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B E R C K-S U R-M E R —B E R G E N-0 P-Z O O M 221 suburb. Its railway station is on the line between Antwerp at Fara d’Adda are the largest linen and woollen mills in and Brussels. Population (1880), 9384; (1897), 19,696. Italy. Twelve cotton-spinning works have recently been Berck-SUV-Mer, a seaside resort in the arron- established. The silk industry has maintained its importdissement of Montreuil, department of Pas - de - Calais, ance in the province, while in the city printing and France, 53 miles in direct line W. by N. of Arras, with lithography have especially advanced. Various artificial stations on branch line of railway from Abbeville to manure factories supply the demands of agriculture. The Boulogne. It comprises two parts, Berck-ville and Berck- cattle markets dispose annually of 50,000 cattle, 12 000 plage. The latter has a fine sandy beach. There are large and 60 000 > 1899 swine, for a total value of amounted to £30,000 children’s hospitals, the climate proving peculiarly bene- L640 000. The city octroi in 1881 97 ficial in the treatment of scrofulous affections. About 100 Population of town ( ) 3 , °4, (1901)45,785; of pro(L. Bi ) boats are employed in the fisheries, and herrings form the vince (1881) 390,775, (1901) 457,983. staple of an active trade. Fishing boats are built. PopuB rfir 0 f a t0Wn of Gerr lation (1881), 3999; (1896), 5787. tt ? ^! r * by rail E. by S.nany, territory of Hamburg, 10 miles from inthethecity. It proB© TCg'SZ^SZy a corporate town of Hungary, duces vegetables and fruit for the Hamburg markets, and capital of the county of Bereg, 57 miles E. by N. of Tokay! carries on tanning, glass manufacture, brewing, and brickSaxons were the original settlers in the 13th century ; now makmg. It received town rights in 1275, belonged to almost the entire population (9629) is Magyar. There are Lubeck and Hamburg conjointly from 1420 to 1867 and administrative and other offices; also a state gymnasium. in the latter year was bought by Hamburg Pooulation 1 Berezovskiy Zavod, a wealthy village of east (1885), 5209; (1895), 8297; (1900), 10,2f(). Russia, on tlie ©astern slope of the Urals, on Pyshma river, Bergen, a seaport, fortress, and bishop’s see of 8 miles north-east of Ekaterinburg. It is one of the largest Norway forming a separate county (amt) by itself, on the settlements of the government of Perm and the centre of W coast, in 60 23 N. lat., and 5° 18' E. long. The new an important mining region of the same name, where gold is extracted from quartz veins. The crushing of the quartz buildings include St John’s church (1893), the Exhibition used to be made at Berezovskiy Zavod, but is now done Building (containing fisheries museum, &c.), an observaat other works as well. The population, which was 10,189 tory a fine exchange, a biological station, and an aquarium in 1885, has decreased since, and has chiefly taken to the Both Ibsen and Bjornson were connected with the theatre Bergen is the birthplace of the poets Holberg (1684-17541 manufacture of boots, stone-cutting, and cabinet-making. el en ( 80 18 73 0f Dal11 the ainter ?' violinist . )’ (1810-1880), ’ P and of (^SSD !1 the Berga, a town of Spain, in the province of Barce- ?8iy 1857), of?% Ole Bull, Grieg lona, on a spur of the Pyrenees, on the right bank of the the composer. There are statues to Holberg (1884) and river Llobregat. It is partly built on rising ground, and Christie, president of the Storthing in 1815-16 and 1818 partly on the level plain. It has a theatre, casinos, and The mercantile fleet in 1899 numbered some 370 vessels’ a fine parish church with three naves. Here was estab- with an aggregate of 541,200 tons, as compared with 350 lished the first cotton industry of Catalonia, and the house vessels of 370,600 tons owned by Christiania in the same of Targneil invented the “bergadanas” weaving machinery year, Bergen’s preponderance being due to her larger long used in the province. In the neighbourhood there number of iron steamships. In 1879 Bergen ranked are. lignite beds of importance, and barley, oats, corn, and • 1900 she r1Stiania ’ Arenda1 Stavanger, Drammen; maize are grown in the hills around Berga. It is supposed in ranked first. ’The trade of and the town grew to be the Castrum Bergium of Livy. It was taken and O £ 346 70 im rts .a’ to ’£3,595,600 ° ( P° (imports £M75,700, exports retaken often in the 17th and 18th centuries by the French £871,000) in L 1879 £2,223,000 and Spaniards, and by Liberals and Carlists in the 19th. exports £1,372,600) in 1897. The staple of the trade is Population, 5239. fish—codfish, herrings, cod-liver oil, and other fish proBerg-amo, chief town of the province of Bergamo, ducts, anchovies, lobsters, &c. The other exports of chief Lombardy, Italy. A large public slaughter-house, a cattle importance are butter, copper ore, and hides. The imports market, and a provincial asylum for 700 inmates (cost- consist principally of coal (125,000 to 190,000 tons annuing =£60,000), have been built, electric tramways and a y)> steamships, salt, cereals and flour, groceries, wines lighting have been introduced, and a funicular railway has a?d«PirPs. The port was entered and cleared by a total been constructed between the modern town and the ancient of 690,200 tons in 1898. Bergen is not a great manucity on the hill. Several new streets have been opened facturing city. Its chief industries are connected with and works erected to protect the town against torrents the preparation of fish products and with shipbuilding; but from the surrounding heights. The municipal library has, there are also cotton and woollen weaving, with manusince 1875, been enriched by bequests from Donizetti! facture of paper, glass, earthenware, tobacco, cordage, and Meyer, Spaventa, and Ravelli, and now possesses 160,000 distilleries. Bergen is connected by rail with Vossevolumes. The Fine Arts Academy, founded in 1797 by vangen in the interior, a distance of 67 miles. In 1896 Count Giacomo Carrara, has likewise been enriched by a beginning was made with the continuance of this line legacies. The cathedral has been restored and completed, through the fjelds (fells) to connect with Christiania. In the ancient baptistery reconstructed by the side of the the first 50 miles from Vossevangen the line ascends 4080 Colleoni chapel, and the house of the famous Condottiero eet, passing through a tunnel 5796 yards long at an altitude Colleoni restored. Monuments have been erected to of 2822 feet; the tunnel is to be completed in July 1902 Victor Emmanuel II., Garibaldi, and the musicians Population (1875), 38,573 ; (1891), 53,684; (1899), Donizetti and Meyer, natives of Bergamo. The elementary 68’393(j. T. Be.) schools give instruction to nearly 3000 children. Direct Bergen-op-Zoom, a town in the province of railway communication now exists with Milan, Cremona, North Brabant, Holland, about 15 miles north of Antwerp, Lecco, Monza, Brescia, Venice, Novara, and Turin. Steam on the Roosendaal-Flushing railway. Beetroot is cultivated, tram lines also connect it with Treviglio, Lodi, and Monza. and a trade is carried on in oysters as well as anchovies. The mining industry (iron, copper, and marble) has been A steam tramway to Antwerp, of recent construction, has greatly developed since 1875. The commune of Gandino in given a great impetus to the export trade in fish. The the province of Bergamo is a centre of woollen industry, while population in 1899 was 13,668.