres: in- cluding Northern Pacific, 602,684.94 acres; Oregon and Cali- fornia, 3,821,901.80 acres; Oregon Central, 387,711.90 acres. Swamp lands: selected, 526,903.63; approved, 351,743.16 acres; patented, 249,244.82 acres; rejected, 152,151.41 acres. Grants of land for common schools, 3,404,302 acres: for charitable, educational, penal and reformatory institutions, 136,- 080 acres ; for internal improvements, 500,000 acres. Land Tenure in Oregon. 39 Scrip — Private land claims, 5,200 acres. Scrip — 'Sioux half-breeds, 80 acres. Scrip — Agricultural college located, 70.240 acres . Allotments to individual Indians, 535,167.45 acres. Mineral lands, total, 31,184.9 acres, including lode and mill sites, 2,404.56 acres ; placer, 2,903 acres. Final homesteads, 3,493,637.24 acres. Commuted homesteads, 588,029.29 acres. Final timber-culture entries, 223,861.84 acres. Land sold under timber and stone acts, 1,940,052.04 acres. Reservoir rights of way, 1,110.13 acres. Forest reserves, 4,649,240 acres. State reclamation land grants, approved, 121,786.04 acres. Land withdrawn for national reclamation purposes, with- drawn, 1,504,600 acres; restored, 91,520 acres; balance, 1,413,- 080 acres. Land disposed of for cash under the various acts, 4,211,- 483.51 acres. Entries pending in public-lands general land office, on July 1st, 1904; original homestead entries, 2,057,840 acres; final homestead entries, 59,450 acres ; commuted homestead entries, 29,145 acres; timber and stone entries, 367,140 acres; other cash entries, 89,900 acres. Crater Lake national park, 159,360 acres. Indian lands reservations, 1,274,554 acres. Ceded Indian lands not open to settlement, 26,111 acres*. Nearly one-half of the farming land of Oregon has been taken up under the final or the commuted homestead acts. The rate at which land is being acquired under these laws is becoming less year by year. Reports from 1868 to 1904 show that land available for homestead entry was rapidly diminish- ing before the latter date.

  • Pub. Land Comm. Report, Sen, Doc. Vol. 4, pp. 138-360. 40

LoN L. Swift TABLE 1. ACBEAGE TAKEN UP ANNUALLY UNDEB THE FINAL AND COMMUTED HOMESTEAD ENTRIES FROM 1868 TO 1904. Year. Final. Commuted. 1868 4,068.22 1869 9,528.57 1870 15,371.17 1871 23,498.89 1872 26,971.45 1873 39,542.33 1874 36,995.87 1875 47,619.89 1876 44,795.59 1877 58,289.64 1878 54,749.09 1879 36,024.76 1880 39,873.50 1881 50,316.85 1882 63,638.26 5,312.75 1883 85,559.67 9,614.54 1884 77,285.32 13,436.87 1885 67,990.56 9,371.56 1886 76,025.09 7,517.07 Year. Final Commuted. 1887 90,774.14 11,810.14 1888 118,925.60 15,267.92 1889 145,764.60 22,625.85 1890 140,308.78 26,153.02 1891 165,641.24 32,291.37 1892 176,066.13 27,484.32 1893 148,787.76 25,655.25 1894 116,097.66 11,653.69 1895 132,404.76 11,082.41 1896 152,265.09 4,789.30 1897 178,001.97 3,387.95 1898... 211,398.10 8,327.04 1899 179,811.42 7,475.07 1900 168,145.24 17,268.05 1901 152,189.49 42,457.23 1902 130,835.96 92,173.67 1903 118,437.04 120,709.91 1904 109,637.60 62,164.37 In general, it may be said that the yearly acreage taken up under final homestead entry became greater till 1893. During 1893, 1894 and 1895, the acreage was less than it had been before and much less than it was during the years immediately succeeding. The largest yearly acreage was taken in 1898, and the figures steadily grow less since that date. The area taken up in 1898 was nearly twice as great as in 1904. Com- muted homestead entries do not show a general de- cline in acreage during the last years for which the report is given, but only half the area was com- muted in 1904 as in the preceding decade. The an- nual acreage was smaller from 1894 to 1900, inclusive, than it had been during the years immediately preceding; but from 1901 to 1903, it increased rapidly and fell off in 1904. If the figures on final and commuted homestead entries since 1904 could be obtained, there is no doubt that they would show a decided decrease since that time. Practically all land suit- able for farming that is available to homestead entry has now been taken up.

  • Pub. Land Comm. Report, Sen. Doc. Vol. 4, pp. 138-360. Land Tenure in Oregon.

41 CHAPTER IV. Land Tenure in Oregon and Other States. Renting has proved unsatisfactory in Oregon as elsewhere. Tenancy had not reached a high percentage in this State before 1900, the latest date for which figures have been obtained on land tenure. In table one, it was shown that the yearly acreage acquired by farmers in Oregon under the final and commuted homestead acts, had not decreased to any considerable extent before 1900. As long as good land could be had for the ask- ing, the landless farmer did not need tO' rent but secured a farm of his own. Yet, by 1900, renting was already working its evils in this State. The tenant had already shown himself to be anything but a successful farmer. In our discussion, we will first examine the figures relating to tenant farming in Oregon as compared with those for other states and geographi- cal divisions of the United States and then study the different sections and counties of Oregon itself. Before beginning this discussion, it may be well to have in mind just what is meant by the term "farm" and by the classification of farmers into six groups as defined in the census reports. In instructing those collecting data for land tenure in the United States for 1900, the following definition was given to specify what each farm should include: "A farm, for census purposes, includes all the land under one management, used for raising crops and pasturing live stock, with the wood lots, swamps, meadows, etc., connected therewith, whether consist- ing of one tract or of several separate tracts. It also includes the house in which the farmer resides, and' all other buildings used by him in connection with his farming operations, to- gether with the land upon which they are located. If the indi- vidual conducting a farm resides in a house not located upon the land used by him for farm purposes, and his chief occupa42 LoN L. Swift tion is farming, the house and lot on which it is located are a part of the farm. If, however, he devotes the greater part of his time to some other occupation, the house in which he re- sides is not a part of the farm. If the land owned by an indi- vidual, firm, or corporation is operated in part by the owner and in part by one or more tenants or managers, or if the land is wholly operated by tenants or managers, the portion of the land occupied by each is a farm, and must be reported in the name of the individual or individuals operating it. - No land cultivated under the direction of others is to be included in the report of the land operated by the owner. For census pur- poses, market, truck and fruit gardens, orchards, nurseries, cranberry marshes, greenhouses and city dairies are "farms." Provided, The entire time of at least one individual is devoted to their care. This statement, however, does not refer to gar- dens in cities or towns which are maintained by persons for the use or enjoyment of their families and not for gain. Public institutions, as almhouses, insane asylums, etc., cultivating large vegetable or fruit gardens, or carrying on other agricultural work, are to be considered as farms."* Six classes of farmers are named by the census reports for 1900 : owners, "part owners," "owners and tenants," managers, cash tenants and share tenants. Owners are those cultivating farms belonging to them; part owners, those owning a part and renting a part of the farms tilled by them (in 1880 and 1890, farms thus operated were reported as two; one owned, the other rented) ; owners and tenants, those cultivating farms operated by the joint direction and by the united labor of two or more persons, one owning the farm or a part of it, the other, or others, owning no part but receiving for supervision or labor a share of the produce; managers, those operating farms for a fixed salary ; cash tenants, those cultivating farms for a definite amount of money; share tenants, those cultivat-

  • U. S. Census Report for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, page XIV. Land Tenure in Oregon.

43 ing farms for a certain per cent of the produce.* In 1880 and 1890, the first four classes were all included in class one. Some of the questions relating to land tenure in Oregon that first present themselves for consideration, are the number of farms operated by each class of farmers, the size of these farms, and the relative quality of the land as shown by its value. A classification of the percentage of the number of farms, farm area, and value of farm property, by tenure for the United States, Western Division, California, Washington and Oregon, will reveal the general status of Oregon in regard to the manner in which its farming was conducted in 1900. TABLE 2. PEKCENTAGE OF THE NTTMBER OF FARMS, ACRES IN FARMS, AND VALUE OF FARM PROPERTY, CLASSIFIED BY TENURE FOR THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900. (t) NUMBER OF FARMS. Farmers. United States. Western Division. California. Washington Oregon. 54.9 69.6 60.7 73.3 68.0 Part Owners. . . 7.9 10.1 11.3 10.5 11.9 Owners and 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.9 Managers 1.0 3.1 4.5 1.2 1.4 Cash Tenants . 13.1 7.7 12.5 7.1 7.4 Share Tenants. 22.2 8.9 10.6 7.3 10.4 ACRES IN FARMS. 50.2 37.6 35.1 54.7 52.0 Part Owners.. . 14.8 20.7 17.1 26.8 20.5 Owners and 1.1 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.1 10.7 26.7 24.3 4.4 11.5 Cash Tenants . 9.2 7.3 10.4 5.5 5.3 Share Tenants. 14.0 7.2 12,6 7.8 9.6 VALUE OF FARM PROPERTY. 51.0 46.1 40.6 57.2 53.8 Part Owners.. . 12.5 16.6 16.0 21.3 17.4 Owners and 1.2 0.7 0.5 0.9 1.3 5.2 15.5 18.1 3.4 6.3 Cash Tenants . . 12.1 9.3 11.4 6.6 8.3 Share Tenants . 18.0 11.8 13.4 10.6 12.9

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, p. XLIII.

tU. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 260-261. 44 LoN L. Swift In Oregon, more than two-thirds of the farms, in 1900, were operated by owners and nearly all the others, by tenants. Owners operated 68 per cent; part owners, 11.9; share tenants, 10.4; cash tenants, 7.4; managers, 1.4; owners and tenants, 0.9. Some of the land operated by part owners was rented and some owned by those whO' cultivated it; that operated by owners and tenants was farmed jointly by owners and tenants. Owners operated 13 per cent more farms in Oregon than in the United States. This difference was made up mainly by share tenancy and partly by cash tenancy, the percentage of share tenancy in the United States being twice as large as in Oregon ; cash tenancy, 5.7 larger ; part owners, 4.0. In the Western Division, the percentage of the different classes of tenancy was much the same as in Oregon ; share tenancy, how- ever, was slightly less, and managers, greater. The relative number of farms in California operated by managers was larger than in the Western Division; cash tenancy was 5.1 per cent greater than in Oregon, the difference being equaled by the percentage of owners. In Washington, the percentage of farms operated by owners was greater than in Oregon and by share tenants, less. Washington was much the same as the Western Division except that it had a smaller per cent of its farms operated by managers. Tenancy in Oregon, therefore, more nearly resembled that in Washington than it did that in California. All the states of the Western Division differed from the United States in having a smaller percentage of rented farms, which shows that the older the country be- comes, the larger is the per cent of farms operated by renters. This tendency is seen in the difference of the proportion of tenancy in the three states, California, Washington and Ore- gon. California had a larger relative number of rented farms than Oregon, which was the newer state. Washington, like- wise, being newer than Oregon, had a still smaller percentage of rented farms. It may also be noted that the highest per cent of managers was to be found where the largest farms were Land Tenure in Oregon. 45 located. The average size of California's farms was very large, and this State had the largest per cent of managers. In the Western Division, where the area of the average farm was large, the relative number of farms operated by managers was greater than in Oregon, in Washington, or in the United States. Tenure classified according to size of farms and value of farm property shows that owners operated farms that were smaller than the average size farm, but more valuable to the acre. The same condition was, for the most part, true of farms cultivated by both cash and share tenants. Farms operated by part owners were much larger than the average, but in each farm of this class were included not less than two ; one owned, the other rented, which interpretation makes this class, alsO', smaller than the average but slightly less valuable per acre. By far the largest farms were operated by man- agers, and this class was much less valuable per acre. Farms cultivated by the class designated as owners and tenants were almost average in size and value. Oregon had no exception to any of these general rules or classifications. The kinds of farms operated by each of the six classes of farmers may be further explained by the percentage of land improved which each cultivated. TABLE 3. PERCENTAGE OP FAHM LAND IMPROVED OPERATED BY EACH OF THE SIX CLASSES OF FARMERS, IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900. (*) Farmers. United States. Western ; Division. California, Washington. Oregon. 51.2 35.7 38.9 38.5 33.1 Part Owners.. . 45.4 30.2 54.2 44.6 36.9 Owners and 59.5 40.2 42.8 47.8 40.7 12.5 11.0 22.9 18.8 11.6 Cash Tenants. . 55.1 24.1 31.5 25.3 32.8 Share Tenants . 70.3 63.9 74.0 66.3 49.5

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, p. 144. 46 LoN L. Swift

Farms operated by share tenants had the largest per cent of improved land. Share tenancy, therefore, is peculiarly favor- able to farms that are mostly under cultivation, farms that grow such crops as hay and grain, from which the produce can easily be divided between owner and tenant at harvest. Farms rented for cash, in the Western Division, California, and Washington had less than an average per cent of improved land as compared with all the farms of each of the geographi- cal divisions. They were not, to a large extent, at least, stock ranches, because they were smaller than the average size farm ; but, as would naturally be expected, those used for diversified farming, which contained, in many instances, much waste or uncultivated land. Dairy and fruit farms, and all farms that do not admit of easy division of their produce, almost inevit- ably rent for cash. As farms operated by owners are of all kinds, their percentage of improved land is nearly average. By far the smallest per cent of land was improved in the farms conducted by managers, making it quite evident that stock- raising was the principal farm industry handled by this class of farmers. The exceptional large size of these farms is in direct accordance with this statement. The figures showing the actual average area of farms operated by managers in comparison with farms of average area are amazing. TABLE 4. AVERAGE ABBA IN ACRES OF ALT^ FARMS AND OF FARMS OPERATED BT MANAGERS IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, "WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900. (*) Classes. United States. Western Division . California, Washington. Oregon. 147.4 1514.3 393.5 3303.9 403.5 2152.5 258.0 922.2 283.1 2228.3 These figures are so large as almost to lead us to question their truth, but they need no further explanation than has already been given.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 4 and 5. Land Tenure in Oregon.

47 Another significant classification of the six different kinds of tenure may made with reference to the output of farm produce. The percentage of the total value of live stock on farms and of the relative value of other commodities pro- duced by the six classes of farmers as compared with the valuation of farm property handled by each class, will show the productive ability secured by the various ways of farming as well as the kind of farming in which each class of farmers was principally engaged. TABLE 5. PERCENTAGE OF THE VALUE OF LIVE STOCK ON FARMS AND OP THE VALUE OF FARM PRO- DUCTS, CLASSIFIED BY TENURE, IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900.(*) UNITED STATES. Part Owners & Cash Share Items. Owners Owners. Tenants Managers. Tenants Tenants. Live Stock.. . . 54.0 14.0 1.2 8.1 9.5 13.2 53.1 11.7 1.1 4.7 11.5 17.9 Property 51.0 12.5 1.2 5.2 12.1 18.0 WESTERN DIVISION. Live Stock.. . . 49.2 16.3 0.5 24.9 4.8 4.3 48.8 16.8 0.6 15.7 8.1 10.0 Property 46.1 16.6 0.7 15.5 9.3 11.8 CALIFORNIA. Live Stock.. . . 41.6 15.0 0.5 20.7 12.7 9.5 Products 41.6 16.6 0.5 14.9 12.7 13.7 40.6 16.0 0.5 18.1 11.4 13.4 WASHINGTON. Live Stock.. . . 61.1 18.9 0.97 5.0 7.2 7.1 58.7 20.9 0.8 2.9 6.7 10.0 Property 57.2 21.3 0.9 3.4 6.6 10.6 OREGON. Live Stock.. . . 58.6 15.5 0.9 13.3 5.0 6.7 Products 57.2 18.1 1.1 6.4 6.4 10.8 Property 53.8 17.4 1.3 6.3 8.3 12.9 Owners operated 53.8 per cent of the value of farm property in Oregon. On these farms was reported 58.6 per cent of all live stock in the State, and 57.2 per cent of the value of farm

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 260-261. 48 LoN L. Swift

products came from land cultivated by this class of farmers. Owners, therefore, maintained about an equal percentage of live stock and products in proportion to the value of the land which they cultivated, and a higher per cent of each than the relative value of the land on which they farmed, making it evident that they were a thrifty, productive class of farmers, and that no one class of agriculture was especially followed by those who operated the farms which they owned. What was true of Oregon in this respect was equally true of the other geographical divisions. Tenants, on the whole, in each of the five divisions, reported a smaller per cent of live stock than valuation of farm property operated by them, but almost an equal ratio of farm produce. In Oregon, their percentage of farm output, though less in live stock than in produce, was especially small in both. Tenant farming may be said to be unfavorable to the raising of live stock and better adapted tO' the production of cereals and other crops; but, in Oregon, it is not a success in either. Farms operated by owners, which represent two classes of farms, owned and rented, form a go-between of renting and ownership, holding about an equal ratio in output to valua- tion. This class of renters, however, are, doubtless, more self- reliant and earnest farmers than other tenants. Yet in Oregon, the farm output of part owners was in 1900 lower in percent- age than the valuation of the farms. Farms operated by managers had a very high valuation of live stock in proportion to the value of the land controlled by them, and the value of products raised on these farms was not below the average. This means of farming, unlike ten- ancy, is exceedingly favorable to the raising of live stock, and is not altogether bad for the production of cereals and other crops. It has produced better results in all kinds of farming in Oregon than have been obtained through renting. Owners and tenants, the third class of farmers, have not specialized in any particular lines of farming, nor have they proved overly successful. Land Tenure in Oregon. 49 To sum up, the farmers that have reached the best results in all kinds of farming are, with the exception of managers, at least, those who own the land they cultivate. Renters, on the other hand, both cash and share, are the most unsuccessful farmers ; but, perhaps, those who own one farm and rent another have shown better efficiency than those who have no land of their own. Renting has also proved wholly unsatis- factory in stock-raising, which industry has been most suc- cessful on farms cultivated by managers. The proportion of live stock raised on farms operated by the different classes of farmers varies greatly in each class according to the kind of stock. Farms conducted by man- agers raised a much larger percentage of cattle and sheep than of swine or goats ; renters, both cash and share, raised a large proportion of swine to the number of sheep or cattle. It is as significant tO' note how the different kinds of stock were raised as how all stock were raised. TABLE 6. PERCENTAGE OF CATTLE, HORSES, SHEEP, SWINE, AND GOATS RAISED ON FARMS OPERATED BY THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FARMERS, IN OREGON, IN 1900. (*) Farmers. Cattle. Horses. Sheep. Swine . Goats. Total. 57.5 60.5 56.0 61.4 67.0 58.6 Part Owners. . 12.4 15.9 20.3 15.5 17.9 15.5 Owners and 00.9 01.0 00.4 01.5 02.0 00.0 18.3 0.97 16.9 02.1 00.9 13.3 Cash Tenants. 05.6 04.7 03.1 07.7 02.4 05.0 Share Tenants. 05.3 08.2 03.3 11.8 09.8 06.7 Farms operated by owners raised about an equal percentage of cattle as compared with the valuation of cattle raised on all farms. Owners were slightly above the average in horses and swine, and below in sheep. A very large per cent of goats was raised by owners, but this class of live stock was small in valuation and of little importance. The farmers that varied most in percentage of the different kinds of stock were man- agers. The relative valuation of all live stock raised on farms conducted by managers was 13.3 per cent. They were consid-

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, p. 336. 50

LoN L. Swift erably above the average in cattle and sheep, below in horses, and raised a very small percentage of swine or goats. Cash and share tenant farms both raised a larger relative amount of swine than the average of either class showed in the valuation of all live stock. Share tenants also exceeded their average in horses and goats ; cash tenants, in cattle. Both raised few sheep. Part owners raised a large per cent of sheep but a relatively small number of cattle. An examination of the different kinds of cereals in the same way will show that classes of tenure have been favorable or | unfavorable to the production of the various grains. TABLE 7. PERCENTAGE OP THE NtJMBBB OF BUSHELS OP WHEAT, OATS, BARLEY, CORN AND RYE PRODUCED ON FARMS OPERATED BY THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OP FARMERS, IN OREGON, IN 1900. (*) Farmers. Wheat. Oats. Barley. Corn. Rye. Total Products. 46.2 49.7 55 4 62.8 62.2 57.2 Part Owners. . 26.3 19.0 20.7 15.2 23.3 18.1 Owners and Tenants 01.5 01.7 01.3 01.8 02.4 01.1 02.0 01.9 02.1 00.8 00.6 06.4 Cash Tenants. 05.1 06.3 07.0 09.6 03.0 06.4 Share Tenants. 18.9 21.4 13.5 09.8 08.5 10.8 Share tenants raised 10.8 per cent of the value of all prod- ucts, but a much smaller proportion of wheat, oats and barley. Owners produced a small per cent of these grains as compared with their total output of products. Cash tenants, however, are not large producers of these grains, and managers are small producers. Share tenants, therefore, are especially en- gaged in the production of the staple grains. The relative increase of tenant farming in Oregon during the two decades previous to 1900, may be seen by the accom- panying table.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, p. 96. Land Tenure in Oregon.

