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BREMERHAY E N — B R E S L A U each by one family only. Population (1890), 125,684; (1895), 141,894; (1900), 163,418. The Free State of Bremen has an area of 99 square miles, and a population of 156,723 (1880); 180,443 (1890) ; 224,697 (1900). The constitution was revised in 1875, 1878, and again in 1894. The executive consists of a senate of 16 members, elected for life by the House of Burgesses. The House of Burgesses numbers 150. members, of whom 14 are elected by university graduates, 42 by the merchants, 22 by the mechanics and manufacturers, 44 by the other taxpayers of the city, 12 by the towns of Yegesack and Bremerhaven, and 16 by the country districts. In 1895, 93‘8 per cent, of the population, namely 184,360, out of 196,404, professed the creed of the Evangelical Lutheran church, 8686 were Roman Catholics, and less than 1000 were Jews. In 1897 there were in the state 6482 horses, 16,119 head of cattle, 14,875 pigs, and only 522 sheep. The state revenue was estimated for 1899-1900 at £1,266,100, and the expenditure at £1,595,400. The state contribution to the imperial exchequer amounted to £98,910 in 1900. In 1900 the state public debt amounted to £9,043,770. (j. t. be.) Bremerhaven, a seaport town of Germany, in the free state of Bremen, at the mouth of the Weser (E. bank), 38 miles by rail N. of the city of Bremen, of which it is the outer port. Commercial and shipping statistics are included in the returns for the city of Bremen (q.v.). The Emperor dock (1876) was very considerably enlarged at a cost of £900,000 in 1897-99. This, together with the north portion of the “new” dock (1851), constitutes the free harbour, which is being enlarged by the excavation of a new basin. Here are the workshops and dry docks of the North German Lloyd. The town possesses a technical institute, a natural history collection, a library, theatre, and a monument (1888) to Smidt, the burgomaster of Bremen, to whose enterprise the harbour of Bremerhaven is due. Shipbuilding and kindred industries are carried on. A terrible explosion, caused by an infernal machine, took place on 11th December 1875. Though the miscreant, Thomas, who devised the outrage in order to recover the insurance for goods shipped on the liner Mosel, which was thus prematurely wrecked, himself escaped destruction, he committed suicide in his cabin. Population (1885), 14,900; (1895), 18,366 ; (1900), 20,322. Brenham, capital of Washington county, Texas, U.S.A., situated in the south-eastern part of the state, at an altitude of 332 feet, on the Houston and Texas Central and the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe railways. The neighbouring region is fertile and produces much cotton, for which Brenham is the compressing- and shipping-point. Population (1880), 4101 ; (1890), 5209 ; (1900), 5968. Brentano, Ludwig: Joseph [called Lujo] (1844 ), German economist, a member of the family of the celebrated Clemens and Bettina Brentano, was born at Aschaffenburg, 18th December 1844. He received a portion of his academical education in Dublin, a circumstance almost unexampled in the history of a German author. In 1868 he visited England, and made a thorough study of trade-unionism, which resulted in his principal work, Die Arbeitergilden der Gegenwart, Leipzig, 1871-72. The book was assailed by Bamberger and other economists, but has proved epoch-making, not only as an authority on modern associations of workmen, but for having given an impetus to the study of the gilds of the Middle Ages, and the examination of the great stores of neglected information bearing upon the condition of the people in olden days. Brentano’s other works are of a more theoretical character, and chiefly relate to political economy, of which


he has been professor at Breslau from 1872 to 1882, and at Strasburg since 1882. His work on gilds was translated into English by Miss Lucy Tomlinson Smith. Brentford, a market town in the Brentford parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, 8 miles W. of St. Paul’s, London, on the Brent, and the London and South-Western railway. Brentford has been the county town for elections since 1701. Population of town (an urban district) (1881), 11,810; (1901), 15,171. Brescia., chief town of the province of the same name, in Northern Italy. Since 1875 considerable improvements have been effected. In the province alone 153 kilometres of new railways and 105 km. of steam tramways have been opened. The chief industries are woollen, cotton, and silk weaving; iron casting and gun making ; hat and rope making. The stone quarries of Mazzano now yield between three and four thousand cubic metres per annum. The stone has been used for the monument to Victor Emmanuel II. at Rome, and for various buildings in Austria, England, Egypt, India, and America. The cement industry has also increased. Agriculture has been improved by draining marshy districts; cattle-raising and cheese-making have extended. In the city the communal palace (known as the Loggia), the old cathedral, and the old municipal palace, have been restored. The cathedral was reopened for public worship in 1897. Monuments have been erected since 1880 to Arnold of Brescia (by Tabacchi), to Garibaldi (by Eugenio Maccagnani), and to Bonvicino, called Moretto, by Ghidoni. The Museo Patrio having proved too small, the collections of Christian art have been transferred to the church of Santa Giulia, while the Museo itself has been reserved for Roman remains. By a legacy of Count Leopold Martinengo the municipal gallery has been installed in the Martinengo palace. The collection consists chiefly of 16th and 17th century Italian pictures, including important works by Moretto and Romanino. In 1899-1900 the watersupply was reorganized and a large reservoir is being constructed. The castle hill has been laid out as a public garden. The population of the town in 1900 was 70,618 ; of the province, 537,690. (l. bi.) Breslau (Slav. Vratislavia), a town of Prussia, capital of Silesia, and an episcopal see, on the Oder, 204 miles S.E. of Berlin on the railway to Vienna. It is the fifth city in point of population in the empire, and the seat of important and growing industries, the chief branches of which are the manufacture of machinery, railway carriages, printing, leather and leather goods, distilleries, breweries, and furniture, cigars, ready-made clothing, and musical instrument factories. It is also the centre of a large trade in the products of the province, partly by rail, partly by river— wool, cereals, minerals, leather, machinery, horses, cattle, sugar, butter, and honey. In 1898 an aggregate of 7552 vessels of 2,305,300 tons entered and cleared by river. The growth and modern spirit of the city are exemplified in the large number of new buildings and monuments erected since 1876. Of these the most important are the provincial house of assembly; the provincial administrative offices (1883-86); the Breslau Bank of Exchange (1890); the savings bank (1891), in which are preserved the municipal library of 130,000 vols. and more than 3000 MSS., as well as the very valuable city archives; the post office (1888), in the Renaissance style; the Silesian Museum of the Industrial Arts and Antiquities, stored in the former assembly hall of the provincial estates, which has been rebuilt (1897-99) for the purpose; the Fine Arts Museum (1875-79), with collections of pictures, &c.; the chemical and anatomical institutes of the university; several new churches (St