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Welcker, and the provincial museum, lying near the quires. These binders are inaugurating what will in railway station, which contains a collection of mediaeval due time be recognized as the 19th-century style of stone monuments and works of art, besides a small picture decoration for book-bindings. The initial impetus to this gallery. Amongst the university institutions may be school can be traced to William Morris, who actually mentioned the physical institute, eye hospital, ear hospital, made some beautiful designs himself for book-bindings, to palaeontological museum, on the south of the old town ; the be executed both in gold and in blind. Although he propathological institute and medical schools on the north; bably did not fully appreciate either the peculiar limitaand the chemicab laboratory, anatomical school, and physio- tions or the possibilities of the art of gold-tooling on logical institute at Poppelsdorf. The university library leather, nevertheless his genius guided him truly as to the now numbers some 250,000 vols. and about 13o0 MSS. spirit in which the designs should be conceived. The The university itself was in 1900 attended by 2162 revived art soon reached its first stage of development students, and had 152 professors. One of the most con- under the guidance of Mr T. J. Cobden-Sanderson, who spicuous features of Bonn, viewed from the river, is the may fairly be. considered as the founder of the modern pilgrimage (monastic) church of Kreuzberg (1627), behind school of design for gold-tooling on book-covers, the preand above Poppelsdorf ; it has a flight of 28 steps, which eminence and individuality of his work in this direction are so venerated that they used to be ascended on the being proved by the number of his imitators. Among the knees. Here, too, are a large provincial lunatic asylum most successful of his pupils is Mr Douglas Cockerell, work is distinguished by a marked originality of (1883) and an agricultural college. In the chief cemetery whose treatment, while it shows a scholarly appreciation of are the tombs of (amongst others) Niebuhr, A. W. Schlegel, ancient methods. A number of women artists, both in Schumann, Bunsen, and Simrock ; also, Schiller’s wife. The and in America, have already discovered in booktown is adorned with a marble monument of the 1870-71 England binding a fitting and lucrative field for their energies. war (1877), and with a fine fountain (1879). There are One, Miss Sarah Prideaux, is not only . skilled and but few industries, chiefly jute spinning and weaving, the original in her own work, but she has also given us much manufacture of porcelain, flags, machinery, and beer, and saw-milling. There are considerable numbers of foreign valuable literature on her subject. Miss E. M. MacColl claim to be the inventor of the small curved gold line residents, notably English, attracted by the . natural may produced by means of a tiny wheel, for though the beauty of the place and by the educational facilities it affords. Population (1885), 35,989 ; (1900), 50,741. Bonny. See Nigeria. Book-binding.—Becent years have witnessed a marked revival of interest in the art of book-binding, which, since the death of Roger Payne in 1797, had, in England, been wanting in vigour and originality. Concurrently with the revival of the easily appreciated artistic side of the subject, there has also arisen a remaikable development in the technical processes, owing to the invention of ingenious and delicate machinery which is capable of executing the work which has hitherto been Fig. 1.—Section of back of book Fig. 2.-8ection of same book after sewn on bands. it has passed and through the machine always laboriously done by hand. The processes of foldfor rounding backing. ing the printed sheets, and sewing them together on bands, rounding the backs when sewn, and of making the possibility of producing such a line in blind was known for a outer cases, covering them with cloth or leather, and long time, it was rarely used. The graceful curves and lines stamping designs upon them, can now all be efficiently found on Miss MacColl’s work are designed for her by her executed by means of machines. The saving in time and brother, Mr. D. S. MacColl. Miss Birkenruth recalls the labour thus effected is very great, although it must be said highly decorative mediaeval binding by her use of jewels that the old methods of carrying out the process of sewing cut en cabochon, but set in morocco instead of gold or and rounding the backs of books by hand labour were safer silver, and there are many others who are working well and stronger, as well as being much less liable to bruise and earnestly at art binding with delicate skill and taste. and injure the paper (Figs. 1, 2). These processes unfor- Outside the inner circle of professional book-binders, there tunately are not only slow but also necessitate highly skilled is now growing up a new profession indirectly, but nearly, labour. Already the larger trade binders utilize machines affecting their productions. It is that of the designei foi extensively and advantageously, but exclusively high-class pictorial book-covers, especially those intended to be trade binders do not as yet materially depart from the shown in colour on cloth or paper. It is probably true older methods. Private binders have naturally no reason that first-rate book-binding should be begun, carried to use machines at all. Fine and delicate examples of forward, and finished entirely by the same artist from his large electrotype blocks have been very successfully used own designs; still, the decoration of a cheap binding with for5 the decoration of covers measuring about 11£ ^7 8 a colour picture or design stamped upon it in colour from inches. For the decoration of book-covers in gold alone it ' blocks, may be considered purely an artist s province. As a designer for gold-tooling in book-bindings Mi is probable that in the near future more use will be made of such blocks produced by the aid of photography from Lewis F. Day has already brought his unrivalled knowdrawings, or from ordinary working designs made out m ledge into use. Mr A. A. Turbayne, himself a skilled finisher, is thoroughly conversant with the technical lamp black on white paper. _ , Besides the large trade binders working mainly by the peculiarities of the art, and his designs consequently are help of machinery, and producing a great quantity of pre-eminently workable. Mr. Walter Crane, and Mr. bound work which is not expected to last long, there also Charles Ricketts have studied more especially pictorial art exists in London a small class of art binders who work as applicable to book-covers. Modern book-binding machines of all. kinds are usually driven throughout upon the .principles which have been continuously in use for first-class work ever since about the by steam-power, and in consequence of the necessary setting oi 5th century, when vellum first began to be folded m most of them accurately to some particular size of book, they are