51 TABLE 8. PERCENTAGE OP FARMS OPERATED BY OWNERS, CASH TENANTS, AND SHARE TENANTS, IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, BY DECADES FROM 1880 TO 1900. (*) United States — Year. Owners. Cash Tenants. Share Tenants. 1880 74.5 08.0 17.5 1890.... 71.6 10.0 18.4 1900.... 64.7 13.1 22.2 Western Division — 1880.... 86.0 05.5 08.5 1890. . . . 87.9 05.0 07.1 1900. . . . 83.4 07.7 08.9 California — 1880.... 80.2 08.9 10.9 1890. . . . 82.2 08.7 09.1 1900 .... 76.9 12.5 10.6 Washington — 1880.... 92.8 03.2 04.0 1890.... 91.5 03.0 05.5 1900.... 85.6 07.1 07.3 Oregon — 1880.... 85.9 04.6 09.5 1890.... 87.5 04.2 08.3 1900. . . . 82.2 07.4 10.4 The percentage of tenant farming did not increase so fast in Oregon from 1880 to 1900 as in the United States, but cash tenancy increased more than share tenancy. The Western Division, CaHfornia, and Washington, all show much the same tendency as Oregon. The comparatively slow increase in tenant farming in the Western states up till 1900, was due, unquestionably, to the open public domain, which granted choice land to the settler merely for the asking, and required a very small amount of capital for the farmer to secure a place of his own. It is to be noted that cash tenancy increased much faster in the western states and in Oregon than share tenancy ; but it is difficult to say for certain why this is true.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 688-689. 52

LoN L. Swift CHAPTER V. Land Tenure in the Counties of Oregon. The conditions of land tenure in Oregon have been outlined for the States as a whole and the State has been compared to other geographical divisions. Let us turn our attention to the different counties and sections of the State itself. The figures showing in what counties the percentage of each of the different classes of farmers was the highest in 1900 will tend to explain the kinds of farming in which each was principally engaged. table 9. PERCENTAGE OP THE NUMBER OF FARMS OPERATED BY THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF FARMERS IN OREGON IN 1900, CLASSIFIED BT COUNTIES. (*) Part Owners & Cash Share Counties. Owners. Owners. Tenants. Managers. Tenants Tenants. Harney 84.8 06.3 4.0 2.0 2.9 83.4 02.4 2.8 9.0 2.4 Tillamook 82.9 09.7 o'.i 0.8 4.3 2.2 Columbia 82.8 06.2 1.1 6.6 3.3 Malheur 80.1 06.7 4.3 2.4 6.5 Wallowa 79.5 06.7 i^o 0.6 3.4 8.8 Grant 79.2 08.5 1.1 2.0 3.2 6.0 77.8 87.6 1.7 4.4 8.5 77.5 11.0 'i'.4 0.2 6.8 3.1 77.2 07.7 0.7 0.9 5.2 8.3 76.7 14.3 0.8 0.8 3.3 4.1 76.1 03.7 01.7 3.6 5.1 9.8 Clatsop 73.9 04.6 00.2 2.8 15.0 3.5 73.4 15.2 01.2 1.0 1.2 8.0 73.3 08.3 01.3 5.3 6.3 5.5 72.9 08.5 01.0 1.0 4.6 12.0 71.6 10.1 01.1 0.8 6.0 10.4 Klamath 70.2 12.1 01.8 1.5 5.1 9.3 70.0 07.9 00.8 0.7 16.9 3.7 Washington.. . 69.2 09.8 01.1 0.7 10.7 8.5 Clackamas 69.0 11.8 01.2 0.5 10.0 6.5 Crook 68.8 16.8 2.4 5.6 6.4 68.2 08.2 66.7 0.9 12.1 9.9 66.4 14.3 01.1 2.4 4.0 11.8 Jackson 65.7 10.0 01.5 1.7 12.0 9.1 62.0 13.8 00.4 2.1 5.0 16.7 61.5 17.8 01.6 0.2 6.5 12.4 YamhiU 60.2 15.5 01.6 0.9 5.7 16.1 59.2 13.1 01.4 0.7 4.5 21.1 Gilliam 58.5 31.3 0.7 2.9 6.6 Multnomah. . . 58.3 06.8 66.3 0.7 28.5 4.4 Polk 54.2 15.0 01.5 0.9 3.5 24.9 50.6 32.1 00.6 0.4 0.9 15.4

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 116-117. Land Tenure in Oregon.

53 Owners operated a larger percentage of farms in the newer and more isolated districts than in other places. As was seen in the discussion of tenure for the different geographical divisions of the United States, the older sections have the largest proportions of rented farms. The coast counties and those situated east of the mountains in central and southern Oregon had the largest percentage of owners. The smallest proportion of owners was in the Willamette Valley, with the exception of Sherman and Gilliam, which are in the wheat belt along the Columbia River. Harney reported 84.8 per cent of its farms operated by owners. Curry, Tillamook, Columbia and Malheur, each had over 80 per cent handled in the same way. Sherman reported only 50.6 per cent of its farms oper- ated by owners, and a large number of the Willamette Valley counties reported less than 60 per cent. Land owning farm- ers, those who till their own farms, do not specialize in any particular kinds of farming. A high proportion of this class are found invariably in the more undeveloped counties almost regardless of the kind of farming to which the country is adapted. Where the percentage of ownership is smallest, share ten- ancy is largest; and share tenancy is least in operation where ownership has its highest percentage. The older sections of the State had, in 1900, the largest proportion of share tenancy. The counties of the Willamette Valley ranked first; the north- west and southwest, next; central and eastern Oregon, third; and the coast had the smallest percentage of share tenancy. Polk and Linn counties had over 20 per cent of their farms operated by share tenants ; most of the other counties of the Willamette Valley, between 10 and 20 per cent. The coast counties had less than 4 per cent of their farms operated by this class of tenants. It may be well to note that the sections in which share tenancy was most prevalent were those pro- ducing the bulk of the main cereal crops; and in the great stock counties, which ranked first in cattle, horses and sheep, there was a small percentage of share tenancy. The produc54 LoN L. Swift «  tion of cereals was the kind of farming principally engaged in by share tenants; dairying, fruit or live stock do not come in this class. The facilities with which cereal crops can be divided at harvest as compared with other kinds of farming, bears out the conditions indicated by the tables. Cash tenancy, like share tenancy, had its highest percentage in the older sections of the State; but unlike share tenancy, it was most prevalent where farms were small and where orchard and dairy products gave the principal farm income. Cash tenancy may be said to take the place of share tenancy where farms are small and where farming is more intensified and diversified. Multnomah county, which is favored with the metropolis of the state, had by far the largest percentage of cash tenancy, showing a total of 28.5 per cent. In general, the coast ranked first in cash tenancy ; Willamette Valley, second ; and Eastern Oregon showed the smallest proportion of cash tenancy. Stock raising or the production of cereals are neither favorable to cash tenancy. Such counties as Sherman, Mor- row, Gilliam, Malheur, Harney, Grant and Wheeler reported the smallest proportion of cash tenant farmers. Part owners, the class of farmers that operated two farms (one owned, the other rented), farmed for the most part, in the same sections that reported the highest percentage of share tenancy. The wheat belt along the Columbia River was particularly favorable to this class. These farmers ap- pear tO' have been nearly all share renters and to have been engaged mostly in the production of cereals and live stock. The eastern part of the State ranked first in part owners ; the Willamette Valley, second ; and the coast, last. Counties excelling in large stock farms showed the highest percentage in managers. This is the same idea that was clearly demonstrated in the discussion of the different geo- graphical divisions of the United States. Nearly one-half of the counties in Oregon had less than one per cent of their farms operated by managers, while Lake, Malheur and Harney Land Tenure in Oregon. 55 each reported four per cent or more. The eastern part of the State ranked ahead of the western part in percentage of managers. Seven counties reported no farms operated by owners and tenants. Klamath, which showed the highest percentage of this class of farmers, had only 1.8 per cent. No particular section of the State was noticeable in advance in the propor- tion of this class of farmers, yet the smallest percentage was in the sections devoted almost exclusively to stock-raising. S6 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER VI. How Tenancy Works in Oregon. Many prominent landowners in different parts of the State have responded to a list of questions sent to them in regard to tenancy. The questions pertained principally to the prac- tical workings of cash and share tenant farming as these sys- tems are employed in the State at the present time. The views of these landowners, who are well informed on conditions of renting, will be discussed as reported by them by taking the different phases of our subject in order and reviewing each of the different sections and counties of the State.* Keeping in mind the statistics we have just considered, which, though taken eight years ago, form a good basis for our study, we will remember that the counties of the Wil- lamette Valley with the exception of Multnomah, Washington and Clackamas, showed the highest percentage of share ten- ancy; also that the kind of farming in which share tenants were principally engaged was the production of the cereals. These two ideas were substantiated by every answer given by the landowners residing in these counties. It was unanimously reported throughout the State that the production of cereals favors share renting, while cash renting favors dairying,

