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BRITISH EMPIRE, THE 397 they suffered. The great war with France in the middle and that none are subordinate to each other. The interof the 18th century temporarily destroyed this system. vention of the Imperial Parliament in colonial affairs is That war, which resulted in the conquest of Canada and onfy admitted theoretically in so far as the support of the delivery of the North American colonies from French Parliament is required by the constitutional advisers of antagonism, cost the Imperial exchequer £90,000,000. the Crown. To bring the practice of the empire into The attempt to avert the repetition of such expenditure complete harmony with the theory it would be necessary by the assertion of a right to tax the colonies through the to constitute, for the purpose of advising the Crown upon British Parliament led to the one great rupture which has Imperial affairs, a parliament or council in which all marked the history of the empire. It has to be noted important parts of the empire should be represented. that at home during the latter half of the 17th century The gradual recognition of the constitutional theory of and the earlier part of the 18th century Parliamentary the Biitish empire, and the assumption by the principal power had to a great extent taken the place of the Divine colonies of full self-governing responsibilities, has cleared Bight of kings. But Parliamentary power meant the power the way for a movement in favour of a further developof the English people and taxpayers. The struggle which ment which should bring the supreme headship of the developed itself between the American colonies and the empire more into accord with modern ideas. British Parliament, was in fact a struggle on the part of It was during the period of domination of the “ Manthe people and taxpayers of one portion of the empire to chester school, of which the most effective influence resist the domination of the people and taxpayers of in public affairs was exerted for about thirty years, another portion. In this light it may be accepted as extending from 1845 to 1875, that the fullest develophaving historically established the fundamental axiom of ment of colonial self-government was attained, the view the constitution of the empire, that the Crown is the being generally accepted at that time that self-governing supreme head from which the parts take equal depend- institutions were to be regarded as the preliminary ence. to inevitable separation. A general inclination to withThe Crown requiring advice in the ordinary and con- diaw from the acceptance of Imperial responsibilities stitutional manner receives it in matters of colonial throughout the world gave to foreign nations at the administration from the Secretaries of State for the same time an opportunity by which they were not slow Colonies and for India. After the great rupture separate to profit, and contributed to the force of a reaction of provision in the Home Government for the administration which the part played by Great Britain in the scramble of colonial affairs was at first judged to be unnecessary, for Africa marked the culmination. Under the increasing and the “ Council of Trade and Plantations,” which up to pressure of foreign enterprise, the value of a federation of that date had supplied the place now taken by the two the empire for purposes of common interest began to be offices of the Colonies and India, was suppressed in 1782. discussed. Imperial federation was openly spoken of in There was a reaction from the liberal system of colonial New Zealand as early as 1852. A similar suggestion was self-government, and an attempt was made to govern the officially put forward by the general association of the colonies which remained, simply as dependencies, the Australian Colonies in London in 1857. The Royal Home Treasury being responsible for their expenditure as Colonial Institution, of which the motto ii United Empire” now in the Crown Colonies. illustrates its aims, was founded in 1868. First among In 1791, not long after the extension of the range of leading British statesmen to repudiate the old interpretaParliamentary authority in another portion of the empire, tion of colonial self-government as a preliminary to separaby the creation in 1784 of the Board of Control for tion, Lord Beaconsfield, in 18/2, spoke of the constitutions India, Pitt made the step forward of granting to Canada accorded to the colonies as “part of a great policy of representative institutions, of which the Home Govern- Imperial consolidation.” In 1875 Mr W. E. Forster, afterment kept the responsible control. Similar institutions wards a member of the Liberal Government, made a were also given at a later period to Australia and South speech in which he advocated Imperial federation as a Africa. But the long peace of the early part of the 19th means by which it might become practicable to “replace century was marked by great colonial developments; dependence by association.” The foundation of the ImAustralia, Canada, and South Africa became important perial Federation League—in 1884, with Mr Forster for communities. Kepresentative institutions controlled by its first president, shortly to be succeeded by Lord Rosebery the Home Government were insufficient for their needs, —marked a distinct step forward. The Colonial Conand they reasserted the old British colonial claim for ferences of 1887 and 1894, in which colonial opinion was liberty to manage their own affairs. sought and accepted in respect of important questions of Fully responsible government was granted to Canada Imperial organization and defence, and the enthusiastic m 1840, and gradually extended to the other colonies. loyalty displayed by the Colonies towards the Crown on the In 1854 a, separate Secretary of State for the Colonies occasion of the jubilee manifestations of Queen Victoria’s was appointed at home, and the Colonial Office was estab- reign, were further indications of progress in the same lished on its present footing. In India, as in the Colonies, direction. Coincidently with this development, the achievethere came with the growing needs of empire a recognition ments of. Sir George Goldie and Mr Cecil Rhodes, who, of the true relations of the parts to each other and of the the one in West Africa, and the other in South Africa, whole to the Crown. In 1858, on the complete transfer- added between them to the empire in a space of less than ence of the territories of the East India Company to the twenty years a dominion of greater extent than the whole Crown, the Board of Control was abolished, and the India of British India, followed by the action of a host of disCouncil, under the presidency of a Secretary of State for tinguished disciples in other parts of the world, effectually India, was created. It was especially provided that the stemmed the movement initiated by Cobden and Bright. members of the council may not sit in Parliament. A tendency which had seemed temporarily to point towards ihus, although it has not been found practicable in the a complacent dissolution of the empire was arrested, and the working of the British constitution to carry out the full closing years of the 19th century were marked by agrowing theory of the direct and exclusive dependence of colonial disposition to appreciate the value and importance of the possessions on the Crown, the theory is recognized as unique position which the British empire has created for ar as . possible. It is understood that the principal itself in the world. No stronger demonstration of the sections of the empire enjoy equal rights under the Crown, reality of Imperial union can be needed than that which