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BAILEY — BAIN 77 Mountains. —With the exception of the delta of the Selenga, Authorities.—Drizhenko. “ Hydrographic Reconnoitring of lake Baikal is surrounded with high mountains. The Khamar- Lake Baikal,” in Izvestia, Puss. Geogr. Soc. 1897, 2, with hydrodaban border-ridge (the top of a mountain of the same name is graphic map.—Russian Addenda to Ritter’s Asia, Fast Siberia, 5300 feet above the lake) falling with steep cliffs towards the lake, Baikal, &c., St. Petersburg, 1895.—Chersky’s Geological Map of fringes it in the south ; a massive, deeply ravined highland occu- Shores of Lake Baikal, 6§ miles to the inch, in Zapiski of Puss. pies the space between the Irkut and the Angara ; the Onot and Geogr. Soc. xv. 1886. — “Report of Geological Exploration Baikal ridges (also Primorskiy) run along its north-west shore, of Shores of Lake Baikal,” in Zapiski of East Siberian Branch reaching it in a diagonal direction ; an Alpine complexus of yet Rioss. Geogr. Soc. xii. Irkutsk, 1886.—Obrucheef. “Geology unexplored mountains spreads along its north-east shore ; the of Baikal Mountains,” Izvestia of same Society, 1890, xxi. 4 and Barguzin range reaches its shores in an oblique direction in the 5-—Dybowski and Godlewski on “Fauna,” in same periodical, east, and the Ulan Burgasu mountains appear in the delta of the 1876.—Witkowski on “Seals.” — Yakovlev’s “Fishes of Selenga. Angara,” in same periodical, 1890-93.—“ Fishing in Lake Baikal Geology.—It is certain that in previous geological ages lake and its Tributaries,” in same periodical, 1886-90. (p. a. K.) Baikal had a much greater extension. It spread westwards into the Tunka valley of the Irkut, and up the lower portions of the Bail ey, P h i I i p J a vn es (1816 ), English poet, valleys of the Upper Angara and the Barguzin. Volcanic activity took place around its shores at the end of the Tertiary or during author of Festus, was born at Nottingham, 22nd April 1816. the Quaternary age, and mighty streams of lava cover the Sayan His father, who himself published both prose and verse, and Khamar-daban mountains, as well as the Tunka valley. owned and edited from 1845 to 1852 The Nottingham Earthquakes are still frequent along its shores. The researches Mercury, one of the chief journals in his native town. of Meglitzky (1851) and Chersky (1875) have proved that the Philip James Bailey received a local education until his northern portion of Baikal is a diagonally-running transversal rift which was made in the Laurentian schists and slates, whose sixteenth year, when he matriculated at Glasgow University. synclinal and anticlinal plications run from south-west to north- He did not, however, take his degree, but moved in 1835 east, crossing in an oblique direction the present axis of the lake ; to London, and entered Lincoln’s Inn. Without making while its southern portion has the character of a longitudinal serious practice of the law he settled at Basford, and for valley, immensely modified by erosion and running between the outer foot of the border-ridge of the high plateau and the Alpine three years was occupied with the composition of Festus, zone which fringes it. The mountains around lake Baikal which appeared anonymously in 1839. Its success, both (granites, syenites, gneisses, and various crystalline schists, con- in England and America, was immediate. It passed through glomerates and limestones) belong chiefly to the Laurentian, a dozen editions in the country of its birth, and nearly Huronian, Cambrian, and Silurian ages — red Devonian sandstones (Silurian, according to Baron Toll ?) lying in nearly hori- three times as many in the United States; and when zontal layers at the outer foot of the Onot and Baikal ranges. in 1889 its author was able to publish a “ Jubilee Edition ” Jurassic and Tertiary deposits of fresh-water origin occur in the he could feel that it was one of the few poems of its time old valleys. Gold is found at its northern extremity, and beauti- which was known to both the older and younger generaful lapis-lazuli, baikalite, and some graphite on the slopes of the tions. Its author is known almost exclusively by his one Khamar-daban, near Kultuk. Fauna.