  • From questions sent out, 43 answers were received. Twenty-one counties

reported as follows: Crook 3 answers. Umatilla 2 answers. Wallowa 3 " Union 3 " Benton 2 " Sherman 2 " Marion 2 " Klamath 3 " Baker 2 " Josephine 1 " Grant Clackamas Morrow. . . 3 1 2 1 3 1 Malheur. . Gilham. . . Tillamook. Wheeler. . Lincoln.. . 2 3 2 1 1 Lake. . . Clatsop. Curry.., Land Tenure in Oregon. 57 fruit raising and the production of vegetables. Stock raising is said, for the most part, to be let by cash tenancy, but some- times on shares. Hay land is generally rented for cash ; hops, generally on shares. The reasons for different kinds of farm- ing favoring different forms of tenancy is said to be due, as might be supposed, to the nature of the crop produced. Grain land is not rented for cash, because the quantity of the crop from year to year is so uncertain, a large crop one year not insuring an equal output the next; and the produce is easily divided at harvest time. In fruit raising, dairying or garden- ing, conditions are different. The quantity of the output is more certain and the produce almost impossible to divide. The hay crop is both reasonably certain and easy of division, and is generally rented for cash because this relieves the owner of the responsibility of looking after the selling of his share and allows the renter to do as he pleases with little restriction, making him more independent and self-supporting. Stock raising favors cash renting because it is not always easy to make an equitable division of the property, yet stock are often rented on shares. It is generally conceded that the cash tenant has more money than the share tenant, but in a few cases this is denied. Share tenancy is said by many to be the form of renting employed because the renter has little or no money to pay cash. Cash tenancy is the method preferred by all the landowners but three or four who have reported, if the kind of farming will permit ; the idea being that the cash tenant is, as a rule, more indus- trious and thrifty, more independent and self-reliant, and the owner is relieved of responsibility. Statistics prove beyond all doubt that tenant farming is in- creasing not only in the United States but in each and every state in the Union. This fact is conceded by most of the landowners in this State, but some deny it, as do many people well acquainted with the figures, by saying that tenants be- come landowners in time, and that tenancy is only a stepping stone to ownership. This idea is true but not conclusive. Lx>N L. Swift Those who acknowledge that tenancy is increasing attribute the increase to immigration, lack of more fertile public domain, rise in land values, and retirement of older and more wealthy farmers from active work, all of which ideas are the facts that statistics substantiate. As soon as the public land in Oregon is all taken up, as it nearly all now is, that can be cultivated, and no more fertile tracts lay further removed from civilization as has been the condition in the past, tenancy will increase rapidly for years to come unless steps are taken to avert this movement. Many forms of share renting are employed in Oregon to meet the needs of the different kinds of farming and varied conditions throughout the State. For cereal farming when the lessee furnishes everything and delivers the owner's share to market, the lessor receives from one-third to one-fourth of the crop, varying according to the productivity of the soil, distance from market, and other conditions. In the Willamette Valley, the lessor often receives one-third delivered to market and stands no expense except taxes; but the more common practice appears to be a division on this ratio with the grain delivered in bin on the farm. The prevalent rule is the same in other parts of the State except on the large wheat farms along the Columbia River, where the lessor usually furnishes the sacks for his share of the grain and receives one-third of the crop delivered to market if it is not hauled over five or six miles; if the hauling is a greater distance, he receives one-fourth. The fertility of the soil is also taken into con- sideration. When the lessor furnishes the seed, horses and machinery, he generally receives one-half of the crop. On irrigated lands, the owner furnishes all, or sometimes one-half, of the water. Hay, when baled, is divided on the same ratio as grain ; when not baled but put in stack or barn, it is divided -equally between owner and tenant. The lessor furnishes the water for irrigation. If stock are rented on shares, as they often are, the increase Land Tenure in Oregon. 59 is divided equally between lessor and lessee. The lessor fur- nishes sires, bulls, rams, half of wool sacks, half of dipping material; tenant furnishes hay, fodder, pasture, range, and does all the work. This, in general, is the system employed throughout the State for renting stock on shares. Pasture land is usually rented separately from grain land for so much an acre, or else the owner retains the pasture for his own use. Sometimes the lessee is allowed enough pasture for a few stock. In the wheat belt along the Columbia River, the pasture is a secondary consideration and the lessee is often allowed the free use of it for the few stock he may have. Straw is generally the property of the lessor the same as the pasture, but it is often divided equally beetween owner and tenant. Up till harvest, the horses are sometimes fed from the un- divided hay and grain and sometimes not. No rule prevails in regard to this, for it is about as often one way as the other. During harvest, however, they are more often fed from the undivided produce than not; and hay is more often fed in this way than grain. An agreement is seldom made in regard to poultry, but in a very few cases, the eggs are divided equally between lessor and lessee. The lessee is generally allowed to keep what poultry he wishes as long as they do no particular damage to crops, which agreement is commonly understood and no speci- fied agreement is made in regard to this matter. Cash rent is generally figured on five per cent of the value of the land. For grain land it varies from two to five dollars, according to the fertility of soil, distance from market, and other conditions. Hay rents from two to six dollars an acre, alfalfa bringing the highest rent ; wild grass, the lowest. When grass is seeded, lessor furnishes the seed. Pasture land rents from one to two dollars an acre, but poor quality is some- times let at a lower rate, dry land in the eastern part of the State demanding only $.25 to $1.00 an acre. A report from Josephine county says that ordinary farming land in that sec6o LoN L. Swift tion rents from $8.cx) to $10.00 an acre when it is near town ; when eight or ten miles from market, for $5.00 to the acre; and truck land near town brings $20.00 an acre. An answer from Marion county gives the rental of nursery land at $10.00 an acre. Range land is rented for ten cents an acre. More leases are made for one year than for any other period of time. This fact is probably due to the newness of the State, because the landowners do not wish to make long-time con- tracts with people they do not know. In the Willamette Val- ley and coast counties, which have been settled longer than Eastern Oregon, more long-term leasing is done. Where summer-fallowing is carried on almost exclusively as in the Columbia River district, farms rent mostly for two years, be- cause each farm is divided into two sections and it takes two years for each part tO' raise a crop. What is summer-fallowed one year raises grain the next. But in counties that are newer than the average, like Wallowa and Grant, grain land is seldom rented for more than a year at a time. Many farmers throughout the State who rent for one year give the lessee the option of leasing the next if he does good and satisfactory work. Stock ranches are generally rented for three or five years, because it takes time for stock to mature. Landowners are almost unanimous in desiring that the system of renting should be long. They say this secures the best results because it gives the tenant a better chance to take an interest in the farm by reaping the benefit of his labors and improvements ; and in a long period of time, the renter has a much better opportunity of making money enough to buy a farm, which is, of course, the desired goal of this class of farmers. A long-term lease does not make any difference in the share each party receives except when new land is to be broken and brought under cultivation, in which case, the lessee generally gets the whole crop for the first year. Both the lessor and the lessee receive the benefits derived by long-term leasing and the ratio of division does not change. Scarcely anywhere in Oregon is it customary to give a written notice three or six Land Tenure in Oregon. 6i months before the end of the year if either party wishes to bring the lease to a close. Clatsop county, however, reports that it is the custom to do so, and a few landowners located in different parts of the State give a like answer ; but provision for bringing the lease to a close is generally made in the contract. How the partnership property should be divided is generally specified in the lease. The crops each year are generally divided by the number of bushels at the thresher or by weights at the warehouse ; hay in the stack, by measurement. Plow- ing, cultivating or improvements are paid for by the owner, or else the lessee gives an equivalent of such things as ex- isted when he first acquired possession, as for example, 300 acres of plowed land at the beginning of the lease calls for an equal acreage plowed at its expiration. Stock is generally not divided till the close of the lease, when it is often done, in the case of sheep, by running them through a shut and making them dodge right and left alternately through a dodge-gate into separate corrals; cattle and horses, by each party choos- ing alternately. The herd is sometimes sold and the lessor first is paid the appraised value of his stock when he leased in the beginning and half the increased value received by the sale. Owners do not as a rule co-operate with their tenants in the management of their farms, but the tenant follows his own judgment as to what he shall do as long as he observes the agreement set forth in the lease. Sometimes the lessor may assist the tenant in the way of advice or he may advance him money. Artificial fertilizers are almost unknown in Oregon. The only way in which the land is fertilized is by feeding stock on the farm and hauling manure from the stables and corrals and spreading it over the fields, but in most parts of the State, nothing whatever is done to replenish the nourishment of the soil. Many farmers in Eastern Oregon require their land to be summer-fallowed every other year and cultivated during the summer months to keep down the weeds. West of the 62 LoN L. Swift mountains, very little summer-fallowing is done. Landowners of the Willamette Valley report that no provisions are made in renting land to prevent weeds or to replenish the soil. They appear to be unable to solve the problem of maintaining the efficiency of the farms. The only means used to keep tenants from skinning the land is the stipulations of the lease, but these are, in nearly all cases, wholly inefficient to meet the requirements of good farming, and very often not observed at all. Rotation of crops is almost unheard of unless it be from one kind of grain to another. Summer-fallowing is the only method used in the eastern part of the State, but this is aided somewhat by cultivation of the plowing. Many land- owners say that they believe it impossible to keep tenants from skinning the land. Owners are generally secured in receiving their part of the rent. Grain, when divided at the thresher, is looked after by the owner who is present in person or by agent; when it is delivered at the warehouse, checks are made out to the owner for his portion of the grain. Sometimes the owner has marked sacks and secures his portion at the thresher in this way. Lessors of large wheat farms along the Columbia River often have contracts that give them a lien on the crop till the lessee has completed the year's farming, delivered the grain, and ful- filled all of the agreements. Many lessors do not secure them- selves in any way, but trust to the tenants to fulfill the terms of the contract. Cash rent is often paid in advance ; when not paid at the beginning of the lease, lessors generally require security in the way of a gilt-edge note or bond. Dairy farms rented for cash may divide the income from milk at the cream- ery so that the lessor receives his amount specified in the lease ; if rented on shares, then the checks are made out according to the specified ratio to owner and tenant, respectively, at the creamery. New fences and buildings are generally, if not always, con- structed by the owner. The most common rule for keeping them in repair when farms are rented is that the owner furI Land Tenure in Oregon. 63 nishes the material and the tenant does the work of hauhng and repairing. The contract generally states that the tenant shall keep all fences and buildings in as good order and condi- tion as they are when he takes possession of the farm, damage by the elements being excepted; but the owner is to furnish the material for this purpose. In the sections of the State where irrigation is carried on, the owner makes the ditches, generally pays for the water, and the tenant keeps all lateral, private ditches in repair, but the owner furnishes necessary lumber and other material. Sometimes the tenant constructs the lateral ditches. Tenants very seldom work the road tax. It is generally paid by the owner. In a few exceptional cases, the contract specifies that the tenant shall work the road tax ; more often, he does this work and is paid by the owner for his labor. The tenant, as a rule, secures firewood on the farm if any is to be had. In most of the farming communities in Oregon, no tim- ber or trees that will make firewood is found on the farm, and the farmers either buy wood or coal. Two of the greatest common causes of difficulty between owner and tenant are poor farming on the part of the renter and incomplete or verbal contracts. Among other causes men- tioned are feeding from the individual hay and grain, failure to keep ditches in repair, interference on the part of the owner when the tenant is farming according to the contract, and the terms of the lease allowing the tenant too small a share of the crop to allow him to farm in the manner that good farming should be done and make money. Not putting the grain in properly at the right time, overstocking and not doing enough cultivating are mentioned as either causes of trouble between owner and tenant. Reports from Tillamook county and a few from other parts of the State say there has been no difficulty as yet. The general idea expressed in regard to tenant farm- ing is that the tenant is a poor farmer, who is prone to be shiftless, lazy and dishonest in carrying out the stipulations 64 LoN L. Swift of the contract. Undesirable tenants are much more plentiful than reliable and energetic ones. Landowners would rather rent their farms than have them handled by hired laborers, notwithstanding the undesirability of renting. The general opinion expressed is that hired labor constitutes a poorer class of farmers than tenants, and re- quires supervision from day to day. Renting relieves the owner of the responsibility that hiring does not, and the tenant has more interest in the amount and quality of the work done. Hired labor, which is very high-priced in Ore- gon, will, if not closely supervised and directed, eat up all the profits. It is also very unreliable and scarce at harvest time when the demand for farm labor is much greater than at any other season of the year. Farm work is of such a nature that labor has a better opportunity and greater temptation to shirk than in most other occupations, so it must be closely directed by one who is interested in the results produced, or else, at the end of the year, the balance sheet will be large on the wrong side. One man has well expressed the farmers' idea in regard to hired labor by saying that he prefers to let somebody else be worried by hired help. During the last few years, not much change has taken place in what each party furnishes, in the respective shares received by the owner and tenant, or in any other way. The owners of large wheat farms along the Columbia River say that, since the railroad has been put through, those having places within five miles of the railroad receive one-third of the crop instead of one-fourth as formerly. RepHes from different parts of the State say that the amount and also the proportion of cash rent has increased. Attention is also called to the fact that small orchards are charged for extra, which was not the case a few years ago. The large majority of answers claim that no change has taken place recently, thus indicating that the change for the State as a whole has not been marked for several years passed. In Oregon, the prevailing opinion among landowners is that Land Tenure in Oregon. 6s there are more people desiring to rent farms than there are farms offered to rent. A great many, on the other hand, say that the number of rented farms and of renters is about equal. These different answers come not from distinct, separate sec- tions of the State, but each view, from all parts. Morrow county, unlike others, gives the report that enough tenants can be found to rent the land. The reason for this condition is 'not given, but it probably is because farming must be con- ducted on a large scale to make it pay, the yield per acre being very small; and the party who farms the land has a great risk to run. When the crop is exceptionally good and the price of wheat high, then the farmer strikes it rich; if the opposite is the case, then he will lose money. Very few renters have enough capital to undertake farming under such speculative conditions. This argument is not conclusive and may be a little overdrawn, yet it may help to show the condi- tions that prevail in that section. Tenant farmers, in nearly all parts of Oregon, manage, if they are industrious and ambitious, to accumulate money by tenant farming to acquire land of their own. The only coun- ties reporting the opposite are Lincoln and Marion, All the other counties claim that a good per cent of the tenants be- come landowning farmers in time. Nearly all government land suitable for farming in this State has been taken up, and '.tenants are compelled to buy farms when they become land- owners. The counties reporting available public domain suit- able for farming are Lake, Malheur, Baker, Umatilla, Crook and Tillamook. The first four named offer government land available either to homestead entry or to desert entry; Tilla- mook, of course, has no dry land. Practically all the desert land remaining can not be irrigated ; and, when taken up, must be farmed to raise only such crops as will grow with very little water. At present, very little attractive government land remains anywhere in the State. When landless farmers acquire land, banks or loaning asso- iations will nearly always advance from 40 to 60 per cent of 66 LoN L. Swift the value of the property, but the more prevalent way in which land is transferred is by the purchaser paying one-fourth or one-half of the value of the farm and giving the original owner a mortgage on the balance. The usual rate of interest charged is eight per cent. State school money can sometimes be had for one-third of the value of the property, and this loans at the rate of six per cent interest. If no other means is available, the private money lender will generally advance money on mortgage security to one-half of the value of the property. The percentage of encumbered farms varies in dif- ferent parts of the State. Landowners in the Willamette Val- ley and on the coast report that no more than lo or 15 per cent of the farms in their counties are encumbered, while in all parts of Eastern Oregon except in a few older counties like Union county, from 50 to 75 per cent are encumbered. The proportion of mortgaged farms is very high in Klamath county owing to the method of selling employed whereby small tracts of land can be had on easy terms. From what little informa- tion has been gained of foreclosures, it appears that mortgages are paid except in very rare cases. The older sections of the State having the smaller percentage of encumbered farms tends to prove that mortgages are, in the main, an indication of development of agricultural resources. Most of the rented farms belong to aged retired farmers or to landed capitalists, who hold the land for investment or spec- ulation, and a few to those to whom land has reverted in de- fault of payments of mortgages or who have received land by inheritance. It was largely a guess for the landowners to answer this question, but they for the most part agree through- out the State that the first two classes include nearly all who rent land. Tenant farming is said by the majority of landowners to be on land more fertile and productive than the average land. They say that tenants will always choose the best place to rent available, because, as is evident, the more the yield for a given amount of work and expense, the larger the profit. Land Tenure in Oregon. 67 Tenants want land that is sure to yield a crop, for they have not much money as a rule and must be certain that what they spend will bring returns. More logical arguments are that farmers who own the most productive land secure a com- petency sooner and retire from active work when they either rent their farms or sell ; and another class of renters are the old settlers, too old to work or wishing to retire for other reasons; these came to the country first and had the choice of the best land in the State. One report from the coast claims that renters are found mostly on tide-water lands, which is the most productive but requires the most work for operating. Many landowners say that land must be fairly productive be- fore it will give enough returns for both owner and tenant, and tenants can not handle the poor land because the profit is too small. On the other hand, reports from Union, Benton and Josephine, say that renters generally occupy poorer lands than owners because owners farm their best places and sell and rent poorer tracts that are not so valuable, and renting tends to depreciate the land, so rented farms necessarily lose much fertility in time. The other counties, however, give the stronger arguments and have the majority of answers. It is agreed by most of the landowners in nearly all parts of the State that renting is detrimental to the soil, yet the coast counties hold that it is not detrimental. Long-term leases are offered by some as a remedy for better farming, but most of them see no way out of the difficulty. Opinion is equally divided as to the question of citizenship, progressive- ness and thrift of tenants. Many claim that they are "like the rolling stone that gathers no moss," that they have little in- terest in the upbuilding and improvement of the community; while others say tenants are progressive, being actuated by the desire of becoming owners. Some reports claim that tenants are of two classes, good and bad, which view is prob- ably nearly correct. It appears reasonable that those who are trying to acquire homes of their own and are making progress in that direction are as progressive and well-meaning citizens 68 LoN L. Swift as owners, but those who rent and do not accumulate money for themselves or secure good returns for their lessors are hardly worthy of the responsibility which they hold. Yet we must not lose sight of the fact that tenancy, in a large and ever increasing proportion, is not a desirable condition of tenure. The farmer who owns his farm is the most satisfied, stable, independent and among the best citizens of our com- monwealth. Prevailing opinion indicates that the majority of tenants are from the eastern states ; mainly Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Kan- sas, Nebraska and other states of the Middle West. The coast counties report a large number of foreigners, consisting of Scandinavians, Norwegians and Finns, who are attracted to that section by the fishing industry. Swedes, Germans, Irish and other nationalities are also represented on the coast and throughout the State. Not a very large per cent of tenants are natives of Oregon. Landowners say that both easterners and foreigners are as good and conscientious farmers as Ore- gonians who rent, and the fact that renters come largely from outside the State only indicates that those who rent are, for the most part, newcomers. As a large and ever increasing percentage of tenant farming is not desirable for our country, the question of placing a check on this tendency deserves the earnest consideration of every citizen who desides to better the welfare of society and of the nation. In answer to the question of how to check the ever increasing proportion of tenant farming, the landowners were generally agreed that large tracts of land should be cut up into smaller farms and farming made more intensive. They say that ownership on small tracts produces more efficient and economical results and more independent, progressive and sat- isfied citizens than tenancy on large tracts. Many claim this might be brought about by longer terms of leasing, but more certainly, by allowing the farmer an agreement whereby he may pay for the farm instead of paying rent by selling at a reasonable price on moderate interest. In this way, he is in Land Tenure in Oregon. 69 much the same position as tenant at first ; but, if he proves a good farmer, who can secure results, in a few years he will be an owner. He will have the incentive of ownership to encour- age him, and his whole interest will be for future progressive- ness. A system much on this basis is in vogue in Klamath county at the present time, and is said to work very satisfac- torily. Conditions in Klamath, however, are wholly different to those in older settled communities where the problem offers greater difficulties. No solution has ever been offered for the problem except by such radical reformers as single taxers or socialists, whose theories, if put in practice, would involve far more disastrous results according to the present teachings of economics and sociology than tenancy will when increased to a much larger proportion than it holds today. LoN L. Swift CHAPTER VII. Landlordism. In the majority of cases, landowners, who rent farms, reside in the same county in which the farm is located. The census reports for 1900 show that 67 per cent of farm lessors resided in the same county in which their land was located; 19 per cent, in the same state but not in the same county ; 8 per cent, outside of the state; and the remaining six per cent were not reported. These figures were not peculiar to Oregon alone, but represent conditions throughout the northern states of the Union.* Two-thirds of the farm lessors of this State reside in the same county as their tenants, with whom they come into close contact and maintain a personal relation. In other words, the majority of owners know their tenants personally and are in contact with the work of the farm, seeing what progress is being made. This is wholly a desirable condition and obviates much of the trouble that arises in other countries where con- tact between landlord and tenant is more distant. The more remote the residence of the landowner from his farm, the larger is the proportion of cash tenancy employed instead of share tenancy. Of the 4,246 farms rented and owned by residents of the same county in which the farms are located, 2,671 were rented on shares; 1,575, for cash. Of the 1,234 rented farms owned by residents of the same state but not of the same county, 687 were rented on shares; 547, for cash ; of these owned by residents not of the same state, 195 were rented on shares ; 280, for cash. In the first case men- tioned, share tenancy had many more farms than cash tenancy ; in the second, cash and share were almost equal ; in the third, cash was much larger than share. As cash tenancy is increas- ing much faster than share tenancy, these figures seem to indi-

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 3 10-3 11. Land Tenure in Oregon.

71 cate that the close contact between owners and tenants in the United States is gradually being severed; and as tenancy in- creases, its inner workings become less harmonized and un- suited for the agricultural welfare of the country as a whole. It is a question whether so-called landlordism is not in- creasing in the United States at the present time. Such a condition would be altogether undesirable. Free public domain is practically all taken ; what land is acquired by poor or rich, from this time on, must be bought. Our cities are growing in number, size and wealth ; money is collecting in the hands of great capitalists ; interest is lowering ; the close contact be- tween owner and tenant is slowly but surely being severed — all of these facts augment the pressure toward landlordism. But it is pleasing to note, in 1900, this movement had not ac- quired a noticeable or dangerous proportion. Eighty per cent of the owners of rented farms in the United States, in 1900, owned only one farm ; in the Western Division, over 90 per cent. So a very few of the land lessors owned more than one farm. The following tables showing the per- centage of the number of owners of rented farms classified by the number of farms owned by one person, and also the num- ber of rented farms classified in the same way, will make it evident that landlordism is making slow progress in the United States. TABLE 10. PERCENTAGE OF THE NUMBEB OF OWNERS OF RENTED FARMS CLASSIFIED BT THE NUMBER OF FARMS OWNED BY ONE PERSON. (*) Geographical Divisions. 1 Farm. 2 Farms. 3 and under 5 Farms. 5 and under 10 Farms. 10 and under 20 Farms. 20 farms and over. United States. Western Div'n Washington.. . Oregon 80.8 91.1 89.0 93.0 94.0 11.4 5.9 07.0 05.0 05.0 5.4 1.9 02.0 02.0 01.0 2.3 0.8 01.0 (1) (1) 0.7 0.2 01.0 (1) (1) 0.2 0.1 (1) (1)

  • Ibid.

(i) Less than one-tenth of one per cent. LoN L. Swift TABLE 11. PER CENT. OF THE NUMBER OP RENTED FARMS CLASSIFIED BY THE NUMBER OF FARMS OWNED BY ONE PERSON. (*) 3 and 5 and 10 and Geographical 1 2 under under under 20 Farms Divisions. Farna. Farms. 5 Farms 10 Farms 20 Farms and over. United States. Western Div'n 52.0 14.8 11.6 9.7 6.0 5.9 76.6 10.0 5.3 3.7 2.3 2.1 70.0 11.0 07.0 05.0 04.0 03.0 Washington.. . 82.0 09.0 04.0 02.0 01.0 02.0 86.0 08.0 04.0 01.0 01.0 In Oregon, 94 per cent of the owners of rented farms owned only one farm, while 5 per cent owned two farms, leaving only one per cent who owned more than twO' farms. Land- lordism in 1900 was practically unknown in this State. Yet, for the reasons given above, landlordism may increase in the future, and it will be interesting to note what change reports for the next decade and those immediately following will bring. The United States shows a much larger proportion of land- lordism than the newer states of the Western Division ; but as Prof. Taylor points out, this condition is largely, if not wholly, due to the peculiar conditions in the South, where landlordism has succeeded large slave plantations. t Landed capitalists in a country like ours is a class to be guarded against for the welfare of the commonwealth, and its increase will form a more complicated problem with tenant farming that now exists, which is not the best form of farming even when guided by the personal relation now existing between landowner and tenant.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 312-313.

tProf. Taylor's "Agricultural Economics," pp. 259-260. Land Tenure in Oregon. 73 CHAPTER VIII. Mortgages. In 1900, 20 per cent of the farm homes in the United States were encumbered, and about the same proportion in Oregon. The percentage of mortgages on farms increased a Httle over one per cent both in the United States and in Oregon during the decade from 1890 to 1900. Foreclosures in every part of the United States are very rare, averaging between one and two per cent of the farm mortgages. No statistics can easily be collected at this time on the number of foreclosures in Oregon, but they are known to be very rare. Our mortgage system, if handled in a judicious way, as it is in the great majority of cases at the present time, is the stepping stone from tenancy to ownership. It is the means that assists the energetic farmer who wishes to acquire a home of his own. It does away with paying rent and gives the farmer of limited means a spirit of independence and reward for his efforts to make money. The only agricultural credit system employed in the United States at the present time is the mortgage system. Low rates of interest and division of large farms into smaller tracts of land, which encourages in- tensive farming, are the two principal aids to assist tenants to become owners through the mortgage system, the carrying out of which would bring a desirable result both from the standpoint of the kinds of farming engaged in and of the class of farmers forming the rural population. National banks can not loan money directly on farm se- curity, but nearly all other banks do loan up to one-half of the value of the land at eight per cent interest. State school money is loaned on one-third of the value of the land at six per cent interest. Private money lenders and loan associa- tions will generally advance money to one-half the value of 74 LoN L. Swift the land at eight per cent. Of all of these forms of loaning money on farm mortgage security, the most prevalent method employed throughout the State is for the man who sells the property to receive from one-fourth to one-half of the value of the land cash in hand when the transfer is made and for him to take a mortgage on the land for the balance at the rate of six or eight per cent interest and give the buyer plenty of time to pay the balance. This facility is a great aid to the landless farmer. It can be made better if owners can be in- duced or compelled to sell small tracts of their farms to dif- ferent individuals at a reeasonable price and at a low rate of interest. The two principal classes who sell farm land are those who are getting too old for active work and those who wish to move to town and retire or change their occupation ; and, secondly, those who hold land for speculation, who are called landed capitalists. If public opinion is not strong enough to bring great pressure to bear on these classes and on others who wish to sell land, to dispose of their farms in such a way that they may become more beneficial to society, the government should have a right to interfere and direct any and all transfers of farm land so that the community as a whole will be benefited rather than injured. Society must meet new problems that arise as civilization becomes more complex ; among these, one which is by no means of small importance is the system of land tenure. The District Credit Associations of Germany* might not be practicable in the United States, but it at least gives us an idea towards reform- ing our present system. The percentage of encumbered farms belonging to farmers classed according to ages and of hired farms classed in the same way, shows at what ages mortgages are greatest and at what ages tenancy is mostly employed.

