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BULGARIA 447 ! are inhabited almost exclusively by Bulgarians; in Eastern Servians, less apt to assimilate the externals of civilizaliumelia the national element is strongest in the Sredna tion than the Rumanians, they possess in a remarkable Gora and Rhodope. Possibly the most genuine represen- degree the qualities of patience, perseverance, and tatives of the race are the Pomaks or Mahommedan endurance, with the capacity for laborious effort Bulgarians, whose conversion to Islam preserved their peculiar to an agricultural race. The tenacity ^^ncter. women from the license of the Turkish conqueror; they and determination with which they pursue their inhabit the highlands of Rhodope and certain districts national aims seem likely in the end to give them the in the neighbourhood of Lovetch (Lovtcha) and Pleven advantage over their more brilliant competitors in the (Plevna). Retaining their Bulgarian speech and many struggle for hegemony in the Peninsula. Unlike most ancient national usages, they may be compared with the southern races, the Bulgarians are reserved, taciturn, indigenous Cretan, Bosnian, and Albanian Moslems. The phlegmatic, unresponsive, and extremely suspicious of Pomaks in the Principality are estimated at 26,000, but foreigners. The peasants are industrious, peaceable, and their numbers are declining. In the north-eastern district orderly; the vendetta, as it exists in Albania, Montenegro, between the Yantra and the Black Sea the Bulgarian race and Macedonia, and the use of the knife in quarrels, so s as yet thinly represented; most of the inhabitants are common in southern Europe, are alike unknown. The Turks, a quiet, submissive, agricultural population, which tranquillity of rural life has, unfortunately, been invaded unfortunately shows a tendency to emigrate. The Black in recent years by the intrigues of political agitators, and Sea coast is inhabited by a variety of races. The Greek bloodshed is not uncommon at elections. All classes element is strong in the maritime towns, and displays practise thrift bordering on parsimony, and any display its natural aptitude for navigation and commerce. The of wealth is generally resented. The standard of sexual Gagauzi, a peculiar race of Turkish-speaking Christians, morality is high, especially in the rural districts; the inhabit the littoral from Cape Emine to Cape Kaliakra: unfaithful wife is an object of public contempt, and in they are of Turanian origin and descend from the ancient former times was punished with death. Marriage cereKumani. The valleys of the Maritza and Arda are monies are elaborate and protracted, as is the case in most occupied by a mixed population consisting of Bulgarians, primitive communities; elopements are frequent, but Greeks, and Turks : the principal Greek colonies are in usually take place with the consent of the parents on both Stanimaka, Kavakli, and Philippopolis. The origin of the sides, in order to avoid the expense of a regular wedding. peculiar Shop tribe which inhabits the mountain tracts of The principal amusement on Sundays and holidays is the Sofia, Breznik, and Radomir is a mystery. The Shops chord (x°P°s), which is danced on the village green to the are conceivably a remnant of the aboriginal race which strains of the ga'ida, or bagpipe, and the gusla, a rudiremained undisturbed in its mountain home during the mentary fiddle. The Bulgarians are religious in a simple Slavonic and Bulgarian incursions : they cling with much way, but not fanatical, and the influence of the priesthood tenacity to their distinctive customs, apparel, and dialect. is limited. Many ancient superstitions linger among the The considerable Vlakh or Ruman colony in the Danubian peasantry, such as the belief in the vampire and the evil districts dates from the last century, when large numbers eye; witches and necromancers are numerous and are of Wallachian peasants sought a refuge on Turkish soil much consulted. from the tyranny of the boyars or nobles : the department The area of northern Bulgaria is 62,789'10 square of Vidin alone contains thirty-six Ruman villages with a kilometres, of eastern Rumelia 32,915‘40 sq. kil., of united population of 30,550. Especially interesting is the race of Bulgaria, 95,704‘50 sq. kil. According to the nomad shepherds from the Macedonian and the JEgean census of 1st January 1893, the population of coast who come in thousands every summer to pasture northern Bulgaria was 2,312,282, or 3 6‘8 per sq. their flocks on the Bulgarian mountains; they are divided kil.; of eastern Rumelia, 998,431, or 30‘33 per sq. kil.; into two tribes—the Kutzovlakhs, or “ lame Ylakhs,” who of united Bulgaria, 3,310,713, or 34-59 per sq. kil. speak Rumanian, and the Hellenized Karakatchans or Bulgaria thus ranks between Rumania and Portugal in “black shepherds” (comp, the Mavro-vlakhs, /xaOpot regard to area; between the Netherlands and Switzerland ^Adyes, of the Dalmatian coast) who speak Greek. The in regard to population : in density of population it may Tatars, a peaceable industrious race, are chiefly found be compared with Spain and Greece. The only previous in the neighbourhood of Yarna and Silistra; they were census of united Bulgaria was taken in 1888 : it gave the introduced as colonists by the Turkish Goverment total population as 3,154,375, or 32‘96 per sq. kil. The in 1861. They may be reckoned at 12,000. The increase in five years was consequently 156,338, or 1 per gypsies, who are scattered in considerable numbers cent, per annum. The area and population of the principal throughout the country, came into Bulgaria in the 14th subdivisions are shown in the following table :— century. They are for the most part Moslems, and retain their ancient Indian speech. They live in the utmost Northern Bulgaria, 16 Departments. poverty, occupy separate cantonments in the villages, and square Population. Per are treated as outcasts by the rest of the population. The Kilometre. Bulgarians, being of mixed origin, possess few salient Yarna 25-68 215,213 physical characteristics. The Slavonic type is far less Vidin 38-08 121,131 pronounced than among the kindred races • the Ugrian or 27-04 Vratza 151,196 Finnish cast of features occasionally asserts itself in the 31Kiistendil 167,175 30-02 central Balkans. The face is generally oval, the nose Lovetch 125.829 Lom 32115,393 straight, the jaw somewhat heavy. The men, as a rule, 36-85 Pleven 99,290 are rather below middle height, compactly built, and, 45-64 Razgrad 129,531 among the peasantry, very muscular; the women are Russe 41-62 162,589 generally deficient in beauty and rapidly grow old. The 34-48 Svishtov 94,119 49-14 Sevlievo 93,275 upper class, the so-called “ intelligenzia,” is physically very Silistra 40-18 111.830 inferior to the rural population. 43-82 244,824 Sofia The character of the Bulgarians presents a singular 36-30 Trn 79,248 contrast to that of the neighbouring nations. Less quick224,163 45-09 Trnovo 36-41 177,476 Shumen witted than the Greeks, less prone to idealism than the