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BULGARIA — BULL

Sprache leicht und schnell zu erlcrnen. Vienna, The monk Pa'isii (born about 1720) and Bishop Sofronii (1739- Bulgarische 1888. Literature : Dozon. Chansons populaires Bulgares inedites 1815) have already been mentioned as the precursors of the literary (with French translations). Paris, 1875.—Strausz. Bulgarische revival. The Istoria Slavcno-Bolgarska (1762) of Paisii, written in Volksdichtungen (translations with a preface and notes). Vienna the solitude of Mount Athos, was a work of little historical value, and Leipzig, 1895.—Lydia Legendes religieuses but its influence upon the Bulgarian race was immense. An ardent bulgares. Paris, 1896.—PipinShishmanov. Spasovitch. History of the patriot, Pa'isii recalls the glories of the Bulgarian tsars and saints, Slavonic Literature. Petersburg,and 1879 (French translation, Paris, rebukes his fellow-countrymen for allowing themselves to be called Vazov and Velitchkov. Bulgarian Chrestomathy. Greeks, and denounces the arbitrary proceedings of the Phanariot 1881). Philippopolis, 1884.—Teodorov. Blgarska Literatura. Philipprelates. The Life and Sufferings of sinful Sofronii (1804) de- popolis, of Folk-songs, Proverbs, &c. by the scribes in simple and touching language the condition of Bulgaria brothers 1896.—Collections Miladinov (Agram, 1861), Bezsonov (Moscow, 1855), at the beginning of the 19th century. Both works were written in Katchanovski (Petersburg, 1882), Shapkarev (Philippopolis, a modified form of the church Slavonic. The first printed work 1885), Iliev (Sophia, 1889), Slaveikov (Sophia, 1899). in the vernacular appears to have been a translation of sermons, (j. D. B.) also by Sofronii, published in 1806. The Servian and Greek insurrections quickened the patriotic sentiments of the Bulgarian Bulgaria, Eastern, on the Volga, a powerful refugees and merchants in Rumania, Bessarabia, and. southern kingdom which existed from the 5th to the 15th century Russia, and Bucarest became the centre of their political and literary activity. A modest bukvar, or primer, published at on the middle Volga, in the present territory of the Kronstadt by Berovitch in 1824, was the first product of the new provinces of Samara, Simbirsk, Saratov, and N. Astrakhan, movement. Translations of the Gospels, school reading-books, perhaps extending also into Perm. The village Bolgary, short histories, and various elementary treatises now appear, written near Kazan, surrounded by numerous graves in which most with the object of conveying the simple rudiments of knowledge to the ignorant population. With the multiplication of books came interesting archseological finds have been made, occupies the movement for establishing Bulgarian schools, in which the the site of one of the cities—perhaps the capital—of that monk Neophyt Rilski (1793-1881) played a leading part. He was extinct kingdom. the author of a Bulgarian grammar and other educational works, The history, Tarikh Bulgar, said to have been written in the and translated the New Testament into the modern language. Among the writers of the literary renaissance were George Rakovski 12th century by an Arabian cadi of the city Bolgary, has not yet (1818-67), a fantastic writer of the patriotic type, whose works been discovered; but the Arabian historians, Ibn Foslan, Ibn did much to stimulate the national zeal, Liuben Karaveloff (1837- Hautal, Abul Hamid Andalusi, Abu Abdallah Harnati, and several 1879), journalist and novelist, Christo Boteff (1847-76), lyric others, who had visited the kingdom, beginning with the 10th poet, whose ode on the death of his friend Haji Dimitr, an insurgent century, have left descriptions of it. The Bulgars of the olga leader, is one of the best in the language, and Petko Slaveiikoff were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, (died 1895) whose poems, patriotic, satirical, and erotic, moulded later, Slavonian elements. In the 5th century they attacked the the modern poetical language and exercised a great influence over Russians in the Black Sea prairies, and afterwards made raids upon the people. Gavril Krstovitch, formerly govern or-general of the Greeks. Ibn Foslan found them in 922 not quite nomadic, and Eastern Rumelia, and Marin Drinoff, a Slavist of high repute, have already having some permanent settlements and houses in wood. written historical works. Stambuloff, the statesman, was the Stone houses were built soon after that by Arabian architects. Ibn author of revolutionary and satirical ballads ; his friend Zachana Dasta found amongst them agriculture besides cattle breeding. Stoyanoff (d. 1889), who began life as a shepherd, has left some Trade with Persia and India, as also with the Khozars and the interesting memoirs. The most distinguished Bulgarian man of Russians, and undoubtedly with Biarmia (Urals), was, however, letters is Ivan