  • Prof. Taylor's "Agricultural Economics," pp. 226-233. Land Tenure in Oregon.

75 TABLE 12. PERCENTAGE OF ENCUMBERED AND OP HIRED HOMES IN THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE AGES OF OWNERS AND TENANTS. (*) Encumbered Hired Encumbrances increased from youth to middle age and de- creased at old age. Tenancy is greatest for those under 25 years of age and steadily decreases with the age of the farmer. This tends to show that the next step after tenancy is encum- brance, which declines last. The problem is to lower the per- centage of tenancy at all ages and facilitate ownership.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. II, p. CCXI.

55 years and over, Under 25 years, 25 to 34 years. , 35 to 44 years. , 45 to 54 years. . Age. Homes. Homes, 7.2 72.2 15.9 54.7 20.4 35.6 21.8 29.3 18.6 18.6 76 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER IX. Oregon's Farms in 1900. In order to get a view of the agricultural conditions of Ore- gon, the nature and extent of farming in this state will be con- sidered. Our study will deal first with the number and average area of farms, total and improved acreage of farm land, total and average value of farms. The total number of farms in Oregon in 1900 was 35,578, the average area per farm, 283.1 acres, making a total num- ber of 10,071,328 acres, or 15,736.45 square miles of farm land, which is approximately one-sixth of the total area of the state. The improved portion of farm land was 3,328,308 acres, or one-third of the total area of farm land. The total value of the farm land in the state was $172,761,287, being an average value per farm of $4821, a value equal to $17.15 for each and every acre of farm land. A clearer conception of the data on these points may be had by comparing Oregon to each of the four geographical divis- ions : United States, Western Division, California and Wash- ington. TABLE 13. NUMBER, TOTAL AND IMPROVED (WITH PER CENT. IMPROVED) ACREAGE; TOTAL AND AVERAGE VALUE OF FARMS, AND AVERAGE VALUE PER ACRE OF FARM LAND IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900. (*) Items. United States Western Division California Washington Oregon Total number of farms 5,705,695 238,641 71,451 32,945 35,578 Average area 147.4 393.5 403.5 258.0 283.1 Total area of farm land 841,201,546 93,796,860 28,828,951 8,499,297 10,071,328 Improved area of farm land . 414,793,191 27,155,681 11,958,832 3,465,960 3,328,308 Per cent, of area improved 49.3 29.0 41.5 40.8 33.0 Total value of farm land.. . . $20,514,001,838 $1,714,593,969 $796,527,955 $144,040,547 $172,761,287 Average value $3,574 $7,059 $10,980 $4,338 $4,821 Average value $24.39 $18.28 $27.63 $16.95 $17.15

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 688-689 and

692-695. Land Tenure in Oregon. 77 Oregon had a greater number of farms than Washington, but only half as many as CaHfornia. Oregon's farms were also larger than Washington's; on the other hand, they were smaller on an average of 120 acres than California's. The total area of farm land in Oregon was, in round numbers, 1,500,000 acres greater than in Washington, but scarcely more than one-third of that in California. Washington and Cali- fornia both had a larger per cent of their farm land improved than Oregon, Washington's improved area being slightly greater than Oregon's, and California's nearly four times as great. The average value per acre of farm land in Oregon and Washington was nearly equal, while in California it was more than ten dollars higher than in these states. To find the relative status of agricultural conditions in Oregon to that in Washington and California, the total value of farm land in each state may be taken as the most exact basis of comparison. By this criterion, Washington's farm wealth was 0.84, and California's 4.6 times that of Oregon. A more exact idea of the relative size of the figures for Ore- gon in the items of the above table may be had if the figU'-es for this state are taken as a unit in comparison with the num- bers for the other four divisions. TABLE 14. NUMBER OF TIMES EACH OF THE FOUR DIVISIONS UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CAIJFORNIA, AND WASHINGTON IS GREATER OR LESS THAN OREGON IN THE ITEMS OF TABLE 13. Items. United States Western Division California IWashington Oregon 160.37 6.71 2.01 0.93 1.00 Average area per farm .... 0.53 1.42 1.45 0.91 1.00 Total area of farm land . . . 83.52 9.29 2.86 0.84 1.00 Improved area of farm land 124.63 8.01 3.59 1.04 1.00 Per cent of area improved . . 1.49 0.88 1.26 1.23 1.00 Total value of farm land . . . 119.15 9.92 4.60 0.84 1.00 Average value per farm. . . . 0.74 1.48 2.28 0.89 1.00 Average value per farm . . . 0.74 1.48 2.28 0.89 1.00 Average value per acre 1.41 1.07 1.61 0.99 1.00 78 LoN L. Swift Table 14 shows that in 1900 the United States had 160 times as many farms as Oregon, 83 times the total area of farm land, a much larger per cent of which was improved than in Oregon, a higher average value per acre, and 119 times the total value of farm land. Oregon appears rather insignificant when com- pared to the United States ; but when compared to the West- ern Division it is seen to have had in 1900 greater agricultural wealth than the average of these eleven states. The average area of the farms in the Western Division was much larger than the average size farm in Oregon ; the per cent of improved farm land less ; the average value per acre slightly more. Ore- gon had approximately one-tenth of the total value of the farm land of the eleven states of the Western Division. If the total value of farm land is taken as the basis of compari- son, it may be said that the agricultural wealth of the United States was 1 19.15 times that of Oregon; the Western Divis- ion, 9.92; California, 4.6; Washington, 0.84. The next point considered is the principal sources of income of Oregon's farms. A study will be made of the nine largest classes of produce ; hay and grain, live stock, vegetables, fruits, dairy produce, sugar, flowers and plants, nursery products, and miscellaneous. Everything is included in the last class that is not in the other eight. The items selected for the eluci- dation of this subject are the total value of each class of prod- ucts in Oregon in 1900, and the number of farms, total acre- age, improved acreage, and total value of farm property, class- ified according to their principal source of income. Oregon derived its principal source of income in 1900 from live stock ; hay and grain ranked second ; miscellaneous third ; dairy produce fourth ; vegetables fifth ; fruits sixth ; nursery products seventh ; flowers and plants eighth ; sugar, ninth. These items maintained the same rank when classified accord- ing to the number of farms and the total acreage of farm land from which each item was derived as a principal source of income. The raising of hay and grain requires more improved and more valuable land than the raising of live stock, and a Land Tenure in Oregon. 79 larger improved area and a greater value of farm property derived its principal source of income from hay and grain than from live stock. TABLE 15. TOTAL VALUE OF THE PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF INCOME, AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS, TOTAL AND IMPROVED AREA OF FARM LAND (wiTH PER CENT IMPROVED), AND THE TOTAL VALUE OF FARM LAND CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THEIR PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF INCOME IN OREGON IN 1900. (*) Items. Vahie of Farm Products Number of Farms Total Acreage Improved Acreage Per Cent Improved Total Value of Farm Land $14,907,210 10,218 4,644,659 856,070 18.4 $ 59,627,943 Hay and Grain $11,960,059 9,712 3,137,205 1,877,026 59.8 $ 61,892,811 Dairy Produce $ 2,793,920 3,751 660,991 161,633 24.5 $ 14,176,453 Vegetables.. . . $ 1,191,990 1,676 162,849 48,498 29.8 $ 5,011,107 Fruits $ 1,026,970 1,072 119,068 38,193 32.1 $ 4,863,662 Nursery Products... . $ 154,530 33 1,847 1,631 88.3 $ 220,870 Flowers and Plants.. .... $ 90,850 38 94 85 90.4 $ 199,230 $ 34,080 11 3,070 2,088 68.0 $ 125,507 Miscellaneous.. $ 5,931,360 9,326 1,341,545 343,084 25.6 $ 26,643,704 Total $38,090,969 35,578 10,571,328 3,328,308 33.0 $ 172,761,287 The total farm income derived from, live stock in Oregon in 1900 was $14,907,210 ; hay and grain yielded approximately four-fifths of this value ; miscellaneous, two-fifths ; dairy pro- duce, one-fifth, and vegetables and fruits, over a million dollars each. Nearly as large a number of farms derived their prin- cipal source of income from hay and grain and from miscel- laneous products respectively as from live stock. It may be noted that only 18.4 per cent of the land used mainly for the raising of live stock was improved, while in the production of hay and grain the per cent improved was 59.8. About one- fourth of the land was improved that derived its principal source of income from either miscellaneous or dairy produce. A comparison of the valuations of the principal sources of income in Oregon in 1900 with those in each of the four divis-

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V. pp. 222-223. 8o

LoN L. Swift ions; United States, Western Division, California and Wash- ington, will show the relation of the produce of Oregon's farms to that of other sections of the country and also the lines of production in which Oregon was most favored. TABLE 16. VALUATION OF THE PRINCIPAL -SOURCES OF INCOME OF THE FARMS IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900. (*) Items. United States Western Di'ision California Washington Oregon $1,654,135,912 $ 130,045.047 $ 26,009.040 $ 7,407.880 $ 14.907.210 Hay and Grain... $1,240,978,449 $ 103.092.172 $ 45,375,905 $ 16,574,775 $ 11,960,059 Dairy Produce... $ 384.953,680 $ 26,900,822 $ 12,841.980 $ 3,761.830 $ 2,793,920 $ 118,225,243 $ 11,753,929 $ 5,038,140 $ 1.075,430 $ 1,191,990 S 81,994,100 S 35,802,735 $ 32,066.175 $ 934,940 $ 1,026,970 Nursery Products $ 10.279,135 $ 954,537 $ 533,038 $ 27,228 $ 154.530 Flowers and $ 18,505,881 $ 1,012,941 $ 595.392 $ 52,900 $ 90.850 $ 40,804,284 $ 1,861,960 $ 1,454,400 $ 41,340 $ 34,080 Miscellaneous... . $ 589,163.235 $ 25.219,314 $ 7,774,050 $ 4.951.092 $ 5,931,360 By taking the figures for Oregon in these items as units, the relative status of this state in the different lines of production will be more easily seen. TABLE 17. . NUMBER OF TIMES THE VALUE OF THE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FARM INCOME IN EACH OF THE FOUR DIVISIONS, UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, WAS GREATER OR LESS THAN IT WAS IN OREGON, IN 1900. Items. United States Western Division Cali- fornia Wash- ington Oregon 110.96 8.73 1.76 0.50 1.00 103.84 8.61 3.79 1.39 1.00 137.78 9.63 4.60 1.35 1.00 99.18 9.86 4.203 0.90 1.00 79.84 34.86 31.22 0.91 1.00 66.52 6.17 3.45 0.18 1.00 203.69 10.05 6.05 0.58 1.00 1,197.34 54.63 42.68 1.21 1.00 99.33 4.25 1.32 0.84 1.00

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V. pp. 222-223. Land Tenure in Oregon.

8i The highest proportional source of farm income in Oregon in 1900 was derived from nursery products ; fruits ranked sec- ond ; vegetables third ; miscellaneous fourth ; hay and grain fifth ; live stock sixth ; dairy produce seventh ; flowers and plants eighth ; sugar ninth. The income from live stock in the United States was 110.96 times that in Oregon; hay and grain, miscellaneous and vegetables each about 100; fruits, 79.84; dairy produce, 137.78. Oregon's farms raised a large amount of fruit, but received a small proportionate income from dairy produce. The production of fruit in the Western Division (especially in California), was very large, the income from this source being 34.86 times that in Oregon. Sugar yielded, in the West- em Division, 54.63 times Oregon's value of this product, but Oregon produced very little sugar. In the other main sources of farm income the eleven states of the Western Division were approximately on an equal ratio to Oregon. California's farm income from sugar was 42.68 times as great as Ore- gon's ; from fruits, 31.22. On the other hand, her farm in- come from live stock was only 1.76, and miscellaneous prod- ucts 1.32 times that of Oregon. In Washington the farm in- come from hay and grain was 1.39, and from dairy produce 1.35 times what it was in Oregon. On the contrary, Wash- ington's farm income from live stock was only 50 per cent of Oregon's. It may also be noted that Washington raised a very small relative amount of nursery products as compared with Oregon's yield. Now that a general outline has beea given of the principal sources of income of Oregon's farms, a more detailed study will be made of the value of the different kinds of live stock raised and of cereals produced on farms in this state. All live stock are considered under the name of domestic animals and are divided into seven classes : Neat cattle, horses, mules, asses and burros, sheep, swine and goats. Cereals are divided into eight classes: Corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, rice and kafir corn. The value of the different classes of live 82 LoN L. Swift stock in Oregon and in the four divisions, United States, Western Division, California, Washington, will first be given, and the figures for Oregon will be compared, taken as a unit, with those of the other divisions in order that the relative status of the state under consideration may be more evident. TABLE 18. TOTAL VALUE OF ALL DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND OF EACH CLASS, AND VALUE RECEIVED IN 1899 FROM SALE OF LIVE ANIMALS, IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, IN 1900.* Classes. United States Western Division CaU- fornia Wash- ington Oregon All domestic $2,981,722,945 $ 361,453,453 $ 65,000,738 $ 21,437,528 $ 33,172,342 Neat Cattle $1,476,499,714 $ 190,709,487 $ 32,655,146 $ 9,440,038 $ 15,164,897 Horses $ 896,955,343 $ 66,883,447 $ 17,844,993 $ 8,550,034 $ 8.651,060 $ 196,812,560 $ 6,068,904 $ 4,610,909 $ 138,185 $ 318,449 Asses and Burros.. $ 5,820,539 $ 435,520 $ 146,697 $ 16,418 $ 42,423 $ 170,337,002 $ 90,519,411 $ 7,003,231 $ 2,450,929 $ 7,563,447 $ 232,027,707 $ 6,218,187 $ 2,476,781 $ 830,704 $ 1,057,037 $ 3.226,080 $ 1,418,503 $ 262,981 $ 10,757 $ 375,229 Received from sale of live $ 722,913,114 $ 60,262,686 $ 13,305,165 $ 3,517,053 $ 6,598,325 TABLE 19. ^FIGURES IN TABLE 18 COMPARED BY TAKING THE FIGURES FOR OREGON AS A UNIT. Classes. United States Western Division CaU- fornia Wash- ington Oregon 86.8 10.9 1.9 0.6 1.0 Neat Cattle 96.7 12.6 2.2 0.6 1.0 103.7 7.6 2.1 1.0 1.0 618.0 19.1 14.5 0.4 1.0 137.3 10.3 3.5 0.4 1.0 22.5 11.9 0.9 0.3 1.0 219.5 5.9 2.3 0.8 1.0 8.7 3.7 0.7 (1) 1.0 Received from sale of live 109.6 9.1 2.0 0.5 1.0

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 326-327. Land Tenure in Oregon.

83 The valuation of sheep in the United States in 1900 was only 22.5 times that in Oregon; cattle, 96.7; goats, 8.7. On the other hand, the proportional valuation of swine and mules was far greater in the United States than in Oregon. The Western Division received 9.1 times as much as Oregon from the sale of all live animals; California, 2.0; Washington, 0.5. The Western Division had a noticeably large valuation of mules as compared with Oregon, but was weak in swine and goats ; California was strong in the raising of mules but weak in sheep and goats ; Washington was strong in horses and swine, weak in sheep, and raised scarcely any goats. On the whole Oregon was a large producer of sheep and goats, and was well represented in the raising of live stock; she was a small producer of mules and swine. Let us now examine Oregon's relative importance in the pro- duction of the eight classes of cereals ; corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, rice and kafir corn. The total value of cereals produced in Oregon and in each of the four divisions, United States, Western Division. California and Washington, and the figures for these divisions compared with those for Oregon taken as a unit will give a basis for comparison. TABLE 20. VALUE OF CEREALS RAISED IN 1899 IN THE UNITED STATES, WESTERN DIVISION, CALI- FORNIA, WASHINGTON, AND OREGON, AND COMPARISON. (*) United Western Cali- Wash- Items. States Division fornia ington Oregon Value of Cereals. . $1,484,231,038 $ 71,357,916 $ 33,674,733 $ 12,191,397 $ 9,271,500 Comparison 160.1 7.7 3.8 1.3 1.0 Oregon was in 1900 not a large producer of cereals. The United States produced 160. i times as much as Oregon; West- ern Division, 7.7 ; CaHfornia, 3.8 ; Washington, 1.3. The West- ern Division had a small relative production of cereals as com- pared with Oregon, but Washington's yield was greater than Oregon's, and California's was nearly four times as great.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, pp. 62-63. 84

LoN L. Swift The amount of each class of cereals produced in each of the four divisions may be more easily seen by examining the per cent of the value of each class in comparison with the value of all cereals in each division. TABLE 21. PERCENTAGE OF THE VAX.UE OP THE CLASSES OP CEREALS TO THE TOTAL VALUE OF CEREALS IN EACH DIVISION. (*) United States Western Division CaU- fomia Wash- ington Oregon 55.8 3.2 2.1 0.9 1.7 Wheat 24.9 62.0 59.9 74.0 68.6 Oats 14.6 14.4 5.1 14.5 22.4 2.8 19.5 31.6 10.4 6.5 Rye 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.7 . . . .0.4 (1) (1) (1) 0.1 0.6 Kafir Corn 0.1 0.3 0.6 (1) Oregon, Western Division, California, Washington, all pro- duced a large relative amount of wheat when compared with the United States. Nearly seven-tenths of Oregon's yield of cereals was wheat, and even a larger percentage of Washing- ton's, whereas only one-fourth of the value of the cereals pro- duced in the United States came from wheat. Oregon was a large producer of oats, appearing to be quite exceptional in this line of production. As is well known, the Western States produce very little com. The Western Division was excep- tional in the raising of barley, and California even more so, but Oregon was scarcely above normal in the production of this grain when compared with the United States. To sum up, Oregon's farm land had in 1900 a greater total value than the average of the eleven states of the Western Division, greater than Washington's, but less than two-ninths of California's. The total value of farm produce in Oregon was greater than that in the average of the eleven states of

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, pp. 68-69. Land Tenure in Oregon.

