Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/262

This page needs to be proofread.


230

BERLIN — BERN rigorously carried out, and only carcases which have been stamped state of Bolivar; on the E. by the Gulf of Paria and the as having been certified good are permitted to be taken away for delta of the Orinoco, and on the W. by the former state of human consumption. Finance.—For the year 1898-99 the receipts into the municipal Miranda. Its area is over 31,000 square miles, and its exchequer amounted to ISO'S millions of marks and the expen- population exceeds 300,000. The state is divided into 22 diture to 123 millions, showing a surplus of 7'8 millions of marks. districts. The capital of the state of Barcelona is the The chief items of the receipts were: taxes, 59,864,508; capital and debt administration, 12,791,719; municipal works, 7,006,660; town of the same name (population, 9000); that of Sucre building, 5,927,260 ; education, 2,868,482 ; sanitary department,’ is Cumana. 2,034,895 ; and poor, 1,190,849 marks. The chief items of expenBern, one of the Swiss cantons. Politically it comes diture were as follows : building, 25,261,735; education, 20,457,479 ; capital and debt administration, 16,467,028 ; poor, 11,810,676 ; after Zurich, even though Bern is the Federal capital. administration, 10,418,715 ; police, 5,988,267 ; lighting and street Its total area is 2657 square miles. Of this 2172 square cleaning, 3,698,464 marks. miles are classed as “ productive,” 586 square miles being Authorities.—Streckfuss. 1000 Jakrc Berliner Geschichte. —Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Berlin, 1899.—Brockhaus. covered by forests, and 2| square miles by vineyards. Of Konversations Lexikon, 1895, and Supplement, 1897.—Meyer! the 485 “unproductive” square miles, 111-3 square miles Konversations Lexikon, Supplement, 1899-1900.—Baedeker’s are covered by glaciers, while a large space is occupied by Fiihrer durch Berlin, 1901.—Pollard. A Study in Municipal different lakes. Population. — (1880) 530,411, (1900) Government. Edinburgh, 1893. (r_ A> A 587,983. In 1900 there were 221 inhabitants to each Berlin, a town and port of entry, Ontario, Canada, square mile. Religions. — Protestants, (1880) 463,163, and capital of Waterloo county, 58 miles W. of Toronto, (1900) 506,837 ; Romanists, (1880) 65,828, (1900) on the Grand river and the Grand Trunk Railway. It is 81,162; Jews, (1880) 1316, (1900) 1572. Language.— a flourishing manufacturing town, and contains leather, German - speaking, (1880) 452,039, (1900) 484,544 ; furniture, shirt and collar, felt, glove, button, and rubber French-speaking, (1880) 78,640, (1900) 98,132; Italianfactories. The exports for 1898-99 were $595,773, and speaking, (1900) 4374. imports, $876,784. Population (1881), 4054; (1899), The capital is Bern. The cantonal constitution dates from 1893. The legislature is elected by popular vote Berlin, a city of Coos county, New Hampshire, in the proportion of one member per 2500 (or fraction over iJ.S.A., on the Androscoggin river in the White 1250) inhabitants, and is renewed every four years. It Mountains, in the northern part of the state, on the elects the nine members of the executive who also hold Grand Trunk and the Boston and Maine Railways. It is. office for four years. The “obligatory referendum” obtains in a heavily forested region, and contains lumber camps, in the case of all laws, while 12,000 citizens have the right C£ sawmills, and pulp - mills. The development of these of initiative ” in the case of legislative projects, and industries has caused a large influx of population, which 15,000 may demand the revision of the cantonal constitution. In 1897 the state revenue was 27,715,498 frcs. (a increased from 3729 in 1890 to 8886 in 1900. Bermudas, a group of about 360 coralline islets rise of 341 per cent, since 1885), and the state expenditure in the North Atlantic, 580 miles E. of North Carolina, and 27,712,525 frcs. (also a rise of 34| per cent, since 1885), 677 from New York, 64° 50' W., and 31° 55' to 32° 20' N., but in 1898 there was a deficit of 71,640 frcs., while in this latitude marking the extreme northern range of the 1900 there was one of 1,118,685 frcs. In 1897 the coral-building polyps. The total area is 20 square miles, public debt was 98,697,000 frcs. There are now many and the population in 1898 was 16,300 (6000 whites, and railways in the canton, particularly mountain railways, over 10,000 blacks and coloured), chiefly centred in the e.g., to Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Miirren, over the horseshoe-shaped St George, which is much the largest of Wengern Alp (or Little Scheidegg), to the Schynige the 18 or 20 inhabited islands, the next in size being Flatten, up the Gurten, &c.; there is even a railway up St David, Bermuda, Gates, Cooper, Somerset, Bird, and the Jungfrau in course of construction. The canton (admitted in 1353) grew out of the conquests and Ireland. The group became an important naval and of the town of Bern (founded in 1191). The dates of coaling station in 1869, when a large iron dry dock was acquisitions some of these are as follows :—Muri, 1295 ; Hash, 1334 ; Burgdorf towed across the Atlantic and placed in a secure position and Thun, 1384; Frntigen, 1400; Upper Simmenthal and Unterin St George. The islands are encircled, especially on the seen, 1386 ; Emmenthal, 1420 ; Lower Simmenthal, 1448-49 ; north and west, by fringing reefs which are still growing, Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen, 1528 ; and part of the Gruyere, but leave a few deep passages wide enough to admit the 1555. At the time of the French Revolution (1798), Bern lost of its former subject lands, e.g., Aargau (1415), Aigle and largest vessels. They are now connected by submarine many Grandson (1475), and Yaud (1536). Hut in 1815 the Congress of cables with Nova Scotia, Turks Islands, and Jamaica, and, Vienna gave the Canton (besides the town of Biel) wdiat is now owing to their important strategic position in mid-Atlantic, called the “Bernese Jura,” formerly belonging to the prince-bishop the British Government maintains a strong garrison of of Basel. This last acquisition, being Romanist and French-speaklias been a great source of trouble to the canton, as it introover 3000 men. The imports rose from £286,000 in ing, duced two discordant elements. 1894 to £351,000 in 1898, and the exports from £98,000 Bern, the capital of the canton of that name, and to £113,000 in the same period ; revenue (1898), £39,000 ; since 1848 the political capital of the Swiss confederation, expenditure, £39,100 ; debt, £45,600. Most of the food supplies come from the United States and Canada, which Zurich being the seat of the federal Polytechnic School, countries take in exchange nearly all the exported farm and Museum, and Lausanne the home of the federal produce, such as onions, potatoes, and lily bulbs. The tribunal. The Aar is crossed by five lofty bridges, the Bermudas are a British crown colony, with a governor most recent of which (Kirchfeld and Kornhaus) have resident at the capital, Hamilton, on Bermuda or Main done much to create new quarters on the north and south Island, who is assisted by an executive council of six mem- of the old town respectively. The most considerable in the town is the double Bundesrathhaus, the bers appointed by the Crown, a legislative council of nine building new portion of which was completed in 1901. Bern similarly appointed, and a representative assembly of thirty- never was the see of a bishop, so that it is wrong to six members returned by about 112 voters. (a. h. k.) give the name of cathedral to the collegiate church or Bermudez, a former state of Venezuela, now Munster, built in the 15th century, and recently restored. divided into the states of Barcelona and Sucre, was formed The university (founded in 1834) was attended during by the districts of Barcelona, Cumana, and Maturfn. It is the summer of 1901 by 1055 matriculated students bounded on the N. by the Caribbean Sea, on the S. by the (besides 111“ hearers ”), the faculty of philosophy being