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BftRLAD — BERLIN

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number employed in non-textile factories was 12,110, the increase between 1895 and 1896 being 7'3 per cent, while between 1896 and 1897 it was 6-1 per cent. No fewer than 5364 were employed in the food industry, a large number in the biscuit works at Reading. Over 2000 persons are employed in factories and workshops in the manufacture of machines, appliances, &c., chiefly in iron foundries and engineering works. Boat-building also gives employment to a good many persons. The clothing trade has been revived at Abingdon, the total number of persons employed in workshops in this industry being 1735. There are extensive seed warehouses at Reading, and the Rennet and Windsor ales retain their repute. Whiting is manufactured from chalk at Kintbury. Of clay 110,953 tons were raised in 1899. Authorities.—Chief of the older works is: Elias Ashmole. Antiquities of Berkshire, 3 vols., 1719 ; 2nd ed. London, 1723 ; 3rd ed. Reading, 1736. Other works are: Marshall. Topographical and Statistical Details of the County of Berkshire, London, 1830.— Earl of Carnarvon. Archaeology of Berkshire,'London, 1859.— Kennedy. Birds of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, Eton, 1868. —King. History of Berkshire (popular County History series), London, 1887.—Lowsley. Glossary of Berkshire Words, London, 1888,and Index to Wills in the Court of the Archdeacon of Berkshire, Oxford, 1893. See also The Berks Archaeological Society’s In 1891 there were in the county 1430 natives of Scotland, 1422 1508-1652, Quarterly Journal, and Berkshire Notes and Queries. natives of Ireland, and 596 foreigners. Constitution and Govern'inent.—Berks is divided into three B§rlad, a town in Kumania, chief town of the disparliamentary divisions, and it also contains the parliamentary trict of Tutova. There is a fine hospital under the adminisborough of Reading and parts of the boroughs of New Windsor and Oxford. There are seven municipal boroughs, Abingdon tration of the St Spiridion hospital of Jassy. Berlad (6480), Maidenhead (12,980), Newbury (11,061), New Windsor possesses several soap factories, and its horse fairs are (13,958), Reading (72,214), Wallingford (2803), and Wokingham well known throughout Rumania. In the vicinity are (3254). Reading is now a county borough. The only urban district is Wantage (3766). The county is in the Oxford circuit, some traces of a Roman encampment. Population (1895), and assizes are held at Reading. The boroughs of Abingdon, Maiden- 23,000; (1900), 24,484—about one-fourth Jews. head, Newbury, New Windsor, Reading, and Wallingford have Berlin, the capital of Prussia, and since 1871 the separate commissions of the peace, and Abingdon, Newbury, New metropolis of the German empire, is situated on the river Windsor, and Reading have, in addition, separate courts of quarter , sessions. The ancient county is in the diocese of Oxford, and Spree in 52° 30 IT' N. lat. and 13° 23' IT” E. long., contains 190 ecclesiastical parishes or districts and parts of ten at a height of about 100 feet above the level of the others. Baltic. The mean temperature for the ten years 1889-98 Education.—The number of elementary schools on 31st August 1899 was 249, of which only 23 were board and 226 were voluntary was 48'2° Fahr., and the rainfall 22‘4 inches. In a general sehools, the latter including 201 Church of England schools, 7 way it may be said that the climate is exhilarating Wesleyans, 4 Roman Catholic, and 14 “British and other.” The and healthful. The boundaries of the city have not been average attendance at voluntary schools was 30,740, and at board extended since 1861, and though large and important schools 7959. The total school board receipts for the year ending 29th September 1899 were £47,431. The income under the suburbs have crept up and have practically coalesced with it, the administrative area remains unchanged. It Agricultural Rates Act was over £285. Agriculture.