85 the Western Division; two-sevenths of California's, and greater than Washington's. Oregon was a relatively large producer of hay, miscellaneous products, live stock and fruits as compared with the United States. Among live stock, sheep, goats and cattle were her favorites. This state was an ex- ceptionally large producer of oats, and her principal cereals were wheat and oats. 86 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER X. Growth From 1850 to 1900. Now that a general idea has been given of Oregon's farms as they were in 1900, let us next study the growth of agricul- ture in this state since 1850, noticing particularly the pecuHar tendencies of Oregon as compared with other geographical divisions. If the number of farms and the area of farm land (especially improved land) have increased rapidly, it will show that the exploitation of Oregon territory is recent and that the state is new, so to speak. If the farms are becoming smaller and at the same time more valuable to the acre, farming is becoming more intensive. If the income derived from any class of produce has made rapid strides, Oregon, as a whole, is particularly adapted to the raising of that commodity. To compare the figures for Oregon to those for the four geograp- ical divisions : United States, Western Division, California and Washington, would make our tables and discussions so com- plex as to lead only to confusion ; so our governing principle shall be to concentrate attention on Oregon and make compari- sons to other sections only where they are of unique signifi- cance. A comprehensive view of the number, size and value of Ore- gon's farms may be given by the figures for the end of each decade from 1850 to 1900. A second table is given to show the percentage of increase by decades from 1850 to 1900: Land Tenure in Oregon. 87 TABLE 22. TOTAL NUMBER OP FARMS, AVERAGE AREA PER FARM, TOTAL AND IMPROVED ACREAGE, PER CENT. IMPROVED, TOTAL VALUE, AVERAGE VALUE PER FARM, AND AVERAGE VALUE PER ACRE OP FARM LAND, IN OREGON, CLASSIFIED BY DECADES, FROM 1850 TO 1900.(*) Items 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 Tntal Nn of farms. . . 1,164 5,806 7,587 16,217 25,530 35,578 Average area per farm.. , 371.8 354.9 314.9 259.9 270.7 283.1 JL oi/aL area ui farm land.. 432,808 2,060,539 2,389,252 4,214,712 6,909,888 10,071,328 Improved area of farm land . 132,875 896,414 1,116,290 2,198,643 3,516,000 3,328,308 Per cent, of area im- proved .... 30.7 43.5 46.7 52.2 50.9 33.0 Total value of farm $4,908,782 22,099,161 30,475,387 76,975,140 143,024,800 172,761,287 Av. value per farm.. . $ 4,217 3,806 4,017 4,747 5,602 4,821 Av. value per acre . . . $ 11.34 10.72 12.76 18.26 20.70 17.15 TABLE 23. PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE BY DECADES OP NUMBER OF FARMS, ACRES OF FARM LAND, AND VALUE OF FARM PROPERTY, IN OREGON, FROM 1850 TO 1900.(t) 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 Items. to to to to to 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 Number of farms 398.8 30.7 113.7 57.4 40.4 376.1 16.0 76.4 63.9 45.8 Value of farm property 350.2 37.9 152.6 85.8 20.8 The value of farm property, which is, doubtless, the best general criterion of agricultural growth, increased very rap- idly during the decade from 1850 to i860. This is character- istic of all the states of the Western Division at this time ex- cept Washington, for which the figures are not given, but there was scarcely any farming in Washington before i860.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 688-689 and

692-695. flbid. pp. 702-703. 88 LoN L. Swift During the next decade, farming- grew very slowly, and this condition is applicable to each and every part of the United States from i860 to 1870. The check was, without doubt, the result of the Civil War. The ten years from 1870 to 1880 marks a larger percentage of growth in Oregon than either of the two following decades. In the Western Division, Cal- ifornia and Washington, the period from 1880 to 1890 had the largest growth. It is peculiar to see how the percentage of growth has decreased in the Western Division, California, Washington and Oregon in the last decade, being in each case except Washington lower than that of the United States. California's was only 2.5 per cent, while the increase of the United States was 27.6. It would appear from this general lull in the rate of agricultural growth of the Western States during the last decade that the choice lands of this territory had al- ready been exploited before 1900, but the figures are mislead- ing, as the census reports were taken on a different basis. As percentages of growth by decades are, in appearance at least, somewhat deceiving, a more accurate idea of the real increase in agricultural wealth may be obtained by examining the figures in table 22. The total value of farm land in Oregon increased from 1850 to i860 approximately $17,000,- 000; from i860 to 1870, $8,000,000; from 1870 to 1880, $47,- 000,000; from 1880 to 1890, $66,000,000; from 1890 to 1900, $30,000,000. The two largest decades of growth were from 1870 to 1890, and that of the ten years following 1890 was less than half of the amount for the preceding decade. But this difference in the last decade was due largely to a differ- ence in the standard of valuation used in taking the census. Since 1870 the number of farms in Oregon has steadily increased at the rate of nine or ten thousand a decade, and the area of farm land also shows a constant increase. Up till 1890 the per cent of improved land was high, the average value per farm and per acre of farm land was on the rise, and the average area per farm was decreasing. This would tend to show that farming was becoming more intensive, and that Land Tenure in Oregon. 89 much attention was given to the raising of cereals, fruits, vegetables and miscellaneous products. But the figures for 1900 mark a direct departure from these tendencies during the last decade. During this time the area of improved land has actually become less, the per cent of improved land has fallen 16 per cent, the average value per farm and average value per acre of farm land is much less, while the average area per farm is greater. The census reports, however, are not comparable on these points, because the last were made accord- ing to a different rule from those in the former decades; nevertheless, they are more marked for Oregon than for the other Western States, and show a tendency peculiar to Oregon. A census of all the different classes of production was not taken before 1900, and our historical study will be confined to live stock and cereals. The figures for the total value of live stock on farms and the number of cattle, horses, sheep, and swine on farms and ranges at the end of each decade from 1850 tO' 1900 will give some idea of the increase in live stock during this period. TABLE 24. TOTAL VALUE OP ALL LIVE STOCK AND NUMBER OF CATTLE, HORSES, SHEEP, AND SWINE > ON FARMS AND RANGES IN OREGON, BY DECADES, FROM 1850 TO 1900. (*) Items. 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 Total value of all live stock . . $1,876,189 5,946,255 6,828,675 13,808,392 22,648,830 33,917,048 41,729 154,131 120,197 598,015 520,648 531,980 8,046 36,772 51,702 124,107 224,962 261,794 15,382 86,052 318,123 1,368,162 1,780,312 1,961,355 No. of swine 30,235 81,615 119,455 179,195 208,259 281,406 The total value of all live stock on farms in Oregon in 1850 was approximately $2,000,000. The increase from 1850 to i860 was nearly $4,000,000; from i860 to 1870, $1,000,000; from 1870 to 1880, $7,000,000; from 1880 to 1890, $9,000,- 000; from 1890 to 1900, $11,000,000. The growth has been

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 704-705. 90

LoN L. Swift steady and has increased about $2,000,000 every decade except during the ten years from i860 to 1870. The figures for the number of cattle are so confusing as to make an accurate estimate impossible; but it appears that cattle have not in- creased as rapidly as horses, sheep, or swine. The increase in the production of cereals since 1880 may be indicated by the total number of bushels produced at the end of each decade, the number of acres used in raising cereals, and the percentage of this acreage producing each class of cereals. TABLE 25. TOTAL NUMBEB OF BUSHELS OF CEREALS, ACREAGE IN CEREALS, AND PER CENT. OP ACREAGE USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF EACH CLASS OF CEREALS, IN OREGON, BY DECADES, FROM 1880 TO 1900. (*) Items 1880 1890 1900 12,933,019 16,423,768 23,225,515 632,871 828,706 1,222,648 Percentage of wheat 70.3 66.7 71.4 24.0 26.4 21.4 4.6 4.6 5.0 0.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.5 1.4 The cereal production from 1880 to 1900 was not rela- tively as great as that in the raising of live stock; in the latter decade, however, it was almost as marked. The per- centage of land used in the production of wheat decreased during the ten years from 1880 to 1890, but increased in the next decade; thus, showing that less attention was given to the production of wheat in the Willamette Valley in 1890 than in 1880, and that wheat farming was developed in the eastern part of the State during the next decade. The per- centage of oat ground increased from 1880 to 1890 and decreased by 1900. The percentage of barley acreage has remained almost stationary, and none of the other cereal crops has been large at any time.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, pp. 68-69.

CHAPTER XL

Farms and Farm Output in Counties of Oregon.

Some of the principal conditions of farming in Oregon as a whole have been outlined and their growth considered. Let us examine conditions in the different counties and sections of the State and discover what localities are the largest or smallest producers of certain crops. The questions relative to the largest farms, the number of farms, the valuation of farm lands, and the output of farms will be taken up.

A comprehensive view of the number and average size of farms, total and improved acreage, and total value of farm lands may be given by the following tables:

TABLE 26.

NUMBER OF FARMS, AVERAGE SIZE OF FARMS, TOTAL AND IMPROVED ACREAGE IN FARMS, AND TOTAL VALUE OF FARM LANDS, IN COUNTIES, AND RANK OF COUNTIES, IN OREGON IN 1900. ([2])

Counties. .. Number of Farms Rank. Counties. Average Size of Farms. Rank State 35,578 State 283.1 2,754 1 Crook 1,360.2 1 2,568 2 870.2 2 2,417 3 784.1 3 2,370 4 772.0 4 2,302 5 719.9 5 1,641 6 697.9 6 YamhiU 1,595 7 555.0 7 1,593 8 489.1 8 1,481 9 453.9 9 1,356 10 441.8 10 1,351 11 379.1 11 1,276 12 356.0 12 Polk 1,192 13 337.1 13 865 14 319.5 14 863 15 272.4 15 803 16 264.2 16 801 17 243.4 17 725 18 241.7 18 697 19 Jackson 216.9 19 631 20 Polk 215.5 20 Morrow 586 21 Lane 212.4 21 Malheur 583 22 Linn 203.3 22 Crook 576 23 Coos 199.7 23 Josephine 557 24 Lincoln 183.4 24 545 25 1 TO A OK 489 26 YamhiU 178.3 26 453 27 172.4 27 441 28 167.5 28 433 29 161.5 29 397 30 143.8 30 390 31 116.2 31 348 32 109.3 32 290 33 Multnomah 80.7 33 Land Tenure in Oregon. 93 TABLE 26— Continued. Counties. Total Acreage in Farms. Rank bounties. Improved ^Acreage in Farms Kank 10,071,328 State 3,328,308 Crook 783,485 1 Umatilla . 382,763 1 TT +-11 703,852 2 ■ * 216,582 2 ■n 1 553,168 3 Marion 199,254 3 509,858 4 Sherman . 198,285 4 503,405 5 Union 162,495 5 ^ . 491,439 6 Morrow 144,457 6 w 431,600 7 Lane .... 140,513 7 HT • 396,091 8 Gilliam 136,258 8 TT ■ 391,299 9 Yamhill 134,832 9 OilUflTn 340,460 10 Polk 127,072 10 316,346 11 Harney. .... 125,549 11 302,432 12 Douglas . . . 122,997 12 Cld/Ckd>ni8<s 298,491 13 ^Vasco. . . 115,059 13 tTsickson • 294,163 14 Lake . . . 195,824 14 "VnTTihill 284,385 15 "W^ashington 92,512 15 A/1ipa1 at* 280,754 16 Jackson 92,103 16 TT Q Tn 272,877 17 Malheur 91,250 17 Polk 256,847 18 Clackamas 90,061 18 "XJIJq oViin fyfoTi 251,568 19 85,823 19 T k 249,288 20 B k 78,389 20 235,652 21 IClamath 72,239 21 221,554 22 Crook 55,134 22 221,043 23 "Wallowa 55,131 23 193,255 24 rtrnnt 41,222 24 B k 176,455 25 37,622 25

Coos 172,336 26 34,196 26 142,906 27 26,940 27 103,236 78 23,149 28 Multnomah 102,926 29 22,139 29 Tillamook 101,912 30 22,056 30 96,019 31 18,045 31 89,665 32 14,694 32 72,515 33 8,823 33 94 LoN L. Swift TABLE 26— Continued. Oountics • Total Value of Farm Land Rank Counties. Total Value of Farm Land Rank $ 172,761,287 $ 5,884,100 7 10,186,780 1 5,815,290 8 2 4,993,820 9 3 Polk 4,977,240 10 4 Douglas 4,764,020 11 6,642,490 5 Jackson 3,614,660 12 Yamhill . . 5,989,550 6 3,381,460 13 3,019,650 14 1,438,470 24 2,846,440 15 1,339,680 25 2,458,750 16 1,324,840 26 2,190,425 17 WaUowa 1,283,305 27 2,142,850 18 Grant 1,220,870 28 2,117,570 19 999,300 29 1,982,331 20 993,506 30 1,559,170 21 958,200 31 1,465,660 22 807,780 32 1,457,920 23 546,910 33 The total value of farm land, which more nearly than any- other one set of figures, represents the agricultural wealth of a place, may be taken as the first basis of comparison. Marion County in 1900 held first rank in this respect, having a valua- tion of over $10,000,000. The five counties lying south of the Columbia River and immediately west of the Cascade Moun- tains, Multnomah, Clackamas, Marion, Linn, and Lane, each had a valuation of farm property of over $5,000,000; while Washington, Yamhill, and Polk, lying on the west side of the Willamette River, were of almost equal rank. It is to be noted, however, that Umatilla County, situated in the great wheat belt in the northeastern part of the State, ranked second; and on its east. Union was seventh. Douglas and Jackson, in southern Oregon, were eleventh and twelfth. The counties that had the lowest valuation of farm property were Lincoln, on the coast; Wheeler and Klamath, both in the Land Tenure in Oregon. 95 interior east of the mountains and away from railroads, and Curry and Josephine, in the southwestern corner of the State. These five each had less than $1,000,000 valuation. Of the others, Benton and Wasco had over $3,000,000; Crook, Sher- man, Baker, Malheur, and Coos, each between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000; Morrow, GilHam, Grant, Clatsop, Columbia, Tilla- mook, Harney, Lake, and Wallowa, each between $1,000,000 and $2,000,000. The number of farms is only another criterion of the agri- cultural magnitude of the counties, yet less exact than the total valuation. It is well to note, however, that the relative status of counties according to the number of farms was in general much the same as that according to valuation. There were two or three rather marked variations to this rule. The classification according to the average size of farms in each county is valuable to indicate the kinds of farming that is carried on. The more thickly settled districts, and, other things being equal, the more fertile or highly cultivated lands where farms are cut up into smaller tracts, as the result of intensive farming, are conditions indicated by small farms. In general, it may be said that the farms of the counties east of the mountains were in 1900 larger than those west of the mountains. Crook County had the largest average in the size of farms, reaching the enormous area of 1,360.2 acres to the farm. Morrow, Harney, Gilliam, Wheeler, Lake, and Sherman, all of which are in eastern Oregon, each had farms with an average size of over 500 acres. Three more eastern counties, Klamath, Grant, and Umatilla, each averaged be- tween 400 and 500 acres to the farm ; and Malheur, the large southeastern county, only slightly less than 400 acres. The average acreage in Curry, Douglas, and Wasco was over 300 acres. The average size of Multnomah's farms, which is the smallest county in the State, was 80.7 acres. Marion, Clack- amas, and Washington each averaged less than 150 acres to the farm. The counties averaging between 100 and 200 acres to the farm were Benton, Polk, Lane, Linn, Union, Baker, 96 LoN L. Swift Wallowa, and Jackson; those between 150 and 200 acres were Josephine, Coos, Lincoln, Tillamook, Clatsop, Columbia, and Yamhill. A study of the total and improved areas in farms will show the relative amount of land in actual cultivation and in waste or pasture in each county ; and a further comparison of the improved areas with the total valuation will give a more exact idea of the fertility of the soil. In 1900 one- third of the farm land in the State was improved. It will be remem- bered that, with few exceptions, the counties of the Willamette Valley had the highest valuation of farm land. Of these, Multnomah was almost at the bottom of the list in rank of total area of farm lands and had about one-third of this area improved, which was the average for the State, showing a normal amount of waste or pasture land in this county, a very high fertility of soil of the improved land, and the raising of valuable crops. Multnomah, however, is favored by Portland, the metropolis of the State, which offers an advantageous market and other superior conditions. Clack- amas ranked thirteenth in total area and had less than one- third of its farm lands improved ; Marion, eighth in total area, but half of its farm lands were improved. There was not so much uncultivated farm land in Marion County as in Multno- mah or Clackamas, but its cultivated areas did not produce crops as valuable as those of Multnomah or Clackamas; however, Portland is the great market center of Oregon, and the farther distant a place is from this metropolis, the greater disad- vantage it must face in marketing its produce. Linn ranked sixth in total area of farm lands ; Lane, fifth ; the two being nearly equal. The former had two-fifths of this area improved; Lane had considerably less than one-third improved. Lane, therefore, had more waste land, but its cultivated farms were more valuable. Washington ranked ninteenth ; Yamhill, fifteenth ; Polk, eighteenth ; Benton, twenty-first. Washington had more than one-third improved ; Yamhill, almost one-half; Polk, the same; Benton, one-third. Land Tenure in Oregon. 97 Of the two eastern counties with a high valuation, Umatilla and Union, the former ranked second in total acreage of farm lands and had nearly four-sevenths improved; Union was ninth, with two-fifths improved. In southern Oregon, Doug- las ranked third ; Jackson, fourteenth ; Douglas having slightly more than one-fifth improved ; Jackson, one-third. The other counties may be reviewed by sections. In the southwestern corner of the State, Coos ranked twenty-sixth in total farm area, having one-fifth improved ; Curry, twenty- eight, less than one-fourth improved; Josephine, thirty-first, less than one-fourth improved. In the northwest, Columbia was twenty-seventh, having one-eighth improved ; Clatsop, thirty-third, one-fifth improved; Tillamook, thirtieth, one- fourth improved; Lincoln, thirty-second, one-tenth improved. East of the mountains in southern Oregon, Klamath was twenty-second, having one-third improved; Lake, twentieth, two-fifths improved; Harney, seventeenth, one-half improved; Malheur, twenty-third, two-fifths improved. In central Ore- gon, Crook ranked first, having one-fourteenth improved ; Wheeler, sixteenth, one-thirteenth improved; Grant, eleventh, one-eighth improved. Along the Columbia River, Wasco ranked seventh, having one-fourth improved; Sherman, twelfth, two-thirds improved; Gilliam, tenth, two-fifths im- proved; Morrow, fourth, two-fifths improved. In the north- eastern part of the State, Wallowa ranked twenty-fourth, hav- ing one-fourth improved; Baker, twenty-fifth, two-fifths im- proved. The counties along the Columbia River east of the moun- tains had a comparatively large per cent of their farm lands improved, and were not low in rank of the total acreage of farm lands ; but these counties did not show a high valuation. Their cultivated lands, therefore, were of relatively small value to the acre as compared to the State as a whole. It was seen also that their farms were large. These facts all coin- cide to show that this was not primarily a stock country nor a thickly settled community of intensive farming, but a section of large wheat farms not overly productive, where one man can handle a large tract of land. Wallowa and Baker had a 98 LoN L. Swift smaller total area of farm lands than the counties along the Columbia River, and their farm lands, Baker's especially, were more valuable to the acre and evidently given more to diversi- fied farming. The counties of central Oregon had a very small per cent of their farm lands improved and were of low valuation, showing that the principal industry was stock- raising. It is well known that the four large southern coun- ties, Klamath, Lake, Harney, and Malheur, were devoted almost wholly to the raising of stock, and, consequently, we should expect to find a small per cent of their farm lands improved ; but the figures show the contrary. This apparent inconsistency can be reconciled, perhaps, by the fact that in 1900 all of these counties were too far away from railroads and rainfall was too scant to entice grain farmers to this section. The stock men did not extend their fences to secure grazing lands for their herds, but relied on the range. The farm land itself was used mainly for the raising of hay for feed during the winter months. The total area of farm lands being small in these counties is a fact that bears out this idea. Columbia, Clatsop, Tillamook, and Lincoln, the four coun- ties in the northwestern part of the State, were among the smallest in total area of farm lands, and the per cent improved was low. Several counties were lower in valuation than Columbia, Clatsop, and Tillamook. In the southwest. Coos presented much the same appearance as the three in the north- west ; but Curry and Josephine showed a lower valuation, and may be classed with Lincoln. Our study of the farms in relation to their value, number, size, and total and improved area, gives a general knowledge of farming conditions in the different sections and counties of the State. This, however, should be substantiated and made more plain, definite, and exact by a consideration of the production of some of the staple commodities. Live stock, cereals, dairy produce, orchard products, and poultry will be taken up in this connection. A table showing the figures and relative rank of the coun- ties for the value of all domestic animals on farms and ranges, and the number of cattle, horses, sheep, swine, and goats, in 1900, will make a basis for the study of live stock. Land Tenure in Oregon. 99 TABLE 27. TOTAL VALUE OP DOMESTIC ANIMALS ON FARMS AND RANGES, AMOUNT RECEIVED FROM SALE OF LIVE ANIMALS, NUMBER OF CATTLE, HORSES, SHEEP, SWINE AND GOATS, ON FARMS IN OREGON, IN 1900, CLASSIFIED BY COUNTIES, AND RANK OF COUNTIES. (*) Counties. Value of Domestic Animals. Rank Counties. Rec'd from Sale of Animals. Rank $33,917,048 State $ 6,598,325 2,817,691 1 Lake 514,068 1 1,926,512 2 440,103 2 1,882,712 3 432,711 3 1,762,304 4 410,049 4 1,639,931 5 374,049 5 1,431,914 6 322,325 6 1,401,484 7 Union 311,753 7 1,382,955 8 Baker 290,760 8 1,368,080 9 285,917 9 1,308,645 10 258,025 10 1,250,944 11 254,954 11 1,175,898 12 Morrow 251,793 12 1,129,210 13 Wallowa 250,845 13 1,100,797 14 244,191 14 1,052,860 15 228,993 15 886,283 16 177,207 16 841,993 17 171,561 17 840,558 18 Marion 168,399 18 839,984 19 157,207 19 YamhiU 803,040 20 132,806 20 794,249 21 Yamhill 130,762 21 763,252 22 113,375 22 Polk 713,731 23 99,345 23 628,288 24 Polk 91,683 24 548,754 25 86,836 25 529,335 26 73,369 26 522,663 27 55,525 27 370,390 28 Curry 53,045 28 320,757 29 48,811 29 283,064 30 50,780 30 236,859 31 34,211 31 205,167 32 30,014 32 179,630 33 22,450 33

