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“Drink, a Rejoinder,” Nineteenth Century Magazine, June 1885 ; such as that limiting the relations of landlord and tenant, or letters the Economist (Railways), 2nd August 1884, 13th and 20th master and servant. He earned the reputation of regarding March to1886

letter on Employers’ Liability to Sir Henry Jackson,

rich corporations with undue favour through his resent- published as a pamphlet. “The letter of Mr. Baylis exhibits a ment at seeing them unjustly “bled” by juries that crass ignorance of the subject on which he writes and a proportionsympathized with plaintiffs; and in the case of railway ate confidence” {Times, 11th November 1886), written by him in to a young barrister who had differed from him with regard companies he further refused to recognize the effect on reply to the precise status of Serjeants’ Inn, may be quoted as an intheir position of the extraordinary powers and privileges stance of the hard hitting and somewhat intolerant style that given them by Parliament. Pceference in this connexion he frequently adopted. Authorities.—Some Account of George William Wilshere, may be made to Vaughan v. The Taff Eailway Company (3 & 5 Hurlston and Norman’s Reports) ; and the Hammer- Baron Bramwell, by Charles Fairfield.—Times, 10th May Journal, 14th May 1892.— Master Macdonell, in smith Railway Company v. Brand (Law Reports 4 H.L.), 1892.—Law Temple Bar, 1896.—M axsox’s Bramvjdliana and Builders of our in which the decisions were adverse to the companies, and Law; and private information. (e. A. Ab.) in which the tendencies last referred to may be traced. Brand, Sir John Henry (1823- 1888), Throughout his legal career Bramwell was constantly in friendly communication with American lawyers, the com- President of the Orange Free State, was the son of mon law being the bond between them. An expression of Sir Christoffel Brand, Speaker of the House of Assembly his feeling towards American lawyers is to be found in the of the Cape Colony. He was born at Cape Town, 6th case of The Attorney-General v. Sillem (2 H. & C. 540). December 1823, and was educated at the South African In addition to his other qualities as a judge, and particularly College. Continuing his studies at Leyden, he took the his honesty and love of justice, Lord Bramwell’s courtesy degree of D.C.L. in 1845. He was called to the English and consideration towards those practising before him bar from the Inner Temple in 1849, and practised as an (although he could be peremptory at times when rendered advocate in the Supreme Court of the Cape of Good Hope impatient) had won him their personal affection and from that year until 1863. In 1858 he was appointed esteem, so that upon his retirement, which was announced professor of Law in the South African College. He was in the long vacation of 1881, exceptional honour was elected president of the Orange Free State in 1863, and accorded to him, twenty-six judges and a huge gather- subsequently re-elected for five years in 1869, 1874, and ing of the bar entertaining him at a memorable banquet 1879. In 1864 he resisted the pressure of the Basutos in the Inner Temple hall. Shortly afterwards, on 8th on the Free State boundary, and after vainly endeavouring December, Mr Gladstone wrote to him offering him a to induce Moshesh, the Basuto chief, to keep his people peerage, which he accepted, taking the title Baron Bram- within bounds, he took up arms against them in 1865. well of Hever, from his home in Kent. Thus he had not This first war ended in the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, 3rd wholly said good-bye to judicial life, and many of his April 1866; and a second war, caused by the treachery decisions are to be found in the reports of the House of the Basutos, ended in the treaty of Aliwal North, 12th of Lords, notably that in Vagliano v. The Bank of February 1869. In 1871 Brand was solicited by a large England (App. Ca. 1891), in which he and Lord Field party to become president of the South African Republic, differed from the majority. In private life Bramwell had and thus unite the two republics; but as the project was simple tastes and enjoyed simple pleasures. He lived, hostile to Great Britain he declined to do so, and mainwhen not in London, at Four Elms, near Edenbridge. . He tained his constant policy of friendship towards the latter was extremely fond of music, and himself played the piano. country, where his merits were recognized in 1882 by the He was fond also of his garden and of animals, particularly well-deserved honour of the G.C.M.G. His watchfulness dogs. He rode a little at one time, but never shot. He for the interests of the Orange Free State was sufficiently was fond of walking and of swimming, and he played shown in his despatches on the question of the Diamond billiards. He was twice married: (1) 1830, to Jane, Fields in 1872. A fluent speaker, a far-sighted politician, daughter of Bruno Silva, who died in 1836, and by whom and endowed with great firmness and independence of he had one daughter; (2) 1861, to Miss Martha Sinden. character, President Brand was respected throughout South Africa. He died on 14th July 1888. (See Orange He died at Four Elms on 9th May 1892. River Colony.) At all times Lord Bramwell had been fond of controversy and Brandenburg, a central province of Prussia, with controversial writing. He had written from time to time upon many topics principally of legal interest in the Times, the an area of 15,381 sq. miles, and population of 2,821,695 Economist, and elsewhere, but as a peer he had more leisure and (1895), the second in point of area and the third in point also greater freedom than he had had as a judge to deal with the of population of the provinces of the kingdom. The crops wide variety of questions which interested him, particularly those involving politics (although personally he acknowledged allegiance chiefly grown are potatoes, hay, rye, beetroot, oats, barley, to no party), and he did so with characteristic vigour, with shrewd wheat, and some tobacco (£138,750 in 1897). In 1897 insight into the weak parts of his adversary’s case, and a still the live stock embraced 898,298 sheep, 885,481 pigs, keener appreciation of the strong' points of his own. Without 806,066 cattle, and 280,512 horses. In the same year being ever intentionally unfair in controversy, he lost nothing by ignoring at times the full meaning of his adversary unless it was the mines yielded 7,941,632 tons of lignite, valued at expressed in terms that prevented him from doing so. Still the great £730,900, and the foundries and furnaces produced 27,698 majority of Ins letters to the Times over his well-known ,signature tons of materials, valued at £228,600. In 1898-99 the B. (he also signed himself at different times Bramwell, G. B. and L.L.), will always afford good reading, and it is interesting to trace sugar factories produced 56,693 tons of sugar; the tlie "fulfilment or non-fulfilment of his predictions in the light of breweries, 146,300,000 gallons of beer; and the dissubsequent events. He joined in 1882 the Liberty and Property tilleries, 6,724,718 gallons of pure alcohol. For further Defence League, and some of his writings after that date took the particulars, see under Prussia. form of pamphlets published by that society. As examples of Lord Bramwell’s controversial style may be cited his letters to the Brandenburg, a town of Prussia, on the Havel, Times 24th April 1878 (Employers’ Liability and Freedom of 38 miles W.S.W. of Berlin, capital of the circle of Contract): 3rd June 1880 (Hares and Rabbits Bill and Freedom Brandenburg, government-district of Potsdam, province of of Contract); 16th and 24th May 1883 (Unearned Increment); for replies see 22nd and 28th May); 12th November 1885 (Mr Joseph Brandenburg; station on the Berlin-Magdeburg railway. Chamberlain and the Enclosure of Commons). Pamphlets, Laissez The town has 8 churches and a synagogue, a high school Fairs - “Nationalization of Land,” a reply to Henry George s Tro- (Ritterakademie), a gymnasium, 13 reaZ-gymnasia, and 2 qress and Poverty; “Drink” (for “Drink” see also the Times, 10th higher-grade girls’ schools. On Marienberg, to the norths April 1885), published by the Liberty and Property Defence League ;