—The fauna of lake Baikal, explored by Dybowski and voluminous poem, for though Bailey published other verses Godlewski, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has he is essentially a man of one book. Festus has underquite an original character ; but hypotheses as to a direct com- gone many changes and incorporations, but it remains a munication having existed between lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post Tertiary or Tertiary ages, are not proved. singular example of a piece of work virtually completed in Still, lake Baikal has a seal {Phoca vitulina, Phoca baikalensis of youth and never supplanted or reinforced by later achieveDybowski) quite akin to the seals of Spitzbergen. The waters ments of its author. It is a vast pageant of theology and of the lake swarm with fishes (sturgeons, salmonidse), and its philosophy, comprising in some twelve divisions an attempt herring (Salrno omul) yields the chief product of the fisheries, about 11,000 basks every year. Its quantity, however, notably to represent the relation of God to man and of man to God, diminished within the last forty or fifty years. The little lake to emphasize the benignity of Providence, to preach the imFrolikha, situated close to lake Baikal near its northern extremity mortality of the soul, and to postulate “ a gospel of faith and communicating with it by means of a river of the same name, and reason combined.” It contains fine lines and dignified is interesting on account of the species of trout, Salmo erythreas, thought, but its extraordinarily ambitious theme, and a which is found in it but is not known elsewhere. Navigation.—Navigation on lake Baikal is rendered difficult certain incoherency in the manner in which it is worked both by sudden storms and by the absence of good bays and ports. out, prevent it from being easily readable by any but the The main port on the western shore, Listvenichnaya, near the outflow of the Angara, is an open roadstead at the foot of high most conscientious and most sympathetic student. mountains. Steamers ply from it thrice a week to Posolskoye, on Baillieston, a large mining village of Old Monkthe opposite shore, five times a year to Verkhne-Angarsk, at the northern extremity of the lake, and frequently to the mouth of the land parish, Lanarkshire, 6| miles E. of Glasgow by rail. Selenga which becomes an important artery of trade. Steamers There are 13 collieries at present working in the vicinity, go up that river to Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and with a daily output of 4300 tons, and employing 3000 bring back nearly 6660 tons of tea, out of the 16,500 tons imported via Kiakhta, while nearly 5000 tons of grain, cedar nuts, salt, men. There is a large nursery and market garden. Popusoda, wool, and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, lation (1881), 2927 ; (1891), 4026; (1901), 5151. Chikoi, and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and about 1000 tons of maniactured goods are taken up the river for export to China. Bain, Alexander (1818 ), Scottish logician Ten steamers ply on lake Baikal and three on the Selenga. Besides, attempts are being made to render the Angara navigable and philosopher, was born in Aberdeen, 11th June 1818, and below Irkutsk down to the Yenisei. In winter, when the lake is received his early education there. In 1836 he entered covered with a crust of ice three to four feet thick, it is crossed Marischal College, the younger of the two universities that on sledges from Listvenichnaya to Posolskoye. The lake offering, had then a separate existence in Aberdeen; and, while a nevertheless, a serious interruption on the main road which leads student, he came under the influence of Professor John through Siberia to the Amur, a highway, available all the year round, was made in 1863-64 around its southern shore, partly by Cruickshank, who held the Chair of Mathematics, and of piercing the cliffs falling to the lake. It will be followed by the Dr William Knight, who was Professor of Natural Philotrans-Siberian railway, notwithstanding the considerable difficulties offered by a great number of streams wildly rushing to the sophy—from each of whom he received a considerable lake from the Khamar-daban. In the meantime, a powerful pro- impetus. His college career was very distinguished, tected ice-breaker (3750 horse-power, 4200 tons) will carry over especially in the departments of mental philosophy, mathethe trains (up to twenty-five carriages) from Listvenichnaya to matics, and physics. Towards the end of his arts course the head of the Transbaikalian railway at Posolskoye. he became a contributor to the Westminster Review, and Towns.—The shores of the lake are thinly populated. The chief villages are Listvenichnaya, Posolsk monastery and Posolskoye, thereby came into contact with John Stuart Mill. This Verkhne-Angarak at the north-eastern extremity, Kultuk at the was the beginning of his connexion with Mill, which was south-western extremity, and several villages in the delta of the to lead to a life-long friendship. In 1841 he became suboelenga. stitute for Dr Glennie, the Professor of Moral Philosophy,