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344

BRAMBA NAN — BRAMPTON

For recent descriptions (since 1875) of the monuments, the Table II.—Stops of a Train of Fifty Empty Cars, 1886— inscriptions, and the history of Hinduism, as connected with these Automatic Air-Bralces. ruins, see Tijdschrift voor Ind. Taal-Land en Volkenkunde, xxxi. and xxxii. Batavia, 1886 and 1887.—Yzerman. Beschryi Equivalent ving der ondheden naby de greus der residenties Soerakarta a Speed in Distance Time in I Distance at Djogjakarta. Batavia, 1891. With photos and atlas.—Groneman. Miles. in Feet. Seconds. ] 20 Miles and i 40 Miles. Tjandi Parambanan op Midden-Java. La Haye, 1893.—Yekbeek. Lijst der Ondheden van Java. Verhand v/h Bat. Genootschap, 424 23-5 I7i I 307 xlvi., and Onheidkundige Kaart van Java.—Guide d travers Vexposi354 16 | 340 20-3 tion coloniale des Pays Pas (La Haye, 1900). Ho. 174 seqq. (Re922 22* I ... 922 40 productions des Temples civaitiques a Parambanan.) 22i | ... 927 927 40 Brampton, a market town and rail way station in the Eskdale parliamentary division of Cumberland, The time that elapsed between the application of the brakes on the engine and on the fiftieth vehicle was England, 9 miles E.N.E. of Carlisle. Of the ancient almost twice as great in 1886 as in 1887, being in the parish church only the interesting chancel is left, but there latter tests only five to six seconds, and in 1887 the stops are a modern parish church, a Presbyterian church (1662), were made in less than two-thirds the distance required in and Methodist chapel; also a moot hall, and two other 1886. Still, violent shocks were caused by the rear halls. Roman remains are frequently found in the neighvehicles running against those in front, before the brakes bourhood. There are cattle and sheep markets. Area of on the former were applied with sufficient force to hold civil parish, 6466 acres ; population (1881), 3438 ; (1901), them, and these shocks were so severe as to make the use 2494. of the brakes in practice impossible on long trains. When Brampton, a township in the Chesterfield parliathe triple valves were actuated electrically, however, the mentary division of Derbyshire, England, 3 miles W. by stops were still further improved, as shown in Table III. N. of Chesterfield. A parish church contains ancient memorials, and has been restored. The industries of the Table III.—Stops of a Train of Fifty Empty Cars— parish are agriculture and quarrying. Area, 8156 acres; Electric Application of Air-Brakes. population (1881), 6383; (1901), 2185. In 1892 the borough of Chesterfield was enlarged so as to include a Equivalent Speed in j Distance Time in Distance at portion of this parish. The urban district of Brampton Miles, j in Feet. Seconds. 20 Miles and and Walton has an area of 10,102 acres; population 40 Miles. (1891), 2532; (1901), 2698. 139 21i j 160 138 183 23 Brampton, Henry Hawkins, 1st Baron 14* 519 38 j 475 (1817 ), English judge, was born at Hitchin, on 14“ 545 460 36* ; 14th September 1817. He received his education at Bedford The son of a solicitor, he was early familiarized Although the same levers, shoes, rods and other con- school. with legal principles, a training which stood him in good nexions were used, there were no shocks in the fiftieth car stead throughout his long forensic career. Called to the of the train on any stop, whether on the level or on a bar by the Middle Temple in 1843, he at once joined the gradient. The committee in charge reported that the best old home circuit, and after enjoying a lucrative practice type of brake for long freight trains was one operated by as a junior, took silk in 1858. His name is identified air, in which the valves were actuated by electricity, but with many of the famous trials of the reign of Queen they expressed doubt of the practicability of using elec- Victoria. He was successfully engaged as junior to Mr tricity on freight trains. The Westinghouse Company Edwin James in the Simon Bernard case (of the Orsini then proceeded to quicken the action of the triple valve, plot celebrity), as junior to Mr (afterwards Lord Chief operated by air only, so that stops with fifty-car trains Justice) Bovill in that of Boupell v. Waite, and appeared could be made without shock, and without electrically together with Sir John Karslake (Solicitor - General), Mr operated valves ; and they were so successful in this respect Hardinge Giffard (afterwards Earl Halsbury), and Serjeants that, towards the end of the same year, 1887, with a train Ballantyne and Parry on behalf of the several defendants of fifty vehicles, stops were made without shock, fully in the Overend-Gurney prosecutions, which resulted in the equalling in quickness and shortness of distance run any acquittal of the accused. The two catises ce'lebres, b owever, that had been made at the trials by the electrically in which Lord Brampton attained his highest legal disoperated brakes. tinction, were the Tichborne trials and the great will case In 1889 some further tests were made by Sir Douglas Galton with the automatic vacuum-brake, on a practically of Sugden v. Lord St Leonards. In both of these he level portion of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire was victorious. In the first his masterly cross-examinarailway (now the Great Central). The train was com- tion of the witness Baigent was one of the great features of the trial. He did a lucrative business in references and posed of an engine, tender, and forty carriages, the total arbitrations, and acted for the royal commissioners in the length over buffers being 1464 feet, and the total weight purchase of the site for the new law courts. Election 574 tons, of which 423 tons were braked. At a speed of petitions also formed another branch of his extensive about 32 miles an hour this train was brought to a stand- practice. Mr Hawkins was raised to the bench in 1876, still in twelve seconds after the application of the brakes, in a and was assigned to the then Exchequer division of the distance of 342 feet. (e. m. he.; h. m. r.) High Court, not as baron (an appellation which was being Brambanan (better Prambanan), a village in abolished by the Judicature Act), but with the title of Java, south of the Merapi (Mir-Api), in the territory of Sir Henry Hawkins. He was a great advocate rather the sultan of Surakarta, near the frontier of Jokjokarta than a great lawyer. His searching voice, his manner, (Djogjakarta). Among the most remarkable of the Hindu and the variety of his facial expression, gave him an enortemples (Tjandis or Chandis) are Kalasa or Kali-bening, a mous influence with juries, and as a cross-examiner he was twelve-sided pyramid, 70 feet high, and near it Sari, a seldom, if ever, surpassed. He was an excellent judge in quadrilateral building, Chandi China, and Lard Jorgran, chambers, where he displayed a clear and vigorous grasp the last the temple, par excellence, of Prambanan, com- of details and questions of fact. His knowledge of the criminal law was extensive and intimate, the reputation prising a group of eleven, of which two are of large size.