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Brahms, Johannes (1833-1897), German com- of valuable work, and for about three years had no fixed poser, was born in Hamburg on 7th May 1833. He was place of abode. Concert tours with Joachim or Stockthe son of a double-bass player in the Hamburg city hausen were undertaken, and it was not until 1867 that theatre, and received his first musical instruction from he returned to Vienna, or till 1872 that he chose it his father. After some lessons from a certain O. Cossel, definitely as his home, his longest departure from the he betook himself to Cossel’s master, Eduard Marxsen of Austrian capital being between 1874 and 1878, when he Altona, whose experience and artistic taste directed the lived near Heidelberg. From 1871 to 1874 he conducted young man’s genius into the highest paths. A couple the concerts of the “ Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde,” but of public appearances as a pianist were hardly an inter- after the latter date he occupied no official position of any ruption to the course of his musical studies, and these kind. With the exception of journeys to Italy in the were continued nearly up to the time when Brahms spring, or to Switzerland in the summer, he rarely left accepted an engagement as accompanist to a once-famous Vienna. He refused to come to England to take the Hungarian violinist, Itemenyi, for a concert-tour in 1853. honorary degree of Mus.D. offered by the University of At Gottingen there occurred a famous contretemps which Cambridge; the University of Breslau made him Ph.D. had a most important though in 1881 ; in 1886 he was indirect influence on the created a knight of the whole after-life of the young Prussian order four le player. A piano on which merite, and in 1889 was prehe was to play the “ Kreutsented with the freedom of zer ” sonata of Beethoven his native city. He died in with Remenyi turned out to Vienna on the 3rd of April be a semitone below the re1897. quired pitch; and Brahms The works of Brahms may played the part by heart, be summarized as follows transposing it from A to B Various sacred compositions flat, in such a way that the for chorus, op. 12, 13, 22, great violinist, Joachim, who 27, 29, 30, 37, leading up was present and discerned to op. 45, the “ German what the feat implied, introRequiem” first performed at duced himself to Brahms, and Bremen in 1868, and subselaid the foundation of a lifequently completed by a long friendship. Joachim soprano solo with chorus; gave him introductions to the “ Triumphlied ” in comLiszt at Weimar and to memoration of the German Schumann at Diisseldorf; victories of 1870-71; and the former hailed him for a some choral songs and time as a member of the motets, op. 74, 109, and 110. advanced party in music, on Secular choral works, op. 17, the strength of his E flat 41, 42, 44, 50 (“ Rinaldo ” minor scherzo, but the misfor tenor solo and male apprehension was not of choir), 53 (“ Rhapsodic,” long continuance. The inalto solo and male choir), troduction to Schumann im54 (“ Schicksalslied ”), 62, pelled that master, now 82 (Schiller’s Nanie), 89, drawing near the tragic close “Gesang der Parzen”) 93, of his career, to write the 104, 113. Concerted vocal Johannes Brahms. famous article “Neue works, op. 20, 28, 31, 52 {From a photograph by C. Brasch, Berlin.) Bahnen,” in which the (“ Liebeslieder-Walzer ”) 61, young Brahms was proclaimed to be the great com- 64, 65 (“Neue Liebeslieder”), 75, 92, 103, 112. Solo songs, poser of the future, “ he who was to come.” The nearly 300. Orchestral works: four symphonies, op. 68, 73, critical insight in Schumann’s article is all the more 90, and 98; two serenades, op. 11 and 16; two pianoforte surprising when it is remembered how small was the concertos, op. 15 and 83, one violin concerto, op. 77; concerto list of Brahms’s works at the time. A string quartet, for violin and violoncello, op. 102 ; variations on a theme the first pianoforte sonata, the scherzo already mentioned, by Haydn, op. 56 ; two overtures, “ Academische Festouand the earliest group of songs, containing the dramatic vertiire,” op. 80, and “ Tragic Overture,” op. 81. Chamber “ Liebestreu,” are the works which drew forth the warm music: two sextets, op. 18 and 36; quintet, piano and commendations of Schumann. In December 1853 Brahms strings, op. 34, strings, op. 88 and 111, clarinet and gave a concert at Leipzig, as a result of which the firms strings, op. 115; three string quartets, op. 51 and 67, of Breitkopf and Haertel and of Senff undertook to three quartets for piano and strings^ op. 25, 26, and 60. publish his compositions. In 1854 he was given the post Three trios for piano and strings, op. 8, 87, and 101; of choir-director and music-master to the prince of Lippe- trio for piano, violin, and horn, op. 40; piano, clarinet, Detmold, but resigned it after a few years, going first and violoncello, op. 114. Duet sonatas, three for piano to Hamburg, and then to Zurich, where he enjoyed the and violin, op. 78, 100, and 108; two for piano and friendship and artistic counsel of Theodor Kirchner. The violoncello, op. 38 and 99; two for piano and clarinet, unfavourable verdict of the Leipzig Gewandhaus audience op. 120. Pianoforte solos; three sonatas, op. 1, 2, and upon his pianoforte concerto in D minor op. 15, and several 5; scherzo, op. 4; variations, op. 9, 21, 23, 24, 35; 4 remarkably successful appearances in Vienna, where he ballads, op. 10; waltzes, op. 39; two rhapsodies, op. was appointed director of the Singakademie in 1863, were 79; caprices and intermezzi, op. 76, 116, 117, 118, and the most important external events of Brahms’s life, but 119. 5 studies and 51 Uebungen without opus-number, again he gave up the conductorship after a few months and a chorale-prelude and fugue for organ, besides S. II. — 43