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putana railway. The height above the sea of the various peaks ranges from about 4000 to 5635 feet. It is the summer residence of the governor-general’s agent for Rajputana, and a place of resort for Europeans in the hot weather. The annual mean temperature is about 70°, rising to 90° in April; but the heat is never oppressive. The annual rainfall is about 68 inches. The hills are laid out with driving-roads and bridle-paths, and there is a beautiful little lake. The chief buildings are a church, club, hospital, and a Lawrence asylum school for the children of British soldiers.

Abu Ahmed. See Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian.

Abushehr. See Bushire.


1. Geography and Statistics.

DURING the last thirty years of the 19th century our knowledge of the physical features, climate, natural history, resources, and social condition of Abyssinia has been greatly advanced by scientific exploration, by hunting and military expeditions, and by the reports of numerous embassies to the courts of its successive rulers. As fully explained in the historical section (see below), a main result of the political relations, some friendly, some hostile, with Egypt, Italy, and Great Britain, has been the consolidation of the Abyssinian empire under one potentate, Menelek, king of Shoa, by the complete reduction of the ancient kingdoms of Tigre, Lasta, Amhara, and Gojam,

followed by the absorption of all the surrounding Ethiopian along the seaboard. In the empire are thus now included, lands. The area of the unified political system has thus besides the above-mentioned vassal kingdoms, the territories been enlarged, especially in the direction of the south and of Ennarea, Guragheh, Walamo, Jimma, Ghera, Guma, south-east, while its absolute autonomy has been recognized Leka, Walega, Kafia, and all the other petty states which by various international treaties with Great Britain and are exclusively occupied by the Hamitic Galla people, and Italy. Menelek’s dominions now comprise the whole of constitute what is commonly called Gallaland or South the Galla and Kaffa highlands, extending from Abyssinia Ethiopia. The frontiers, mostly conventional lines regardproper southwards nearly to the Samburu (Lake Rudolf) less of mountain ranges, river basins, or other natural depression, together with Harrar and Central Somaliland features, have not yet been determined towards the N.W., coterminous with the French, British, and Italian possessions W., and S.; but they roughly coincide on the west towards