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, pp. 470-473. loo LoN L. Swift

TABLE 27— Continued. Counties. Number of Cattle Rank Counties. Number of Horses Rank 531,980 261,794 TIT 11, 81,203 1 Jf IV, 34,905 1 71,260 2 Crook 23,040 2 T 1r 43,365 3 TT <.-ii 16,827 3 r» 1 32,535 4 15,390 4 Tl 1 32,461 5 FT ■ 14,825 5 31,509 6 1 12,557 6 r V 31,431 7 Cirarti 12,387 7 28,429 8 r k 12,234 8 27 853 9 J . 10,319 9 TT ' 26,418 10 9,462 10 TTl +V, 25,694 11 M • 9,402 11 Tiyr ' 19 755 12 W 11 9,359 12 TT +'11 19,571 13 ri-ir 8,957 13 T 1. 19,404 14 1 7,997 14 19,321 15 AT 7,949 15 m 1. 16 , 7,909 16 W 11 16,475 17 TTl +U 7,558 17 14,450 18 7,027 18 .... 14,076 19 ni 1 6,496 19 13,217 20 TUT U- 6,084 20 w 11,424 21 n 1 6,062 21 A/T 1+ U 10,941 23 Vqtti Villi 5,807 22 Yamhill 10,665 23 5,786 23 _ 10,270 24 Polk 5,119 24 9,083 25 3,817 25 8,550 26 Multnomah 3,186 26 8,192 27 Coos 2,283 27 8,024 28 Josephine 1,810 28 7,800 29 1,630 29 7,532 30 1,356 30 6,509 31 Curry 976 31 5,235 32 822 32 3,832 33 765 33 Land Tenure in Oregon. ioi TABLE 27— Continued. Counties. Number of Sheep Rank Counties. Number of Swine Rank 1,961,355 287,406 322,650 1 22,588 1 294,898 2 20,644 2 256,288 3 J . 20,201 3 251.722 4 T 1 20,072 4 Grant 241,290 5 W 11 17,783 5 TT +,-11 222,907 6 17,616 6 200,620 7 16,927 7 r<-ir 176,016 8 TT ■ 16,046 8 1 147,311 9 VamViill 13,576 9 R k 140,759 10 W W 12,866 10 W 11 131,890 11 Polk 10,749 11 130, 448 12 10,633 12 TT ■ 65,020 13 TT +-n 10,027 13 53,558 14 u 8,075 14 AT • 49,846 15 p 6,995 15 Polk 43,950 16 5,794 16 42,963 17 T U- 5,648 17 r» 1 41,812 18 4,608 18 41,610 19 p 3,883 19 36,204 20 3,627 20 p 33,475 21 1 1 1 O TY 3,502 21 Vnmhill 30,930 22 3,460 22 17,965 23 Grant 3,339 23 p 17,638 24 „ 1 K- 3,232 24 T 1. 13,387 25 3,087 25 13,237 26 2,337 26 7,773 27 2,245 27 7,061 28 1,964 28 2,606 29 1,902 29 2,521 30 1,898 30 1,928 31 1,741 31 1,409 32 1,491 32 384 33 Harney 951 33 102 LoN L. Swift TABLE 27— Continued. Counties. Number of Goats Rank Counties. Number of Goats Rank State 109,661 Polk 19,066 1 Yamhill 14,109 2 Multnomah 333 18 11,939 3 267 19 Linn 11,639 4 109 20 9,866 5 100 21 9,202 6 75 22 Douglas 8.247 7 58 23 6,054 8 39 24 5,134 9 36 25 5,002 10 20 26 3,598 11 12 27 Jackson 2,073 12 8 28 1,147 13 8 29 Tillamook 432 14 6 30 383 15 6 30 Curry 339 16 32 336 17 33 Malheur County had a valuation of live stock nearly fifty per cent greater than any other county in the State. Malheur, Harney, Lake, Crook, Grant, Baker, Umatilla, and Union each raised more live stock in 1900 than any county west of the mountains. Malheur's valuation was $2,817,691 ; Har- ney's, which ranked second, $1,926,512; Baker, eighth, $1,382,- 955; Marion, Linn, Lane, and Douglas each had over $1,000,- 000 valuation of live stock; also, Wasco, Morrow, and Wal- lowa. Clackamas, Yamhill, Gilliam, Wheeler, and Klamath reported between $800,000 and $900,000 each. The counties having the smallest valuation of live stock were Lincoln, Tillamook, Clatsop, Columbia, Curry, and Josephine, each reporting less than $400,000. The figures for the amount received for the sale of live animals coincided, in general, notwithstanding a few exceptions, with those for the total valuation of live stock. , Land Tenure in Oregon. 103 Malheur, which was the banner stock county of the State, ranked first in cattle and sheep, and had fifty per cent more horses than any other county. Malheur and Harney each raised twice as many cattle as any other county. Lake ranked third, reporting over 40,000 head ; Douglas, Baker, Grant, and Crook had over 30,000 each ; Lane, Linn, Union, and Klamath, between 20,000 and 30,000; Polk, Morrow, Gilliam, and Sher- man; Columbia, Clatsop, and Lincoln; Curry and Josephine, were among the smallest, each reporting less than 10,000. Southern Oregon east of the mountains was by far the greatest cattle producing part of the State, and central Oregon ranked next. The counties raising the smallest number were those along the Columbia River, except Umatilla, three on the coast, and Columbia and Josephine. The northeastern corner of the State and the Willamette Valley were about of equal rank. The raising of horses may be classed in almost the same way. In general, the counties of eastern Oregon raised the most horses, those of the Willamette Valley ranked next, southern Oregon west of the mountains, next, and the coast last. Eastern Oregon raised by far the most sheep, all but two counties, Sherman and Klamath, in this part of the State reporting more than any county west of the mountains. Mor- row ranked first with 322,650; Malheur, Crook, Lake, Grant, Umatilla, and Wasco each had between 200,000 and 300,000. The counties of the Willamette Valley may be classed next to eastern Oregon; but Douglas, Jackson, and Coos had, county for county, nearly as large a number. The coast re- ported the lowest rank. Jackson County ranked first in the number of swine, reporting 22,588. Marion, Linn, and Doug- las each had over 20,000. The counties of the Willamette Valley and Jackson and Douglas reported the largest number of hogs ; eastern Oregon and the coast, the smallest. The Willamette Valley ranked first in the number of goats, Polk County being an easy leader. None of the eastern Oregon counties reported many goats except Baker. Douglas and Jackson were ahead of most of the coast counties. No one set of figures has been obtained that represents the production of all classes of cereals. Seven-tenths of the land raising cereals, however, was producing wheat in I900; one-fifth, oats; and five per cent, barley. Very little corn or rye was produced. Wheat, therefore, was in 1900 the main cereal crop of Oregon, and the production of oats was quite large. The figures showing the number of bushels of each of the five cereal crops, wheat, oats, barley, corn, and rye, raised in the different counties of the State, will give an outline for this discussion. Land Tenure in Oregon. 105 TABLE 28. NUMBER OF BUSHELS OP WHEAT, OATS, BARLEY, CORN, AND RYE, RAISED IN OREGON, IN 1900, CLASSIFIED BY COUNTIES. (*) Counties. Bushels of Wheat Rank Counties. Bushels of Oats Rank 14,508,636 State 6,725,828 3,212,120 1 1,059,220 1 1,252,620 2 853,010 2 1,094,150 3 Yamhill 659,220 3 1,072,740 4 651,650 4 1,050,400 5 Polk 561,820 5 Polk 958,920 6 552,650 6 767,000 7 511,790 7 635,590 8 Douglas 408,430 8 548,390 9 Benton 392,390 9 523,320 10 Union 299,350 10 504,980 11 161,690 11 463,090 12 Multnomah 110,230 12 406,480 13 Wallowa 64,650 13 395,260 14 50,980 14 387,420 15 Wasco 49,280 15 381,350 16 45,740 16 151,183 17 34,120 17 Wallowa 150,170 18 Crook 33,030 18 42,880 19 29,510 19 38,380 20 24,600 20 37,490 21 Coos 24,060 21 31,800 22 14,850 22 Malheur 27,340 23 14,090 23 21,670 24 13,430 24 15,720 25 13,200 25 12,150 26 Clatsop 10,150 26 Coos 11,920 27 9,720 27 10,800 28 9,458 28 3,730 29 6,420 29 3,300 30 6,050 30 1,813 31 Harney 5,730 31 520 32 Wheeler 5,090 32 80 33 2,310 33

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, p. 180. io6 LoN L. Swift

TABLE 28— Continued. Counties . Barley xianK Counties . Corn Rank 1,515,150 ■ 359,523 380,340 1 109,000 1 • 215,640 63,300 2 109,773 3 32,930 3 97,710 4 19,780 4 76,650 5 19,010 5 75,700 6 T 14,720 6 57,360 7 W 14,150 7 43,870 8 9,980 8 42,440 9 VamViill 8,500 9 42,230 10 8,290 10 31,660 11 8,100 11 29,180 12 Polk 7.950 12 27,520 13 UmatiUa.. . — 7,780 13 • 24,910 14 5,470 14 T V 23,360 15 w n 4,150 15 21,960 16 TT • 3,880 16 21,830 17 3.330 17 Polk 20 910 18 2,650 18 19,800 19 2,606 19 19,140 20 2,580 20 17,810 21 1,489 21 11,790 22 1,130 22 10,710 23 830 23 9,830 24 450 24 9,220 25 25 8,250 26 340 26 4,920 27 220 27 Curry 4,607 28 188 28 3,140 29 Klamath 160 29 2,700 30 80 30 Tillamook 490 31 31 90 32 32 Clatsop 20 33 33 Land Tenure in Oregon. 107 TABLE 2&— Continued. Counties Rye. Rank Counties. Rye. Rank 109,234 5,240 7 23,190 1 4,900 8 18,030 2 3,710 9 Morrow 11,070 3 3,300 10 • 10,830 4 2,998 11 6,300 5 2,960 12 5,840 6 A/r • 2,380 13 2,200 14 680 24 1,840 15 620 25 1,660 16 460 26 Washington 1,430 17 Douglas 420 27 Harney 1,200 18 400 28 1,100 19 Tillamook 180 29 970 20 110 30 810 21 50 31 Polk..... 780 22 40 32 Wasco 750 23 Curry 36 33 Umatilla in 1900 produced 3,212,120 bushels of wheat, or two and one-half times as much as any other county in the State. Linn, Marion, Yamhill, and Sherman each raised over 1,000,000 bushels; Polk, 958,920; Union, 767,000. Lane, Ben- ton, Washington, and Clackamas ; Wasco, Gilliam, and Mor- row ; Jackson and Douglas, each between 380,000 and 636,000 bushels. Tillamook, which was at the bottom of the list, produced only 80 ; Lincoln, 520. Harney, Clatsop, and Curry each reported between 4,000 and 1,800 bushels; Josephine and Coos ; Wheeler, Lake, and Columbia, between 22,000 and 10,- 000. On the whole, the Willamette Valley counties, those along the Columbia River, and those in the northeastern part of the State, made the largest yield; Jackson and Douglas, however, each ranked ahead of Baker or Wallowa. Central and southern Oregon east of the mountains had a larger output than the coast counties. io8 LoN L. Swift By far the largest production of oats was made in the Wil- lamette Valley. The northeastern part of the State ranked next with the exception of Douglas. The output of the coast counties was, in general, larger than that of the remaining ones in eastern Oregon. Marion county, which raised 1,059,- 220 bushels of oats, produced nearly twice as much of this grain as any other county. Linn, Yamhill, Washington, Polk, Lane, and Clackamas each produced between 660,000 and 500,000 bushels. The counties in the northeastern corner of the State took the lead in the production of barley. Umatilla ranked first with 380,340 bushels, or nearly twice as much as any other county, excelling almost as noticeably as in the production of wheat. The Columbia River counties, together with Jack- son and Douglas, were next to Umatilla, Union, Baker, and Wallowa. Some of the coast counties were the smallest pro- ducers. Most of the corn was raised in southwestern Oregon and the Willamette Valley. Eastern Oregon excelled in the production of rye; the Willamette Valley ranked second; the southwestern and coast counties were at the bottom of the list. Conditions of farming in Oregon may be further explained by an, examination of the value of dairy produce, orchard products, and poultry, in the different counties of the State. Land Tenure in Oregon. 109 TABLE 29. VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCE IN OREGON IN 1900, CLASSIFIED BY COUNTIES. (*) Counties. Value. Rank Counties. Value Rank State $ 3,550,953 $ 57,923 17 ■ 346,781 1 Curry 57,417 18 227,050 2 46,714 19 Washington 220,023 3 46,246 20 210,869 4 43,771 21 197,770 5 41,706 22 197,436 6 41,121 23 183,770 7 Lincoln 39,357 24 162,309 8 37,418 25 151,023 9 37,208 26 YamhiU 126,637 10 Crook 37,017 27 113,099 11 31,597 28 112,747 12 Gilliam 28,689 29 90,827 13 26,090 30 85,545 14 25,555 31 83,465 15 22,999 32 Polk 75,971 16 Clatsop 20,229 33 Most of the dairy produce came from the Willamette Val- ley, and the least from eastern Oregon and some of the coast counties. Multnomah took the lead, having an output of $346,- 781, which was fifty per cent more than that of any other county. Marion, Washington, and Lane each had an output valued at more than $200,000; Linn, Coos, Umatilla, Tilla- mook, and Union, over $150,000 each; Yamhill, Douglas, and Clackamas, over $100,000 each ; Wasco, Grant, Jackson, Polk, Morrow, and Curry, over $50,000 each. Counties in the Wil- lamette Valley were, for the most part, the greatest producers. Some coast counties ranked high ; others, low. Coos was sixth ; Tillamook, eighth ; Curry, eighteenth ; Lincoln, twenty- fourth ; Clatsop, thirty-third. In northeastern Oregon, Uma- tilla was seventh ; Union, ninth ; Wallowa, twenty-first ; Baker, twenty-fifth. Douglas was eleventh ; Jackson, fifteenth ; Jose-

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, p. 44. no

LoN L. Swift phine, nineteenth. Along the Columbia River, Wasco was thirteenth ; Morrow, seventeenth ; Sherman, twentieth ; Gil- liam, twenty-eighth. None of these districts, therefore, was especially favored, but all had exceptional counties. TABLE 30. VALUE OF ORCHARD PRODUCTS ON FARMS IN OREGON IN 1900, CLASSIFIED BY COUNTIES. (*) - Counties. Value Rank

Counties. Value Rank $ 906,015 ■ 18,583 17 169,718 1 14,421 18 Douglas 149,194 2 14,110 19 YamhiU 49,596 3 10,793 20 47,101 4 Gilliam 8,165 21 44.366 5 Wheeler 7,571 22 37,487 6 6,751 23 37,239 7 6,459 24 36,748 8 5,824 25 34,918 9 Malheur 4,983 26 32,682 10 4,767 27 31,208 11 Clatsop 3,566 28 26.161 12 Crook 2,801 29 25,593 13 2,520 30 24,605 14 2,182 31 24,471 15 Klamath 1,116 32 Polk 18,964 16 Harney 33 Southwestern Oregon yielded by far the greatest relative amount of fruit. Jackson ranked first ; Douglas, second ; Jose- phine, sixth ; but Curry, twenty-third. Jackson and Douglas each yielded more than three times as much as any other county. Next to the southwestern district, the Willamette Valley and the northeastern counties were most productive in fruit raising. The greater part of eastern Oregon and some of the coast counties made the smallest output. Wasco ranked thirteenth in 1900.

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, p. 674. Land Tenure in Oregon.

