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BENOIT — BENSON 217 Vermont, U.S.A., situated, in tlie south - western part entirely of an annuity, the youth found himself almost of the state, on Hoosic river, and traversed by the Bennington and Rutland railway. It contains three without resources, with a family of younger brothers and villages: Bennington, North Bennington, and Bennington sisters dependent upon him. Relations came to his aid he refused the offer made by his mother’s brother Centre. It was here that General Stark, at the head of a (though devout Unitarian, to adopt one of the children and body of Green Mountain boys, gained a notable victory a nng him up as his heir), and presently his anxieties were over a detachment of General Burgoyne’s army in 1777 relieved by Francis Martin, bursar of Trinity, who gave Population of the town (1890) 6391, (1900) 8033 • of the him liberal aid, and treated him ever afterwards as a village (1890) 3971, (1900) 5656.

, s?n too1k his degree in 1852 as a senior optime, Leonard Leopold (1834- ighth classic, and senior chancellor’s medallist, and was 1901), composer and leader of the Flemish musical move- elected Fellow of Trinity in the following year. He ment was born 17th August 1834, at Harlebecke in er a Ru b ^?rthen A1ie a(1857) f Dr g y> first under Dr Goulburn, n^S under Flanders. His father and a local village organist were and Temple, who became his lifehis first teachers. In 1851 Benoit entered the Brussels long iriend; he was also ordained deacon in 1854 and Conservatoire, where he remained till 1855, studying priest m 1856. From Rugby he went, on Dr Temple’s chiefly under Fetis. During this period he composed recommendation, to be the first headmaster of Wellington music to many melodramas, and to an opera Le Village College which was opened in January in 1859; and in the dans les Montagues for the Park Theatre, of which in course of the same year he married his cousin, Mary Sidg1856 he became conductor. He won a Government prize wick (sister of Professor Henry Sidgwick), to whom he and a money grant in 1857 by his cantata Le Meurtre had long been devotedly attached. Wellington College dAbel, and this enabled him to travel through Germany. made him widely known, provided a scope for his enthusiIn course of his journeyings he found time to write a asticioveof teaching, and developed his administrative considerable amount of music, as well as an essay L’Ecole abilities; it grew .rapidly under his headship, and to him de Musique Flamande et son Avenir. Fetis loudly it was due that, instead of becoming merely “ a kind of praised his Messe Solennelle, which Benoit produced at military academy for army preparation,” it took its place Brussels on his return from Germany. In 1861 he visited as a great English public school. By degrees his thoughts l began to turn towards other work. His appointment to ?11f0r .th,®) which, Production ofaccepted his opera Le Theatre Roi desLyriq Aulnes (5 Erlkonig though by the ue rebendal sta11 of . Heydour in Lincoln Minster was never mounted; while there he conducted at the (1868)P gave, him an office in a great cathedral chapter, Bouffes-Parisiens. Again returning home, he astonished a towards, which he had always felt greatly drawn ; and section of the musical world by the production at Antwerp as examining chaplain to Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of a sacred tetralogy, consisting of his Cantate de Noil he came into close contact with candidates for holy orders the above-mentioned mass, a Te Deum, and a Requiem in For a short time also,, in 1870, he held the same office for which were embodied to a large extent his theories of ilr lemple, just appointed to the see of Exeter. In 1872 I iemish music. By prodigious efforts he succeeded in came an offer of the chancellorship of Lincoln • his gathering round, him. a small band of enthusiasts, who acceptance of it brought his school work to an end’ and affected to see with him possibilities in the foundation of opened a new period of his life. As chancellor, the a school whose music should differ completely from that of statutes directed him to study theology, to train others in the French and German schools. In its main features t .t study, and to oversee the educational work of the this, school failed, for its faith was pinned to Benoit’s diocese. To such work Benson at once devoted himself • music, which is hardly more Flemish than French or and it is not too much to say that through his personal German. Benoit’s more important compositions include efforts and his studies he did more perhaps than any other the Flemish oratorios De Schelde and Lucifer, the latter man to reinvigorate cathedral life in England. He started of which, met with complete failure on its production in a theological college (the Scholce Cancellarii), which has London m 1888; the operas Het Dorp int Gebirgte and ffad a prosperous career; he founded night schools, he Isa, the Drama Christi; an enormous mass of songs delivered courses of lectures on church history, and held choruses, small cantatas, and motets. Benoit also wrote bible-classes ; he was instrumental in founding a society of a great number of essays on musical matters, notably on mission, preachers, for the diocese, the “Novate No vale •" his favourite theme of Flemish music. He died at and owing to his influence a general mission was held in Antwerp on the 8th of March 1901. (E. H. l.) tffe city ot Lincoln in the spring of 1876. Il t e iriter of the same ear be . Be ns berg-, a village of Prussia, in the Rhine pro j .r and the newly-constitutedy see of was Trurooffered • he was vince, 12 miles by rail E. from Cologne. Here is a castle accepted (now cadet college), built by the Elector John William of consecrated on St Mark’s Day 1877, and enthroned in St the Palatinate in 1705. It has iron, lead, zinc, and silver Marys,Church at Truro on 1st May. The. “brand-new bisfiop, as he was called by John Bright, threw himself mines. Population (1885), 10,269; (1900), 10,400. into his work with characteristic vigour. Cornwall was to Benson, Edward White (1829-1896), Archbishop of Canterbury, was born on 14th July 1829 at dim a land of wonderment, historical, physical, spiritual ”: Birmingham. He came of a family of Yorkshire dalesmen he soon came to know it well, and showed a remarkable his father, whose name was also Edward White, being a power of grappling with its peculiar religious conditions. manufacturing chemist of some note ; his mother’s maiden Mis knowledge, his sympathy, his enthusiasm made themname was Harriet Baker. He was educated at King smves telt everywhere, and by degrees he won the warm Edward VI.’s School, Birmingham, under James Prince a ec ion of the Cornish people. The new diocese was Lee, afterwards Bishop of Manchester, and amongst his organized rapidly, the ruridecanal conferences of clergy a real force, and the church life of Cornwall came school-fellows were B. F. Westcott and J. B. Lightfoot, both became of whom preceded him to Trinity College, Cambridge, where o ave a strength and solidity that had never been possible e was elected a sub-sizar in 1848, becoming subsequently when it was merely a part of the huge unwieldy diocese sizar and scholar. The death of a favourite sister in 1850 ot Exeter. A chapter was constituted, the bishop being o. typhus, was followed two days afterwards by that of dean; amongst its members was a canon missioner (the his widowed mother; and as her income consisted almost first to be appointed in England), and the Scholce Cancellarii were founded after the Lincoln pattern. Moreover, the S. II. —28’ Peter