Yazoff (born 1850), whose epic and lyric poems and their chief occupation, their main riches being furs, leather, nuts, wax, and so on. They accepted Islam in the 10th prose works form the best specimens of the modern literary language. wool, His well-known novel Under the Yoke has been translated into century, and after that time they began building, forts, several which are mentioned in Russian annals. Their chief town, several European languages. The best dramatic work is Ivanko, a of historical play, by Archbishop Clement, who has also written some Bolgary, or Velikij Gorod (Great Town) of the Russian annals, novels. With the exception of Zlatarski’s geological treatises no was often raided by the Russians. In the 13th century it original works on natural science have as yet been produced ; a like was conquered by the Mongols, and became for a time the seat dearth is apparent in the fields of philosophy, criticism, and.fine art, of the Khans of the Golden Horde. In the second half of the 15th century Bolgary became part of the Kazan kingdom, lost its but it must be remembered that the literature is still in its infancy. commercial political importance, and wras annexed to Russia The ancient folk-songs have been preserved in several valuable after the falland of Kazan. (p. A. K.) collections ; though inferior to. the Servian in poetic merit, they deserve more scientific attention than they have yet received. Several periodicals and reviews have been founded in recent times. Bull, Ole Bornemann (1810-1880), Nor Of these the most important are the Pcrioditchesko Spisanie, issued wegian violinist, was born in Bergen, Norway, on 5tli Febsince 1869 by the Bulgarian Literary Society, and the Sbornik, a ruary 1810. At first a pupil of the violinist Paulsen, and literary and scientific miscellany, carefully edited byDrShishmanoff, and published by the Government at irregular intervals. Bulgarian subsequently self-taught, he was intended for the church, journalism is still in the crude stage of development; the numerous but failed in his examinations, and became a musician, newspapers published in the capital and the provinces contain little directing the Philharmonic and Dramatic societies at Bermore than polemical diatribes written in the interests of the various gen. In 1829 he visited Spohr at Cassel, and afterwards political leaders. proceeded to Paris, where he came under the influence of Authorities.—Jirecek. Das Furstenthum Bulgarien. Prag, Paganini, and definitely adopted the career of a violin 1891 ; and Cesty po Bulharsku (Travels in Bulgaria). Prag, 1888 virtuoso, making his first appearance in company with (both works of the first importance).—LLon Lamouche. La Bulgarie dans le pass& et le present. Paris, 1892. Prince Francis Ernst and Chopin at a concert of his own in Paris, in Joseph of Battenberg. Die Volkswirthschaftliche Entwicklung 1832. Successful tours in Italy and England followed Bulgariens. Leipzig, 1891.—Kanitz. Donau-Bulgarien und der soon afterwards, and he was not long in obtaining EuroBalkan. Leipzig, 1882.—Drandar. Fvenements politigues en pean celebrity by his brilliant playing of his own pieces Bulqarie. Parish 1896 ; and Le Prince Alexandre de Battenberg. Paris, 1884.—Strausz. Die Bulgaren. Leipzig, 1898.—Tuma. and arrangements. His first visit to the United States Die hstliche Balkanhalbinsel. Vienna, 1886.—Gubernatis. La lasted from 1843 to 1845, and on his return to Norway he Bulqarie et les Bnlgarcs. Florence, 1899.—Blech. Consular formed a scheme for the establishment of a Norse theatre Report on Bulgaria in 1889. London, 1890. History: Jirecek. in Bergen •, this became an accomplished fact in 1850; Gcschichte der Bulgaren. Prag, 1876 ; (a summary in The Balkans, by William Miller, London, 1896).—Sokolov. Iz drevnei but the harassing business complications which soon had istorii Bolgar. Petersburg, 1879.—Uspenski. Obrazovanie vtorago to be faced were too much for him, and he went again to Bolqarskago tsarstva. Odessa, 1879. —Acta Bulgaria; ecclesiastica, America in 1852. During this visit he bought 125,000 published by the South Slavonic Academy. Agram, 1887. Lan- acres of land in Pennsylvania to found a Norwegian guage : Miklositch. Vergleichende Grammatik. Vienna, 1879 ; colony; but his title turned out to be fraudulent, and the imd Gcschichte d. Lautbezeichnung im Bulgarischen. Vienna, 1883.— Leskien. Randbuch d. Altbulgarischen Sprache (with a glossary). troubles he went through in connexion with the underWeimar, 1886.—Miletitch. Staroblgarska Gramatika. Sophia, taking were enough to affect his health very seriously, 1896 Labrov Obzor zvukomkh i formalnikh osobenostei Bolgar- though not to hinder him for long from the exercise of his skago yazika. Moscow, 1893.-Morfill. A Short Grammar of the profession. Another attempt to found an academy of Bulgarian Language. London, 1897.-Vymazal. Die Kunst die