Ill TABLE 31. VALUE OF POULTKY IN OREGON IN 1900, CLASSIFIED BY COUNTIES. (*) Counties. Value. Rank Counties. Value Rank State $ 582,524 Coos $ 8,663 17 59,535 1 8,624 18 49,612 2 Sherman 8,472 19 46,551 3 Malheur 8,196 20 41,057 4 Morrow 6,082 21 Douglas 41,002 5 Grant 6,045 22 34,773 6 5,865 23 31,435 7 5,395 24 Yamhill 29,965 8 4,793 25 28,205 9 Josephine 4,597 26 22,727 10 4,590 27 22,433 11 4,182 28 20,599 12 3,738 29 19,244 13 3,485 30 18,024 14 Lake 2,663 31 12,951 15 Harney 2,442 32 Wallowa 9.956 16 2,420 33

  • U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. VI, p. 47. 112

LoN L. Swift APPENDIX. Leases Employed in Various Parts of the State. Share Lease for Grain and Hay Employed by the Eastern Oregon Land Company in Sherman County. This Indenture, made this first day of October, in the year 1904, Between the EASTERN OREGON LAND COMPANY, a corporation duly incorporated under the laws of the State of California, and having its principal office in the City and County of San Francisco, State of California, the Party of the first part, and Robert Urquhart, Moro, Sher- man County, Oregon, the Party of the second part, WITNESSETH, That the said party of the first part, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants, and agreements here- inafter mentioned, reserved, and contained, on the part of the said party of the second part, to be paid, kept and performed, does by These Presents, demise, lease and farm-let unto the said party of the second part, all of those certain lots, pieces or parcels of land situated, lying and being within the County of Sherman, State of Oregon, bounded and described as fol- lows, to-wit : containing about 320 acres, upon the terms, covenants, and conditions hereinafter contained. To Have and to Hold the same, with the appurtenances, for the term of two years commencing on the first day of October, 1904, and ending on the first day of October, 1906. And the said party of the second part covenants and agrees to give peaceable possession of said property in good order and condition to said party of the first part, on said first day of October, 1906, without further notice from said party of the first part; said party of the second part agrees to pay therefor unto the said party of the first part, its assigns or Land Tenure in Oregon. 113 successors, as rent for said premises one-third (1-3) of any and all crops that may hereafter be raised on said land, during the term of this lease, the same to be delivered annually, free of any expense to the said party of the first part, in ware- house at the nearest railway station, in good order and con- dition, within twenty days after the same is threshed and sacked, if grain, or as soon as the same is baled, if hay. Should the party of the second part fail or refuse to deliver said first party's share of the crop within the time above speci- fied, the party of the first part may, if it so elect, have the same delivered, and the expense of such delivery to be borne by said party of the second part. Party of the first part hereby agrees to furnish sacks for its share of grain. And it is hereby agreed that if said crop shall be harvested for grain, then the same shall be properly threshed and sacked in new sacks, free of expense to said party of the first part ; if said crop is harvested for hay, then the same shall be properly baled, free of expense to the said party of the first part ; pro- vided, however, that no hay shall be cut from the ground seeded to grain without the written consent of the said party of the first part. And it is hereby agreed that the party of the first part, its assigns, or successors, shall be allowed to enter the premises at any and all times ; and as soon as the crop is sacked or baled, they will be allowed to mark their share, and no grain or hay to be removed from land until company's share is marked. And it is hereby agreed that the party of the second part shall protect and care for said grain or hay belonging to the party of the first part, and will hold himself responsible to the party of the first part for the same against damage or theft during all the *time that said grain or hay is in the field, and until such time as the same is delivered in warehouse as aforesaid. And it is hereby agreed that the title of all crops raised on the premises herein described be and remain in the said party 114 LoN L. Swift of the first part, until said party of the second part shall perform all the covenants and agreements herein contained. It is hereby agreed that the party of the second part shall farm the land, in a good and husbandman-like manner, every year during the term of this lease, and that he will summer- fallow the land every alternate year, plow the same six or eight inches deep and harrow the plowing promptly there- after ; that he will find and furnish all seeds necessary to be sown, and will seed all simimer-fallowed land not later than October 15th of each year, unless permission is granted in writing by the party of the first part to do otherwise. And it is hereby agreed by the party of the second part that he will plow the land to be summer-fallowed, as soon as the same is in proper condition after the frost leaves the ground in the spring, and have it completed not later than May 1st each year, and cultivate and till the soil during the spring and summer, sufficiently to retain the moisture and keep the same free from weeds. And it is hereby agreed that the party of the second part shall pay to said party of the first part the Cash Rental of One Dollar per acre for all tillable land described in this lease which he may neglect or fail to farm according to the terms thereof, and $.10 per acre for all non-tillable land described in this lease. It being hereby mutually understood and agreed by and between the said parties of the first and second parts, that the lands described in this lease,. . . , (estimated) acres are tillable, and (estimated) acres are non-tillable land. The party of the second part covenants with the party of the first part that he will not commit, or suffer, any waste of the said premises, or permit any trespasser to enter upon, or hold possesion of, said land or any part thereof. And it is hereby further understood and agreed that the said party of the second part shall not at any time during the term of this lease, assign, set over, transfer, under-lease or underlet said premises, or any part thereof, or in any other Land Tenure in Oregon. 115 manner part with the possession or occupation of the same, without the special consent, in writing, of the said party of the first part. It is hereby mutually understood and agreed that none of the land covered by this lease shall be volunteered without the special written consent of the party of the first part. Party of the second part hereby agrees to keep the within described tracts free from the weeds known as the Russian Thistle" and the Chinese Thistle" ; that he will extirpate said thistles before any thereof has shed its bloom or com- menced to form the seed. Furthermore, should said second party fail to destroy the said Russian thistle or Chinese thistle in proper time, and the party of the first part has reason to believe that said thistles would be liable to go to seed before said second party could possibly remove and destroy the same, then the said first party may employ sufficient help and proceed to eradicate the said thistles, the expenses incurred for such work to be borne by the party of the second part. Party of the second part further agrees that if the crop is harvested by a combine machine that he will immediately haul and pile the grain in a convenient place on the land, no wheat to be removed until Company's share is marked, and that he will cover the grain with straw promptly thereafter; also that he will harvest Company's grain before going outside to assist others. Party of the second part further agrees that should he cut hay for feed, when harvesting with a combine, that he will stack the same before using any portion thereof. Party of the second part hereby agrees that he will not pasture nor permit to be pastured any of the land leased from the party of the first part after the same has been seeded to grain ; a violation of this clause will be deemed sufficient cause for cancellation of this lease without further notice. Party of the second part agrees that he will not seed to oats, barley, or rye any of the land described in this lease without the written consent of the party of the first part. ii6 LoN L. Swift It is further mutually agreed between the parties hereto that in case the party of the second part shall fail to fulfill any of the covenants or shall fail to perform any of the agreements herein contained, then the party of the first part may immediately without notice re-enter upon said premises, remove all persons therefrom and repossess and enjoy all its first and former estate therein and proceed to cultivate said land, harvest and market any and all growing crops thereon, sell and dispose of the same and out of the proceeds of that portion of said crop which would, after divi- sion, belong to the party of the second part, pay all expenses of such cultivation, harvesting and marketing. And the said party of the second part agrees upon default or failure, to vacate said premises without notice, and if it becomes necessary to bring action at law to recover possession thereof, to pay a reasonable attorney's fee therefor. It is further understood and agreed that as soon as the crops of grain are harvested, the party of the second part will stack the straw in proper shape so that the same will not be destroyed by stock or rain, such straw to be for the use of the occupant the following season. It is further understood and agreed that at the termination of this lease the party of the second part, at the option of the party of the first part, shall either be allowed to seed any summer-fallowed land that then may be on the premises and harvest the same at the rate of $1.25 per acre, for one plow- ing, and cultivating of said land. It is further understood and agreed, that the sale of the lands described herein, or any portion thereof, shall cause this lease to immediately cease and terminate with respect to such of said lands as may be sold, provided, that said party of the second part may retain undisturbed possession of such portion of said premises as have been seeded for the next crop, subject to the terms of this lease, until the then growing crops, if any, have been harvested. It is further understood and agreed between the aforesaid Land Tenure in Oregon. 117 • parties, that the party of the first part reserves the privilege to give right of way through the aforesaid lands for railroads, ditches, etc., at any time during the term of this lease. In Witness Whereof, The said party of the first part has caused these presents to be signed in its corporate name by its President and Secretary, and its corporate seal to be here- unto affixed, and the said party of the second part has here- unto set his hand and seal the day and year first above written. Signed, Sealed and Delivered EASTERN OREGON in the presence of LAND COMPANY, By (Seal) President. ..(Seal) Secretary. (Seal) Share Lease for Grain Employed by the Bank of lone in Morrow County. This indenture, made this 13th day of February, in the year nineteen hundred and five, between the Bank of lone, a cor- poration under the laws of the State of Oregon, and having its office in the City of lone. Morrow County, State of Oregon, the party of the first part, and G. A. Miller and J. H. Miller of Cecil, Morrow County, State of Oregon, parties of the second part. Witnesseth, That the said party of the first part, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants and agreements here- inafter mentioned, reserved and contained, on the part of the party of the second part, to be paid, kept and performed, does, by these premises, demise, lease and farmlet unto the said parties of the second part, all the following described land, lying and being in the County of Morrow and State of Oregon, to-wit : containing three hundred and ii8 LoN L. Swift «  twenty acres, more or less, according to the U. S. government survey thereof. To have and to hold the same, with the appurtenances, for the years of 1905 and 1906, commencing the 13th day of February, 1905, and ending the first day of October, 1906, providing, that if the parties of the second part plant or sow any grain during the spring of 1905, then this lease on such land so sown or planted shall expire on the first day of October, 1905. And the said parties of the second part agree to give immediate and peaceable possession of the said property in good order and condition to the said party of the first part, on the first day of October, 1905, if sown and planted as above stated, and if no crop is sown thereon during the spring of 1905, the said parties of the second part agree to give immediate and peaceable possession to the said party of the first part, on the first day of October, 1906, subject to the provisions of this lease. The said parties of the second part do' agree to pay unto the said party of the first, their successors or assigns as for the said premises, one-fourth (^4) of all and any crops that may hereafter be raised on said land, during the term of this lease, the same to be delivered free of any expense to the said party of the first part, in such warehouse at lone, Douglas or Cecil, as the said first party shall direct, in good order and condition in sacks within twenty days after the same is threshed and sacked, the parties of the first part to furnish sacks for their share at lone, Oregon. Should the parties of the second part refuse or fail to deliver said first party's share of the crops as above specified, the parties of the first part may, if they select, have the same delivered, the ex- pense of delivery to be borne by the party of the second part, and to be deducted from his share of the crop as herein specified. It is further understood and agreed that the sale of the lands herein described, shall cause this lease to immediately cease and terminate with respect to the lands sold, provided, that the said party of the second part may retain undisturbed possession of any such portion of the said premises as have Land Tenure in Oregon. 119 been seeded for the next crop, subject to^ the terms of this lease until the said growing crops, if any, have been harvested. But should the said party of the second part have lands that are plowed or summer fallowed and the same be not seeded, then the parties of the first part, if they so^ elect, may pay for the same at the rate of $1.00 per acre for land so plowed, and at the rate of $1.25 per acre for each harrowing, if any there be, and the said parties of the second part agree to give to full and immediate possession of the premises herein described when so paid. It is agreed that there should be no plowing or summer fallowing, as herein specified, that the parties of the second part shall give full, immediate and peaceable possession of the said premises in case of sale, upon written notice thereof. It is further understood and agreed that the parties of the second part are to fence all the land described herein as the parties of the first part may direct, in a good and sufficient manner, the parties of the first part to furnish the material for said fence at lone, Oregon. It is further understood that the title to the crops , raised on the premises herein described be and remain in the said parties of the first part, until the parties of the second part shall perform all the covenants and agreements herein con- tained. And the parties of the first part reserve the right to enter upon said premises and mark their share of the crops after the same have been threshed. It is hereby agreed that the parties shall farm all the land herein described, in a good and husbandlike manner during the life of this lease. That he will find and furnish all seeds necessary to be sown, and that they will seed all the summer fallow not later than October 15th, unless permission is granted in writing by the parties of the first part to do otherwise. That they will plovv at least three inches deep, and that they will immediatel)^ harrow the lands so plowed to^ keep the same from drying out, and that they will also harrow the same dur- ing the summer months sufficiently to retain the moisture and prevent the growth of weeds. And that they will complete all i26 LoN L. Swift plowing before the first day of May. And that they will com- mence plowing as soon as the ground is in proper condition after the frost leaves it. And it is further understood and agreed that the party of the second part will not at any time during the life of this lease, assign, set over, underlease or underlet said premises or any part thereof, or in any way part with the possession or occupation of the same, without the written consent of the parties of the first part. Nor will they permit any one to enter upon, or in any way to trespass on the said premises as herein described. In Witness Whereof, The said parties of the first part have caused these presents to be signed by its cashier, in its corporate name, and the said parties of the second part have hereunto set their hands and seals the date and day first above written. Grain Share Lease Employed in Klamath County. This indenture, made this 21st day of February, A. D. 1908, by and between the Lakeside Company, a corporation, and Joseph Cox and John Cox, copartners, of Merrill, Oregon. Witnesseth, That in consideration of the covenants herein contained on the part of the said Joseph Cox and John Cox to be kept and performed by them, the said Lakeside Company does hereby lease, demise and let unto the said Joseph Cox and John Cox the following described premises, to-wit : To have and to hold the same to the lessee for the term of one year from the date hereof, the said lessee paying therefor the rental of one-third of the crops grown thereon, payable when threshed and to be delivered on said premises. And the said lessee, or their executors and administrators, do hereby covenant to and with the said lessor and his assigns, to pay the said rent as provided herein, and that they Will make no unlawful, unproper or offensive use of the premises ; Land Tenure in Oregon. 121 that at the expiration of the said term or upon any sooner termination of this lease they will quit and dehver up the premises and all future erections and additions to or upon the same, to the said lessor, or those having its estate therein peaceably, quietly, in as good order and condition (reasonable and wearing thereof, fire and other unavoidable casualties ex- cepted) as the same now are or may be put in by the lessor or those having its estate in the premises ; that will not suffer nor permit any strip or waste thereof, nor make, nor suffer to be made, any alterations or additions to or upon the same, nor assign this lease, nor underlet, or permit any person or persons to occupy the same, without the consent of the said lessor or those having its estate to the premises, being first obtained in writing, and also that it shall be lawful for the said lessor and those having its estate in the premises, at reasonable time, to enter into and upon the same to examine the condition thereof. It is agreed that the lessees shall keep up all fences around said fields as they shall use and shall keep the same in good repair, and it is agreed that the lessor shall pay for all water used by lessees for the irrigation of crops growing on said premises. , Provided always, and these presents are upon this condition, that if the said rent shall be in arrears for the space of , or if the lessee or their representatives or assigns shall neglect or fail to perform, and observe any or either of the covenants hereinbefore contained, which on their part are to be performed, then any of the said cases, the said lessor, or those having its estate in the said premises lawfully made, immediately or at any time thereafter, and while said neglect or default continues, and without further notice or de- mand, enter into and upon the said premises, or any part thereof, in the name of the whole and repossess the same, of its former estate, and expel the said lessees, and those claim- ing under them, and remove their effects, without being taken or deemed guilty in any manner of trespass, and without 122 LoN L. Swift prejudice to any remedies which might otherwise be used for arrears of rent, or preceding breach of covenant. In testimony whereof, the said parties have set their hands and seals, on the day and year first above written to this, and another instrument of the same tenor and date. Share Lease for Grain Employed in Benton County. Know all men by these presents, that I, Robert Richardson, the lessor, in consideration of the rents, covenants and agree- ments herein mentioned, reserved, and contained on the part and behalf of Zierolf Brothers, a partnership consisting of , the lessees, have leased and by these presents do lease and let unto said Zierolf Brothers, all of the following described property, to-wit: , all in Benton County, State of Oregon, for the term of one year from the first day of October, 1904, until the first day of October, 1905. To have and to hold the above described premises unto the said lessees for the term aforesaid. In consideration whereof the said lessees hereby covenant and agree that they will occupy, till and in all respects culti- vate the premises above described, during the term aforesaid, in a good, farmerlike manner and according to the usual course of farming practiced in the neighborhood; that they will not commit any waste nor suflfer any to be done ; that they will plow, seed to grain, all of the tillable land on said leased premises, being all the land that has heretofore been in crop ; that they will keep the fences up in reasonably good condition. That they will at their own cost, harvest and thresh all grain grown on said leased premises, and when so threshed that they will haul and deliver to said lessor at mill in Monroe or Finley's warehouse (at option of lessor) an equal one-third part of grain grown on said premises, which said one-third shall be equal both as to quantity and quality ; and when so stored to deliver receipts therefor to said lessor ; the division of Land Tenure in Oregon. 123 the grain to be made according to warehouse weights, and grain retained by said lessees and not stored to be estimated on the basis of warehouse weights of similar grain. It is understood that this lease shall expire absolutely on the first day of October, 1905 ; and that no holding over shall be considered as a renewal thereof ; and the said lessees hereby waive all statutory notice to quit. In Witness Whereof, The parties hereto have unto set their hands and seals, in duplicate, this first day of October, 1904. Share Lease for Grain and Hay Employed in Crook County. This agreement, made and entered into on this 27th day of October, 1906, by and between Morrow and Kennan, parties of the first part, and E. D. Holms, party of the second part : Witnesseth : — That the parties of the first part, in considera- tion of the covenants and agreements to be kept and performed by the party of the second part and hereinafter set forth, do hereby lease, demise and let unto the said party of the second part for the term of five years from the 15th day of Septem- ber, 1906, to the 15th day of September, 191 1, the following described lands in Crook County, Oregon, to-wit : but with the reser- vations herein set forth, and upon the terms and conditions herein contained. The party of the second part hereby agrees and binds himself to cultivate and sow tO' grain 400 acres of said land, during each of said years, and to plow and summer fallow 400 acres, during the first year, and sow the same to grain, along with the other lands during this lease. It is understood and agreed that as a rental for said land, the parties of the first part shall receive one-third of all crops raised upon said land during the term of this lease, said share of one-third of entire crop to be delivered to said parties of the first part on said premises as soon as the same is harvested, and it is agreed and understood that the said parties of the first part shall have the option of having said crops cut for hay or 124 LoN L. Swift threshed, they to notify the said party of the second part within a reasonable time before harvest for either hay or grain, and the party of the second part is to abide by such notice. The parties of the first part reserve all rights to pasture upon said lands after harvest, the said party of the second part hav- ing no right to use said lands for grazing or pasture at any time or at all during this lease. The said party of the second part agrees to grub and clear all of said land and to remove all brush and all surface rock therefrom, the said rock to be piled in separate heaps at convenient places upon said land off the tillable land, the grubbing and clearing applying only to plow lands that are suitable for cultivation. All summer fallow is to be plowed by June ist of each year and harrowed and worked down by July ist of each year, and harrowed as often as necessary to keep down weeds and vegetation from July ist to September 15th of each year of summer fallow when fall plowing shall commence. All summer fallow is to be kept clear of vegetation and harrowed each month if necessary to keep weeds and vegetation down. All fences are to be put in good repair by the parties of the first part at the commencement of this lease, and the same are to be sO' main- tained by the party of the second part during this lease, and all stock are to be kept off such lands at all times except the stock belonging to the parties of the first part. All summer fallow is to be prepared and worked as herein described at the end of this lease and upon which no crops have been raised for the year in which lease expires shall be measured and paid for at the rate of $2.00 per acre by the parties of the first part to the parties of the second part. All new land broken and put to crops $2.00 per acre also. All hay and straw is to be properly stacked and taken care of, and all crops handled in the best approved methods. All wheat and barley is tO' be vitrioled before sowing and only clean seed sowed, and all seeding to be done by April ist of crop year. Two crops are to be raised in succession on new land before summer fallowing, and thereafter summer fallowed La;nd Tenure in Oregon. 125 every other year. Second crop on new land is to be disked or plowed as the party of the second part may deem best. The said parties of the first part shall have and hold a lien upon all crops raised upon said premises for their interest, for interest for money advanced for seed, sowing, harvesting or caring for said crops, and for any damages or failure of the said party of the second part to carry out the terms of this lease on his or their part to be kept or performed, and said parties of the first part are hereby authorized and directed to take immediate possession of said premises, crops and produce raised thereon, upon any breach of this lease, without notice to the said party of the second part, and to hold and dispose of the crops raised thereon, paying themselves for the ex- penses, costs in attending to the crops, harvesting and caring for the same, all money advanced for seed or, otherwise, and damages, and pay the overplus, if any, over to the said party of the second part. That this lease is not to be assigned, sub-let or transferred without the written consent of the parties of the first part, and said parties of the first part may at any time upon breach of the terms of this lease by the party of the second part de- clare this lease at an end and take immediate and entire control of the premises, and the party of the second part agrees to give up such possession quietly and peaceably. That no crops raised upon said premises before the division thereof shall be mortgaged, sold or assigned or transferred in any way. That said premises at the end of this lease shall be surrendered in as good order and condition as the same are now in or may be put into, reasonable wear and tear thereof, and damages by the elements and fire excepted as to both parties thereof. In Witness Whereof, The parties hereunto set their hands and seals to this agreement in duplicate this 27th day of Octo- ber, 1906. 126 LoN L. Swift Cash Lease for Pasture Land in Grant County. This indenture, made this 23rd day of October, in the year nineteen hundred and five, between the Eastern Oregon Land Company, a corporation duly incorporated under the laws of the State of California, and having its principal office at the City and County of San Francisco, State of California, the party of the first part, and Kenneth M. McRae, Dayville, Grant County, Oregon, the party of the second part. Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consideration of the rents, covenants and agreements herein- after mentioned, reserved and contained on the part and behalf of the said party of the second part, his executors, adminis- trators and assigns, to be paid, kept and performed, does by these presents demise, lease and let unto the said party of the second part, his executors, administrators and assigns, all those certain lots, pieces or parcels of land, situate, lying and being within the County of Grant, State of Oregon, bounded and described as follows, to-wit: , containing about 9927.53 acres, upon the terms, covenants and conditions hereinafter contained. To have and to hold the same, with the appurtenances, for the term of one year, commencing on the first day of October, 1905, and ending on the first day of October, 1906. And the said party of the second part covenants and agrees to give peaceable possession to the party of the first part, on said first day of October, 1906, without further notice to the said party of the first part ; said party of the second part pay- ing therefor unto the said party of the first part, its assigns or successors, the annual rent, or sum of $860, payable accord- ing to the terms of one promissory note hereinafter described. And it is hereby agreed that if any rent shall be due and unpaid, or if default shall be made in any of the covenants herein contained, then it shall be lawful for the said party of the first part, its assigns or successors, to re-enter the said premises, and to remove all persons therefrom, and to repossess Land Tenure in Oregon. 127 and enjoy all its first and former estate therein, anything here- inbefore contained to the contrary notwithstanding. And the said party of the second part does hereby covenant, promise and agree to pay to the said party of the first part the said rents in the manner hereinabove specified. And that after the expiration of the said term or any sooner determination of this lease, the said party of the second part will quit and surrender the premises hereby demised in good order and condition. It is understood and agreed, that in the event of a sale being made by the party of the first part, of the whole or any por- tion of the premises herein demised, then the said party of the second part shall, upon notice of thirty days being given him in person, or by letter mailed to his postoffice address, quit and surrender unto the party of the first part, all that portion the said premises of which sale have been made, and in case of sale of part of the demised premises, the party of the second part shall be entitled to a prorata abatement of the rent for the remainder of the term. In case the party of the second part shall be ejected by any person or party claiming title superior to the title of the party of the first part, then the said party of the first part shall not be liable to any damage by reason thereof. The party of the second part covenants with the party of the first part that he will not commit, or suffer any waste of said premises, or permit any trespassing to enter upon or hold possession of said lands or any part thereof. And it is hereby agreed that the party of the second part, his or their executors, administrators or assigns, or any or either of them, shall not at any time during said term, assign, set over, transfer, underlease or underlet said premises or any part thereof, or in any other manner part with the possession or occupation of the same without the special consent in writ- ing of the said party of the first part. In Witness Whereof, The said party of the first part has caused these presents to be signed by its corporate name by 128 LoN L. Swift its President and Secretary, and its corporate seal to be here- unto affixed, and the said party of the second part has here- unto set his hand and seal the day and year first above written. Cash Lease Employed for Cattle in Gilliam County. This contract, made this 23rd day of December, 1897, be- tween W. W. Steiwer of Fossil, Oregon, party of the first part, and J. P. Perin and Wm. L. Metteer of Pine Creek, Gilliam County, Oregon, parties of the second part : Witnesseth, That said party of the first part has leased to the said parties of the second part the entire S. T. brand of cattle, numbering about 300 head, more or less, for a period of five years, running from November ist, 1897. The parties of the second part hereby agree to brand and otherwise care for said cattle during the entire time of this lease, to prepare feed sufficient to feed them in winter when necessary, to gather them at all times when necessary, and to bear all the expenses in connection with running and caring for said cattle, except that each of the two parties to this lease are to pay ione-half of all taxes. The party of the first part hereby agrees to furnish the use of the Jones Ranch on Pine Creek without charge to the parties of the second part, or in the event of it being considered best to dispense with the use of the Jones Ranch, or if the party of the first part can not rent said ranch at an annual rental not exceeding $100, then the party of the first part agrees to furnish an amount equal to the rent now being paid for said ranch, viz., $i(X) per year and the taxes on the same ranch, toward the maintenance and running of said cattle. And it is further hereby agreed that the cost price or present appraised value of said band of cattle, viz., $4000, shall be paid to the party of the first part from the first sales of cattle until it is all paid, except that each of the two parties to this lease are to have $100 from any sales of cattle each year. When said cost price as above stated Land Tenure in Oregon. 129 shall have been all paid to the party of the first part, then any other sales of cattle the proceeds shall be equally divided be- tween the two parties of this lease, and at the expiration of this lease and after said cash price has been all paid to the party of the first part, the remaining cattle shall be all gathered and equally divided between the two parties of this lease. All sales of cattle shall be made by the party of the first part. The parties of the second part agree also to be at all expense running the Jones Ranch and keeping the same in reasonable repair, or any other ranch that may be used in connection with the running of said cattle during this lease. Dairy Lease Employed in Clatsop County. This agreement, made and entered into this day of 1907, between O. I. Peterson, party of the first part, and Alpheus C. Miller, party of the second part: Witnesseth, That whereas, the party of the first part is the owner of 90 acres of land, more or less in Clatsop County, Oregon, and gen- erally known as the Sunflower Dairy and referred to as the Sunflower Dairy. And whereas, the party of the second part is desirous of operating and of farming said Sunflower Dairy as tenant to the party of the first part, and whereas, the party of the first part has agreed to accept him as tenant on the terms in this agreement hereinafter set forth. Therefore, in consideration of the covenants and agreement of the party of the second part to be observed and performed by him, the party of the first part does hereby lease, demise and let unto the party of the second part said Sunflower Dairy with all the tenements, hereditaments and appurtenances be- longing thereto or in any wise appertaining, and all stock, cattle, horses, brood sows, hogs, tools, farming and dairy im- plements, and apparatus now being thereon or hereafter to be put thereon, all of which are more particularly a part of this I30 LoN L. Swift agreement for the term of twelve months from the first day of May, 1907, to the first day of May, 1908, the lessee yielding and paying to the lessor the yearly rent of $1000 in monthly installments of $83 per month, payable on the last of each and every month during said term, the first installment to be pay- able on the last day of May, 1907, and the lessee covenants to pay the said rent in manner and at times aforesaid, and that he will farm and cultivate the said Sunflower Dairy during said term in a good farmlike, dairyman and husbandlike man- ner and according to the usual custom of dairying and farming in the neighborhood, that he will properly care for, feed, milk and treat all stock on said place, and especially give the best of care to the registered Dutch Belted cattle put on said place this spring by the party of the first part, and will test the milk from each cow thereon once at least in every three months or quarter during said term, and will also weigh the milk from each cow on the first, tenth and twentieth days of each month both morning and night, and within five days there- after report in writing to the lessor the results of each test and weighing, and that he will keep a faithful record of the breeding time of each cow and hog thereon, and report the same in writing to said lessor at the end or sooner determina- tion of said term ; that he will at all times keep all stock and hogs clear and away from all dykes on said land; that at the end or sooner termination of said term he will turn over and deliver up to the lessor all stock described in said schedule except such of said stock as shall be sold or dead, and all such he shall replace with animals of a similar quality to the satis- faction of the lessor ; that he will keep up and swarm in season all hives or stands of bees now on said place ; that he will keep all shrubbery and fruit trees and garden bushes in good order and condition ; that he will dig a reasonable amount of open ditches, as agreed upon by both parties; that he will level a reasonable amount of small ditches on said farm, and will put in during said year about 25 rods of underdraining ; that he will keep down and destroy all wire grass, weeds and thistles on said place, all wire grass to be cut and removed by the end of the summer as near as practical ; that he will perform and do a certain amount of clearing land, consisting of hauling off logs and trees and brush, and burn the same on a piece of land commonly called railroad land, as agreed upon by both parties; that he will cut off all brush on the old hot water dyke and destroy the same ; that he wijl seed down all meadows on said farm sufficiently to keep the same in good condition and cultivation, and will at least once in the year haul all manure produced on said place and spread it on the meadows and root fields thereon; that he will keep all slips, barns and driveways clear and clean, and will coal tar the silo inside and outside at least once during the year, the lessor to furnish coal tar at Astoria ; that he will keep in good order and repair and condition all buildings, fences, cutters, bridges, dykes, sluice-boxes, aprons, roadway leading to high land, and the boat landing, and will at all times keep the boom sticks around said landing so tied or chained as to protect the same from damage; that when the materials are provided by the lessor at Astoria therefor the lessee will haul all necessary lumber for repairing of fences and buildings; that he will keep clean and in good order, repair and condition all machinery, implements, tools and dairy utensils, and especially the manure spreader, and will oil and clean all the harvest implements before putting them away for winter, and will once a year at least, wash and oil all working harness on said farm; that he will, as soon after harvest as practicable, cut down and burn all weeds and small brush which has grown up and around the trees and stumps and along the banks of sloughs in all meadows on said farm, and that he will cut out and burn or haul all wire grass in small meadow commonly called Weathers Meadow as soon after haying as practical ; that he will clear out and keep open all ditches now on said farm ; that he will keep down and destroy all wire grass and thistles on a piece of land commonly called railroad land ; that he will haul some planks from old county road providing same is improved, said planks to be used on said farm for road and slips or bridges; that in case line fence has to be constructed between Mrs. I. S. Keeny and O. L Peterson place, party of the second part will build O. I. Peterson's part of the fence, party of the first part to furnish material at Astoria, Oregon; that he will, if weather permits, burn up all weeds on dykes on said farm once a year at least; that he will allow the lessor and his family to visit and stay on said farm at and for such time as they shall see fit, and shall allow the lessor to keep his horse thereon and put the same in stable with the other horses on the farm at any time.