—Much attention is paid to dairy farming, butter occupies 28 English square miles, with a length from E. to and cheese being largely made, and also condensed milk. Sheep W. of 6, and a breadth from N. to S. of 5 J English miles, are also largely reared, and an excellent breed of pigs is peculiar contains about 940 streets, 90 open places, and 90 bridges, to the county. About seven-ninths of the total area is under cultivation, and of this about five-ninths is in permanent pasture. and has a population (1900) of 1,857,000 inhabitants. If Only about 2000 acres are in hill pasture, while over 35,000 acres the immediate suburbs be reckoned, Greater Berlin has are under woods, and about 2700 acres under orchards, apples and a population of no less than 2,430,000. Politically, the cherries being largely grown. Although diminishing, the acreage city is divided into six Reichstag and four Landtag parliaunder wheat still amounts to about two-fifths of that under corn crops, the other principal corn crops being oats and barley. Of mentary constituencies, returning six and nine members rethe green crops turnips occupy much the larger acreage—about one spectively, and it must be noted that, despite the enormous half of the whole, the acreage under potatoes being inconsiderable. increase in population, there has not been in Prussia, in The following table gives the acreages of the larger main divisions the case of the Landtag, any redistribution of seats since of the cultivated area at intervals of five years from 1880 :— 1860, so that the city is, in proportion to its population, Total Area Corn much under-represented. It should have twenty-three Permanent Green Fallow. Clover. Year. under Cul- Crops. Crops. Pasture. members instead of nine. tivation. The oldest part of Berlin, the city and Altkolln, built 1880 375,890 138,462 54,910 41,993 123,918 16,591 along the different arms of the Spree, still remains the 1885 377,321 131.100 56,079 43,839 136,004 10,283 centre of business activity. The social and official life 8,681 1890 376,358 123,745 49,631 42,114 151,984 of the capital centres round Unter den Linden, which 1895 367,983 105.101 43,865 41,837 163,520 13,086 6,981 1900 364,431 104,512 41,265 41,953 169,304 runs from the royal palace to the Brandenburger Thor. This street, nearly one English mile in length, and forming The following table gives particulars regarding the principal a double avenue, is the favourite promenade, and presents live stock at the same date :— Berlin life in all its varying aspects. Many historical Cows or Heifers Sheep. Total Pigs. scenes have taken place in this famous boulevard, such as Total Cattle. Year. in Milk or in Calf. Horses. the entry of the troops in 1871, and the funeral pageant 259,572 28,931 16,414 35,274 of the Emperor William I., and no other city in Europe 1880 15,292 266,546 36,489 19,971 45,713 1885 16,055 possesses so stately a thoroughfare. Although it has 231,322 20,292 35,371 43,461 1890 15,397 been embellished by the addition of new buildings, not184,668 19,052 33,197 39,154 1895 15,517 ably hotels, restaurants, and cafes, its appearance has 22,130 21,348 184,797 45,161 1900 14,717 undergone no important change. South of Unter den Industries and Track.—According to the report for 1898 of the chief Linden lies the Friedrichstadt, with its parallel lines of inspector of factories (1900), the total number of persons employed straight streets, comprising the Behrenstrasse, the seat of in non-textile factories and workshops in 1897 was 16,006, as com- the haute finance, the Wilhelmstrasse (with the palace of pared with 14,794 in 1896. There were no textile factories. The

Illegitimate Births. Males. Females. 4464 191 189 7771 1880 1597 4218 180 152 7174 1729 1890 4210 181 170 7031 1935 1898 The number of marriages in 1899 was 2026, of births 6913, and of deaths 4288. The marriage-, birth-, and death-rates were all below the average for England, as is also the percentage of illegitimate births. The following table gives the rates to 1000 persons living for a series of years, with the percentage of illegitimate births :— 1870-79. 1880. 1880-89. 1890. 1888-97. 1898. 12-6 13-0 13-2 12-9 137 Marriage-rate 13-8 30-2 26-9 26-8 24-8 31-5 Birth-rate . 31-9 14-9 16-4 15-8 15-2 18-1 Death-rate . 18-5 5-0 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 Percentage of 5-2 illegitimacy Year.

Marriages.

Births.

Deaths.