Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Tours, A.D. 732, and the Battle of Hastings, 1066.
A.D. 768— 814. Reign of Charlemagne. This monarch has justly been termed the principal regenerator of western Europe, after the destruction of the Roman empire. The early death of his brother Carloman left him sole master of the dominion of the Franks, which, by a succession of victorious wars, he enlarged into the new Empire of the West. He conquered the Lombards, and re-established the pope at Rome, who in return acknowledged Charles as suzerain of Italy. And in the year 800, Leo III., in the name of the Roman people, solemnly crowned Charlemagne at Rome, as emperor of the Roman Empire of the West. In Spain Charlemagne ruled the country between the Pyrenees and the Ebro; but his most important conquests were effected on the eastern side of bis original kingdom, over the Sclavonians of Bohemia, the Avars of Pannonia, and over the previously uncivilized German tribes, who had remained in their fatherland. The old Saxons were his most obstinate antagonists, and his wars with them lasted for thirty years. Under him the greater part of Germany was compulsorily civi-