It is further understood and agreed upon by both parties that if any of the mares now on farm is bred, each of the parties is to pay half of the stud fee, and the offspring is to be owned by both parties, each own half interest of the offspring of said mares.

It is further understood and agreed upon by both parties that party of the second part will take extra good care in feeding and stabling all the registered Dutch Belted cattle now on said Sunflower Dairy, or may hereafter be installed on said place, and the party of the second part will fit them for the show ring on exhibition at the Oregon State Fair, both parties to stand the expenses, share and share alike, of transporting them to the fair grounds and back home again, and also while on exhibition at the fair grounds.

And it is further understood by both parties that any prizes in money secured by exhibition of said cattle at said fair is to be divided share and share alike by both parties.

And it is further understood and agreed by both parties that any offspring as a result of breeding the registered Dutch Belted cattle, party of the first part is to own half interest of such offspring, that the party of the second part will quit and deliver up to the lessor at the end of or sooner termination of said term the said premises with the buildings and stock specified in said schedule in as good order, repair and condition, reasonable wear and tear and damage to the buildings only excepted, provided, always, that these presents are upon LaiNd Tenure in Oregon. 133 this condition, that if the lessee shall fail, neglect or refuse to perform any part of the covenants herein contained on his part to be observed and performed, or if the above rent shall be in arrears and unpaid for the space of ten days after the same or any part thereof shall become due, upon the breach on nonperformance of any of the covenants herein contained on his part to be observed and performed, the lessor may imme- diately or at any time thereafter while such default or breach shall continue, and without further notice or demand, enter into and upon said premises or any part thereof in the name of the whole and repossess the same as of his former estate, and expel the said lessee or those claiming under him, forcibly, if necessary, without being taken or deemed guilty of trespass, in any manner and without prejudice to any remedies which might otherwise be used for arrears of rent or preceding breach of covenant. It is also agreed and understood upon by the party of the second part that this lease is not transferable to any one with- out the consent of the party of the first part. In testimony whereof the parties hereto have unto set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. Lease and Land Sale Agreement Employed in Klamath County. This agreement, made and entered into on this, the sixth day of April, 1907, between J. Frank Adams, party of the first part, and H. F. Tolle, party of the second part. Witnesseth, That the party of the first part, for and in con- sideration of the sum of $100 to him in hand paid, receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, and the covenants and agree- ments of the party of the second part herein contained, agrees to and with the party of the second part to let him into the immediate possession and allow him the exclusive use of occu- pation of the following described premises, to-wit : in Klamath 134 LoN L. Swift County, Oregon, containing 20 acres of land, more or less, for the full term of five years from January ist, 1907. And the party of the second part, in consideration of the aforesaid agreement, hereby agrees to and with the party of the first part that he will enter upon, occupy and use said premises for and during said period, and that he will pay or cause to be paid to the party of the first part, his agents or as- signs, on or before the 31st day of January of each and every year of said term the full sum of sixty dollars ($60.00) lawful money of the United States, and that he will keep up all nec- essary fences and other improvements now existing or hereafter put upon said premises in proper repair, and that he will neither permit nor commit any waste or strip thereof and will neither make or permit any unlawful or improper use thereof ; and he further agrees that in case of neglect or failure on his part to do or perform all or any of the agreements herein specified to be by him performed, he will immediately, upon notice and demand therefor, peaceably and quietly quit and surrender the possession of said premises, and of the whole thereof, to said party of the first part, his agents or assigns, and the said party of the first part shall at any and all times during said term have the free right to enter thereon to view and inspect said premises. And the party of the first part agrees that he will pay or cause to be paid all taxes levied upon said premises when due, and that upon performance of the agreements and conditions above mentioned and the annual payments therein specified, the party of the second part shall and may peaceably use and have said premises and the whole thereof during the full period above stated, and also further agrees that on the pay- ment of the party of the second part to him of the further sum of $600 lawful money of the United States on or before the expiration of said term (with rent as then due), he will and his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns shall make or cause to be made, executed and delivered to said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns a good and sufficient deed to the whole of said premises conveying the same in fee simple, with the appurtenances thereto, free and clear of all encumbrances except county roads and existing or resultant obligations to the Klamath Water Users' Association and the United States of America.

The party of the second part agrees to pay all water rates assessments or charges during the time he holds said premises under this agreement levied either by the Klamath Water Users' Association or the United States under agreements made by the party of the first part.

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals interchangeably in duplicate on this the day and year of this agreement first above mentioned.

NOTES.

The semi-centennial of the admission of Oregon into the Union was observed with fitting exercises at the State House on Monday, February 15th. The Legislature joined with the Oregon Historical Society, which had provided the programme. The main address was given by the Hon. Frederick N. Judson, of the St. Louis bar. Mr. Judson took as his theme the interrelations between the national affairs during the first half of the century and the exploration and settlement of the Oregon country. Judge George H. Williams, who was one of the leading members of the constitutional convention, being chairman of the committee on judiciary, also made an address of remarkable interest, on phases of life in the early Oregon community. The opening address was made by the Hon. Frederick V. Holman, President of the Historical Society.

During the last few months some noteworthy writings on Northwestern history have appeared. Prof. Edmond S.Meany, of the University of Washington, is the author of the first comprehensive account of the history of that state from the first explorations down to the present time. It is published by the Macmillan Company, and it is being received with much favor as a work of fine scholarship and dramatic interest. An exhaustive work of high merit, giving the story of the state of Washington in four volumes, comes from the pen of Clinton A. Snowden of Tacoma. The people of Washington are to be congratulated on having such capable and conscientious activity devoted to its annals. Mr. Snowden's book is brought out by the Century History Company of New York.

In Prof. W. D. Lyman, of Whitman College, the Columbia River (Putnam's) found a sympathetic, enthusiastic and worthy historian. Professor Lyman's book does not, however, center upon a systematic, account of the exploration and settlement of the Columbia River basin by the white man. He is concerned, rather, with presenting a picture of the Columbia River country and how it has molded the thought and activities of its indwellers from earliest mythical eras down to the present day when the river figures as the great inland waterway-to-be of an empire. The work throughout has unity and exceeding charm.

As evidence that historians of note are among our newcomers we have The Settlement of Illinois (Chicago Historical Society), by Professor Arthur Clinton Boggess, of Pacific University, and. Beginnings of Texas (University of Texas), by Professor Robert Carlton Clark, of the University of Oregon. These are both works of exhaustive research in their respective fields.

1

THE ORECON HISTORICAL SOCIETY ORGANIZED DECEMBER 17. 1806 FREDERICK V. HOLMAN .... - Pmldent JOSEPH R. WILSON .... - Vke-Praident F.G. YOUNG Secreian, CHARLES E. LADD Tnasurer GEORGE H. HIMES, Asalstanl Secretarv, DIRECTORS THE GOVERNOR OF OREGON, ex officio. THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, ex ojgfich. Term expires at Annual Meeting in December, 1909. FREDERICK V. HOLMAN, WM. D. FENTON. Term expires at Annual Meetmg in December, 1910. ARTHUR C. BOGGESS. MILTON W. SMITH. Term expires at Annual Meeting in December, 191 1. MRS. MARIA L. MYRICK. CHARLES J. SCHNABEL. Term expires at Annual Meting in December, 1912. MRS. HARRIET K. McARTHUR. GEORGE H. HIMES. The Quarterly u mbI free to all memben of the Society. The annual dues are two ddlan. The fee for life membership is twenty-five dcJIan. Contributions to The Quarterly and to the affairs of this Society, should be addr< ica relative to lustorical materials, or pertaining F. G. YOUNG, Secretary. Eugene, Oreaoo. Subscriptions for The Quarterly, at tat the other publications of the Society, should be seol to GEORGE H. HIMES, Assistant Secretary. Gty Hall,. Portland. Oresos.

  1. Paper read at celebration of sixtieth anniversary of founding of Taylor Street Methodist Church of Portland, December 13, 1908.
  2. U. S. Census Reports for 1900, Twelfth Census, Vol. V, p. 294.